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Sample records for karl hess jean-pierre

  1. [Jean-Pierre Boudet, Reims pharmacist (1748-1828)].

    PubMed

    Demouy, Annick

    2014-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Boudet (1748-1828) is a too much unknown apothicary from Rheims, what is surprising considering the atypical character and the interest of his long carrier: a pharmacist and teacher in Rheims then in Paris, he became an inspector of powders and salpetre in the east of France. In 1798 he left the civil pharmacy and became a military pharmacist by embarking with Napoleon for the campaign of Egypt, which he led until its term, before pursuing his military carrier in Prussia and Austria. As a member of the Commission of Sciences and Arts and a member of the Institute of Egypt, he widely participated, but with too great a modesty, in the scientific works stemming from the campaign of Egypt which had aimed to be as military as scientific and artistic. PMID:25966539

  2. Jean-Pierre Luminet: Renaissance Communicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, L.; Russo, P.

    2009-02-01

    As science communicators dealing with astronomy we often find a strong interest amongst the public in astrology - how the stars and planets directly affect our individual lives. Nowadays astrology is at odds with the scientific nature of astronomy, but this has not always been the case. Presented here is a background to astrology, to give a deeper understanding of where it has come from and why it has such an enduring place in all forms of global media.

  3. Anders receives Hess Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.; Anders, Edward

    Edward Anders was awarded the Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting Honors Ceremony on May 31 in Baltimore. The Hess Medal recognizes outstanding achievements in research in the constitution and evolution of Earth and its sister planets. The award citation and Anders' response are given here.

  4. Karl Wilker's Lindenhof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lhotzky, Stephan

    1994-01-01

    Describes work of Karl Wilker, physician who was appointed director of Berlin's (Germany) most infamous facility for juvenile delinquents at Berlin-Lichterfelde and "Der Lindenhof," the book he published in 1921 on his experiences with troubled youth. Focuses on Wilker's strategies for empowering youth with whom he worked through belonging,…

  5. Talking about Books: Karen Hesse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cathy; Gwyn, Linda; Koblitz, Dick; O'Connor, Anne; Pierce, Kathryn Mitchell; Wolf, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with Karen Hesse, author of 12 books of fiction for young, middle, and older readers, and winner of the 1998 Newbery Award. Offers an overview of Hesse's books, organized into picture books, transition chapter books, and novels. Presents a discussion of the themes found in her books, highlighting children's discussion…

  6. Global Hawk's View of Karl

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time-lapse video shows Hurricane Karl as seen from NASA's unmanned Global Hawk aircraft during a 25.3-hour flight Sept. 16-17, 2010. Eight of the Global Hawk's 20 passes over the hurricane wer...

  7. Karl Popper's Quantum Ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, William

    2004-05-01

    Karl Popper, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the "standard interpretation" of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Copenhagen interpretation, abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was "complete" (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others) amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. In 1999, physicists at the University of Maryland conducted a version of Popper's Experiment, re-igniting the debate over quantum predictions and the role of locality in physics.

  8. Karl Marx and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifferd, K. D.

    1972-01-01

    Implications from Karl Marx's concept of nature are explored. Serving as a frame of reference for the fight against pollution, the Marxian philosophy provides a kind of systems analysis of the origins and dynamics of pollution at the level of society and a set of conceptual tools and attitudes for unmasking the claims of industry. (BL)

  9. Isgur-Karl model revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Galeta, Leonardo; Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos

    2009-12-01

    We show how to match the Isgur-Karl model to the spin-flavor quark operator expansion used in the 1/N{sub c} studies of the nonstrange negative parity L=1 excited baryons. Using the transformation properties of states and interactions under the permutation group S{sub 3} we are able to express the operator coefficients as overlap integrals, without making any assumption on the spatial dependence of the quark wave functions. The general mass operator leads to parameter free mass relations and constraints on the mixing angles that are valid beyond the usual harmonic oscillator approximation. The Isgur-Karl model with harmonic oscillator wave functions provides a simple counterexample that demonstrates explicitly that the alternative operator basis for the 1/N{sub c} expansion for excited baryons recently proposed by Matagne and Stancu is incomplete.

  10. Unveiling the origin of HESS J1809-193

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, G.; Giacani, E.; Petriella, A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: The main goal of this paper is to provide new insights on the origin of the observable flux of γ rays from HESS J1809-193 using new high-quality observations in the radio domain. Methods: We used the Expanded Very Large Array (now known as the Karl G. Jansky Very large Array, JVLA) to produce a deep full-synthesis imaging at 1.4 GHz of the vicinity of PSR J1809-1917. These data were used in conjunction with 12CO observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in the transition line J = 3-2 and atomic hydrogen data from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey to investigate the properties of the interstellar medium in the direction of the source HESS J1809-193. Results: The new radio continuum image, obtained with a synthesized beam of 8'' × 4'' and a sensitivity of 0.17 mJy beam-1, reveals with unprecedented detail all the intensity structures in the field. No radio counterpart to the observed X-ray emission supposed to be a pulsar wind nebula powered by PSR J1809-1917 is seen in the new JVLA image. We discovered a system of molecular clouds on the edge of the supernova remnant (SNR) G11.0-0.0 shock front, which is positionally coincident with the brightest part of the TeV source HESS J1809-193. We determine, on the basis of kinematic and morphological evidences, a physical link of the SNR with the clouds for which we estimated a total (molecular plus atomic) mass of ~3 × 103M⊙ and a total proton density in the range 2-3 × 103 cm-3. Conclusions: We propose as the most likely origin of the very high-energy γ-ray radiation from HESS J1809-193 a hadronic mechanism through collisions of ions accelerated at the SNR G11.0-0.0 shock with the molecular matter in the vicinity of the remnant. The new JVLA image (in FITS format) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A71

  11. [Medical history impressions of Karl Marx 1983].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1983-12-15

    Excerpts of his London era first published on the occasion of the Karl Marx testimonials of 1983 gave rise to extend the memory of the fundamental achievements of Karl Marx to medico-historical aspects. In this case Karl Marx paid special attention to the working and living conditions of the working class and an analysis of his adequate statements and records shows multifarious details which give a research basis also for the history of medicine. Marx and Engels had friendly contacts with several physicians who shared the opinions of the two classics: their way of life is shown in the most important points. PMID:6367243

  12. Magnetoplasmadynamcis - Portrait of Robert V. Hess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Portrait of Robert V. Hess: Hess was the head of Magnetoplasmadynamcis' (MPD)Plasma Physics Section. from Spaceflight Revolution: 'Beginning in the late 1950s, a small group of Langley researchers led by Robert V. Hess, an applied physicist from Austria who had come to work for the NACA in 1945, began pursuing two major variants of the Hall accelerator: the MPD arc and the so-called linear Hall accelerator. Throughout the 1960s, Hess and his associates refined these versions of studies of the physics and overall performance of their devices. Although they successfully demonstrated the efficiency of the MPD arc and linear Hall accelerator and made several important findings relating to the manner in which oscillations and instabilities in plasma could develop into turbulent flows, MPD researchers were never able to simulate reentry conditions or the interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetosphere, and they would never realize meaningful applications in space propulsion. As was the case with the other MPD experimental facilities mentioned, the linear Hall-current accelerator possessed limitations that Hess and his colleagues could not eradicate. By the late 1960s, Hess and others in MPD shifted the focus of their work with these accelerators to the potential application of gas lasers.'

  13. Karl Schwarzschild. Collected works. Volume 1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, H.-H.

    This volume is the first part of a three-volume collection of research papers by Karl Schwarzschild. The complete collection will comprise a total of 119 papers, organized into ten categories. Karl Schwarzschild was one of the most important German astronomers and was, in addition, one of the founders of modern astrophysics. His personal papers are held at the Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek in Göttingen, and an extensive collection of reprints can be found in the Observatory in Göttingen. The material presented in these volumes is restricted intentionally to Schwarzschild's published works. Contents: Biography of Karl Schwarzschild (1873 - 1916). 1. Celestial mechanics. Commentary by R. Dvorak. 2. Sun and stellar atmospheres. Commentary by W. Mattig. 3. Cometary tails. Commentary by K. Jockers. 4. Structure, kinematics and dynamics of stellar systems. Commentary by R. Wielen.

  14. Solomon Receives 2005 Harry H. Hess Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, G. Michael; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-02-01

    Sean C. Solomon received the Harry H. Hess Medal at the 2005 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of the Earth and other planets. It is a privilege to present Sean C. Solomon as the American Geophysical Union's Harry H. Hess Medal recipient. During more than 30 years of accomplished research he has established himself as one of the remarkable leadersin geophysical research today.

  15. Some Educational Implications of Karl Marx's Communism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerich, Gert

    1970-01-01

    According to the expressed ideas of Karl Marx, education should be viewed as a means to develop a person's whole potential and to make him a better human being. It is his contention that in a capitalist society, the educational process causes misery and exists solely to further entrench the power of the rich. (CK)

  16. Karl H. Pribram (1919-2015).

    PubMed

    King, Joseph S

    2016-04-01

    Presents an obituary for Karl H. Pribram, who died on January 19, 2015. Karl had a very successful and extensive 70-year career in neuroscience research. He was a prolific researcher and writer, publishing approximately 150 data papers, almost 300 theoretical papers, and 19 books. His work is recognized through many awards and titles, including a Doctorate in Psychology from the University of Montreal in 1992, a Doctorate in Philosophy from the University of Bremen (1996), and a lifetime achievement award from the International Neural Network Society. His professional interactions extended beyond the traditional boundaries of science into the arts and humanities. His work in these integrative areas resulted in his becoming the first recipient of the Baclav Havel Prize for integrating science with the humanities and arts. PMID:27042887

  17. Karl Schwarzschild. Collected works. Volume 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, H.-H.

    This volume is the second part of a three-volume collection of research papers by Karl Schwarzschild. The complete collection will comprise a total of 119 papers, organized into ten categories. (For Vol. 1 see 003.011). Contents: 5. Astronomical positioning. Commentary by G. Seeber. 6. Photographic photometry. Commentary by U. Haug. 7. Measuring techniques, binary stars, variable stars and spectroscopy. Commentary by E. H. Geyer.

  18. Karl Schwarzschild. Collected works. Volume 3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, H.-H.

    This volume is the third part of a three-volume collection of research papers by Karl Schwarzschild. The complete collection will comprise a total of 119 papers, organized into ten categories. (For volumes 1, 2 see 55.003.011, 55.003.086, respectively). Contents: 8. Optics. Commentary by G. Schmahl. 9. Physical papers. Commentary by F. Hund. 10. Miscellaneous. Commentary by H.-H. Voigt.

  19. Wortschatzliste und Synonyme: Hermann Hesse, "Siddhartha" (Vocabulary List and Synonyms for Hermann Hesse's "Siddhartha").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzburg, John A.

    This vocabulary and synonym list for Hermann Hesse's "Siddhartha" (presently on the German Advanced Placement Program required reading list) is keyed to the Dunham and Wensinger edition published by the Macmillan Company. Selected German vocabulary found on each page of the text is briefly translated into English or clarified through the use of…

  20. [Karl Sudhoff and the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on files in the Nobel Prize archive for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden, this paper illuminates the Nobel Prize nominations for and by Karl Sudhoff from 1918 to 1923. He was nominated by Max Cloetta and Max Neuburger, and Sudhoff himself put forward Julius Hirschberg, Erwin Payr and Georg Sticker. Even though none of the proposals led to a prize, the nomination letters offer insights in the relationships between leading historians of medicine in the immediate post-war years. The study is part of a project exploring the construction and enactment of scientific excellence. PMID:26821496

  1. Profiles in Research: An Interview with Karl Gustav Joreskog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karl Gustav Joreskog. Karl Gustav Joreskog was born in Amal, Sweden, on April 25, 1935. He did his undergraduate studies at Uppsala University from 1955 to 1957, with a major in mathematics and physics. He received a PhD in statistics at Uppsala University in 1963, and he was a research statistician at…

  2. "Unmapped Territories": The Career of Karl Kroeber (1926-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruoff, A. Lavonne Brown

    2012-01-01

    Jean Taylor Kroeber, widow of Karl Kroeber, has granted permission for "SAIL" to reprint his "Address to Columbia College Students Elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society, 18 May 2009" and "An Interview with Karl Kroeber." Conducted by Michael Mallick, the interview was published in the newsletter of the Department of English and Comparative…

  3. A monosegmented-flow Karl Fischer titrator.

    PubMed

    de Aquino, Emerson Vidal; Rohwedder, Jarbas José Rodrigues; Pasquini, Celio

    2007-02-28

    A monosegmented volumetric Karl Fischer titrator is described to mechanize the determination of water content in organic solvents. The system is based on the flow-batch characteristics of the monosegmented analysis concept and employs biamperometry to monitor the progress of the titration. The system shows accuracy and precision that are highly independent of the flow rate, does not require calibration, and is carried out in a closed system capable of minimizing contact of the sample and reagents with ambient moisture. Sample volumes in the range of 40-300muL are employed, depending on the water concentration. An automatic dilution is provided to deal with concentrated samples. The consumption of Karl Fischer reagent depends on the water content of the sample but is not larger than 100muL. The system was evaluated for determination of water in ethanol and methanol in the range 0.02-0.5% (w/w). The average relative precision estimated in that range (9-3%) is comparable to that obtained with a larger volume commercial system and no significant difference was observed between the results obtained for the two systems at the 95% confidence level. A complete titration can be performed in less than 5min employing the proposed system. PMID:19071447

  4. Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalization of astrophysics. (German Title: Karl Schwarzschild und die Professionalisierung der Astrophysik)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    Professionalization is characteristic for physics and astronomy since 1830, and forms the basis for their rapid evolution in the 20th century. Karl Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy are presented: the introduction of course lectures in a repeating cycle, a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, simulations and suggestions for astronomy at high schools and for the training of high school teachers, an interest in international organisation, and the initiative and planning of a southern observatory.

  5. Systems of HESS-APPEL'ROT Type and Zhukovskii Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragović, Vladimir; Gajić, Borislav; Jovanović, Božidar

    We start with a review of a class of systems with invariant relations, so called {\\it systems of Hess--Appel'rot type} that generalizes the classical Hess--Appel'rot rigid body case. The systems of Hess-Appel'rot type carry an interesting combination of both integrable and non-integrable properties. Further, following integrable line, we study partial reductions and systems having what we call the {\\it Zhukovskii property}: these are Hamiltonian systems with invariant relations, such that partially reduced systems are completely integrable. We prove that the Zhukovskii property is a quite general characteristic of systems of Hess-Appel'rote type. The partial reduction neglects the most interesting and challenging part of the dynamics of the systems of Hess-Appel'rot type - the non-integrable part, some analysis of which may be seen as a reconstruction problem. We show that an integrable system, the magnetic pendulum on the oriented Grassmannian $Gr^+(4,2)$ has natural interpretation within Zhukovskii property and it is equivalent to a partial reduction of certain system of Hess-Appel'rot type. We perform a classical and an algebro-geometric integration of the system, as an example of an isoholomorphic system. The paper presents a lot of examples of systems of Hess-Appel'rot type, giving an additional argument in favor of further study of this class of systems.

  6. Karl Rawer: space research and international cooperation - Laudation on the occasion of the 100th birthday of Professor Karl Rawer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, B. W.

    2014-11-01

    This laudation is given in honor of the 100th birthday of Prof. Karl Rawer which happens to coincide with the 45th anniversary of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The ionosphere was discovered during Karl Rawer's lifetime, and he has dedicated his professional life to its exploration. World Wars I and II shaped his early life, but they also launched his career as one of the eminent geophysical scientists of the twentieth century. The paper looks back at Karl Rawer's life and his pioneering work and leadership in advancing and shaping the exploration of the ionosphere.

  7. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  8. The scientific contributions of Karl Frederick Canter (1944 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Allen P., Jr.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to remember as many good qualities of our friend Karl Canter as I can, as an antidote to the loss of such a magnanimous, generous, inventive and amusing person. The paper endeavours to distill the essence in simple terms of some of Karl's important scientific contributions and say what I know of how these accomplishments were made possible and molded by his various character traits, illustrated with the few anecdotes that I remember.

  9. A Conversation with Karl K. Turekian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turekian, Karl K.; Cochran, J. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Note Each year, the editorial board invites a distinguished member of the oceanographic community to contribute a prefatory chapter; this year, we were delighted when Karl Turekian, Sterling Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale, accepted our invitation. Over the course of a long and productive career, Dr. Turekian has pursued his interests in marine and atmospheric geochemistry by using natural radioactive and radiogenic isotopes to study Earth's evolution and the impacts of global change. He has also directed both the Center for the Study of Global Change at Yale and the Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies. In this interview, conducted by his former student Kirk Cochran, Dr. Turekian tells the story of his early career and discusses some of the major scientific challenges and opportunities faced along the way. His personal account of the rise of geochemistry is a charming story of how chance events and personalities impact scientific careers. His technical insight into the future of this field is illuminating, particularly for scientific outsiders who appreciate the central role of geochemistry in discerning and understanding patterns of global change. Craig A. Carlson and Stephen J. Giovannoni, Editors [Figure: see text

  10. HESS upper limits for Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-P.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2008-09-01

    Aims: Observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (G4.5+6.8) with the HESS telescope array in 2004 and 2005 with a total live time of 13 h are presented. Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results: No evidence for a very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray signal from the direction of the remnant is found. An upper limit (99% confidence level) on the energy flux in the range 230 GeV{-}12.8 TeV of 8.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 is obtained. Conclusions: In the context of an existing theoretical model for the remnant, the lack of a detectable gamma-ray flux implies a distance of at least 6.4 kpc. A corresponding upper limit for the density of the ambient matter of 0.7 cm-3 is derived. With this distance limit, and assuming a spectral index Γ = 2, the total energy in accelerated protons is limited to Ep < 8.6 × 1049 erg. In the synchrotron/inverse Compton framework, extrapolating the power law measured by RXTE between 10 and 20 keV down in energy, the predicted gamma-ray flux from inverse Compton scattering is below the measured upper limit for magnetic field values greater than 52 μ G.

  11. Revisiting the Westerlund 2 field with the HESS telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Conrad, J.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, O.; Reimer, A.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schönwald, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sushch, I.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Fukui, Y.; Furukawa, N.; Ohama, A.; Sano, H.; Dawson, J.; Kawamura, A; H.E.S.S. Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Previous observations with the HESS telescope array revealed the existence of extended very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) γ-ray emission, HESS J1023-575, coincident with the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2. At the time of discovery, the origin of the observed emission was not unambiguously identified, and follow-up observations have been performed to further investigate the nature of this γ-ray source. Methods: The Carina region towards the open cluster Westerlund 2 has been re-observed, increasing the total exposure to 45.9 h. The combined dataset includes 33 h of new data and now permits a search for energy-dependent morphology and detailed spectroscopy. Results: A new, hard spectrum VHE γ-ray source, HESS J1026-582, was discovered with a statistical significance of 7σ. It is positionally coincident with the Fermi LAT pulsar PSR J1028-5819. The positional coincidence and radio/γ-ray characteristics of the LAT pulsar favors a scenario where the TeV emission originates from a pulsar wind nebula. The nature of HESS J1023-575 is discussed in light of the deep HESS observations and recent multi-wavelength discoveries, including the Fermi LAT pulsar PSR J1022-5746 and giant molecular clouds in the region. Despite the improved VHE dataset, a clear identification of the object responsible for the VHE emission from HESS J1023-575 is not yet possible, and contribution from the nearby high-energy pulsar and/or the open cluster remains a possibility.

  12. From West to East and Back Again: Faith, Doubt and Education in Hermann Hesse's Later Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines Hermann Hesse's penultimate novel, "The Journey to the East", from an educational point of view. Hesse was a man of the West who turned to the idea of "the East" in seeking to understand himself and his society. While highly critical of elements of Western modernism, Hesse nonetheless viewed "the East" through Western lenses…

  13. "Art, Imagination, Storytelling": An Interview with Karl Kroeber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karl Kroeber that was originally published in "English Department Updates" (Fall 2009), a semiannual alumni newsletter of the Columbia University Department of English & Comparative Literature. In this interview, Kroeber, who taught at Columbia for 57 years, discusses the range of courses he taught during…

  14. The nature and consequence of Karl Marx's skin disease.

    PubMed

    Shuster, S

    2008-01-01

    From an analysis of the original correspondence, it has been possible to establish that Karl Marx's incapacitating skin disease was hidradenitis suppurativa, not 'boils' as was universally assumed at the time and since; the psychological effect of this illness on the man and his work appears to have been considerable. PMID:17986303

  15. Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers: The Time of Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the enduring friendship between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers. It shows how their intellectual development as public educators was sustained by their ongoing dialogue which flourished not in spite of but because of their huge differences of circumstance and personality. This friendship between two renowned…

  16. Trial by Newspaper: The Strange Case of Dr. Karl Muck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sheldon S.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the case of Dr. Karl Muck, conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra who was accused of espionage in 1917. Suggests that the espionage charge was a fiction created by newspapers, beginning with "The Providence Journal." Concludes that Muck admitted to being a spy rather than reveal the name of the woman with whom he had an extramarital…

  17. Karl Krueger, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Karl Krueger received a PhD in biochemistry from Vanderbilt University and continued his research training at NIH as a postdoctoral fellow before joining the faculty at Georgetown University School of Medicine. His research throughout this period focused on different aspects of drug receptors and their role in the nervous system. |

  18. Karl Marx as a Social Scientist and Utopian Dreamer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, James A.

    The central paradox of Karl Marx's work is his belief that the vision of mankind leaving inequality and scarcity behind is attainable. The idea that human alienation, inequality, and need could be rendered obsolete by a future communist society of abundance is a significant failing in Marx's thought. It is at the same time the critical element in…

  19. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  20. Where Are Our Greenfields?: A Conversation with Frederick M. Hess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    In an interview with Educational Leadership, Frederick M. Hess talks about greenfield schooling--a policy approach that attempts to knock down the formal and informal barriers that stand in the way of innovation in education. Greenfield schooling, he explains, "doesn't imagine that we should go around razing districts or schools or taking…

  1. Hesse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziolkowski, Theodore, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection contains essays by Thomas Mann, Andre Gide, Martin Buber, Ernst Robert Curtius, Oskar Seidlin, Hans Mayer, G. W. Field, Jeffrey Sammons, and the editor, Theodore Ziolkowski--all dealing with the biography and literary work of Hermann Hesse.…

  2. A Response to Frederick Hess: An Ongoing Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchetti, Ray

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on the article "An Ongoing Conversation", by Frederick Hess. The author points out that the increasing polarization of the public's views on public education serves us poorly and we need to revive the skill and will to engage in more thoughtful dialogue.

  3. [Karl Jaspers and the challenges of social psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jäger, Markus; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Karl Jaspers, in his book "General Psychopathology", argued for methodological pluralism rather than theoretical dogmatism. He formulated a methodological order of psychopathology with a distinction between "explanation" (objective psychopathology) and "understanding" (subjective psychopathology, psychopathology of meaning). The latter approach focused on patients' subjective experience and biographical issues. Karl Jaspers emphasised social factors in the genesis and course of mental disorders. Following a multiperspective concept, from Jaspers' viewpoint social psychiatry should consider itself of equal importance with biological and psychotherapeutic psychiatry. Therefore, uncritical generalization of one of these perspectives should be avoided. Personalized psychiatry, apart from searching biological markers to tailor treatment should identify psychosocial factors and subjective meaning. Concepts of recovery should not ignore biological foundations in mental disorders. PMID:24858436

  4. Hurricane Karl's Structure and Some Thoughts for 2014 Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Leppert, Ken, II

    2014-01-01

    Karl has interesting data, but far below the standards we should be able to achieve in HS3. We need to fly AV-1 over hurricanes in 2014. Most of the cold cloud shield in the inner core of hurricanes should be safe for AV-1 to fly. Significant convection occupies a small region, but we sometimes unnecessarily apply the 5000-ft separation rule to the entire cold cloud shield.

  5. The Galactic sky through H.E.S.S. eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushch, I.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of five imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Since 2003 it has been operating in the configuration of four 12 m telescopes complemented in 2012 by a much bigger 28 m telescope in the centre of the array. It is designed to detect very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays in the range of ˜20 GeV to ˜50 TeV. Over the past decade it performed extremely successful observations of the Galactic plane, which led to the discovery of about 70 sources amongst which the most numerous classes are pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants and binary systems. Recently H.E.S.S. also discovered the VHE emission from the Vela pulsar, which became the second pulsar detected at TeV energies after the Crab pulsar. An overview of the main H.E.S.S. discoveries in our Galaxy and their implications on the understanding of physical processes is discussed in this paper.

  6. Additional usage possibilities for the computerized Hess screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svede, Aiga; Dzenis, Janis

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to work out a method how to use the computerized Hess screen in proximal vergence measurements. Proximal vergence or vergence due to knowledge of nearness is one of four independent components making up the total vergence response. Proximal vergence is expressed as a ratio - proximal convergence/test distance (PC/T). The computerized Hess screen is usually used to detect and to measure an ocular misalignment in patients with paralytic strabismus in different directions of gaze. The computerized Hess screen can be used to assess PC/T ratio in different directions of gaze, providing the open-loop disparity vergence and accommodation systems and assuming that tonic vergence is stable. The fusional system loop is opned using red/green filter goggles, objects with different size and color, a completely darkened room, and vertical dissociation (using a prism). The accommodation system loop is opened using pinhole. The test was performed on 16 neurologically and binocularly normal subjects (14 women, 2 men; average 24 y., 20-38 y.) Average PC/T ratio in a primary position for the whole group was 2.8pd/D with a standard deviation +/-0.8 pd/D, which correlates with results in literature obtained by other methods.

  7. Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 is not evenly distributed in Hesse, Germany.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Mardjan; Bettge-Weller, Gudrun

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile-isolates associated with CDI in different healthcare facilities in Hesse were analysed. The most common ribotypes were 001 (31.1%) and 027 (27.0%). The proportion of ribotype 027 among regional C. difficile-isolates was 10.8% in North Hesse, 17.2% in Middle Hesse, and 33.5% in the Rhine-Main Metropolitan Area. In the latter region, ribotype 027 was the most prevalent ribotype. PMID:27063988

  8. Geochemistry and age of Shatsky, Hess, and Ojin Rise seamounts: Implications for a connection between the Shatsky and Hess Rises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Geldmacher, Jörg; Hauff, Folkmar; Heaton, Daniel; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hoernle, Kaj; Heydolph, Ken; Sager, William W.

    2016-07-01

    Shatsky Rise in the Northwest Pacific is the best example so far of an oceanic plateau with two potential hotspot tracks emanating from it: the linear Papanin volcanic ridge and the seamounts comprising Ojin Rise. Arguably, these hotspot tracks also project toward the direction of Hess Rise, located ∼1200 km away, leading to speculations that the two plateaus are connected. Dredging was conducted on the massifs and seamounts around Shatsky Rise in an effort to understand the relationship between these plateaus and associated seamounts. Here, we present new 40Ar/39Ar ages and trace element and Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopic data for the recovered dredged rocks and new trace elements and isotopic data for a few drill core samples from Hess Rise. Chemically, the samples can be subdivided into plateau basalt-like tholeiites and trachytic to alkalic ocean-island basalt compositions, indicating at least two types of volcanic activity. Tholeiites from the northern Hess Rise (DSDP Site 464) and the trachytes from Toronto Ridge on Shatsky's TAMU massif have isotopic compositions that overlap with those of the drilled Shatsky Rise plateau basalts, suggesting that both Rises formed from the same mantle source. In contrast, trachytes from the southern Hess Rise (DSDP Site 465A) have more radiogenic Pb isotopic ratios that are shifted toward a high time-integrated U/Pb (HIMU-type mantle) composition. The compositions of the dredged seamount samples show two trends relative to Shatsky Rise data: one toward lower 143Nd/144Nd but similar 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the other toward similar 143Nd/144Nd but more radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb ratios. These trends can be attributed to lower degrees of melting either from lower mantle material during hotspot-related transition to plume tail or from less refractory shallow mantle components tapped during intermittent deformation-related volcanism induced by local tectonic extension between and after the main volcanic-edifice building episodes on Shatsky

  9. [Karl Marx and the Malthusian theory of population].

    PubMed

    Jaggi, S

    1985-06-01

    An analysis of the works of Karl Marx is presented in order to demonstrate the importance of the population factor. The author contends that population growth is a critical factor in Marx's theory of the progressive impoverishment of the working class. However, because of his reluctance to acknowledge the value of the Malthusian contribution, Marx focused his analysis of the labor force under capitalism on the demand for workers and neglected the supply side, which is determined by the growth of population. The author concludes that Marxist theory would have benefited from greater consideration of Malthusian theory. PMID:12157696

  10. Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) and evolution.

    PubMed

    Brauckmann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The research program of Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) intended to enhance the comparative approach of animal classification by demonstrating vertebrate affinities (homology). Baer visualized his ideas on development and evolution with an unpublished figure of a branching tree. To buttress his reflections on how species-specific embryogenesis produces a branching tree, he worked out a cladogram-like chart, depicting the ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate embryos. For Baer, changes in development were responsible for changes in phenotype. I will offer a new interpretation of Baer's ideas about evolution showing that he believed in the transformation of species and announced such views publicly. PMID:23319342

  11. Karl Otto Himmler, manufacturer of the first contact lens.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard M

    2007-03-01

    In 1889 August Müller (1864-1949) reported the correction of his own high myopia with a ground scleral contact lens that had been manufactured in Berlin two years earlier. This paper provides the first conclusive identification, based upon primary sources, of the manufacturer of these lenses. They were made by an optical engineer, Karl Otto Himmler (1841-1903), whose firm enjoyed, until the outbreak of World War II, an international reputation for the manufacture of microscopes and their accessories. PMID:17110156

  12. Education, Death and Awakening: Hesse, Freire and the Process of Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Education is a key theme in a number of Hermann Hesse's novels and short stories. This paper focuses on Hesse's last and longest fictional work, "The Glass Bead Game", and analyses the transformation of Joseph Knecht, the central character, in the light of Paulo Freire's theory of education. It is argued that over time Knecht develops a critical…

  13. Technology, Utopia and Scholarly Life: Ideals and Realities in the Work of Hermann Hesse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between technology, utopia and scholarly life in Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass Bead Game." In the first part of Hesse's book, the Glass Bead Game and the society of which it is a part, Castalia, are portrayed in idealistic terms. The second part of the novel chronicles the educational life of Joseph…

  14. Life, Death and Transformation: Education and Incompleteness in Hermann Hesse's "The Glass Bead Game"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the main part of Hermann Hesse's classic novel, "The Glass Bead Game," the central character, Joseph Knecht, dies suddenly. In this article, I consider the educational significance of Hesse's portrayal of Knecht's death. This pivotal moment in the book tells readers much about the process of educational transformation. I argue that…

  15. Karl Knorre - First Astronomer of the Nicolaev Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G.; Pinigin, G.

    Karl Friedrich Knorre was born 28th March 1801 in family of the professor of astronomy of Dorpat university Ernst Knorre. During education in the Dorpat university he got acquantance with the future director of Pulkovo observatory Wilhelm Struve. According passion of K. Knorre for astronomy W. Struwe recommended him to the director position of planned naval observatory in Nikolaev. From the foundation of Nikolaev naval and later astronomical observatory in 1821 K. Knorre was a first director. He made star position observations with the meridian circle, worked as a teacher of astronomy for sea navigators, compiled the fifth page of star map of the Berlin Academy of sciences and headed by all hydrographic determinations on the sea of Asov and Black sea. After 50 years K. Knorre retired 1871 from the Directorship of the Nikolaev observatory and moved to Berlin. Nikolaev astronomical observatory arranges the international scientific conference devoted to the 180 anniversary of NAO and 200's birthday of Karl Friedrich Knorre in 2001.

  16. HESS J1640-465 and HESS J1641-463: Two Intriguing TeV Sources in Light of New Fermi-LAT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Grondin, M.-H.; Acero, F.; Ballet, J.; Laffon, H.; Reposeur, T.

    2014-10-01

    We report on γ-ray analysis of the region containing the bright TeV source HESS J1640-465 and the close-by TeV source HESS J1641-463 using 64 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Previously only one GeV source was reported in this region and was associated with HESS J1640-465. With an increased data set and the improved sensitivity afforded by the reprocessed data (P7REP) of the LAT, we now report the detection, morphological study, and spectral analysis of two distinct sources above 100 MeV. The softest emission in this region comes from the TeV source HESS J1641-463 which is well fitted with a power law of index Γ = 2.47 ± 0.05 ± 0.06 and presents no significant γ-ray signal above 10 GeV, which contrasts with its hard spectrum at TeV energies. The Fermi-LAT spectrum of the second TeV source, HESS J1640-465 is well described by a power-law shape of index Γ = 1.99 ± 0.04 ± 0.07 that links up naturally with the spectral data points obtained by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). These new results provide new constraints concerning the identification of these two puzzling γ-ray sources.

  17. HESS J1640–465 AND HESS J1641–463: TWO INTRIGUING TeV SOURCES IN LIGHT OF NEW FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Grondin, M.-H.; Laffon, H.; Reposeur, T.

    2014-10-10

    We report on γ-ray analysis of the region containing the bright TeV source HESS J1640–465 and the close-by TeV source HESS J1641–463 using 64 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Previously only one GeV source was reported in this region and was associated with HESS J1640–465. With an increased data set and the improved sensitivity afforded by the reprocessed data (P7REP) of the LAT, we now report the detection, morphological study, and spectral analysis of two distinct sources above 100 MeV. The softest emission in this region comes from the TeV source HESS J1641–463 which is well fitted with a power law of index Γ = 2.47 ± 0.05 ± 0.06 and presents no significant γ-ray signal above 10 GeV, which contrasts with its hard spectrum at TeV energies. The Fermi-LAT spectrum of the second TeV source, HESS J1640–465 is well described by a power-law shape of index Γ = 1.99 ± 0.04 ± 0.07 that links up naturally with the spectral data points obtained by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). These new results provide new constraints concerning the identification of these two puzzling γ-ray sources.

  18. German Astronomer Karl Menten Is 2007 Jansky Awardee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    Associated Universities, Inc., (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have awarded the 2007 Karl G. Jansky Lectureship to Professor Karl M. Menten of the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany. The Jansky Lectureship is an honor established by the trustees of AUI to recognize outstanding contributions to the advancement of astronomy. Karl M. Menten Professor Karl M. Menten CREDIT: NRAO/AUI Click on image for high-resolution file (433 KB) Professor Menten is an extraordinarily productive scientist whose research has improved our fundamental understanding in a number of areas of astronomy. He has studied the chemistry of molecular clouds from which new stars are formed, the process of star formation in our own Milky Way Galaxy and in the early Universe, and the outer atmospheres of stars nearing the end of their "normal" lives. In 1991, Menten used NRAO's 140-foot Telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia, to discover strong radio emission from methanol masers in star-forming regions. These masers amplify, or strengthen, radio emission the same way a laser amplifies visible-light emission. Menten developed the observation of these methanol masers into a powerful tool for studying the formation of stars much more massive than our Sun, because the strong maser emission points astronomers to the stellar birthplaces. In addition, Menten pioneered the use of ultra-high-resolution observations with NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array to observe masers to make precision determinations of the structure, size and dynamics of the Milky Way. Menten received his doctoral degree in 1987 from the University of Bonn, Germany. He then joined the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, working there until 1996, when he became the Director for Millimeter and Submillimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy. In addition to that position, he also has been a Professor for Experimental Astrophysics at the University of Bonn since

  19. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method. PMID:25987860

  20. Possible dark matter origin of the gamma ray emission from the Galactic Center observed by HESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Gammaldi, V.; Maroto, A. L.

    2012-11-01

    We show that the gamma ray spectrum observed with the HESS array of Cherenkov telescopes coming from the Galactic Center region and identified with the source HESS J1745-290 is well fitted by the secondary photons coming from dark matter (DM) annihilation over a diffuse power law background. The amount of photons and morphology of the signal localized within a region of few parsecs, require compressed DM profiles as those resulting from baryonic contraction, which offer ˜103 enhancements in the signal over DM alone simulations. The fitted background from HESS data is consistent with recent Fermi-LAT observations of the same region.

  1. The unidentified source HESS J1908+063/MGRO J1908+06

    SciTech Connect

    Ona Wilhelmi, E. de; Djannati-Atai, A.; Renaud, M.

    2008-12-24

    The extended H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey overlaps with some regions covered by the water Cherenkov detector Milagro sky survey. The latter experiment has reported 3 new sources and 4 hot spots, including MGRO J1908+06 above 12 TeV. The H.E.S.S. observations around 40 degrees of longitude confirm this detection. We take advantage of the superior sensitivity of H.E.S.S. above 0.2 TeV and its better energy and angular resolution to study in detail the morphology, spectrum and possible counterparts for this source.

  2. Bernard J. Wood Receives 2013 Harry H. Hess Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    President Finn, friends, and colleagues, I am truly delighted to accept the Hess Medal for 2013. It is difficult to express one's feelings adequately on receipt of such a prestigious award, but a mixture of pride, humility, and thankfulness for a long and lucky career all occur. It did not start propitiously as my high school grades would only ensure undergraduate entry into the Northern Polytechnic, a second-tier institution in London. Nevertheless, I was enthused by several great teachers, including John Charalambous (inorganic chemistry) and Stephen Morel, a field geologist who had worked for many years in Malawi. They pushed me into trying for graduate school, and I was fortunate to find the eclectic Roger Strens my supervisor at Newcastle.

  3. Observational Highlights from the H.E.S.S. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, G.

    2005-11-22

    Already during its first year of full operation H.E.S.S. has discovered a large number of VHE gamma-ray sources. Most of these sources are of galactic origin and the investigation of these objects might help to solve the long standing puzzle of the origin of the galactic cosmic rays. For the first time the morphology of shell-type supernova remnants has been resolved at these energies and spectroscopic studies have been performed on objects like RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622 . Also for the first time extended TeV emission from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) has been detected. By scanning the inner part of the galactic plane an unbiased sample of eight new VHE gamma-rays sources has been discovered. Finally precision measurements on the emission from the galactic center are on their way.

  4. Bernard J. Wood Receives 2013 Harry H. Hess Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    2014-01-01

    As Harry Hess recognized over 50 years ago, mantle melting is the fundamental motor for planetary evolution and differentiation. Melting generates the major divisions of crust mantle and core. The distribution of chemical elements between solids, melts, and gaseous phases is fundamental to understanding these differentiation processes. Bernie Wood, together with Jon Blundy, has combined experimental petrology and physicochemical theory to revolutionize the understanding of the distribution of trace elements between melts and solids in the Earth. Knowledge of these distribution laws allows the reconstruction of the source compositions of the melts (deep in Earth's interior) from their abundances in volcanic rocks. Bernie's theoretical treatment relates the elastic strain of the lattice caused by the substitution of a trace element in a crystal to the ionic radius and charge of this element. This theory, and its experimental calibrations, brought order to a literature of badly scattered, rather chaotic experimental data that allowed no satisfactory quantitative modeling of melting processes in the mantle.

  5. The History of Cosmic Ray Studies after Hess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess was confirmed with balloon flights at higher altitudes by Kolhörster. Soon the interest turned into questions about the nature of cosmic rays: gamma rays or particles? Subsequent investigations have established cosmic rays as the birthplace of elementary particle physics. The 1936 Nobel prize was shared between Victor Hess and Carl Anderson. Anderson discovered the positron in a cloud chamber. The positron was predicted by Dirac several years earlier. Many new results came now from studies with cloud chambers and nuclear emulsions. Anderson and Neddermeyer saw the muon, which for some time was considered to be a candidate for the Yukawa particle responsible for nuclear binding. Lattes, Powell, Occhialini and Muirhead clarified the situation by the discovery of the charged pions in cosmic rays. Rochester and Butler found V's, which turned out to be short-lived neutral kaons decaying into a pair of charged pions. Λ's, Σ's and Ξ's were found in cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions. After that period, accelerators and storage rings took over. The unexpected renaissance of cosmic rays started with the search for solar neutrinos and the observation of the supernova 1987A and other accelerators in the sky. With the observation of neutrino oscillations one began to look beyond the standard model of elementary particles. After 100 years of cosmic ray research we are again at the beginning of a new era, and cosmic rays may contribute to solve the many open questions, like dark matter and dark energy, by providing energies well beyond those of earth-bound accelerators.

  6. A hadronic scenario for HESS J1818-154

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, G.; Supan, L.; Dubner, G.; Joshi, B. C.; Surnis, M. P.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: G15.4+0.1 is a faint supernova remnant (SNR) that has recently been associated with the γ-ray source HESS J1818-154. We investigate a hadronic scenario for the production of the γ-ray emission. Methods: Molecular 13CO (J = 1-0) taken from the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) and neutral hydrogen (HI) data from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) have been used in combination with new 1420 MHz radio continuum observations carried out with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). Results: From the new observations and analysis of archival data we provided for the first time a reliable estimate for the distance to the SNR G15.4+0.1 and discovered molecular clouds located at the same distance. On the basis of HI absorption features, we estimate the distance to G15.4+0.1 in 4.8 ± 1.0 kpc. The 13CO observations clearly show a molecular cloud about 5' in size with two bright clumps, labeled A and B, clump A positionally associated with the location of HESS J1818-154 and clump B in coincidence with the brightest northern border of the radio SNR shell. The HI absorption and the 13CO emission study indicates a possible interaction between the molecular material and the remnant. We estimate the masses and densities of the molecular gas as (1.2 ± 0.5) × 103 M⊙ and (1.5 ± 0.4) × 103 cm-3 for clump A and (3.0 ± 0.7)× 103 M⊙ and (1.1 ± 0.3) × 103 cm-3 for clump B. Calculations show that the average density of the molecular clump A is sufficient to produce the detected γ-ray flux, thus favoring a hadronic origin for the high-energy emission.

  7. The scientific life of Victor Franz (Francis) Hess (June 24, 1883-December 17, 1964)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter Maria

    2014-01-01

    On the seventh of August 1912, from the measurements upon his seventh balloon ride that had taken him up to an altitude of 5.350 m, Victor Franz (Francis) Hess (1883-1864) discovered the cosmic radiation. His colleagues having continued casting doubts on the existence of such extra-terrestrial impingement for many years, the Austrian scientist was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936 only. Victor F. Hess' discovery opened novel fields of research with topics challenging until today. Hess was teaching physics at the Universities of Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck and, from 1938 onwards, of Fordham, New York, and all his life long continued being true to 'his' topic. Suffering himself of radium burns, Hess pioneered to install the first routine measurements of radium poisoning in the USA.

  8. Discovery of the Hard Spectrum VHE γ-Ray Source HESS J1641-463

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Fukui, Y.; Sano, H.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    This Letter reports the discovery of a remarkably hard spectrum source, HESS J1641-463, by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the very high energy (VHE) domain. HESS J1641-463 remained unnoticed by the usual analysis techniques due to confusion with the bright nearby source HESS J1640-465. It emerged at a significance level of 8.5 standard deviations after restricting the analysis to events with energies above 4 TeV. It shows a moderate flux level of phi(E>1 TeV) = (3.64 ± 0.44stat ± 0.73sys) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1, corresponding to 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux above the same energy, and a hard spectrum with a photon index of Γ = 2.07 ± 0.11stat ± 0.20sys. It is a point-like source, although an extension up to a Gaussian width of σ = 3 arcmin cannot be discounted due to uncertainties in the H.E.S.S. point-spread function. The VHE γ-ray flux of HESS J1641-463 is found to be constant over the observed period when checking time binnings from the year-by-year to the 28 minute exposure timescales. HESS J1641-463 is positionally coincident with the radio supernova remnant SNR G338.5+0.1. No X-ray candidate stands out as a clear association; however, Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal some potential weak counterparts. Various VHE γ-ray production scenarios are discussed. If the emission from HESS J1641-463 is produced by cosmic ray protons colliding with the ambient gas, then their spectrum must extend close to 1 PeV. This object may represent a source population contributing significantly to the galactic cosmic ray flux around the knee.

  9. A multivariate analysis approach for the Imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes System H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, F.; Lamanna, G.

    2008-12-24

    We present a multivariate classification approach applied to the analysis of data from the H.E.S.S. Very High Energy (VHE){gamma}-ray IACT stereoscopic system. This approach combines three complementary analysis methods already successfully applied in the H.E.S.S. data analysis. The proposed approach, with the combined effective estimator X{sub eff}, is conceived to improve the signal-to-background ratio and therefore particularly relevant to the morphological studies of faint extended sources.

  10. Energy Dependent Morphology in the PWN Candidate HESS J1825-137

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; deJager, O.C.; /North West U., South Africa

    2007-09-26

    Observations with H.E.S.S. revealed a new source of very high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays above 100 GeV - HESS J1825-137 - extending mainly to the south of the energetic pulsar PSRB1823-13. A detailed spectral and morphological analysis of HESS J1825-137 reveals for the first time in VHE gamma-ray astronomy a steepening of the energy spectrum with increasing distance from the pulsar. This behavior can be understood by invoking radiative cooling of the IC-Compton gamma-ray emitting electrons during their propagation. In this scenario the vastly different sizes between the VHE gamma-ray emitting region and the X-ray PWN associated with PSRB1823-13 can be naturally explained by different cooling timescales for the radiating electron populations. If this scenario is correct, HESS J1825-137 can serve as a prototype for a whole class of asymmetric PWN in which the X-rays are extended over a much smaller angular scales than the gamma-rays and can help understanding recent detections of X-ray PWN in systems such as HESS J1640-465 and HESS J1813-178. The future GLAST satellite will probe lower electron energies shedding further light on cooling and diffusion processes in this source.

  11. Karl Friedrich Zollner and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  12. MULTIBAND NONTHERMAL RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF HESS J1813-178

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Jun; Zhang Li

    2010-07-20

    The source HESS J1813-178 was detected in a survey of the inner Galaxy in TeV {gamma}-rays, and a composite supernova remnant (SNR) G12.8-0.0 was identified in the radio band to be associated with it. The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) embedded in the SNR is powered by an energetic pulsar PSR J1813-1749, which was recently discovered. Whether the TeV {gamma}-rays originate from the SNR shell or the PWN is currently uncertain. We theoretically investigate the multiwavelength nonthermal radiation from the composite SNR G12.8-0.0. The emission from the particles accelerated in the SNR shell is calculated by applying a semianalytical method to the nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In the model, the magnetic field is self-generated via resonant streaming instability, and the dynamical reaction of the field on the shock is taken into account. Based on a model which couples the dynamical and radiative evolution of a PWN in a non-radiative SNR, the dynamics and the multiband emission of the PWN are investigated. The particles are injected with the spectrum of a relativistic Maxwellian plus a power-law high-energy tail with an index of -2.5. Our results indicate that the radio emission from the shell can be reproduced well as synchrotron radiation of the electrons accelerated by the SNR shock; with an interstellar medium number density of 1.4 cm{sup -3} for the remnant, the {gamma}-ray emission from the SNR shell is insignificant and the observed X-rays and very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-rays from the source are consistent with the emission produced by electrons/positrons injected in the PWN via synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering, respectively; the resulting {gamma}-ray flux for the shell is comparable to the detected one, only with a relatively larger density of about 2.8 cm{sup -3}. The VHE {gamma}-rays of HESS J1813-178 can be naturally explained to mainly originate from the nebula, although the contribution of the SNR shell becomes

  13. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method. PMID:23249368

  14. Medicine as task--Karl E. Rothschuh's philosophy of medicine.

    PubMed

    Mergenthaler, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Karl E. Rothschuh is one of the most important, but, on an international scale, relatively unknown representatives of German philosophy of medicine in the 20th century. This paper presents and discusses his central concepts systematically, especially those of anthropology, theories of health and disease. Rothschuh distinguishes two methodological approaches to anthropology: a causal analysis that considers human organism as complex causal systems, and a so-called bionomical investigation that clarifies the meaning or function of single processes in respect to the whole organism. These two perspectives complement each other. From a naturalistic point of view, Rothschuh conceptualises diseases as disorganisatorial or disbionomic processes; nevertheless, he stresses the cultural interweavement, and, hence, the normative foundation of diseases. 'Disease' is both a relational and a gradual term: It can be experienced and conceptualised subjectively by patients (aegritudo), clinically by physicians (nosos, pathos) and by society (insalubritas). Further, Rothschuh differentiates between the very definition, a notion and a concept of disease. Because of the normative character of disease, medicine cannot be a science striving for pure theoretical knowledge like physics or chemistry. Medicine is a practical science, oriented towards its goals of healing. Because of the societal position of medicine, Rothschuh describes it as task (Aufgabe). With regard to modern developments in philosophy of medicine, this paper discusses Rothschuh's theories critically and offers some starting points for necessary enhancements. PMID:15679017

  15. Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.

    PubMed

    Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D

    2013-09-01

    The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work. PMID:23179067

  16. Centenary of Karl Jaspers's general psychopathology: implications for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thome, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry. PMID:25408913

  17. Karl Gebhardt (1897-1948): a lost man.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R

    2011-12-01

    Karl Gebhardt (1897-1948) had a distinguished career as professor of sports medicine before the Second World War. He developed sports for the disabled at a specialised orthopaedic clinic at Hohenlychen and was President of the Red Cross in Germany. During the war, Gebhardt also acted as Heinrich Himmler's personal physician and was responsible for medical experimentation on prisoners in the concentration camps at Auschwitz and Ravensbrück. In his capacity as SS consultant surgeon, he treated Reinhard Heydrich (a high ranking Nazi official, also known as 'the Hangman') after an attempt was made on his life. When Heydrich died, Gebhardt was accused of failing to treat him with sulphonamides. To prove his innocence he carried out a series of experiments on Ravensbrück concentration camp prisoners, breaking their legs and infecting them with various organisms in order to prove the worthlessness of the drugs in treating gas gangrene. He also attempted to transplant the limbs from camp victims to German soldiers wounded on the Russian front. He was tried after the war and executed for these crimes in 1948. This paper explores the paradox of a gifted doctor who was also the perpetrator of inhuman crimes. PMID:22184577

  18. Constraints on the spectrum of HESS J0632+057 from Fermi-LAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, D.; Chernyakova, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the results of ˜7.5 yrs of the very-high energy (10-600 GeV) observations of HESS J0632+057 with Fermi-LAT. In the highest energy band, 200 - 600 GeV, the source is detected with the statistical significance ≳ 4.7σ at orbital phases 0.2 - 0.4 and 0.6 - 0.8 at which HESS J0632+057 is known to demonstrate enhanced emission in TeV energy band. The analysis did not reveal the emission from HESS J0632+057 at lower energies and different orbital phases. Using the upper limits on source's flux we locate the break of the spectrum to >140 GeV and low-energy slope <1.6 (3σ statistical significance).

  19. X-ray observations of Galactic H.E.S.S. sources: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puehlhofer, G.; Eger, P.; Sasaki, M.; Gottschall, D.; Capasso, M.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    X-ray diagnostics of TeV sources continues to be an important tool to identify the nature of newly detected sources as well as to pinpoint the physics processes that are at work in these highly energetic objects. The contribution aims at giving a review of recent studies that we have performed on TeV sources with H.E.S.S. and XMM-Newton and also other X-ray facilities. Here, we will mainly focus on Galactic objects such as gamma-ray binaries, pulsar wind nebulae, and supernova remnants (SNRs). Particular emphasis will be given to SNR studies, including recently identified SNRs such as HESS J1731-347 and HESS J1534-571 as well as a revisit of RX J1713.7-3946.

  20. Enemy Images, Developmental Psychology, And Peace Education. Peace Education Miniprints No. 29. Petra Hesse and the Project "Preparedness for Peace."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund Univ. (Sweden). Malmo School of Education.

    An interview on peace education with Petra Hesse, of the Center for Psychological Studies in the Nuclear Age (Cambridge, Massachusetts), is presented. The Center for Psychological Studies in the Nuclear Age was founded out of a concern about children's fears of the future and the risks of nuclear war. Petra Hesse coordinates a research project on…

  1. Weaving Colors into a White Landscape: Unpacking the Silences in Karen Hesse's Children's Novel "Out of the Dust"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The children's novel "Out of the Dust" (Hesse, 1997) is an evocative portrayal of the drought and dust storms that devastated Midwestern farms in the 1930s. Through the voice of her 13-year-old narrator, Karen Hesse intertwines history and free verse poetry to create what many readers find to be a moving depiction of the Oklahoma Dustbowl…

  2. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Hess Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that

  4. Online Analysis of {gamma}-ray Sources with H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Fuessling, M.; Dalton, M.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Schwanke, U.; Jung, I.; Stegmann, C.

    2008-12-24

    Some of the {gamma}-ray sources detected by the H.E.S.S. experiment display irregular, often flare-like emission behaviour. A method to detect these outbursts as fast as possible is highly desirable. At H.E.S.S., first results from an offline analysis of pre-calibrated data can be obtained on-site approximately one hour after run end. We present a development and implementation of online analysis software that performs calibration and analysis of data at the time they are being taken allowing for a fast confirmation of observational results and appropriate reaction by the on-site shift crew.

  5. [The Hygienist Karl Roelcke, M.D. (1907-1982). Annotations to the family biography].

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Florian G

    2016-01-01

    Volker Roelcke, the well-known historian of medicine, wrote a biographical sketch on his father's role in National Socialism. Karl Roelcke (1907-1982) was an important hygienist at the University of Heidelberg and assistant to Ernst Rodenwaldt (1878-1965). Attempts to discuss the Nazi issue with his father directly ended unsuccessfully in the 1970s. In his essay of 2014, Volker Roelcke portrayed his father as quite sophisticated, but did not mention all aspects of his work. The present essay therefore offers new insights into the person of Karl Roelcke which are not constrained by family interests. PMID:27263217

  6. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

  7. Three Göttingen lectures by Karl Schwarzschild, 1904-1905. (German Title: Drei Göttinger Vorlesungen Karl Schwarzschilds 1904-1905)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), perhaps the most eminent astronomer of his time, was professor at Göttingen University from 1901 to 1909. Three of his lectures from the years 1904 to 1906 are available in the form of copy-books written by his students Arnold Kohlschütter (1883-1969) and Max Born (1882-1970). Here, an overview of these lectures is given.

  8. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  9. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY SEARCH FOR THE RADIO COUNTERPART OF HESS J1943+213

    SciTech Connect

    Gabanyi, K. E.; Dubner, G.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.; Pidopryhora, Y.; Frey, S.

    2013-01-01

    HESS J1943+213, a TeV point source close to the Galactic plane recently discovered by the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, was proposed to be an extreme BL Lacertae object, though a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature could not be completely discarded. To investigate its nature, we performed high-resolution radio observations with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and reanalyzed archival continuum and H I data. The EVN observations revealed a compact radio counterpart of the TeV source. The low brightness temperature and the resolved nature of the radio source are indications against the beamed BL Lacertae hypothesis. The radio/X-ray source appears immersed in a {approx}1' elliptical feature, suggesting a possible galactic origin (PWN nature) for the HESS source. We found that HESS J1943+213 is located in the interior of a {approx}1 Degree-Sign diameter H I feature and explored the possibility of them being physically related.

  10. An X-Ray Counterpart of HESS J1427-608 Discovered with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinaga, Takahisa; Mori, Koji; Bamba, Aya; Kimura, Shoichi; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Matsuta, Keiko; Pülhofer, Gerd; Uchiyama, Hideki; Hiraga, Junko S.; Matsumoto, Hironori; Terada, Yukikatsu

    2013-06-01

    We report on the discovery of an X-ray counterpart of the unidentified very high-energy gamma-ray source HESS J1427-608. In the sky field coincident with HESS J1427-608, an extended source was found in the 2-8 keV band, and was designated as Suzaku J1427-6051. Its X-ray radial profile has an extension of σ = 0.'9 ± 0.'1 if approximated by a Gaussian. The spectrum was well fitted by an absorbed power-law with NH = (1.1 ± 0.3) × 1023 cm-2, Γ = 3.1+0.6-0.5, and the unabsorbed flux FX = (9+4-2) × 10-13 erg s-1 cm-2 in the 2-10 keV band. Using XMM-Newton archive data, we found seven point sources in the Suzaku source region. However, because their total flux and absorbing column densities are more than an order of magnitude lower than those of Suzaku J1427-6051, we consider that they are unrelated to the Suzaku source. Thus, Suzaku J1427-6051 is considered to be a truly diffuse source and an X-ray counterpart of HESS J1427-608. The possible nature of HESS J1427-608 is discussed based on the observational properties.

  11. HESS J1640-465 - an exceptionally luminous TeV gamma-ray SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Peter; Ohm, Stefan

    HESS J1640-465 is among the brightest Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources ever discovered by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Its likely association with the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0 at a distance of ˜10 kpc makes it the most luminous Galactic source in the TeV regime. Our recent analysis of follow-up observations with H.E.S.S. reveal a significantly extended TeV morphology with a substantial overlap with the northern part of the SNR shell. Furthermore, the source features a seamless powerlaw spectrum over four orders of magnitude from GeV to TeV energies, with a spectral index of Gamma = 2.15± 0.10_mathrm{stat}± 0.10_mathrm{sys} and a cut-off energy of E_c = 7.3(+2.5}_{-1.8) TeV. These new spectral and morphological results suggest that a significant fraction of the TeV emission is likely of hadronic origin where the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as W_p n_H ˜ 4 × 10(52}(d/10mathrm{kpc) )(2) erg cm(-3) . This would make HESS J1640-465 one of the most extreme and efficient Galactic particle accelerators.

  12. Conscientisation in Castalia: A Freirean Reading of Hermann Hesse's "The Glass Bead Game"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass Bead Game," in the light of Paulo Freire's educational philosophy. "The Glass Bead Game" is set in Castalia, a "pedagogical province" of the 23rd century. It is argued that the central character in the book, Joseph Knecht, undergoes a complex process of conscientisation. Knecht develops an…

  13. HESS J1640-465 - an exceptionally luminous TeV γ-ray supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; Wilhelmi, E. de Oña; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. de los; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    The results of follow-up observations of the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640-465 from 2004 to 2011 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) are reported in this work. The spectrum is well described by an exponential cut-off power law with photon index Γ = 2.11 ± 0.09stat ± 0.10sys, and a cut-off energy of E_c = 6.0^{+2.0}_{-1.2} TeV. The TeV emission is significantly extended and overlaps with the northwestern part of the shell of the SNR G338.3-0.0. The new HESS results, a re-analysis of archival XMM-Newton data and multiwavelength observations suggest that a significant part of the γ-ray emission from HESS J1640-465 originates in the supernova remnant shell. In a hadronic scenario, as suggested by the smooth connection of the GeV and TeV spectra, the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as WpnH ˜ 4 × 1052(d/10kpc)2 erg cm-3.

  14. A Response to Frederick Hess: Some Questions for Advocates of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Joe

    2004-01-01

    At this point in his long and varied career in public education, Joe Nathan, the author of this article is beginning to doubt some of his previous stances about the principles under which public schools should operate. He remains, however, a staunch supporter of public charter schools. As he reads Frederick Hess' argument that we need to…

  15. Newbery Medal Winner Karen Hesse Brings Billie Jo's Voice "Out of the Dust."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Judy; Peck, Jackie

    1999-01-01

    Describes an interview with children's author Karen Hesse, discussing such things as how she chose writing as a career, her use of figurative language and her skillful crafting of dialog, where her book ideas come from, and her latest projects. (SR)

  16. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KarLE): In Situ Geochronology for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system depends upon discovering the right moments in planetary evolution: when habitable environments existed, when they declined, and when geologic processes operated to preserve traces of life after death. However, an incomplete knowledge of absolute Martian geochronology limits our ability to understand the timing of Martian evolutionary milestones, major climate changes, and stratigraphic epochs [1, 2]. Absolute dating relates these habitability markers to planetarywide geologic, atmospheric, and climate history places, and ties their occurrence to the history of the solar system, especially the Earth-Moon system and the timescale of evolution of life on Earth. KArLE is being developed to anchor the relative timeline of geological events to an absolute chronology that puts Mars into a wider solar system context. KArLE makes its measurements on rock samples that can be obtained by landers or rovers and inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber. KArLE interrogates the samples using laser-induced breakdown spectrocopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of mission payloads to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  17. Recalling Karl Jaspers' Classic: The Idea of the University. IHE Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This essay revisits Karl Jaspers' classic, "The Idea of the University." Jaspers was reinstated as president of Heidelberg University in 1945, and he presided over its rebuilding. His book, "The Idea of the University," written in 1946, was published in English 13 years later. It interprets an ideal of the university and emphasizes the purposes…

  18. Validation studies of Karl Fisher reference method for moisture in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With current international standard oven drying (SOD) techniques lacking precision and accuracy statements, a new standard reference method is needed. Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) is a widely used measure of moisture content. The method is used in many ASTM methods, 14 NIST SRMs, and te...

  19. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KARLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Devismes, D.; Miller, J. S.; Swindle, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Isotopic dating is an essential tool to establish an absolute chronology for geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration events. The capability for in situ geochronology will open up the ability for geochronology to be accomplished as part of lander or rover complement, on multiple samples rather than just those returned. An in situ geochronology package can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache or return to Earth. The K-Ar Laser Experiment (KArLE) brings together a novel combination of several flight-proven components to provide precise measurements of potassium (K) and argon (Ar) that will enable accurate isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, measure the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using mass spectrometry (MS), and relate the two by measuring the volume of the ablated pit by optical imaging. Our work indicates that the KArLE instrument is capable of determining the age of planetary samples with sufficient accuracy to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science. Additional benefits derive from the fact that each KArLE component achieves analyses useful for most planetary surface missions.

  20. Karl Marx in One Lesson (1818-1883). Series on Public Issues No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejovich, Steve

    This booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, starts from the premise that Marxism is a threat to our way of life and offers a critique of fundamental components of the social movement Marx created. The first of six subsections focuses on sources of influence on Karl Marx…

  1. Problematizing the "Taken for Granted" in Educational Issues: Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and Michel Foucault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…

  2. Developement of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Thus far, radiometric geochronology of planetary samples has only been accomplishable in terrestrial laboratories on samples from dedicated sample return missions and meteorites. In situ instruments to measure rock ages have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6, because isotopic measurements with sufficient resolution are challenging. We have begun work under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) to develop the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), a novel combination of several flight-proven components that will enable accurate KAr isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, measure the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by measuring the volume of the abated pit using a optical methods such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to 100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science. Additional benefits derive from the fact that each KArLE component achieves analyses common to most planetary surface missions.

  3. X-ray follow-ups of TeV unID sources using Suzaku--HESS J1745--303--

    SciTech Connect

    Bamba, Aya; Kohri, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Hironori; Wagner, Stefan; Puehlhofer, Gerd; Kosack, Karl

    2008-12-24

    H.E.S.S. TeV gamma-ray telescope discovered many new sources on the Galactic plane. They should be Galactic particle accelerators but their nature is still unknown since they have few information in other wavelength. Jp-US X-ray telescope Suzaku has made follow-up observations for several TeV unID sources, using the low and stable background and the large effective area. The results are full of varieties; compact counterparts (HESS J1804-216, HESS J1837-609) and diffuse counterparts (HESS J1614-518, CTB 37B). Most interesting results are no-detection even with long exposure (HESS J1616-508, HESS J1745-303). In this talk, we present one of the most interesting result, HESS J1745-303, which is located on near the Galactic center.

  4. Living benthic foraminifera of the Hess Rise and Suiko Seamount, central North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkushi, Ken'ichi; Natori, Hiro'o.

    2001-05-01

    Rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera in six pilot-core samples and one multicore sample collected from the Hess Rise and Suiko Seamount in August 1994 were studied in order to understand foraminiferal distributions between two areas divided by an oceanic front in the central North Pacific. Samples from the Hess Rise were collected in depths of 2167-3354 m under the warm, saline Kuroshio Extension, while samples from Suiko Seamount came from depths of 1811-1955 m under the cold, less-saline subarctic current. Sediment-trap results for the year prior to our sediment sampling show that organic matter fluxes were about 2.5 times greater at Suiko Seamount than at the Hess Rise. However, the hydrographic structure between 1800 and 3400 m, based on CTD observations, is almost the same at both sites. Temperature decreases from 2.2 to 1.7°C over the depth range of 1800-3400 m, salinity increases from 34.5 to 34.7, and the dissolved oxygen content gradually increases from 1.5 to 3.0 ml l -1. The faunal populations at the Hess Rise are quite different from those at Suiko Seamount. The abundant species at the Hess Rise are Epistominella exigua, Brizalina pacifica, Fursenkoina cedrosensis and Alabaminella weddellensis. These species characteristically inhabit phytodetrital aggregates deposited on an oligotrophic seafloor. The populations at Suiko Seamount are dominated by Triloculina frigida, Lagenammina cf. arenulata, Reophax subfusiformis, and Reophax scorpiurus. The reason for differences between these populations is unclear. However, the typical phytodetritus-dwelling species E. exigua is dominant at the Hess Rise, which is located in a subtropical area that has a pulsed supply of settling organic matter in the spring. On the other hand, E. exigua is rare at Suiko Seamount, a subarctic site where there are more stable and greater fluxes of organic matter in summer and autumn. Occurrences of this species may be related to the seasonally short supply of organic matter

  5. Morphotectonics of Hess Deep: Preliminary Results of RRS James Cook Cruise JC21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Teagle, D. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Shillington, D. J.; Scientific Party, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Hess Deep (2° 15'N, 101° 30'W), a rifted depression formed by the westward propagation of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary towards the East Pacific Rise, provides unique exposures of the deeper levels of ocean crust formed at a fast spreading mid-ocean ridge. In January-February 2008, during RRS James Cook cruise JC21, we conducted a site survey of Hess Deep in support of proposed Integrated Ocean Drilling Program operations there. Using the Isis remotely-operated vehicle we acquired microbathymetry and collected 145 samples from an 11 sq km area from the nadir of the Deep (5400m water depth) up and onto the intra-rift ridge (3000m), a horst block within the broader rift valley that had previously been drilled at ODP Sites 894 and 895. From previous investigations it was considered that a continuous section through the lower crust down to the Moho transition zone existed in this region, tilted northwards as a result of extension during opening of the rift. Detachment faulting, perhaps assisted by serpentinite diapirism, had been invoked to explain uplift of the intra-rift ridge (Francheteau et al., 1990; MacLeod et al., 1996). However, our detailed mapping and sampling indicates a significantly more complex distribution of rock types across Hess Deep than previously supposed, and that a re-examination of the existing models for the structure and tectonic evolution of the rift is required. We here present our new geological constraints and propose a revised model for the opening of Hess Deep and uplift of the intra-rift ridge, emphasising the role of previously unsuspected neotectonics in controlling the structure of the rift valley. Francheteau, J. et al., 1990. 1 Ma East Pacific Rise oceanic crust and uppermost mantle exposed by rifting in Hess Deep (equatorial Pacific Ocean). EPSL 101, 281-295. MacLeod, C.J. et al., 1996. Tectonics of Hess Deep: A synthesis of drilling results from Leg 147. Proc. ODP, Sci. Res. 147, College Station TX, 461-475.

  6. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam; Guerin, Gilles; Abe, Natsue; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Ceuleneer, Georges; Cheadle, Michael J.; Adriao, Alden de Brito; Faak, Kathrin; Falloon, Trevor J.; Friedman, Sarah A.; Godard, Marguerite M.; Harigane, Yumiko; Horst, Andrew J.; Hoshide, Takashi; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jean, Marlon M.; John, Barbara E.; Koepke, Juergen H.; Machi, Sumiaki; Maeda, Jinichiro; Marks, Naomi E.; McCaig, Andrew M.; Meyer, Romain; Morris, Antony; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Saha, Abhishek; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2013-02-28

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  7. An elastic lidar system for the H.E.S.S. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregeon, J.; Compin, M.; Rivoire, S.; Sanguillon, M.; Vasileiadis, G.

    2016-05-01

    The H.E.S.S. experiment in Namibia, Africa, is a high energy gamma ray telescope sensitive in the energy range from ~100 Gev to a few tens of TeV, via the use of the atmospheric Cherenkov technique. To minimize the systematic errors on the derived fluxes of the measured sources, one has to calculate the impact of the atmospheric properties, in particular the extinction parameter of the Cherenkov light (~300-650 nm) exploited to observe and reconstruct atmospheric particle showers initiated by gamma-ray photons. A lidar can provide this kind of information for some given wavelengths within this range. In this paper we report on the hardware components, operation and data acquisition of such a system installed at the H.E.S.S. site.

  8. HESS observations of the galactic center region and their possible dark matter interpretation.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Bühler, R; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L-M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Ferrero, E; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Khélifi, B; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Kosack, K; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V; Saugé, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schwanke, U; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Spanier, F; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Théoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J; Ward, M

    2006-12-01

    The detection of gamma rays from the source HESS J1745-290 in the Galactic Center (GC) region with the High Energy Spectroscopic System (HESS) array of Cherenkov telescopes in 2004 is presented. After subtraction of the diffuse gamma-ray emission from the GC ridge, the source is compatible with a point source with spatial extent less than 1.2;{'}(stat) (95% C.L.). The measured energy spectrum above 160 GeV is compatible with a power law with photon index of 2.25+/-0.04(stat)+/-0.10(syst) and no significant flux variation is detected. It is finally found that the bulk of the very high energy emission must have non-dark-matter origin. PMID:17155788

  9. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Potassium (K) - Argon (Ar) Laser Experiment (KArLE) will make in situ noble-gas geochronology measurements aboard planetary robotic landers and roverss. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to measure the K abun-dance in a sample and to release its noble gases; the evolved Ar is measured by mass spectrometry (MS); and rela-tive K content is related to absolute Ar abundance by sample mass, determined by optical measurement of the ablated volume. KArLE measures a whole-rock K-Ar age to 10% or better for rocks 2 Ga or older, sufficient to resolve the absolute age of many planetary samples. The LIBS-MS approach is attractive because the analytical components have been flight proven, do not require further technical development, and provide complementary measurements as well as in situ geochronology.

  10. AN ENERGETIC MAGNETAR IN HESS J1713-381/CTB 37B

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V. E-mail: eric@astro.columbia.ed

    2010-12-10

    We obtained a second Chandra timing measurement of the 3.82 s pulsar CXOU J171405.7-381031 in the supernova remnant (SNR) CTB 37B, which shows that it is spinning down rapidly. The average period derivative of (5.88 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -11} over the 1 year time span corresponds to a dipole magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 4.8 x 10{sup 14} G, well into the magnetar range. The spin-down power E-dot = 4.2x10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} is among the largest for magnetars, and the corresponding characteristic age {tau}{sub c{identical_to}}P/2 P-dot = 1030 years is comparable to estimates of the age of the SNR. The period derivative enables us to recover probable pulsations in an ASCA observation taken in 1996, which yields a mean characteristic age of 860 years over the longer 13 year time span. The source is well detected up to 10 keV, and its composite spectrum is typical of a magnetar. CTB 37B hosts HESS J1713-381, the first TeV source that is coincident with a magnetar. While the TeV emission has been attributed to the SNR shell, it is possibly centrally peaked, and we hypothesize that this particularly young, energetic magnetar may contribute to the HESS source. We also searched for pulsations from another source in a HESS SNR, XMMU J173203.3-344518 in HESS J1731-347/G353.6-0.7, but could not confirm pulsations or long-term flux variability, making it more likely that this source is a weakly magnetized central compact object.

  11. Marine geology of the hess rise, 1, bathymetry, surface sediment distribution, and environment of deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, K.; Kroenke, L.W.

    1981-11-10

    New charts of bathymetry, acoustic character, and sediment distribution describe the Hess Rise, a large oceanic plateau in the central north Pacific. Discrete physiographic provinces on the Hess Rise are the High Plateau, shallower than 3900 m, trending N30/sup 0/W; the Northeastern Flank, a smooth, gentle slope gradually increasing in depth to the northeast; the Woollard Abyssal Plain, extending farther to the northeast; the Volcanic Province with its high peaks and ridges along the southern margin of the Hess Rise; the Mendocino Fracture Zone to the south, expressed by broad, planar seafloor regions bordered by ridges and scarps; the Western Steps, formed by structural benches on the western side of the Rise; and the Emperor Deep, between the rise and the Emperor Seamounts. Five types of acoustic units have been mapped and interpreted: a transparent layer, predominantly of biosiliceous pelagic clay; a stratified layer, predominantly of nannofossil ooze; a diffuse layer of debris flows that seem to have originated mostly in the Volcanic Province; an opaque horizon commonly formed of volcaniclastic sediments that are usually found on the seafloor of the Mendocino Fracture Zone; and a hyperbolic horizon, indicating outcrops of igneous rock. The pronounced effect of bottom currents on the present-day environment of deposition in the Hess Rise is evidenced by the presence of the opaque horizon, which is interpreted as an erosion surface, and by current moating, abrupt thinning of surface layers and truncation of subbottom reflectors. The widespread erosion on the seafloor of the Mendocino Fracture Zone is attributed to the flow of Antarctic bottom water.

  12. Accuracy and Reliability of Haptic Spasticity Assessment Using HESS (Haptic Elbow Spasticity Simulator)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Park, Hyung-Soon; Damiano, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical assessment of spasticity tends to be subjective because of the nature of the in-person assessment; severity of spasticity is judged based on the muscle tone felt by a clinician during manual manipulation of a patient’s limb. As an attempt to standardize the clinical assessment of spasticity, we developed HESS (Haptic Elbow Spasticity Simulator), a programmable robotic system that can provide accurate and consistent haptic responses of spasticity and thus can be used as a training tool for clinicians. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the recreated haptic responses. Based on clinical data collected from children with cerebral palsy, four levels of elbow spasticity (1, 1+, 2, and 3 in the Modified Ashworth Scale [MAS]) were recreated by HESS. Seven experienced clinicians manipulated HESS to score the recreated haptic responses. The accuracy of the recreation was assessed by the percent agreement between intended and determined MAS scores. The inter-rater reliability among the clinicians was analyzed by using Fleiss’s kappa. In addition, the level of realism with the recreation was evaluated by a questionnaire on “how realistic” this felt in a qualitative way. The percent agreement was high (85.7±11.7%), and for inter-rater reliability, there was substantial agreement (κ=0.646) among the seven clinicians. The level of realism was 7.71±0.95 out of 10. These results show that the haptic recreation of spasticity by HESS has the potential to be used as a training tool for standardizing and enhancing reliability of clinical assessment. PMID:22256328

  13. Marine geology of the Hess Rise: 1. Bathymetry, surface sediment distribution, and environment of deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Kroenke, Loren W.

    1981-11-01

    New charts of bathymetry, acoustic character, and sediment distribution describe the Hess Rise, a large oceanic plateau in the central north Pacific. Discrete physiographic provinces on the Hess Rise are the High Plateau, shallower than 3900 m, trending N30°W; the Northeastern Flank, a smooth, gentle slope gradually increasing in depth to the northeast; the Woollard Abyssal Plain, extending farther to the northeast; the Volcanic Province with its high peaks and ridges along the southern margin of the Hess Rise; the Mendocino Fracture Zone to the south, expressed by broad, planar seafloor regions bordered by ridges and scarps; the Western Steps, formed by structural benches on the western side of the Rise; and the Emperor Deep, between the rise and the Emperor Seamounts. Five types of acoustic units have been mapped and interpreted: a transparent layer, predominantly of biosiliceous pelagic clay; a stratified layer, predominantly of nannofossil ooze; a diffuse layer of debris flows that seem to have originated mostly in the Volcanic Province; an opaque horizon commonly formed of volcaniclastic sediments that are usually found on the seafloor of the Mendocino Fracture Zone; and a hyperbolic horizon, indicating outcrops of igneous rock. The pronounced effect of bottom currents on the present-day environment of deposition in the Hess Rise is evidenced by the presence of the opaque horizon, which is interpreted as an erosion surface, and by current moating, abrupt thinning of surface layers and truncation of subbottom reflectors. The widespread erosion on the seafloor of the Mendocino Fracture Zone is attributed to the flow of Antarctic bottom water.

  14. H.E.S.S. follow-up of IceCube-160731A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Naurois, Mathieu; H.E.S.S. Collaborarion

    2016-08-01

    The H.E.S.S. instrument was used to carry out follow-up observations of a high energy neutrino detected by IceCube on the 31st July 2016 at 01:55:04 UTC. The IceCube best fit position is Ra = 214.54, Dec = -0.33 with a radius of 0.75 deg at 90% confidence.

  15. The politics of psychiatry and the vicissitudes of faith circa 1950: Karl Stern's psychiatric novel.

    PubMed

    Burston, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Karl Stern, MD (1906-1975) was the author of The Pillar of Fire (1951) and three nonfiction books on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and religion. His novel, Through Dooms of Love (1960), written with the assistance of his friend and admirer Graham Greene, covers a number of topics that were to psychiatric theory, treatment, and research at mid-century, and reflects several features of his own personal and professional vicissitudes. PMID:26334447

  16. Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Traditionally, geochronology has only been accomplishable on samples from dedicated sample return missions or meteorites. The capability for in situ geochronology is highly desired, because it will allow one-way planetary missions to perform dating of large numbers of samples. The success of an in situ geochronology package will not only yield data on absolute ages, but can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache and/or return to Earth. In situ dating instruments have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6 because the required high-resolution isotopic measurements are very challenging. Our team is now addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument [1]. KArLE uses a combination of several flight-proven components that enable accurate K-Ar isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, determine the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by the volume of the ablated pit using an optical method such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to +/-100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science.

  17. EXPLORING THE DARK ACCELERATOR HESS J1745-303 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C. Y.; Wu, E. M. H.; Wu, J. H. K.; Cheng, K. S.; Huang, R. H. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2011-07-10

    We present a detailed analysis of the {gamma}-ray emission from HESS J1745-303 with the data obtained by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in its first {approx}29 month observation. The source can clearly be detected at the levels of {approx}18{sigma} and {approx}6{sigma} in 1-20 GeV and 10-20 GeV, respectively. We do not find any evidence of the variability seen in the results obtained by the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. Most of the emission in 10-20 GeV is found to coincide with region C of HESS J1745-303. A simple power law is sufficient to describe the GeV spectrum with a photon index of {Gamma} {approx} 2.6. The power-law spectrum inferred in the GeV regime can be connected to that of a particular spatial component of HESS J1745-303 in 1-10 TeV without any spectral break. These properties impose independent constraints for understanding the nature of this 'dark particle accelerator'.

  18. Exploring the Dark Accelerator HESS J1745-303 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, C. Y.; Wu, E. M. H.; Wu, J. H. K.; Huang, R. H. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2011-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the γ-ray emission from HESS J1745-303 with the data obtained by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in its first ~29 month observation. The source can clearly be detected at the levels of ~18σ and ~6σ in 1-20 GeV and 10-20 GeV, respectively. We do not find any evidence of the variability seen in the results obtained by the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. Most of the emission in 10-20 GeV is found to coincide with region C of HESS J1745-303. A simple power law is sufficient to describe the GeV spectrum with a photon index of Γ ~ 2.6. The power-law spectrum inferred in the GeV regime can be connected to that of a particular spatial component of HESS J1745-303 in 1-10 TeV without any spectral break. These properties impose independent constraints for understanding the nature of this "dark particle accelerator."

  19. Diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Fukui, Y.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse γ -ray emission is the most prominent observable signature of celestial cosmic-ray interactions at high energies. While already being investigated at GeV energies over several decades, assessments of diffuse γ -ray emission at TeV energies remain sparse. After completion of the systematic survey of the inner Galaxy, the H.E.S.S. experiment is in a prime position to observe large-scale diffuse emission at TeV energies. Data of the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey are investigated in regions off known γ -ray sources. Corresponding γ -ray flux measurements were made over an extensive grid of celestial locations. Longitudinal and latitudinal profiles of the observed γ -ray fluxes show characteristic excess emission not attributable to known γ -ray sources. For the first time large-scale γ -ray emission along the Galactic plane using imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes has been observed. While the background subtraction technique limits the ability to recover modest variation on the scale of the H.E.S.S. field of view or larger, which is characteristic of the inverse Compton scatter-induced Galactic diffuse emission, contributions of neutral pion decay as well as emission from unresolved γ -ray sources can be recovered in the observed signal to a large fraction. Calculations show that the minimum γ -ray emission from π0 decay represents a significant contribution to the total signal. This detection is interpreted as a mix of diffuse Galactic γ -ray emission and unresolved sources.

  20. Microsecond Time Resolution Optical Photometry using a H.E.S.S. Cherenkov Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Deil, Christoph; Domainko, Wilfried; Hermann, German

    2008-02-22

    We have constructed an optical photometer with microsecond time resolution, which is currently being operated on one of the H.E.S.S. telescopes. H.E.S.S. is an array of four Cherenkov telescopes, each with a 107 m{sup 2} mirror, located in the Khomas highland in Namibia. In its normal mode of operation H.E.S.S. observes Cherenkov light from air showers generated by very high energy gamma-rays in the upper atmosphere. Our detector consists of seven photomultipliers, one in the center to record the lightcurve from the target and six concentric photomultipliers as a veto system to reject disturbing signals e.g. from meteorites or lightning at the horizon. The data acquisition system has been designed to continuously record the signals with zero deadtime. The Crab pulsar has been observed to verify the performance of the instrument and the GPS timing system. Compact galactic targets were observed to search for flares on timescales of a few microseconds to {approx}100 ms. The design and sensitivity of the instrument as well as the data analysis method are presented.

  1. Discovery of VHE emission towards the Carina arm region with the H.E.S.S. telescope array: HESS J1018-589

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Bernlöh, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Klużniak, D.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2012-05-01

    The Carina arm region, containing the supernova remnant SNR G284.3-1.8, the high-energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856 and the energetic pulsar PSR J1016-5857 and its nebula, has been observed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array. The observational coverage of the region in very-high-energy (VHE; E > 0.1 TeV) γ-rays benefits from deep exposure (40 h) of the neighboring open cluster Westerlund 2. The observations have revealed a new extended region of VHE γ-ray emission. The new VHE source HESS J1018-589 shows a bright, point-like emission region positionally coincident with SNR G284.3-1.8 and 1FGL J1018.6-5856 and a diffuse extension towards the direction of PSR J1016-5857. A soft (Γ = 2.7 ± 0.5stat)photon index, with a differential flux at 1 TeV of N0 = (4.2 ± 1.1) × 10-13 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 is found for the point-like source, whereas the total emission region including the diffuse emission region is well fit by a power-law function with spectral index Γ = 2.9 ± 0.4stat and differential flux at 1 TeV of N0 = (6.8 ± 1.6) × 10-13 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1. This H.E.S.S. detection motivated follow-up X-ray observations with the XMM-Newton satellite to investigate the origin of the VHE emission. The analysis of the XMM-Newton data resulted in the discovery of a bright, non-thermal point-like source (XMMU J101855.4-58564) with a photon index of Γ = 1.65 ± 0.08 in the center of SNR G284.3-1.8, and a thermal, extended emission region coincident with its bright northern filament. The characteristics of this thermal emission are used to estimate the plasma density in the region as n ≈ 0.5 cm-3 (2.9 kpc/d)2. The position of XMMU J101855.4-58564 is compatible with the position reported by the Fermi-LAT collaboration for the binary system 1FGL J1018.6-5856 and the variable Swift XRT source identified with it. The new X-ray data are used alongside archival multi-wavelength data to investigate the relationship between the VHE γ-ray emission from HESS J1018-589 and the

  2. Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834-087 using H.E.S.S. and Fermi LAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: Previous observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have revealed an extended very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray source, HESS J1834-087, coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) W41. The origin of the γ-ray emission was investigated in more detail with the H.E.S.S. array and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods: The γ-ray data provided by 61 h of observations with H.E.S.S., and four years with the Fermi LAT were analyzed, covering over five decades in energy from 1.8 GeV up to 30 TeV. The morphology and spectrum of the TeV and GeV sources were studied and multiwavelength data were used to investigate the origin of the γ-ray emission toward W41. Results: The TeV source can be modeled with a sum of two components: one point-like and one significantly extended (σTeV = 0.17° ± 0.01°), both centered on SNR W41 and exhibiting spectra described by a power law with index ΓTeV ≃ 2.6. The GeV source detected with Fermi LAT is extended (σGeV = 0.15° ± 0.03°) and morphologically matches the VHE emission. Its spectrum can be described by a power-law model with an index ΓGeV = 2.15 ± 0.12 and smoothly joins the spectrum of the whole TeV source. A break appears in the γ-ray spectra around 100 GeV. No pulsations were found in the GeV range. Conclusions: Two main scenarios are proposed to explain the observed emission: a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or the interaction of SNR W41 with an associated molecular cloud. X-ray observations suggest the presence of a point-like source (a pulsar candidate) near the center of the remnant and nonthermal X-ray diffuse emission that could arise from the possibly associated PWN. The PWN scenario is supported by the compatible positions of the TeV and GeV sources with the putative pulsar. However, the spectral energy distribution from radio to γ-rays is reproduced by a one-zone leptonic model only if an excess of low-energy electrons is injected

  3. Fermi-LAT Constraints on the Pulsar Wind Nebula Nature of HESS J1857+026

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M.-H.; VanEtten, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Camilo, F.; Casandjian, J. M.; Espinoza, C. M.; Johnston, S.; Lyne, A. G.; Smith, D. A.; Stappers, B. W.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857+026 is a spatially extended gamma-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856+0245. Aims. We search for -ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Methods. Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase.fold 36 months of gamma-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete gamma-ray spectral and morphological analysis. Results. No pulsation was detected from PSR J1856+0245. However, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857+026. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power law with a spectral index of Gamma = 1.53 +/- 0.11(sub stat) +/- 0.55(sub syst) and an energy flux of G(0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.71 +/- 0.52(sub stat) +/- 1.51(sub syst) X 10(exp -11) ergs/ sq cm/s. This implies a gamma.ray efficiency of approx 5 %, assuming a distance of 9 kpc, the gamma-ray luminosity of L(sub gamma) (sub PWN) (0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.5 +/- 0.5(sub stat) +/- 1.5(sub syst)) X 10(exp 35)(d/(9kpc))(exp 2) ergs/s and E-dot = 4.6 X 10(exp 36) erg /s, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. Detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.

  4. Fermi-LAT constraints on the pulsar wind nebula nature of HESS J1857+026

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M.-H.; Van Etten, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Camilo, F.; Casandjian, J. M.; Espinoza, C. M.; Johnston, S.; Lyne, A. G.; Smith, D. A.; Stappers, B. W.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857 + 026 is a spatially extended γ-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856 + 0245. Aims: We search for γ-ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Methods: Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase-fold 36 months of γ-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete γ-ray spectral and morphological analysis. Results: No γ-ray pulsations were detected from PSR J1856+0245. However, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857 + 026. The γ-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power-law with a spectral index of Γ = 1.53 ± 0.11stat ± 0.55syst and an energy flux of G(0.1-100 GeV) = (2.71 ± 0.52stat ± 1.51syst) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. The γ-ray luminosity is LPWNγ (0.1-100 GeV)=(2.5 ± 0.5stat ± 1.5syst) × 1035 (d/9 kpc)2 erg s-1, assuming a distance of 9 kpc. This implies a γ-ray efficiency of ~5% for Ė = 4.6 × 1036 erg s-1, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. Detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.

  5. HESS J1943+213: A Non-classical High-frequency-peaked BL Lac Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straal, S. M.; Gabányi, K. É.; van Leeuwen, J.; Clarke, T. E.; Dubner, G.; Frey, S.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1943+213 is an unidentified TeV source that is likely a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, but that is also compatible with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Each of these enormously different astronomical interpretations is supported by some of the observed unusual characteristics. In order to finally classify and understand this object, we took a three-pronged approach, through time-domain, high angular resolution, and multi-frequency radio studies. First, our deep time-domain observations with the Arecibo telescope failed to uncover the putative pulsar powering the proposed PWN. We conclude with ˜70% certainty that HESS J1943+213 does not host a pulsar. Second, long-baseline interferometry of the source with e-MERLIN at 1.5 and 5 GHz shows only a core, that is, a point source at ˜ 1–100 mas resolution. Its 2013 flux density is about one-third lower than that detected in the 2011 observations with similar resolution. This radio variability of the core strengthens the HBL object hypothesis. Third, additional evidence against the PWN scenario comes from the radio spectrum we compiled. The extended structure follows a power-law behavior with spectral index α \\=\\-0.54+/- 0.04 while the core component displays a flat spectrum (α \\=\\-0.03+/- 0.03). In contrast, the radio synchrotron emission of PWNe predicts a single power-law distribution. Overall, we rule out the PWN hypothesis and conclude that the source is a BL Lac object. The consistently high fraction (70%) of the flux density from the extended structure then leads us to conclude that HESS J1943+213 must be a non-classical HBL object.

  6. HESS J1943+213: A Non-classical High-frequency-peaked BL Lac Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straal, S. M.; Gabányi, K. É.; van Leeuwen, J.; Clarke, T. E.; Dubner, G.; Frey, S.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1943+213 is an unidentified TeV source that is likely a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, but that is also compatible with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Each of these enormously different astronomical interpretations is supported by some of the observed unusual characteristics. In order to finally classify and understand this object, we took a three-pronged approach, through time-domain, high angular resolution, and multi-frequency radio studies. First, our deep time-domain observations with the Arecibo telescope failed to uncover the putative pulsar powering the proposed PWN. We conclude with ∼70% certainty that HESS J1943+213 does not host a pulsar. Second, long-baseline interferometry of the source with e-MERLIN at 1.5 and 5 GHz shows only a core, that is, a point source at ∼ 1–100 mas resolution. Its 2013 flux density is about one-third lower than that detected in the 2011 observations with similar resolution. This radio variability of the core strengthens the HBL object hypothesis. Third, additional evidence against the PWN scenario comes from the radio spectrum we compiled. The extended structure follows a power-law behavior with spectral index α \\=\\-0.54+/- 0.04 while the core component displays a flat spectrum (α \\=\\-0.03+/- 0.03). In contrast, the radio synchrotron emission of PWNe predicts a single power-law distribution. Overall, we rule out the PWN hypothesis and conclude that the source is a BL Lac object. The consistently high fraction (70%) of the flux density from the extended structure then leads us to conclude that HESS J1943+213 must be a non-classical HBL object.

  7. Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974): His ambitions, approach and achievements.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Urs

    2016-02-01

    Karl Meyer was one of the outstanding scientists in the areas of medical and veterinary microbiology, infectious diseases, pathology, epidemiology, ecology, academic education and public health during the first half of the 20th century. He was an exceptional scientist with an enormous drive to deepen knowledge and understanding, in the interest of the people, to improve diagnosis and treatment of many zoonoses including prevention and improvement in health laws. This paper presents a survey of the extraordinarily wide-ranging achievements of Meyer and his systems approach. PMID:24585625

  8. The host galaxy and Fermi-LAT counterpart of HESS J1943+213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D.; Domainko, W.; Sanchez, D. A.; van der Wel, A.; Gässler, W.

    2014-11-01

    Context. The very-high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) gamma-ray sky shows diverse Galactic and extragalactic source populations. For some sources the astrophysical object class could not be identified so far. Aims: The nature (Galactic or extragalactic) of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1943+213 is explored. We specifically investigate the proposed near-infrared counterpart 2MASS J19435624+2118233 of HESS J1943+213 and investigate the implications of a physical association. Methods: We present K-band imaging from the 3.5 m CAHA telescope of 2MASS J19435624+2118233. Furthermore, 5 years of Fermi-LAT data were analyzed to search for a high-energy (HE, 100 MeV HESS J1943+213. A high-Sérsic index profile provides a better fit than an exponential profile, indicating that the surface brightness profile of 2MASS J19435624+2118233 follows that of a typical, massive elliptical galaxy more closely than that of a disk galaxy. With Fermi-LAT a HE counterpart is found with a power-law spectrum above 1 GeV, with a normalization of (3.0 ± 0.8stat ± 0.6sys) × 10-15 cm-2 s-1 MeV-1 at the decorrelation energy Edec = 15.1 GeV and a spectral index of Γ = 1.59 ± 0.19stat ± 0.13sys. This gamma-ray spectrum shows a rather sharp break between the HE and VHE regimes of ΔΓ = 1.47 ± 0.36. Conclusions: The infrared and HE data strongly favor an extragalactic origin of HESS J1943+213, where the infrared counterpart traces the host galaxy of an extreme blazar and where the rather sharp spectral break between the HE and VHE regime indicates attenuation on extragalactic background light. The

  9. The single-particle pseudorelativistic Jansen Hess operator with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.

    2006-06-01

    The pseudorelativistic no-pair Jansen-Hess operator is derived for the case where in addition to the Coulomb potential an external magnetic field B is permitted. With some restrictions on the vector potential, it is shown that this operator is positive provided the strength γ of the Coulomb potential is below a critical value (γc <= 0.35, depending on the magnetic field energy Ef). Moreover, for γ < 0.32 and for B tending asymptotically to zero in a weak sense, the essential spectrum is given by [m, ∞) + Ef.

  10. Iodp Exp 345: Orthopyroxene Omnipresent in Layered Gabbros from the Hess Deep, EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, J.; Abe, N.; Akizawa, N.; Falloon, T.; Hoshide, T.; Jean, M. M.; Maeda, J.; Snow, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling studies of the lower oceanic crust in the framework of the IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) have the objective of understanding the construction processes of the ocean crust. Currently, much attention is focused on the relatively inaccessible fast spreading lower ocean crust (IODP Hole 1256D, ODP Hole 894G, this study). At the Hess Deep Rift, propagation of the Cocos Nazca Ridge into young, fast-spreading East Pacific Rise crust generates extensive exposures of the plutonic lower crust. IODP Exp. 345 drilled a dismembered section of lower crust at ~4850 m water depth under challenging borehole conditions. We drilled three main holes between 35-110 mbsf with ~30% recovery, returning cores relevant to the igneous evolution of the lower crust. The drilled cores show spectacular modal and/or grain size layering present in >50% of the recovered core. Typical rocks are primitive (Mg# 75-89) olivine gabbro, troctolitic gabbro and olivine gabbronorite. A very significant first-order observation from this expedition is that orthopyroxene was found as an abundant phase in many of the layered primitive gabbroic rocks. This was unexpected, since experiments on the liquid line of descent of MORB show that orthopyroxene always crystallizes late, at low melt fractions, and commonly interstitially. Recovered rocks at Site U1415, however, show that orthopyroxene crystallization is common: both as an interstitial phase in primitive troctolite (crystallization even before clinopyroxene), as a cumulus phase coexisting with clinopyroxene in primitive olivine gabbros and as monomineralic bands in primitive gabbros of the Multitextured Layered Gabbro series in Hole U1415P. None of these features are commonly observed in ocean floor gabbros. The discovery of orthopyroxene in primitive lithologies in high quantities in the lower crustal section at Hess Deep is a novel finding, although the presence of orthopyroxene in one primitive gabbro sample from Hess Deep was reported

  11. Update on Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. We are addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) -- Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument. KArLE ablates a rock sample, determines the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measures the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relates the two by the volume of the ablated pit using laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Our goal is for the KArLE instrument to be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to address a wide range of geochronolgy problems in planetary science.

  12. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for in Situ Geochronology Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    KArLE (Potassium-­-Argon Laser Experiment) has been developed for in situ planetary geochronology using the K - Ar (potassium-­-argon) isotope system, where material ablated by LIBS (Laser-­-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is used to calculate isotope abundances. We are determining the accuracy and precision of volume measurements of these pits using stereo and laser microscope data to better understand the ablation process for isotope abundance calculations. If a characteristic volume can be determined with sufficient accuracy and precision for specific rock types, KArLE will prove to be a useful instrument for future planetary rover missions.

  13. A high energy Space Station (HESS) array for studying extremely energetic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific aims and design concept of a High-Energy Space Station (HESS) cosmic-ray detector array are discussed. The current state of knowledge on cosmic-ray acceleration and high-energy interactions is briefly reviewed, and the need for observations yielding elemental composition and spectra in the 10-10,000-TeV/nucleon range is demonstrated. It is predicted that 2 yr of observations with a space-borne detector of geometry factor 30 sq m sr would provide adequate data to determine the acceleration mechanism (by comparing the energy level at which the spectra of He nuclei and protons break). A modular HESS array comprising W/scintillator/PM-tube calorimeter modules and Cerenkov charge-sensitive detector modules and weighing about 30 tonnes is described. The array could be assembled on orbit after transport in the Space Shuttle cargo bay, and data could be taken as soon as one or two layers of modules had been attached to the mounting-frame/support-electronics unit.

  14. Observations of SNR RX J1713.7-3946 with H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, D.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.

    2005-02-21

    The shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 (G347.3-0.5) was discovered with ROSAT in X-rays and later claimed as source of TeV {gamma}-rays. This object, together with several other southern hemisphere SNRs, is a prime target for observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), a new system of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which was completed at the end of 2003 in Namibia and is now in full operation. Here we report on observations of the SNR RX J1713.7-3946 which have been performed during the construction and commissioning of the H.E.S.S. system (data originally published here). We confirm TeV emission from this source and present the first ever {gamma}-ray image of an astronomical object resolved on arc minute scales. This image shows shell morphology similar to that seen in X-rays, however at photon energies some nine orders of magnitude higher. The characteristics of the energy spectrum imply efficient acceleration of charged particles to energies beyond 100 TeV, consistent with current ideas of particle acceleration in young SNR shocks.

  15. Suzaku Observation of the Unidentified Gamma-ray Source HESS J1841-055

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, Kumiko

    HESS J1841-055 is an unidentified Gamma-ray source and spread across 1 degree. There is not yet a conclusive counterpart in any other wave length. We observed HESS J1841-055 with Suzaku. Several sources were found in the region. (1) High mass X-ray binary AX J1841.0-0536 exhibited many short flares with the time-scales of a few hundred seconds and a large flare with the peak flux (1.0-10 keV) of ≤2×10(-10) erg s(-1) cm(-2) . The source had a high dynamical range (ratio of the peak luminosity in the large flare to the quiescent emission), which spanned 3 orders of magnitudes. (2) Soft (0.5-2.0 keV) diffuse X-ray emission is a supernova remnant candidate, since its spectrum was fit by an optically thin thermal plasma model. (3) 2 arcminutes extended source in the hard band (2.0-8.0 keV) had a high column density of N_mathrm{H}˜10(23) cm(-2) and a red-shifted iron line. It can be a new candidate of a cluster of galaxy.

  16. VHE gamma-ray Emitting Pulsar Wind Nebulae Discovered by H.E.S.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Y.A.; Carrigan, S.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Hoppe, S.; de Jager, O.C.; Khelifi, B.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lemiere, A. Masterson, C.; /Dublin Inst.

    2008-06-05

    Recent advances in very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new observational window on the physics of pulsars. The high sensitivity of current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, and in particular of the H.E.S.S. array, has already led to the discovery of about a dozen VHE-emitting pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and PWN candidates. These include the plerions in the composite supernova remnants MSH 15-52, G21.5-0.9, Kes 75, and Vela, two sources in the Kookaburra, and the nebula of PSR B1823-13. This VHE emission is generally interpreted as inverse Compton emission from the relativistic electrons and positrons accelerated by the pulsar and its wind; as such, it can yield a more direct spatial and spectral view of the accelerated particles than can be inferred from observations of their synchrotron emission. The VHE-emitting PWNe detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes are reviewed and the implications for pulsar physics discussed.

  17. [The search for "od." Karl Ludwig Freiheer von Reichenbach (1788-1869) and Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer (1806-1853), two joined against Justus von Liebig].

    PubMed

    Habacher, M

    1980-05-01

    The author describes the controversy between Justus von Liebig on one side and Reichenbach and Mayrhofer on the other side. It is a controversy about problems of science and medicine which are characteristic for the late 18th and the first half of the 19th century, when Mesmerism and similar ideas of occultic and comparative phenomenona were discussed and often refused as being "not scientific". Justus von Liebig and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach were both chemists, both interested in scientific progress and working in this field. They were friends in the years 1830 to 1848. But later on this friendship ended when Reichenbach--who in the mean time moved to Vienna--became more and more interested in phenomenons seen by sensitive persons concerning effects of light. Although Reichenbach himself was not able to recognize the phenomenons he was sure that other persons had this ability. He had the impression that there is a special force floating through the universe, and this force he called "od". Liebig, who was not able to follow this theory and rejected it has speculation, turned against Reichenbach in 1852-3. So the controversy began and their old friendship came to an end. Reichenbach's theory of the "od", characteristic for the time of the romanticism and leading back to Mesmerism was accepted and supported by the Austrian physician Dr. Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer who had aroused his interest by describing similar phenomenos some of this patients had. The letters of both men, the chemist and the doctor, which are well preserved (Technical Museum of Vienna) and discussed here, give a good impression of Reichenbach's ideas concerning his theory of the "od" and his philosophical ideas. As Reichenbach tried to find a philosophy corresponding to his theory and as he meant to have found this in the philosophy of Friedrich Eduard Beneke his remarks in those letters give a good information about Beneke's discussion of Reichenbach's theory. Mayrhofer, on the other hand

  18. The Search for Identity in Selected Novels of Hermann Hesse: A Thematic Study for the Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jean Sawyer

    This study used four novels by Hermann Hesse as models to illustrate for secondary school English teachers a thematic analysis of the search for identity motif using the triadic view of individual growth. The novels are "Peter Camenzind,""Beneath the Wheel,""Demian," and "Siddhartha." In summary, this study (1) found that analysis of the question…

  19. Karl Schwarzschild's investigations of `out-of-focus photometry' between 1897 and 1899 at Kuffner Observatory in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1897 to 1899 Karl Schwarzschild worked at the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. During these years he developed new measuring techniques in the field of photographic photometry, where he studied particularly the quantitative determination of the departure from the reciprocity law during photographic exposure. This paper concentrates on Schwarzschild's early work in this field and gives an overview of his important Viennese years.

  20. Mapping a Space of Biography: Karl Triebold and the Waldschule of Senne I-Bielefeld (c.1923-1939)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyssen, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Starting from a "life geography" of Karl Triebold, a leading figure in open-air education, this article provides an understanding of the seemingly ordinary but still idiosyncratic development of a German open-air school. Triebold's life's work, the fight against tuberculosis, conceived as character education through healthy occupation, was…

  1. Reference test methods for total water in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration and low temperature distillation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a study of comparability of total water contents (%) of conditioned cottons by Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) and Low Temperature Distillation (LTD) reference methods, we demonstrated a match of averaged results based on a large number of replications and weighing the test specimens at the same tim...

  2. Reference method for total water in lint cotton by automated oven drying combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a preliminary study to measure total water in lint cotton we demonstrated that volumetric Karl Fischer Titration of moisture transported by a carrier gas from an attached small oven is more accurate than standard oven drying in air. The objective of the present study was to assess the measuremen...

  3. In Situ Geochronology on the Mars 2020 Rover with KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Roark, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    If extinct and/or extant life is discovered on Mars, knowledge of the chronology of the biosphere will be of paramount importance. KArLE will provide absolute ages of Mars 2020 rocks, which will allow us to understand them in the context of Mars' geologic history, connect them to other landing sites, and compare Martian epochs of habitability with the Earth's history and evolution of life. KArLE significantly enhances the ability of Mars 2020 to meet its science objectives by performing in situ age dating on key lithologies, enabling targeted searches for ancient biosignatures and increasing the chances of identifying evidence for Martian microbial life. The KArLE investigation makes its measurements on a core sample obtained with the rover drill, inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber, followed by interrogation by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of the Mars 2020 payload to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  4. Understanding the Relationships Between Lightning, Cloud Microphysics, and Airborne Radar-derived Storm Structure During Hurricane Karl (2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Brad; Fuelberg, Henry; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Andrew; Bansemer, Aaron; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Heymsfield, Gerald; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lightning, cloud microphysics, and tropical cyclone (TC) storm structure in Hurricane Karl (16 September 2010) using data collected by the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk (GH) aircraft during NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment. The research capitalizes on the unique opportunity provided by GRIP to synthesize multiple datasets from two aircraft and analyze the microphysical and kinematic properties of an electrified TC. Five coordinated flight legs through Karl by the DC-8 and GH are investigated, focusing on the inner-core region (within 50km of the storm center) where the lightning was concentrated and the aircraft were well coordinated. GRIP datasets are used to compare properties of electrified and nonelectrified inner-core regions that are related to the noninductive charging mechanism, which is widely accepted to explain the observed electric fields within thunderstorms. Three common characteristics of Karl's electrified regions are identified: 1) strong updrafts of 10-20ms21, 2) deep mixed-phase layers indicated by reflectivities.30 dBZ extending several kilometers above the freezing level, and 3) microphysical environments consisting of graupel, very small ice particles, and the inferred presence of supercooled water. These characteristics describe an environment favorable for in situ noninductive charging and, hence, TC electrification. The electrified regions in Karl's inner core are attributable to a microphysical environment that was conducive to electrification because of occasional, strong convective updrafts in the eyewall.

  5. [From Paul Flechsig to the Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research. Development of brain research at the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Leibnitz, L; Werner, L; Schober, W; Brauer, K

    1977-04-01

    A review is given on the development of the brain research institute of the Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig during the directorates of Paul Flechsig (1883-1920), Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1925-1957), and Wolfgang Wünscher (1957-1971). PMID:329308

  6. ISM gas studies towards the TeV PWN HESS J1825-137 and northern region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, F.; Rowell, G.; Burton, M. G.; Walsh, A.; Fukui, Y.; Aharonian, F.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1825-137 is a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) whose TeV emission extends across ˜1 . Its large asymmetric shape indicates that its progenitor supernova interacted with a molecular cloud located in the north of the PWN as detected by previous CO Galactic survey (e.g. Lemiere, Terrier & Djannati-Ataï). Here, we provide a detailed picture of the interstellar medium (ISM) towards the region north of HESS J1825-137, with the analysis of the dense molecular gas from our 7 and 12 mm Mopra survey and the more diffuse molecular gas from the Nanten CO(1-0) and GRS 13CO(1-0) surveys. Our focus is the possible association between HESS J1825-137 and the unidentified TeV source to the north, HESS J1826-130. We report several dense molecular regions whose kinematic distance matched the dispersion measured distance of the pulsar. Among them, the dense molecular gas located at (RA, Dec.) = (18h421h,-13.282°) shows enhanced turbulence and we suggest that the velocity structure in this region may be explained by a cloud-cloud collision scenario. Furthermore, the presence of a H α rim may be the first evidence of the progenitor supernova remnant (SNR) of the pulsar PSR J1826-1334 as the distance between the H α rim and the TeV source matched with the predicted SNR radius RSNR ˜ 120 pc. From our ISM study, we identify a few plausible origins of the HESS J1826-130 emission, including the progenitor SNR of PSR J1826-1334 and the PWN G018.5-0.4 powered by PSR J1826-1256. A deeper TeV study however, is required to fully identify the origin of this mysterious TeV source.

  7. EVN Observations of HESS J1943+213: Evidence for an Extreme TeV BL Lac Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Stawarz, Łukasz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Nagai, Hiroshi; Giroletti, Marcello; Honma, Mareki

    2016-06-01

    We report on the 1.6 GHz (18 cm) very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the unresolved, steady TeV source HESS J1943+213 located in the Galactic plane, performed with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in 2014. Our new observations with a nearly full EVN array provide the deepest image of HESS J1943+213 at the highest resolution ever achieved, enabling us to resolve the long-standing issues of the source identification. The milliarcsecond-scale structure of HESS J1943+213 has a clear asymmetric morphology consisting of a compact core and a diffuse jet-like tail. This is broadly consistent with the previous e-EVN observations of the source performed in 2011 and re-analyzed in this work. The core component is characterized by the brightness temperature of ≳ 1.8× {10}9 K, which is typical for low-luminosity blazars in general. Overall, the radio properties of HESS J1943+213 are consistent with the source classification as an “extreme high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object.” Remarkably, we note that because HESS J1943+213 does not reveal any optical or infrared signatures of the active galactic nucleus activity, it would never be recognized and identified as a BL Lac object if not for its location close to the Galactic plane where the High Energy Stereoscopic System surveyed for and the follow-up dedicated X-ray and radio studies triggered by the source detection in the TeV range. Our results suggest, therefore, a presence of an unrecognized, possibly very numerous population of particularly extreme HBLs and simultaneously demonstrate that the low-frequency VLBI observations with high angular resolution are indispensable for a proper identification of such objects.

  8. Multiwavelength study of the northeastern outskirts of the extended TeV source HESS J1809–193

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, Blagoy; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Volkov, Igor; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.

    2014-11-20

    HESS J1809–193 is an extended TeV γ-ray source in the Galactic plane. Multiwavelength observations of the HESS J1809–193 field reveal a complex picture. We present results from three Chandra X-Ray Observatory and two Suzaku observations of a region in the northeastern outskirts of HESS J1809-193, where enhanced TeV emission has been reported. Our analysis also includes GeV γ-ray and radio data. One of the X-ray sources in the field is the X-ray binary XTE J1810-189, for which we present the outburst history from multiple observatories and confirm that XTE J1810-189 is a strongly variable type I X-ray burster, which can hardly produce TeV emission. We investigate whether there is any connection between the possible TeV extension of HESS J1809–193 and the sources seen at lower energies. We find that another X-ray binary candidate, Suzaku J1811-1900, and a radio supernova remnant, SNR G11.4–0.1, can hardly be responsible for the putative TeV emission. Our multiwavelength classification of fainter X-ray point sources also does not produce a plausible candidate. We conclude that the northeast extension of HESS J1809–193, if confirmed by deeper observations, can be considered a dark accelerator—a TeV source without a visible counterpart at lower energies.

  9. MAGIC reveals a complex morphology within the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1857+026

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MAGIC Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2014-11-01

    Aims: HESS J1857+026 is an extended TeV gamma-ray source that was discovered by H.E.S.S. as part of its Galactic plane survey. Given its broadband spectral energy distribution and its spatial coincidence with the young energetic pulsar PSR J1856+0245, the source has been put forward as a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) candidate. MAGIC has performed follow-up observations aimed at mapping the source down to energies approaching 100 GeV in order to better understand its complex morphology. Methods: HESS J1857+026 was observed by MAGIC in 2010, yielding 29 h of good quality stereoscopic data that allowed us to map the source region in two separate ranges of energy. Results: We detected very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from HESS J1857+026 with a significance of 12σ above 150 GeV. The differential energy spectrum between 100 GeV and 13 TeV is described well by a power law function dN/dE = N0(E/1TeV)-Γ with N0 = (5.37 ± 0.44stat ± 1.5sys) × 10-12 (TeV-1 cm-2 s-1) and Γ = 2.16 ± 0.07stat ± 0.15sys, which bridges the gap between the GeV emission measured by Fermi-LAT and the multi-TeV emission measured by H.E.S.S.. In addition, we present a detailed analysis of the energy-dependent morphology of this region. We couple these results with archival multiwavelength data and outline evidence in favor of a two-source scenario, whereby one source is associated with a PWN, while the other could be linked with a molecular cloud complex containing an Hii region and a possible gas cavity.

  10. Moisture Analysis in Lotion by Karl Fischer Coulometry. An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann; Castriotta, Kristine

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes an experiment that can be used in an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. It allows the student analyst to measure the moisture content of various hand and body lotions using the coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) technique, providing a modern alternative to the traditional electrochemical experiments usually explored in introductory analytical chemistry courses. The experiment introduces students to an important technique in industry and commerce, which is highly sensitive, accurate, and precise, and which can be used to study a wide range of samples. The measurement times are short, allowing students to experience the analytical problem-solving process from start to finish in a single 3-hour laboratory period. One KF coulometer can adequately service even a large analytical chemistry class (>80 students). In spring 2000, students identified the KF experiment as the most popular, most useful, and most educational experiment in our analytical chemistry laboratory curriculum.

  11. Clever Hans and his effects: Karl Krall and the origins of experimental parapsychology in Germany.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Fabio; Marazia, Chantal

    2014-12-01

    Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, the so-called Elberfeld horses, the counting and speaking animals, were among the most debated subjects of the newborn comparative psychology. Yet, they have left little trace in the historiography of this discipline, mostly as an appendix of the more famous Clever Hans. Their story is generally told as the prelude to the triumph of reductionistic experimental psychology. By paying a more scrupulous attention than has so far being done to the second life of Hans, and to the endeavours of his second master, Karl Krall, this article explores the story of the Elberfeld horses as an important, if so far neglected, chapter in the history of experimental parapsychology. PMID:25176052

  12. "On cyclic insanity" by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum, MD: a translation and commentary.

    PubMed

    Baethge, Christopher; Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2003-01-01

    Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (1828-1899) spent most of his professional career as director of a private psychiatric sanatorium in Germany. He remains influential for introducing his "clinical method" (based on considering the course of an illness as well as the signs and symptoms) of differential diagnosis of specific psychiatric syndromes and urging abandonment of the more unitary views of psychotic disorders favored by the leading German academic theorists of his time. Kahlbaum's approach to nosology, detailed in an 1863 monograph and other works, strongly influenced Kraepelin's views. However, remarkably few of the important writings of this keen clinical observer are available in English translation. His seminal lecture-essay "On Cyclic Insanity" [Uber cyklisches Irresein] of 1882 is translated into English here for the first time, with comments about its place in the history of the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder, including its position as a link between Falret's folie circulaire and Kraepelin's manic-depressive insanity. PMID:12868508

  13. Karl Kleist and his refusal of an appointment at Leipzig in 1923.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger

    2005-09-01

    Further to the study of Newmärker and Bartsch (2003) of Karl Kleist (1879-1960), this short contribution based on archive material, cited for the first time, looks into Kleist's motives for refusing an appointment as Professor of Psychiatry and Neurology at Leipzig University. This study comes to the conclusion that Kleist thought seriously of moving to Leipzig. However, the Saxony Ministry of People's Education refused to make a definite financial commitment to the reconstruction and building work that Kleist considered essential. On the other hand, the authorities in Frankfurt am Main, where Kleist had been appointed 3 years earlier, evidently agreed to the funding he required if he was to remain there. This finally prompted him to turn down the Leipzig offer. PMID:16193628

  14. Karl ernst von Baer's 'Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere II' and its unpublished drawings.

    PubMed

    Tammiksaar, Erki; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    In 1828 Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) published his seminal Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. Beobachtung und Reflexion. In the preface he announced that a second volume with one copper plate would be finished 'in a few weeks'. However, it took nine years until the unfinished second volume was released, with four copperplates. In his 'Autobiography', von Baer did not clarify the reasons why he did not finish his research program of comparative embryology. The paper attempts to elucidate them, furnished by archival documents and von Baer's unpublished embryological drawings. Our sketch of a few figures will show that (1) von Baer searched for 'analogies' (homologies) as a unifying principle and (2) explained the mechanisms of embryogenesis by physiological reasoning (electromagnetism). The main objective is to show that technical problems in illustrating and conceptual difficulties impeded von Baer's ambitious research program. PMID:16302690

  15. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    PubMed Central

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  16. Vital forces and organization: philosophy of nature and biology in Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer.

    PubMed

    Gambarotto, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The historical literature on German life science at the end of the 18th century has tried to rehabilitate eighteenth century vitalism by stressing its difference from Naturphilosophie. Focusing on the work of Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer this paper argues that these positions are based on a historiographical bias and that the clear-cut boundary between German vitalism and Naturphilosophie is historically unattested. On the contrary, they both belong to the process of conceptual genealogy that contributed to the project of a general biology. The latter emerged as the science concerned with the laws that regulate the organization of living nature as a whole. The focus on organization was, at least partially, the result of the debate surrounding the notion of "vital force", which originated in the mid-eighteenth century and caused a shift from a regulative to a constitutive understanding of teleology. PMID:25168014

  17. Analysing neutron star in HESS J1731-347 from thermal emission and cooling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofengeim, D. D.; Kaminker, A. D.; Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The central compact object in the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347 appears to be the hottest observed isolated cooling neutron star. The cooling theory of neutron stars enables one to explain observations of this star by assuming the presence of strong proton superfluidity in the stellar core and the existence of the surface heat blanketing envelope which almost fully consists of carbon. The cooling model of this star is elaborated to take proper account of the neutrino emission due to neutron-neutron collisions which is not suppressed by proton superfluidity. Using the results of spectral fits of observed thermal spectra for the distance of 3.2 kpc and the cooling theory for the neutron star of age 27 kyr, new constraints on the stellar mass and radius are obtained which are more stringent than those derived from the spectral fits alone.

  18. MULTI-ZONE MODELING OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA HESS J1825-137

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.

    2011-12-01

    The pulsar wind nebula associated with PSR J1826-1334, HESS J1825-137, is a bright very high energy (VHE) source with an angular extent of {approx}1 Degree-Sign and spatially resolved spectroscopic TeV measurements. The gamma-ray spectral index is observed to soften with increasing distance from the pulsar, likely the result of cooling losses as electrons traverse the nebula. We describe analysis of X-ray data of the extended nebula, as well as three-dimensional time-dependent spectral energy distribution modeling, with emphasis on the spatial variations within HESS J1825-137. The multi-wavelength data place significant constraints on electron injection, transport, and cooling within the nebula. The large size and high nebular energy budget imply a relatively rapid initial pulsar spin period of 13 {+-} 7 ms and an age of 40 {+-} 9 kyr. The relative fluxes of each VHE zone can be explained by advective particle transport with a radially decreasing velocity profile with v(r){proportional_to}r{sup -0.5}. The evolution of the cooling break requires an evolving magnetic field which also decreases radially from the pulsar, B(r,t){proportional_to}r{sup -0.7} E-dot (t){sup 1/2}. Detection of 10 TeV flux {approx}80 pc from the pulsar requires rapid diffusion of high-energy particles, contrary to the common assumption of toroidal magnetic fields with strong magnetic confinement. The model predicts a rather uniform Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) surface brightness out to {approx}1 Degree-Sign from the pulsar, in good agreement with the recently discovered LAT source centered 0.{sup 0}5 southwest of PSR J1826-1334 with extension 0.{sup 0}6 {+-} 0.{sup 0}1.

  19. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE TeV SOURCE HESS J1834-087

    SciTech Connect

    Misanovic, Zdenka; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G. E-mail: oyk100@astro.ufl.edu

    2011-07-01

    Chandra ACIS observed the field of the extended TeV source HESS J1834-087 for 47 ks. A previous XMM-Newton EPIC observation of the same field revealed a point-like source (XMMU J183435.3-084443) and an offset region of faint extended emission. In the low-resolution, binned EPIC images the two appear to be connected. However, the high-resolution Chandra ACIS images do not support the alleged connection. In these images, XMMU J183435.3-084443 is resolved into a point source, CXOU J183434.9-084443 (L{sub 0.5-8keV} {approx_equal} 2.3 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}, for a distance of 4 kpc; photon index {Gamma} {approx_equal} 1.1), and a compact ({approx}< 20'') nebula with an isotropic morphology and a softer spectrum (L{sub 0.5-8keV} {approx_equal} 4.1 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}, {Gamma} {approx_equal} 2.7). The nature of the nebula is uncertain. We discuss a dust scattering halo and a pulsar-wind nebula as possible interpretations. Based on our analysis of the X-ray data, we re-evaluate the previously suggested interpretations of HESS J1834-087 and discuss a possible connection to the Fermi Large Area Telescope source 1FGL J1834.3-0842c. We also obtained an upper limit of 3 x 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} on the unabsorbed flux of the SGR J1833-0832 (in quiescence), which happened to be in the ACIS field of view.

  20. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui-zhi; Zhang, Xiao; Yuan, Qiang; Liu, Siming

    2014-07-01

    Context. HESS J1731-347 has been identified as one of the few TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs). These remnants are dominated by nonthermal emission, and the nature of TeV emission has been continuously debated for nearly a decade. Aims: We carry out the detailed modeling of the radio to γ-ray spectrum of HESS J1731-347 to constrain the magnetic field and energetic particles sources, which we compare with those of the other TeV-bright shell-type SNRs explored before. Methods: Four years of data from Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations for regions around this remnant are analyzed, leading to no detection correlated with the source discovered in the TeV band. The Markov chain Monte Carlo method is used to constrain parameters of one-zone models for the overall emission spectrum. Results: Based on the 99.9% upper limits of fluxes in the GeV range, one-zone hadronic models with an energetic proton spectral slope greater than 1.8 can be ruled out, which favors a leptonic origin for the γ-ray emission, making this remnant a sibling of the brightest TeV SNR RX J1713.7-3946, the Vela Junior SNR RX J0852.0-4622, and RCW 86. The best-fit leptonic model has an electron spectral slope of 1.8 and a magnetic field of ~30 μG, which is at least a factor of 2 higher than those of RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622, posing a challenge to the distance estimate and/or the energy equipartition between energetic electrons and the magnetic field of this source. A measurement of the shock speed will address this challenge and has implications on the magnetic field evolution and electron acceleration driven by shocks of SNRs.

  1. Multi-Zone Modeling of the Pulsar Win Nebula HESS J1825-137

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-08

    The pulsar wind nebula associated with PSR J1826-1334, HESS J1825-137, is a bright very high energy source with an angular extent of {approx} 1{sup o} and spatially-resolved spectroscopic TeV measurements. The gamma-ray spectral index is observed to soften with increasing distance from the pulsar, likely the result of cooling losses as electrons traverse the nebula. We describe analysis of X-ray data of the extended nebula, as well as 3-D time-dependent spectral energy distribution modeling, with emphasis on the spatial variations within HESS J1825-137. The multi-wavelength data places significant constraints on electron injection, transport, and cooling within the nebula. The large size and high nebular energy budget imply a relatively rapid initial pulsar spin period of 13 {+-} 7 ms and an age of 40 {+-} 9 kyr. The relative fluxes of each VHE zone can be explained by advective particle transport with a radially decreasing velocity profile with v(r) {proportional_to} r{sup -0.5}. The evolution of the cooling break requires an evolving magnetic field which also decreases radially from the pulsar, B(r, t) {proportional_to} r{sup -0.7} E(t){sup 1/2}. Detection of 10 TeV flux {approx} 80 pc from the pulsar requires rapid diffusion of high energy particles with {tau}{sub esc} {approx} 90 (R/10 pc){sup 2}(E{sub e}/100TeV){sup -1} year, contrary to the common assumption of toroidal magnetic fields with strong magnetic confinement. The model predicts a rather uniform Fermi LAT surface brightness out to {approx} 1{sup o} from the pulsar, in good agreement with the recently discovered LAT source centered 0.5{sup o} southwest of PSR J1826-1334 with extension 0.6 {+-} 0.1{sup o}.

  2. Decoupling of Serpentinization and Prehnitization in Lower East Pacific Rise Crust at Hess Dee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deasy, R. T.; Wintsch, R. P.; Meyer, R.; Bish, D. L.; Gasaway, C.; Heimdal, T.

    2014-12-01

    Our down-hole mineralogical and geochemical analyses from the East Pacific Rise fast-spreading lower oceanic crust indicate that alteration of olivine to serpentine and of plagioclase to prehnite were independent, and neither alone monitors the total "alteration." The results are based on representative channel sub-samples recovered from every Hole J core during IODP Expedition 345 to the Hess Deep tectonic window. Samples have been analyzed for trace element, Sr isotopic, and quantitative mineralogical compositions (the latter by Rietveld refinement using X-ray diffraction data). Hole J is the most representative rock succession drilled at the Hess Deep as it penetrated the two principle plutonic lithologies: an upper gabbro and a lower troctolite. Units are significantly distinguished by XRD modal mineralogy and trace element abundances. The more heterogeneous gabbro contains 23-32 wt% clinopyroxene (cpx), 34-54 wt% plagioclase (plag), and <4 wt% olivine (ol). The troctolite contains 3-11% cpx, 14-36% plag, and ≤6% ol. Alteration minerals comprise together 18-31% in the gabbro versus 55-80% of the troctolite. The most abundant alteration products are prehnite and chlorite. Gabbro samples with lowest abundances of alteration minerals (18-20 wt%) preserve 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70275-0.7028) consistent with unaltered mantle. The abundance of plag in the gabbro, the major host for Sr, suggests retention of mantle Sr isotopic compositions there is due to the large reservoir of magmatic Sr. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70300-0.70342 in the troctolite samples indicate seawater interaction, even where olivine is most abundant, and serpentine is at or below the ~1% detection limit by XRD. Significant alteration of the deep crust by seawater thus predates the first appearance of serpentine. These data suggest that the timing and operation of prehnite- and serpentine-producing alteration reactions are independent.

  3. A tectonic window into the crystalline basement of Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faehnrich, Karol; Manecki, Maciej; Schneider, David; Czerny, Jerzy; Myhre, Per Inge; Majka, Jarosław; Kośmińska, Karolina; Barnes, Chris; Maraszewska, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard, comprises a fold-thrust belt as a result of the Eocene Eurekan orogeny. The northern part of the island (north of Selvågen) is dominated by Neoproterozoic siliciclastic metasediments regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies conditions, probably in association with one distinct stage of Caledonian tectonism. Contrasting with these low grade sequences are rocks of the Pinkie Unit, which are locally exposed along east coast of Prins Karls Forland. Amphibolite facies metasediments show evidence for at least two distinct deformation stages (including mylonitization). All the borders of the Pinkie unit are tectonic: to the east, it is a sharp boundary with the truncation of the Pinkie foliation into a N-S fault, parallel to the coast, probably associated with the formation of the Neogene Forlandsundet Graben. A ~1 km wide ductile to brittle shear zone (the Bouréefjellet shear zone) separates the low and high grade sequences along the western margin, with the Grampian Formation (low metamorphic grade quartzites, conglomerates, siltstones and slates) as the upper structural unit. Moreover, the shear zone contains outcrops of metagabbro associated with magnetite ore (Maraszewska et al. 2016, EGU). The apparent tectonostratigraphy of the Pinkie unit consists of laminated fine-grained calc-silicate rocks, locally with scapolite, and a strong E-W lineation at lower structural levels. In these rocks primary layering is apparent (S0) and parallel to metamorphic foliation plane (S1). Interconnected elongated mica crystals within S1 are deformed by C'-type shear zones. They are overlain by garnet-bearing quartzite-mylonites and garnet-bearing mylonitic mica schists with N-S to NW-SE lineations at upper structural levels. Kośmińska et al. (2015a, Mineralogia - Special Papers, vol. 44, 61-62) determined P-T metamorphic conditions of garnet-mica schist of 7-9 kbar and 550-650°C. The dominant population of metamorphic monazite present in

  4. Theodor Billroth's vision and Karl Ziegler's action: commemoration of the 40th day of death and the 50th anniversary of conferment of Nobel Prize for Chemistry of Karl Ziegler.

    PubMed

    Kapischke, Matthias; Pries, Alexandra

    2014-02-01

    Alloplastic materials are broadly used in modern surgery. Until the middle of the 20th century, metal materials and especially silver were used because of their antimicrobial properties. With the development of a new catalytic process for the production of high-density polyethylene and polypropylene materials, a new era of prosthesis was introduced. These polymers are integral part of our everyday operations surgery, especially in hernia repair. The famous surgeon Billroth mentioned to his pupil Czerny in 1878: "If we could artificially produce tissues of the density and toughness of fascia and tendon, the secret of the radical cure of hernia would be discovered". The polypropylene developed by Karl Ziegler gave the surgeon a material for daily practice, which in its properties (nearly) achieved Billroth's initial vision. In 1963 the Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta in Stockholm. Furthermore, August 11, 2013 will be the 40th anniversary of Karl Ziegler's death. This manuscript honors both days. PMID:24387785

  5. Search for gamma rays from dark matter annihilations around intermediate mass black holes with the HESS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Sahakian, V.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Brion, E.; Brun, P.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Goret, P.; Moulin, E.; Vivier, M.; Beilicke, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Horns, D.

    2008-10-01

    The HESS array of Cherenkov telescopes has performed, from 2004 to 2007, a survey of the inner galactic plane at photon energies above 100 GeV. About 400 hours of data have been accumulated in the region between -30 and +60 degrees in galactic longitude, and between -3 and +3 degrees in galactic latitude. Assuming that dark matter is composed of weakly interacting massive particles, we calculate here the HESS sensitivity map for dark matter annihilations, and derive the first experimental constraints on the ('minispikes') scenario, in which a gamma-ray signal arises from dark matter annihilation around intermediate mass black holes. The data exclude the proposed scenario at a 90% confidence level for dark matter particles with velocity-weighted annihilation cross section {sigma}v above 10{sup -28} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} and mass between 800 GeV and 10 TeV.

  6. HESS-II reconstruction strategy and performance in the low-energy (20-150 GeV) domain

    SciTech Connect

    Becherini, Y.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Punch, M.; Bernloehr, K.; Ehlert, S.; Masbou, J.; Moulin, E.

    2008-12-24

    In mid-2009 a notable upgrade of the H.E.S.S. telescope system will take place: a new telescope with a 600 m{sup 2} mirror area and very-high-resolution camera (0.07 deg.) will be positioned at the centre of the present configuration, with the aim of lowering the threshold and enhance its sensitivity in the 100 GeV to several TeV energy range. HESS-II will permit the investigation of the lower energy {gamma}-ray spectra in various cosmic accelerators, giving information on the origin of the {gamma}-rays observed, and will detect AGNs with a redshift greater than 0.2 (being less affected by absorption by Extragalactic Background Light--EBL--in this energy range) and will search for new classes of very high energy {gamma}-ray emitters (pulsars, microquasars, GRB, and dark matter candidates)

  7. Dark matter searches with H.E.S.S.: nearby dwarf galaxies and IMBH mini-spikes

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, E.; Vivier, M.; Brun, P.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Peyaud, B.

    2008-12-24

    WIMP pair annihilations produce high energy gamma-rays in the final state, which can be detected by Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes such as the H.E.S.S. array. We focus in this contribution on searches towards dwarf galaxies and mini-spikes around intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in the Galactic halo. H.E.S.S. observations towards the nearby dwarf galaxies Sagittarius and Canis Major are presented. Using realistic modellings for the dark matter (DM) density profiles, constraints on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section {sigma}v of DM particles are derived in the framework of Supersymmetric and Kaluza-Klein models. A search for DM mini-spikes around IMBHs is described as well as constraints on the particle physics parameters.

  8. [Anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism--hypotheses and thoughts].

    PubMed

    Talarczyk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The point of the article is to analyse and reflect on certain symptoms of anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism. Contemplating the disorder in view of the philosophical ideas mentioned earlier, the author analyses such aspects of patients as: functioning on the verge of life and death, the paradoxical struggle to escape from freedom in search of independence, as well as various understandings and descriptions of anorexia in consideration of social constructivism. The author shares thoughts and poses hypotheses, trying to view anorexia in light of selected philosophical and psychological ideas, which in their general assumptions were not concerned with defining nor analysing anorexia nervosa. In view of Karl Jaspers' ideas, the author focuses on the so called 'limit-situations', in the ideas of Erich Fromm she takes notice in "Escape from Freedom" to new relations. Finally in the light of social constructivism the author focuses on the cultural context. PMID:23045896

  9. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for In Situ Geochronology using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment( KArLE), is composed of two main instruments: a spectrometer as part of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method and a Mass Spectrometer (MS). The LIBS laser ablates a sample and creates a plasma cloud, generating a pit in the sample. The LIBS plasma is measured for K abundance in weight percent and the released gas is measured using the MS, which calculates Ar abundance in mols. To relate the K and Ar measurements, total mass of the ablated sample is needed but can be difficult to directly measure. Instead, density and volume are used to calculate mass, where density is calculated based on the elemental composition of the rock (from the emission spectrum) and volume is determined by pit morphology. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty for KArLE by analyzing pit volume relationships in several analog materials and comparing methods of pit volume measurements and their associated uncertainties.

  10. Planned Observation Schedule on PSR 1259-63 by the H.E.S.S. experiment in March, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilicke, M.; Ouchrif, M.; Rowell, G.; Schlenker, S.

    2004-03-01

    Further to our preceding telegram (ATEL #249) on the discovery of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the binary millisecond pulsar PSR 1259-63 by the H.E.S.S. experiment above a threshold of about 200 GeV, we present here our planned programme for observations for March, 2004, in order to facilitate simultaneous observations. Periastron passage of the pulsar was expected on Mar. 7.43 UT, and the pulsar is now leaving periastron.

  11. Evaluating Effectiveness of Modeling Motion System Feedback in the Enhanced Hess Structural Model of the Human Operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaychik, Kirill; Cardullo, Frank; George, Gary; Kelly, Lon C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to use the Hess Structural Model to predict the need for certain cueing systems, George and Cardullo significantly expanded it by adding motion feedback to the model and incorporating models of the motion system dynamics, motion cueing algorithm and a vestibular system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate effectiveness of these innovations by performing a comparison analysis of the model performance with and without the expanded motion feedback. The proposed methodology is composed of two stages. The first stage involves fine-tuning parameters of the original Hess structural model in order to match the actual control behavior recorded during the experiments at NASA Visual Motion Simulator (VMS) facility. The parameter tuning procedure utilizes a new automated parameter identification technique, which was developed at the Man-Machine Systems Lab at SUNY Binghamton. In the second stage of the proposed methodology, an expanded motion feedback is added to the structural model. The resulting performance of the model is then compared to that of the original one. As proposed by Hess, metrics to evaluate the performance of the models include comparison against the crossover models standards imposed on the crossover frequency and phase margin of the overall man-machine system. Preliminary results indicate the advantage of having the model of the motion system and motion cueing incorporated into the model of the human operator. It is also demonstrated that the crossover frequency and the phase margin of the expanded model are well within the limits imposed by the crossover model.

  12. HESS J1023-575: Non-Thermal Particle Acceleration Associated With the Young Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, O.; Hinton, J.; Hofmann, W.; Hoppe, S.; Masterson, C.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.

    2007-11-14

    The results from H.E.S.S. observations towards Westerlund 2 are presented. The detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission towards the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2 in the HII complex RCW49 by H.E.S.S. provides ample evidence that particle acceleration to extreme energies is associated with this region. A variety of possible emission scenarios is mentioned, ranging from high-energy gamma-ray production in the colliding wind zone of the massive Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a, collective wind scenarios, diffusive shock acceleration at the boundaries of wind-blown bubbles in the stellar cluster, and outbreak phenomena from hot stellar winds into the interstellar medium. These scenarios are briefly compared to the characteristics of the associated new VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1023-575, and conclusions on the validity of the respective emission scenarios for high-energy gamma-ray production in the Westerlund 2 system are drawn.

  13. A Multi-Wavelength Investigation of the Unidentified Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1708-410

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Funk, Stefan; Hinton, Jim; /Leeds U.

    2009-12-16

    We report on recent XMM-Newton observations, archival radio continuum and CO data, and SED modeling of the unidentified Galactic plane source HESS J1708-410. No significant extended X-ray emission is observed, and we place an upper limit of 3.2 x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the 2-4 keV range for the region of TeV emission. Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey data is used to place an upper limit of 0.27 Jy at 843 MHz for the source, with a 2.4 GHz limit of 0.4 Jy from the Parkes survey of the southern Galactic plane. {sup 12}CO (J 1 {yields} 0) data of this region indicates a plausible distance of 3 kpc for HESS J1708-410. SED modeling of both the H.E.S.S. detection and flux upper limits offer useful constraints on the emission mechanisms, magnetic field, injection spectrum, and ambient medium surrounding this source.

  14. Deep H.E.S.S. Observations of the Supernova Remnant RX J0852.0-4622

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukri, Komin; Schwanke, Ullrich; Arribas, Manuel Paz; Sushch, Iurii

    2016-07-01

    Shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) are the prime candidates for being the accelerators of the Galactic Cosmic Rays. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of their non-thermal emission from radio up to TeV gamma-rays. The SNR RX J0852.0-4622 (also called Vela Junior) is one of the few supernova remnants where the shell is resolved in TeV gamma rays. It has been extensively observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). This new data set allows for an unprecedented look at this supernova remnant. The energy spectrum obtained with H.E.S.S. is combined with the results at GeV energies obtained with the Fermi/LAT. This combined spectrum allows the investigation of the underlying particle population with gamma-ray data alone. The significant detection of a cut-off in the energy spectrum can be used to estimate the maximum energy of the particles accelerated in the SNR. The large angular extent of the SNR together with the good angular resolution of H.E.S.S. allows spatially resolved spectroscopy studies. These results will be presented at the conference. Even though no conclusion on a leptonic or hadronic origin of the emission can be drawn these new data allow a better understanding of particle acceleration in SNRs.

  15. Discovery of new X-ray sources near the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1841-055

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, K. K.; Nobukawa, M.; Tsuru, T. G.; Koyama, K.

    2015-06-01

    HESS J1841-055 is a diffuse unidentified gamma-ray source with the size of ∼1°.3 × 1°. No conclusive counterpart in other wavelengths has so far detected. To search for X-rays responsible for the TeV emission, the Suzaku observations were conducted, which covered a half region of the HESS source. In the soft band (0.5-2.0 keV), we discovered a diffuse emission, Suzaku J1840.2-0552, with the size of ∼10‧ . Since its spectrum was fitted by an optically thin thermal plasma model, Suzaku J1840.2-0552 is likely to be a supernova remnant. We also discovered an extended source, Suzaku J1840.2-0544, in the hard band (2.0-8.0 keV) with an emission line at 6.1 keV. From the spectral feature and large interstellar absorption, this source is likely to be a cluster of galaxies behind the Galactic plane at the red-shift of ∼0.09. The other diffuse source spatially overlaps with the SNR candidate G26.6-0.2, which shows a non-thermal dominant spectrum. Since no other candidate is found in the hard X-ray band, we infer that these largely extended sources could be possible counterparts of HESS J1841-055.

  16. A NEW TeV BINARY: THE DISCOVERY OF AN ORBITAL PERIOD IN HESS J0632+057

    SciTech Connect

    Bongiorno, S. D.; Falcone, A. D.; Stroh, M.; Holder, J.; Skilton, J. L.; Hinton, J. A.; Gehrels, N.; Grube, J. E-mail: afalcone@astro.psu.edu

    2011-08-10

    HESS J0632+057 is a variable, point-like source of very high energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays located in the Galactic plane. It is positionally coincident with a Be star, it is a variable radio and X-ray source, has a hard X-ray spectrum, and has low radio flux. These properties suggest that the object may be a member of the rare class of TeV/X-ray binary systems. The definitive confirmation of this would be the detection of a periodic orbital modulation of the flux at any wavelength. We have obtained Swift X-Ray Telescope observations of the source from MJD 54857 to 55647 (2009 January-2011 March) to test the hypothesis that HESS J0632+057 is an X-ray/TeV binary. We show that these data exhibit flux modulation with a period of 321 {+-} 5 days and we evaluate the significance of this period by calculating the null hypothesis probability, allowing for stochastic flaring. This periodicity establishes the binary nature of HESS J0632+057.

  17. Flux upper limits for 47 AGN observed with H.E.S.S. in 2004-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    Context. About 40% of the observation time of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is dedicated to studying active galactic nuclei (AGN), with the aim of increasing the sample of known extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) sources and constraining the physical processes at play in potential emitters. Aims: H.E.S.S. observations of AGN, spanning a period from April 2004 to December 2011, are investigated to constrain their γ-ray fluxes. Only the 47 sources without significant excess detected at the position of the targets are presented. Methods: Upper limits on VHE fluxes of the targets were computed and a search for variability was performed on the nightly time scale. Results: For 41 objects, the flux upper limits we derived are the most constraining reported to date. These constraints at VHE are compared with the flux level expected from extrapolations of Fermi-LAT measurements in the two-year catalog of AGN. The H.E.S.S. upper limits are at least a factor of two lower than the extrapolated Fermi-LAT fluxes for 11 objects. Taking into account the attenuation by the extragalactic background light reduces the tension for all but two of them, suggesting intrinsic curvature in the high-energy spectra of these two AGN. Conclusions: Compilation efforts led by current VHE instruments are of critical importance for target-selection strategies before the advent of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

  18. H.E.S.S. observations of the Crab during its March 2013 GeV gamma-ray flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. On March 4, 2013 the Fermi-LAT and AGILE reported a flare from the direction of the Crab nebula in which the high-energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) flux was six times above its quiescent level. Simultaneous observations in other energy bands give us hints about the emission processes during the flare episode and the physics of pulsar wind nebulae in general. Aims: We search for variability in the emission of the Crab nebula at very-high energies (VHE; E > 100 GeV), using contemporaneous data taken with the H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes. Methods: Observational data taken with the H.E.S.S. instrument on five consecutive days during the flare were analysed for the flux and spectral shape of the emission from the Crab nebula. Night-wise light curves are presented with energy thresholds of 1 TeV and 5 TeV. Results: The observations conducted with H.E.S.S. on March 6 to March 10, 2013 show no significant changes in the flux. They limit the variation in the integral flux above 1 TeV to less than 63% and the integral flux above 5 TeV to less than 78% at a 95% confidence level.

  19. Seeking the constant in what is transient: Karl Ernst von Baer's vision of organic formation.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2015-03-01

    A well-established narrative in the history of science has it that the years around 1800 saw the end of a purely descriptive, classificatory and static natural history. The emergence of a temporal understanding of nature and the new developmental-history approach, it is thought, permitted the formation of modern biology. This paper questions that historical narrative by closely analysing the concepts of development, history and time set out in Karl Ernst von Baer's study of the mammalian egg (1827). I show that Baer's research on embryogenesis aimed not simply to explain temporal changes, but to inscribe the formation of new individual organisms into a continuous, unending organic process. I confront Baer's views with other explanations of embryogenesis arising in the 1820s and 1830s, especially those of Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Jean-Louis Prévost and of Theodor Schwann. By highlighting divergences between these scientists, especially as to their view of the role of gender differences in reproduction, I argue that biology evolved not from a homogeneous concept of developmental history but out of various, even opposing, views and research programmes. Thus, the birth of biology did not imply the end of all natural history's thought models. PMID:26013434

  20. Electrochemical determination of water in environmental hydraulic fluids using the karl Fischer reaction.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A; Lundström, M

    1997-10-01

    Different procedures based on the Karl Fischer reaction were investigated with respect to their applicability for water determinations in environmental hydraulic fluids:  (i) continuous coulometry using a recently described diaphragm-free cell; (ii) on-line stripping of water at elevated temperature using either continuous coulometry or direct potentiometry for detection of the liberated water. Except for one of the oils, Statoil PA, which is a poly(α-olefin) with certain polymers added, no significant difference was found among coulometry using an optimized imidazole-buffered methanolic reagent containing 75% (v/v) chloroform, the two different stripping techniques (working in the temperature interval 100-110 °C), and the commercially available Hydranal Coulomat AG-H. The high stability and sensitivity of the coulometric technique described made it possible to work with sample amounts in the low milligram-range, and this is shown to increase the reliability of the coulometric method as compared to normally used procedures. PMID:21639214

  1. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

    PubMed

    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy. PMID:19819080

  2. Water determination in iron oxyhydroxides and iron ores by Karl Fischer titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, Camila C. R. F.; da Costa, Geraldo M.

    2016-08-01

    Protohematite (Fe2-x/3(OH) x O3-x 1 ≤ x < 0.5) and hydrohematite (Fe2-x/3(OH) x O3-x 0.5 ≤ x < 0) are iron-defective phases containing hydroxyl groups in their structures. These species were described in prior studies mainly with the aid of X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy. The existence of these phases in soils might have influence in redox processes, and they were considered as a possible water reservoir in Martian soils. In this study, we have used for the first time the Karl Fischer titration method to determine the amount of water released after heating several synthetic samples of goethite, hematite and natural iron ores at 105, 400, 600 and 900 °C. It was found that heating at 105 °C did not remove all moisture from the samples, and higher temperatures were necessary to completely remove all the absorbed water. The water contents determined at 400, 600 and 900 °C were found to be the same within the experimental errors, suggesting the inexistence of both protohematite and hydrohematite in the investigated samples. Therefore, the above-mentioned effects of these phases in soils might have to be reevaluated.

  3. Karl Pearson's mathematization of inheritance: from ancestral heredity to Mendelian genetics (1895-1909).

    PubMed

    Magnello, M E

    1998-01-01

    Long-standing claims have been made for nearly the entire twentieth century that the biometrician, Karl Pearson, and colleague, W. F. R. Weldon, rejected Mendelism as a theory of inheritance. It is shown that at the end of the nineteenth century Pearson considered various theories of inheritance (including Francis Galton's law of ancestral heredity for characters underpinned by continuous variation), and by 1904 he 'accepted the fundamental idea of Mendel' as a theory of inheritance for discontinuous variation. Moreover, in 1909, he suggested a synthesis of biometry and Mendelism. Despite the many attempts made by a number of geneticists (including R. A. Fisher in 1936) to use Pearson's chi-square (X2, P) goodness-of-fit test on Mendel's data, which produced results that were 'too good to be true', Weldon reached the same conclusion in 1902, but his results were never acknowledged. The geneticist and arch-rival of the biometricians, Williams Bateson, was instead exceptionally critical of this work and interpreted this as Weldon's rejection of Mendelism. Whilst scholarship on Mendel, by historians of science in the last 18 years, has led to a balanced perspective of Mendel, it is suggested that a better balanced and more rounded view of the hereditarian-statistical work of Pearson, Weldon, and the biometricians is long overdue. PMID:11619806

  4. "Describing our whole experience": the statistical philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.

    PubMed

    Pence, Charles H

    2011-12-01

    There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton's footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a reading of several sources in which Weldon, independently of Pearson, reflects on his own motivations. First, while Pearson does approach statistics from this "Galtonian" perspective, he is, consistent with his positivist philosophy of science, utilizing statistics to simplify the highly variable data of biology. Weldon, on the other hand, is brought to statistics by a rich empiricism and a desire to preserve the diversity of biological data. Secondly, we have here a counterexample to the claim that divergence in motivation will lead to a corresponding separation in methodology. Pearson and Weldon, despite embracing biometry for different reasons, settled on precisely the same set of statistical tools for the investigation of evolution. PMID:22035721

  5. [A psychiatrist under the Nazi dictatorship--Karl Bonhoeffer's commitment to racially and politically persecuted colleagues].

    PubMed

    Gerrens, U

    2001-07-01

    Karl Bonhoeffer (1868-1948), professor of psychiatry at Breslau University and head of the psychiatric department of the Charité-hospital in Berlin, represented a view of personnel politics based solely on scientific and as personal competence. Anti-Semitism, often attributed to the faculty in Berlin during the Wilhelminian period and the Republic of Weimar, B. regarded as an utterly unsuitable criterion of personnel politics. Consequently, he had a considerable number of Jewish assistants as staff, about 30 altogether. In 1933, when massive persecution set in, quite a few of his students and assistants were persecuted for their political views. Some emigrated right away; others Bonhoeffer re-employed in spite of their membership in illegal leftist parties. Even larger was the number of assistants who were racially persecuted. Bonhoeffer took advantage of loop holes in the anti-Semitic legalities, using complaints at the ministry or cleverly written applications to extend contracts even against high odds. In spite of his support, however, they eventually were fired and had to emigrate. They often found work in other countries because of his recommendations, though. For at least one assistant and one patient as well as their families, Bonhoeffer's commitment saved their lives. PMID:11488248

  6. The missing GeV γ-ray binary: searching for HESS J0632+057 with Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliandro, G. A.; Hill, A. B.; Torres, D. F.; Hadasch, D.; Ray, P.; Abdo, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Ridolfi, A.; Possenti, A.; Burgay, M.; Rea, N.; Tam, P. H. T.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Glanzman, T.; Jogler, T.

    2013-11-01

    The very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) source HESS J0632+057 has been recently confirmed as a γ-ray binary, a subclass of the high-mass X-ray binary population, through the detection of an orbital period of 321 d. We performed a deep search for the emission of HESS J0632+057 in the GeV energy range using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The analysis was challenging due to the source being located in close proximity to the bright γ-ray pulsar PSR J0633+0632 and lying in a crowded region of the Galactic plane where there is prominent diffuse emission. We formulated a Bayesian block algorithm adapted to work with weighted photon counts, in order to define the off-pulse phases of PSR J0633+0632. A detailed spectral-spatial model of a 5° circular region centred on the known location of HESS J0632+057 was generated to accurately model the LAT data. No significant emission from the location of HESS J0632+057 was detected in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range integrating over ˜3.5 yr of data, with a 95 per cent flux upper limit of F0.1-100 GeV < 3 × 10- 8 ph cm-2 s-1. A search for emission over different phases of the orbit also yielded no significant detection. A search for source emission on shorter time-scales (days-months) did not yield any significant detections. We also report the results of a search for radio pulsations using the 100-m Green Bank Telescope. No periodic signals or individual dispersed bursts of a likely astronomical origin were detected. We estimated the flux density limit of < 90/40 μJy at 2/9 GHz. The LAT flux upper limits combined with the detection of HESS J0632+057 in the 136-400 TeV energy band by the MAGIC collaboration imply that the VHE spectrum must turn over at energies <136 GeV placing constraints on any theoretical models invoked to explain the γ-ray emission.

  7. Constraining parameters of the neutron star in the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Puehlhofer, G.; Werner, K.; Santangelo, A.

    2014-07-01

    The Central Compact Object (CCO) in HESS J1731-347, presumably a neutron star, is one of the brightest sources in this class. Like other CCOs, it potentially provides an "undisturbed" view of thermal radiation generated at the neutron star surface. The shape and normalization of the corresponding X-ray spectrum depends on the emitting area, surface redshift, and gravity acceleration. Thus, its modeling under certain assumptions allows the mass and radius of the neutron star to be constrained. In our analysis, we model the spectrum of the CCO accumulated with XMM-Newton over ˜100 ksec exposure time in three observations. The exposure time has increased by a factor of five since our previous analysis of the source. For the spectral fitting, we use our hydrogen and carbon atmosphere models calculated assuming hydrostatic and radiative equilibria and taking into account pressure ionization and the presence of spectral lines (in case of carbon). We present the resulting constraints on the mass, radius, distance, and temperature of the neutron star.

  8. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE NON-THERMAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT HESS J1731-347

    SciTech Connect

    Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo; Puehlhofer, Gerd; Klochkov, Dmitry; Acero, Fabio; Li Zhiyuan; Horns, Dieter; Kosack, Karl

    2012-09-10

    A detailed analysis of the non-thermal X-ray emission from the northwestern and southern parts of the supernova remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 with Suzaku is presented. The shell portions covered by the observations emit hard and lineless X-rays. The spectrum can be reproduced by a simple absorbed power-law model with a photon index {Gamma} of 1.8-2.7 and an absorption column density N{sub H} of (1.0-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. These quantities change significantly from region to region; the northwestern part of the SNR has the hardest and most absorbed spectrum. The western part of the X-ray shell has a smaller curvature than the northwestern and southern shell segments. A comparison of the X-ray morphology to the very high energy gamma-ray and radio images was performed. The efficiency of the electron acceleration and the emission mechanism in each portion of the shell are discussed. Thermal X-ray emission from the SNR was searched for but could not be detected at a significant level.

  9. Biological availability and environmental behaviour of Rare Earth Elements in soils of Hesse, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loell, M.; Duering, R.-A.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a group of 17 transition metals with very similar chemical and physical properties. They include the elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) and the 14 elements (cerium to lutetium) that follow La in the periodic table. Their average abundance in the earth's crust varies from 0,01 to 0,02% so they are as common as Cu and Pb. Beside their widespread use in industry, REEs are applied in Chinese agriculture. Their beneficial effects both on crop yield and on animal production are reported in various investigations. As a result - by using microelement fertilisers and manure - REEs enter the pedosphere while their fate and behaviour in the environment up to now remains unexamined. The first aim of our investigation was to evaluate the concentration of REEs in agricultural used soils in central Germany (Hesse) by ICP-MS. In addition to their total concentration (aqua regia digestion) their bioavailable contents - determined by EDTA (potentially available fraction) and ammonium nitrate extraction (mobile fraction) - were analysed. The occurrence of the three REE fractions in different soils will be discussed and influencing soil properties (e.g. pH-value, content of clay and organic carbon) will be revealed. Additionally the uptake of REEs by grassland plants was determined and resulting transfer factors will be presented.

  10. Suzaku observations of the old pulsar wind nebula candidate HESS J1356-645

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Masaharu; Dotani, Tadayasu; Fujinaga, Takahisa; Bamba, Aya; Ozaki, Masanobu; Hiraga, Junko S.

    2015-06-01

    A largely extended X-ray emission was discovered around the pulsar PSR J1357-6429 with the Suzaku deep observations. The pulsar, whose characteristic age is 7.3 kyr, is located within the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1356-645. The extended emission is found to have a 1 σ X-ray size of ˜ 4', or ˜ 3 pc at 2.4 kpc, with a small offset from the pulsar. Its X-ray spectrum is well reproduced by a simple power-law model with a photon index of 1.70_{-0.06}^{+0.07}. No significant spatial variation was found for the X-ray photon index as a function of distance from the pulsar. We conclude that the extended emission is associated to the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) of PSR J1357-6429. This is a new sample of largely extended nebulae around middle-aged pulsars. We discuss the evolution of this PWN according to the relic PWN scenario.

  11. ATIC, PAMELA, HESS, and Fermi data and nearby dark matter subhalos

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlen, Michael; Malyshev, Dmitry

    2009-06-15

    We study the local flux of electrons and positrons from annihilating dark matter (DM), and investigate how its spectrum depends on the choice of DM model and inhomogeneities in the DM distribution. Below a cutoff energy, the flux is expected to have a universal power-law form with an index n{approx_equal}-2. The cutoff energy and the behavior of the flux near the cutoff is model dependent. The dependence on the DM host halo profile may be significant at energies E<100 GeV and leads to softening of the flux n<-2. There may be additional features at high energies due to the presence of local clumps of DM, especially for models in which the Sommerfeld effect boosts subhalo luminosities. In general, the flux from a nearby clump gives rise to a harder spectrum of electrons and positrons, with an index n>-2. Using the Via Lactea II simulation, we estimate the probability of such subhalo effects in a generic Sommerfeld-enhanced model to be at least 4%, and possibly as high as 15% if subhalos below the simulation's resolution limit are accounted for. We discuss the consequences of these results for the interpretation of the ATIC, PAMELA, HESS, and Fermi data, as well as for future experiments.

  12. Suzaku Observations of the Non-thermal Supernova Remnant HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Aya; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Acero, Fabio; Klochkov, Dmitry; Tian, Wenwu; Yamazaki, Ryo; Li, Zhiyuan; Horns, Dieter; Kosack, Karl; Komin, Nukri

    2012-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the non-thermal X-ray emission from the northwestern and southern parts of the supernova remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 with Suzaku is presented. The shell portions covered by the observations emit hard and lineless X-rays. The spectrum can be reproduced by a simple absorbed power-law model with a photon index Γ of 1.8-2.7 and an absorption column density N H of (1.0-2.1) × 1022 cm-2. These quantities change significantly from region to region; the northwestern part of the SNR has the hardest and most absorbed spectrum. The western part of the X-ray shell has a smaller curvature than the northwestern and southern shell segments. A comparison of the X-ray morphology to the very high energy gamma-ray and radio images was performed. The efficiency of the electron acceleration and the emission mechanism in each portion of the shell are discussed. Thermal X-ray emission from the SNR was searched for but could not be detected at a significant level.

  13. Search for photon-linelike signatures from dark matter annihilations with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abramowski, A; Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Göring, D; Grondin, M-H; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C-C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Menzler, U; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Wouters, D; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H-S

    2013-01-25

    Gamma-ray line signatures can be expected in the very-high-energy (E(γ)>100 GeV) domain due to self-annihilation or decay of dark matter (DM) particles in space. Such a signal would be readily distinguishable from astrophysical γ-ray sources that in most cases produce continuous spectra that span over several orders of magnitude in energy. Using data collected with the H.E.S.S. γ-ray instrument, upper limits on linelike emission are obtained in the energy range between ∼ 500 GeV and ∼ 25 TeV for the central part of the Milky Way halo and for extragalactic observations, complementing recent limits obtained with the Fermi-LAT instrument at lower energies. No statistically significant signal could be found. For monochromatic γ-ray line emission, flux limits of (2 × 10(-7) -2 × 10(-5)) m(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) and (1 × 10(-8) -2 × 10(-6)) m(-2) s(-1)sr(-1) are obtained for the central part of the Milky Way halo and extragalactic observations, respectively. For a DM particle mass of 1 TeV, limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section ⟨σv⟩(χχ → γγ) reach ∼ 10(-27) cm(3)s(-1), based on the Einasto parametrization of the Galactic DM halo density profile. PMID:25166149

  14. The W49 region as seen by H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, F.; de Naurois, M.; Hofmann, W.; Carrigan, S.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Ohm, S.

    2011-12-01

    The W49 region hosts a star forming region (W49A) and a supernova remnant interacting with molecular clouds (W49B). The 10^6 M_{⊙} Giant Molecular Cloud W49A is one of the most luminous giant radio H II region in our Galaxy and hosts several active, high-mass star formation sites. The mixed-morphology supernova remnant W49B has one of the highest radio surface brightness of all the SNRs of this class in our Galaxy. Infrared observations evidenced that W49B is interacting with molecular clouds and Fermi recently reported the detection of a coincident bright, high-energy gamma-ray source. Observations by the H.E.S.S. telescope array resulted in the significant detection of VHE gamma-ray emission from the W49 region, compatible with gamma-ray emission from the SNR W49B. The results, the morphology and the origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission are presented in the multi-wavelength context and the implications on the origin of the signal are discussed.

  15. Exploring the nature of the unidentified very-high-energy gamma-ray source HESS J1507-622

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domainko, W.; Ohm, S.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Several extended sources of very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma rays have been found that lack counterparts belonging to an established class of VHE gamma-ray emitters. Aims: The nature of the first unidentified VHE gamma-ray source with significant angular offset from the Galactic plane of 3.5°, HESS J1507-622, is explored. Methods.Fermi-LAT data in the high-energy (HE, 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-ray range collected over 34 month are used to describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source. Additionally, implications of the off-plane location of the source for a leptonic and hadronic gamma-ray emission model are investigated. Results: HESS J1507-622 is detected in the Fermi energy range and its spectrum is best described by a power law in energy with Γ = 1.7 ± 0.1stat ± 0.2sys and integral flux between (0.3-300) GeV of F = (2.0 ± 0.5stat ± 1.0sys) × 10-9 cm-2 s-1. The SED constructed from the Fermi and H.E.S.S. data for this source does not support a smooth power-law continuation from the VHE to the HE gamma-ray range. With the available data it is not possible to discriminate between a hadronic and a leptonic scenario for HESS J1507-622. The location and compactness of the source indicate a considerable physical offset from the Galactic plane for this object. In case of a multiple-kpc distance, this challenges a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) origin for HESS J1507-622 since the time of travel for a pulsar born in the Galactic disk to reach such a location would exceed the inverse Compton (IC) cooling time of electrons that are energetic enough to produce VHE gamma-rays. However, an origin of this gamma-ray source connected to a pulsar that was born off the Galactic plane in the explosion of a hypervelocity star cannot be excluded. Conclusions: The nature of HESS J1507-622 is still unknown to date, and a PWN scenario cannot be ruled out in general. On the contrary HESS J1507-622 could be the first discovered representative of a

  16. Metagabbro associated with the shear zone on Prins Karls Forland (Svalbard, Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraszewska, Maria; Manecki, Maciej; Czerny, Jerzy; Schneider, David; Myhre, Per Inge; Faehnrich, Karol; Barnes, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Prins Karls Forland (PKF) is a N-S elongated island situated west of Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago, High Arctic. The northern part of the island is dominated by siliciclastic metasediments regionally metamorphosed to greenshist facies assemblages during one distinct stage of tectonism. Amphibolite facies garnet-mica schists, mica schists, quartzites and carbonate-silicate rocks exhibiting evidence of at least two distinct, strong deformation episodes (including mylonitization) locally outcrop on the east coast of PKF, termed the Pinkie Unit. A ~1 km wide shear zone containing ductile to brittle structures and distinct outcrops of greenstones (metagabbros and greenschists), associated with magnetite ore, separates these two contrasting tectonic units. Ten samples of greenstones were collected on the slopes of Lauratzonfjellet and Boureefjellet for petrologic and geochemical analyses. Despite intense localized shearing, the metagabbros are undeformed and preserve coarse crystalline, magmatic texture, which is locally poikilitic. The primary magmatic assemblage consists of brown hornblende, plagioclase, biotite and opaque minerals, with accessory apatite and titanite. No relicts of pyroxenes are preserved. Formation of secondary uralite, sericite and chlorite is observed. Metamorphic assemblage consists of actinolite pseudomorhs after hornblende, epidote, and second generation biotite. Blue amphibole is observed in one sample from Boureefjellet; greenschists from Boureefjellet also contain fibrous blue amphibole, as well as garnets, actinolite, epidote and biotite. Some rocks sampled on Boureefjellet are more strongly deformed and exhibit probably two stages of metamorphism: amphibolite facies metamorphism resulting in blue amphibole-garnet assemblage followed by greenschist facies metamorphism resulting in actinolite-epidote-biotite paragenesis. Parallel and overlapping patterns on chondrite-normalized REE diagrams and spider diagrams indicate that these

  17. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ Device Versus Traditional Airway Suction in a Cadaver Model

    PubMed Central

    Lipe, Demis N.; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. Results The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations. PMID:25035766

  18. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history. PMID:26507378

  19. Static and fault-related alteration in the lower ocean crust, IODP Expedition 345, Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, Andrew; Faak, Kathrin; Marks, Naomi; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Wintsch, Robert; Harigane, Yumiko; Titarenko, Sofya

    2014-05-01

    IODP Expedition 345 drilled the first holes in the lower plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge, recovering primitive layered gabbros (Gillis et al 2014). Alteration can be subdivided into two series: 1) a largely static pseudomorphic alteration affecting predominantly olivine. This began in the amphibolite facies with minor secondary cinopyroxene and hornblendic amphibole replacing primary pyroxene, and sporadically developed corona textures with tremolite and chlorite replacing olivine and plagioclase respectively, but was predominantly in the greenschist and sub-greenschist facies with talc, serpentine, clay minerals,oxides andsulphides replacing olivine, and prehnite and locally other calcsilicates replacing plagioclase, commonly in micro-vein networks. Albitic plagioclase is sporadically developed, and locally zeolite and carbonate. 2) An overprinting metasomatic alteration under sub-greenschist or perhaps lowermost greenschist conditions(<350 °C) dominated by prehnite and chlorite, with subordinate epidote/clinozoisite, secondary clinopyroxene in veins, clays and zeolite. This alteration is spatially related to cataclastic fault zones and macroscopic veins. Comminuted plagioclase in cataclasites is commonly completely replaced by prehnite, while chlorite may completely pseudomorph olivine, locally with textures suggesting replacement of previous secondary minerals such as talc and serpentine. Chlorite also ubiquitously occurs as patches replacing plagioclase along grain boundaries, locally associated with carbonate and amphibole needles. Metamorphosed dykes show chilled margins within the cataclasites, and are affected by cataclastic deformation. Faults, dykes and overprinting alteration are all inferred to be related to the westward propagation of Cocos-Nazca spreading that formed Hess Deep. Samples of different alteration and cataclastic domains were cut out of this section chips for isotopic analysis. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of cataclasites and dyke rocks are

  20. Amino acids and hexosamines in the Hess Rise core during the past 220,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Lallan Prasad; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2003-11-01

    Core sediment samples collected from the Hess Rise, North Pacific, were analyzed for 20 common amino acids (AA) and two hexosamines (HA) to understand the relation between glacial-interglacial variations and deposition/preservation of sedimentary organic matter (OM). The sediments are predominantly carbonaceous (carbonates 35-80%). AA-based parameters—aspartic acid/glycine ratio and serine+threonine relative mole content—suggest that calcareous plankton was the major source of OM in these sediments. This inference is supported by the similarity in distribution patterns of AA and HA contents with that of organic carbon. Low values of AA/HA and glucosamine/galactosamine ratios (average 4.4 and 1.1, respectively) imply that much of the planktonic OM was replaced by microbial OM. The relative molar concentration of two nonprotein AA (β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid) varied with age of sediments; i.e., they were less abundant in recent sediments and more abundant in the oldest sediments. This trend is an indicator of extremely slow but continuous enzymatic degradation of proteinaceous OM within the sediments. So far, bulk OM has been believed to be one of the best proxies for estimation of primary productivity. However, it may be an underestimate, even for the late Quaternary sediments. Comparison of AA and HA content variations with SPECMAP stack revealed their enhanced deposition and preservation during glacial periods relative to interglacial periods. This, in turn, affected not only the planktonic production in surface waters but also the benthic community, including bacteria on the seafloor.

  1. Hydrothermal spinel, corundum and diaspore in lower oceanic crustal troctolites from the Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaka, Toshio; Meyer, Romain; Wintsch, Robert P.; Wathen, Bryan

    2016-06-01

    Aluminous spinel, corundum and diaspore are reported from intensely altered parts of primitive troctolites recovered from IODP Site U1415 at the Hess Deep Rift. The spinel is green-colored, has an irregular shape, has low Cr concentrations, and is so distinct from primary igneous chromite. Corundum and diaspore occur mainly at the rims of green spinel grains with a texture suggesting a sequential replacement of spinel by corundum, and then corundum by diaspore. The green spinel is associated with anorthite and pargasite, which is overgrown by tremolite that forms coronitic aggregates with chlorite around olivine. These petrographic observations are supported by pressure-temperature pseudosections, which predict spinel + pargasite stability field, and tremolite/hornblende + chlorite field at lower temperature conditions. From these pseudosections and simplified system phase diagrams, estimated formation temperature conditions calculated at 2 kbar are 650-750 °C for spinel + pargasite, 410-690 °C for tremolite/hornblende + chlorite, 400-710 °C for corundum, and <400 °C for diaspore. Because the aluminous spinel occurs in the domains that were previously occupied by magmatic plagioclase, and because spinel-bearing rocks characteristically have high Al2O3/CaO and Al2O3/SiO2 ratios, it is likely that the stabilization of spinel was caused by the loss of Ca2+ and SiO2(aq) in high-temperature hydrothermal fluids. The results of this study suggest that (1) the concentrations of aluminous phases in the lower oceanic crust are presently underestimated, and (2) chemical modification of the lower oceanic crust due to high-temperature hydrothermal metasomatic reactions could be common near spreading axes.

  2. Data classification with the Vogel Fulcher Tammann Hesse viscosity equation using correspondence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Marcio Luis Ferreira; Aparicio, Cristina

    2007-08-01

    The well-known Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse equation (VFTH, log 10η= A+ B/( T- T0), η in Pa s and T in K) has been extensively used in the description & characterization of cooperative molecular motion by means of the temperature dependence with viscosity, η, e.g., using Angell's classification. Experimental evidence has been pointed out for the statistical correlation between its three adjustable parameters A, B and T0, which may bring questions on the reliability of fitted VFTH parameters. In this work VFTH equation was applied over a wide temperature range (between glass transition temperature, Tg and the melting point, Tm) for 38 oxide glasses, considering simple, binary and ternary compositions of silicates and borates systems. These systems include strong, moderate and fragile glass-forming liquids. For this task was used the Levenberg-Marquart non-linear fitting procedure to find viscosity parameters B and T0, maintaining A=-5 fixed, intending to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. Despite this restriction, the VFTH equation has shown to adjust very well to experimental data in wide temperature range. Simple criteria were developed in the past to characterize glass-forming liquids, one of them (due to Angell) is the strong-fragile classification. In this work we apply correspondence analysis (CA) to verify the correlation between B and T0 parameters as well as between Tg and Tm. CA is a descriptive and exploratory technique designed to analyze simple multi-way tables containing some measure of correspondence between rows and columns. From these results is possible to map either borate (and almost fragile) or silicate (usually strong up to near fragile) systems. As a statistical tool, CA corroborates correlation mainly between B and T0 and justifies the use of B, T0 and Tg as the main parameters for the fragility indexes m= BTg/( Tg- T0) 2 and D= B/ T0.

  3. Fluid flow patterns in fast spreading East Pacific Rise crust exposed at Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Stewart, Michael; Gleeson, Thomas; Karson, Jeffrey

    2001-11-01

    Tectonic exposures of a volcanic sequence and sheeted dike complex over a 4-km-wide region at Hess Deep (equatorial Pacific) reveal significant spatial heterogeneity (10-103 m) in the extent and nature of hydrothermal alteration in young, fast spreading East Pacific Rise crust. The volcanic sequence is fairly uniformly altered, with only minor oxidation and alteration to clay minerals. Sheeted dikes in the eastern part of the field area are highly fractured with narrow intervals of intact dikes that dip up to 60°. Their alteration characteristics show a simple depth trend such that with increasing depth the dominant secondary mafic mineral changes from chlorite to amphibole, clinopyroxene replacement increases (<20% to >40%), whole rock δ18O values decreases (4.4-5.5‰ to 3.5-4.5‰), and calculated peak metamorphic temperatures increase (˜250°C to 450°-700°C). Within the deepest dikes, localized zones up to 400-m-wide are chlorite-rich and have low-δ18O (2.9-4.1‰) and low peak metamorphic temperatures (˜345°C). These alteration patterns likely formed within broad recharge zones whereby the low-δ18O zones developed in the regions with the highest fluid flux. In the west, massive, slightly rotated sheeted dikes near the volcanic-sheeted dike transition are δ18O and Cu depleted and display higher peak temperatures (≥345°C) than elsewhere in the shallow dikes. These characteristics are consistent with formation within a high temperature, hydrothermal discharge zone. We propose that the spreading history of a fast spreading ridge segment can create significant spatial heterogeneity in fluid flow and alteration patterns within sheeted dike complexes, similar to those preserved in many ophiolites.

  4. Evidence for pervasive melt-rock reaction within the uppermost mantle at Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shejwalkar, A. S.; Coogan, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    A suite of spinel harzburgites from ODP Site 895 at Hess Deep have been analysed for the major and trace element compositions of the major mineral phases and of the bulk rock to investigate the effect of melt rock reaction on mineral and bulk rock geochemistry. The harzburgites are at the depleted end of the global array of abyssal peridotite compositions in terms of moderately incompatible elements such as Al2O3, CaO, V and Sc. The whole-rock HREE abundances can be modeled as the residues of 15-25% near fractional melting of DMM however the LREE have much higher concentrations than predicted by this model and the samples show a significant positive Eu anomaly. The data can be fit well by a model of near-fractional melting followed by 0.5 to 2% precipitation of plagioclase that has a trace element composition in equilibrium with MORB. Plagioclase impregnation is common in the mantle section drilled at Site 895 although plagioclase is not observed petrographically in the samples studied here. The rocks are 20-70% altered and we hypothesize that plagioclase was entirely replaced during this alteration. The LREE-enrichment, relative to a melting residue, observed in the bulk-rock is not observed in clinopyroxene compositions. One explanation for this could be that the rocks were relatively cool when plagioclase impregnation occurred meaning diffusion was inefficient at modifying the clinopyroxene compositions [e.g. 1]. Whether melt-rock reaction occurs on- or off-axis is currently being investigated. Refs: [1] Niu, 2004. Journal of Petrology. Volume 45 (12), 2423-2458.

  5. Discovery of the source HESS J1356-645 associated with the young and energetic PSR J1357-6429

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füssling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2011-09-01

    Context. Several newly discovered very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray sources in the Galaxy are thought to be associated with energetic pulsars. Among them, middle-aged (≳ 104 yr) systems exhibit large centre-filled VHE nebulae, offset from the pulsar position, which result from the complex relationship between the pulsar wind and the surrounding medium, and reflect the past evolution of the pulsar. Aims: Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) have been successful in revealing extended emission from these sources in the VHE regime. Together with radio and X-ray observations, this observational window allows one to probe the energetics and magnetic field inside these large-scale nebulae. Methods: H.E.S.S., with its large field of view, angular resolution of ≲0.1° and unprecedented sensitivity, has been used to discover a large population of such VHE sources. In this paper, the H.E.S.S. data from the continuation of the Galactic Plane Survey (- 80° < ℓ < 60°, |b| < 3°), together with the existing multi-wavelength observations, are used. Results: A new VHE γ-ray source was discovered at RA (J2000) = 13h56m00s, Dec (J2000) = -64°30'00'' with a 2' statistical error in each coordinate, namely HESS J1356-645. The source is extended, with an intrinsic Gaussian width of (0.20 ± 0.02)°. Its integrated energy flux between 1 and 10 TeV of 8 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 represents ~11% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy band. The energy spectrum between 1 and 20 TeV is well described by a power law dN/dE ∝ E-Γ with photon index Γ = 2.2 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2sys. The inspection of archival radio images at three frequencies and the analysis of X-ray data from ROSAT/PSPC and XMM-Newton/MOS reveal the presence of faint non-thermal diffuse emission coincident with HESS J1356-645. Conclusions: HESS J1356-645 is most likely associated with the young and energetic pulsar PSR J1357-6429 (d = 2.4 kpc, τc = 7.3 kyr and Ė = 3.1 × 1036 erg s-1), located at

  6. Spectra of Cosmic Ray Electrons and Diffuse Gamma Rays with the Constraints of AMS-02 and HESS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ding; Huang, Jing; Jin, Hong-Bo

    2015-10-01

    Recently, AMS-02 reported their results of cosmic ray (CR) observations. In addition to the AMS-02 data, we add HESS data to estimate the spectra of CR electrons and the diffuse gamma rays above TeV. In the conventional diffusion model, a global analysis is performed on the spectral features of CR electrons and the diffuse gamma rays by the GALRPOP package. The results show that the spectrum structure of the primary component of CR electrons cannot be fully reproduced by a simple power law and that the relevant break is around 100 GeV. At the 99% confidence level (C.L.) the injection indices above the break decrease from 2.54 to 2.35, but the ones below the break are only in the range of 2.746-2.751. The spectrum of CR electrons does not need to add TeV cutoff to also match the features of the HESS data. Based on the difference between the fluxes of CR electrons and their primary components, the predicted excess of CR positrons is consistent with the interpretation that these positrons originate from a pulsar or dark matter. In the analysis of the Galactic diffuse gamma rays with the indirect constraint of AMS-02 and HESS data, it is found that the fluxes of Galactic diffuse gamma rays are consistent with the GeV data of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the high-latitude regions. The results indicate that inverse Compton scattering is the dominant component in the range of hundreds of GeV to tens of TeV, respectively from the high-latitude regions to the low ones, and in all of the regions of the Galaxy the flux of diffuse gamma rays is less than that of CR electrons at the energy scale of 20 TeV.

  7. Discovery of a variable X-ray counterpart to HESS J1832-093: a new gamma-ray binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, P.; Laffon, H.; Bordas, P.; de Oña Whilhelmi, E.; Hinton, J.; Pühlhofer, G.

    2016-04-01

    The TeV gamma-ray point source HESS J1832-093 remains unidentified despite extensive multiwavelength studies. The gamma-ray emission could originate in a very compact pulsar wind nebula or an X-ray binary system composed of the X-ray source XMMU J183245-0921539, and a companion star (2MASS J18324516-0921545). To unveil the nature of XMMU J183245-0921539 and its relation to HESS J1832-093, we performed deeper follow-up observations in X-rays with Chandra and Swift to improve source localization and to investigate time variability. We observed an increase of the X-ray flux by a factor of ˜6 in the Chandra data compared to previous observations. The source is point-like for Chandra and its updated position is only 0.3 arcsec offset from 2MASS J18324516-0921545, confirming the association with this infrared source. Subsequent Swift target of opportunity observations resulted in a lower flux, again compatible with the one previously measured with XMM-Newton, indicating a variability time-scale of the order of two months or shorter. The now-established association of XMMU J183245-0921539 and 2MASS J18324516-0921545, and the observed variability in X-rays are strong evidence for binary nature of HESS J1832-093. Furthermore, observations to characterize the optical counterpart as well as to search for orbital periodicity are needed to confirm this scenario.

  8. Molecular and Atomic Gas toward HESS J1745-303 in the Galactic Center: Further Support for the Hadronic Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Takahiro; Torii, Kazufumi; Enokiya, Rei; Amano, Takanobu; Fukui, Yasuo

    2012-02-01

    We compared TeV γ-rays with new 12CO = 2-1 data toward HESS J1745-303 in the Galactic center, and confirmed that the molecular cloud MG358.9-0.5 toward (l, b) = (358.°9, -0.°5) at VLSR = -100-0 km s-1 shows a reasonable positional agreement with the primary peak (northern part) of the γ-ray source. For the southern part of HESS J1745-303, we have seen no CO counterpart, whereas H I gas in the SGPS H I dataset shows a possible counterpart to the γ-ray source. This H I gas may be optically thick, as supported by the H I line shape similar to the optically thick 12CO. We estimate the total mass of interstellar protons including both the molecular and atomic gas to be 2 × 106 M⊙ and the cosmic-ray proton energy to be 6 × 1048 erg in the hadronic scenario. We discuss possible origins of the cosmic-ray protons including the nearby SNR G359.1-0.5. The SNR may be able to explain the northern γ-ray source, but the southern source seems to be too far to be energized by the SNR. As an alternative, we argue that the second-order Fermi acceleration in the inter-clump space surrounded by randomly moving high-velocity clumps may offer a possible mechanism to accelerate protons across the entire HESS source. The large turbulent motion with a velocity dispersion of ˜ 15 km s-1 has an energy density two orders of magnitude higher than in the solar vicinity, and is viable as the energy source.

  9. Wide-Range Multiwavelength Observations of Northern TeV Blazars With MAGIC / HESS, Suzaku And KVA

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, M.; Rugamer, S.; Mazin, D.; Firpo, R.; Mannheim, K.; Tavecchio, F.; Teshima, M.; Horns, D.; Costamante, L.; Schwarzburg, S.; Wagner, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Sato, R.; Ushio, M.; /JAXA, Sagamihara

    2007-11-14

    We have conducted multiwavelength observations of several northern TeV blazars employing the ground-based {gamma}-ray observatories MAGIC and HESS, the optical KVA telescope, and the Suzaku X-ray satellite. The data taken in 2006 establish measurements of the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions of the rapidly variable blazar emission over a wide range of frequencies. Results allow us to test leptonic and hadronic emission and particle acceleration models which predict different correlations between the optical, X-ray, and very high energy {gamma}-ray emissions. In this presentation, we report on the highlights of the results of these observations.

  10. Suzaku Observation of the Unidentified Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1702-420

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinaga, Takahisa; Bamba, Aya; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Pü:Hlhofer, Gerd; Wagner, Stefan; Reimer, Olaf; Funk, Stefan; Hinton, Jim

    2011-11-01

    A deep X-ray observation of the unidentified very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray source HESS J1702-420, for the first time, was carried out by Suzaku. No bright sources were detected in the XIS field of view (FOV), except for two faint point-like sources. The two sources, however, are considered not to be related to HESS J1702-420, because their fluxes in the 2-10 keV band (˜10-14 erg s-1 cm-2) are ˜3 orders of magnitude smaller than the VHE gamma-ray flux in the 1-10 TeV band (FTeV = 3.1 × 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2). We compared the energy spectrum of diffuse emission, extracted from the entire XIS FOV with those from nearby observations. If we consider the systematic error of background subtraction, no significant diffuse emission was detected with an upper limit of FX < 2.7 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 in the 2-10 keV band for an assumed power-law spectrum of Γ = 2.1 and a source size same as that in the VHE band. The upper limit of the X-ray flux is twelve-times as small as the VHE gamma-ray flux. The large flux ratio (FTeV/FX) indicates that HESS J1702-420 is another example of a ``dark'' particle accelerator. If we use a simple one-zone leptonic model, in which VHE gamma-rays are produced through inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background and interstellar far-infrared emission, and the X-rays via the synchrotron mechanism, an upper limit of the magnetic field (1.7μG), is obtained from the flux ratio. Because the magnetic field is weaker than the typical value in the galactic plane (3-10 νG), the simple one-zone model may not work for HESS J1702-420 and a significant fraction of the VHE gamma-rays may originate from protons.

  11. Absence of radial velocity variations in MWC 148 during the recent activity of HESS J0632+057

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casares, Jorge; Ribo, Marc; Paredes, Josep M.; Herrero, Artemio; Negueruela, Ignacio; Vilardell, Francesc

    2011-03-01

    MWC 148 is a B0pe-type star suspected to be the counterpart of the variable TeV gamma-ray source HESS J0632+057, which also shows variable radio and X-ray emission (Aharonian et al. 2007, A&A, 469, L1; Acciari et al. 2009, ApJ, 698, L94; Hinton et al. 2009, ApJ, 690, L101; Skilton et al. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 317; Falcone et al. 2009, ApJ, 708, L52). MWC 148 is thought to be a gamma-ray binary, although evidence of binarity from radial velocity measurements is still lacking (Aragona et al.

  12. In-situ Geochronology on the Mars 2020 Rover with KArLE (The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z. -H.; Miller, J. S.; Devismes, D.; Swindle, T. D.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Kelley, S. P.; Zacny, K. A.; Roark, S. E.; Hardaway, L. R.; Weinberg, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    A successful Mars exploration program has revealed chapters of Mars history, but in this book, the pages are ripped out of the binding and scattered across the surface. An examination of each page reveals interesting information, but there is no way to read the book in a logical order. Geochronology is the tool that puts page number onto the individual pages, and allows the book of Martian history to be read in its proper order. The KArLE experiment performs the first dedicated in situ geochronology investigation on Mars, bringing clarity to Mars 2020 samples and context to its landing site.

  13. Extreme blazars studied with Fermi-lat and Suzaku: 1ES 0347–121 and blazar candidate HESS J1943+213

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; Finke, J.; Cheung, C. C.; Dermer, C. D.; Kataoka, J.; Bamba, A.; Dubus, G.; Fukazawa, Y.; Thompson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    We report on our study of high-energy properties of two peculiar TeV emitters: the 'extreme blazar' 1ES 0347–121 and the 'extreme blazar candidate' HESS J1943+213 located near the Galactic plane. Both objects are characterized by quiescent synchrotron emission with flat spectra extending up to the hard X-ray range, and both were reported to be missing GeV counterparts in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) two-year Source Catalog. We analyze a 4.5 yr accumulation of the Fermi-LAT data, resulting in the detection of 1ES 0347–121 in the GeV band, as well as in improved upper limits for HESS J1943+213. We also present the analysis results of newly acquired Suzaku data for HESS J1943+213. The X-ray spectrum is well represented by a single power law extending up to 25 keV with photon index 2.00 ± 0.02 and a moderate absorption in excess of the Galactic value, which is in agreement with previous X-ray observations. No short-term X-ray variability was found over the 80 ks duration of the Suzaku exposure. Under the blazar hypothesis, we modeled the spectral energy distributions of 1ES 0347–121 and HESS J1943+213, and we derived constraints on the intergalactic magnetic field strength and source energetics. We conclude that although the classification of HESS J1943+213 has not yet been determined, the blazar hypothesis remains the most plausible option since, in particular, the broadband spectra of the two analyzed sources along with the source model parameters closely resemble each other, and the newly available Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey data for HESS J1943+213 are consistent with the presence of an elliptical host at the distance of approximately ∼600 Mpc.

  14. Extreme Blazars Studied with Fermi-LAT and Suzaku: 1ES 0347-121 and Blazar Candidate HESS J1943+213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; Finke, J.; Cheung, C. C.; Dermer, C. D.; Kataoka, J.; Bamba, A.; Dubus, G.; De Naurois, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Fukazawa, Y.; Thompson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    We report on our study of high-energy properties of two peculiar TeV emitters: the "extreme blazar" 1ES 0347-121 and the "extreme blazar candidate" HESS J1943+213 located near the Galactic plane. Both objects are characterized by quiescent synchrotron emission with flat spectra extending up to the hard X-ray range, and both were reported to be missing GeV counterparts in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) two-year Source Catalog. We analyze a 4.5 yr accumulation of the Fermi-LAT data, resulting in the detection of 1ES 0347-121 in the GeV band, as well as in improved upper limits for HESS J1943+213. We also present the analysis results of newly acquired Suzaku data for HESS J1943+213. The X-ray spectrum is well represented by a single power law extending up to 25 keV with photon index 2.00 ± 0.02 and a moderate absorption in excess of the Galactic value, which is in agreement with previous X-ray observations. No short-term X-ray variability was found over the 80 ks duration of the Suzaku exposure. Under the blazar hypothesis, we modeled the spectral energy distributions of 1ES 0347-121 and HESS J1943+213, and we derived constraints on the intergalactic magnetic field strength and source energetics. We conclude that although the classification of HESS J1943+213 has not yet been determined, the blazar hypothesis remains the most plausible option since, in particular, the broadband spectra of the two analyzed sources along with the source model parameters closely resemble each other, and the newly available Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey data for HESS J1943+213 are consistent with the presence of an elliptical host at the distance of approximately ~600 Mpc.

  15. COLDz: KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH GALAXY IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lentati, L.; Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Riechers, D.; Sharon, C.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Decarli, R.; Aravena, M.; Hodge, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Sargent, M.; Smolčć, V.

    2015-02-10

    The broad spectral bandwidth at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48 through the detection of CO J = 1-0 line emission in the COLDz survey and through a sensitive, Ka-band (31-39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 arcmin{sup 2} region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ∼ 570 ± 80 km s{sup –1}) is most likely to be CO J = 1-0 at z = 2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z {sub phot} = 3.2 ± 0.4. The CO J = 1-0 line luminosity is L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(2.2±0.3)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M {sub gas} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio α{sub CO}. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L {sub IR} = 2.5 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and the star formation rate is ∼250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ∼114 ± 19 L {sub ☉}/(K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.

  16. The epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis: a contemporary reassessment of Karl Jaspers’ account

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In his classic essay “The phenomenological approach to psychopathology”, Karl Jaspers defended the irreducible reality of the “subjective” mental symptoms and stressed the pivotal role of empathy in their diagnostic assessment. However, Jaspers’ account of the epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis was far from clear: whereas at several places Jaspers claimed that empathy provides a direct access to patients’ abnormal mental experiences, at other places he stressed that it did so only indirectly, through a whole battery of their observable clinical indicators. The aim of this paper is to reassess Jaspers’ account of the epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis. Methods I examine thoroughly Jaspers’ assertions on in the role of empathy in the diagnosis of “subjective” symptoms. Moreover, I explicate briefly the epistemological status of psychopathological diagnostic examination with the aid of the distinction between direct and indirect observation. Results Diagnostic assessment of “subjective” mental symptoms involves necessarily indirect psychopathological observation. Jaspers’ ambiguity is traced to his failure to distinguish clearly between direct and indirect psychopathological observation along with his excessive reliance on empathy. Relatedly, Jaspers’ ambiguity is also traced to his conflation of the semantics with the epistemology of psychopathological concepts representing patients’ “subjective” mental symptoms. These results apply also to contemporary phenomenological approaches to psychopathological diagnostic examination which maintain that patients’ abnormal mental experiences are invariably expressed in their overt behavior. Conclusions Jaspers was right in stressing that psychopathological concepts of subjective mental symptoms represent patients’ genuine abnormal experiences irreducible to concepts representing their associated behavioral

  17. The origin of layered gabbros from the mid lower ocean crust, Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheadle, M. J.; Brown, T. C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Meyer, R.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Exp. 345 Holes U1415 I & J cored a ~30m thick unit of conspicuously layered gabbroic rocks from the lower plutonic crust at Hess Deep. These rocks likely come from >1500m below the dike gabbro transition and thus provide an unique opportunity to study the origin of layering and the formation of relatively deep, fast spread plutonic crust formed at the EPR. Here we report the initial results of a comprehensive high-resolution petrologic, geochemical and petrographic study of this unit, which focuses on a fairly continuous 1.5m long section recovered at Hole I. The rocks consist of opx-bearing olivine gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbro and exhibit 1-10cm scale modal layering. Some layers host spectacular 2-3 cm diameter cpx oikocrysts encapsulating partially resorbed plagioclase laths. Downhole variations in mineral chemistry are complicated. Olivine, cpx and opx Mg#'s partly reflect equilibration and show a subtle metre-scale variation (1-2 Mg#), whereas, for example, plagioclase anorthite, and cpx TiO2 contents reveal a more complicated 10-20 cm-scale variation (2-4 An, and 0.2 TiO2). Mineral zonation, for all but Mg# in equilibrated olivine, is of higher magnitude than downhole variations in average mineral compositions. Trace element geochemistry reveals rather homogeneous plagioclase and opx compositions; however cpx exhibits variation at the mineral scale. Cpx shows an increased range of, and highest REE concentrations, in the more olivine rich, near cotectic, composition gabbros, whereas the more plagioclase rich, cumulates show no variation of, and low REE, concentrations.Plagioclase fabrics are moderate to weak and partially modally controlled, but the strength of the plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) varies dramatically, within the 1.5m core showing a significant part of the variation recorded by Oman ophiolite plutonic crust. Plagioclase shape preferred orientation and CPO match well suggesting that diffusion enabled compaction

  18. Transient Hydrothermal Alteration in Fault Zones Cutting the Lower Oceanic Crust, Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, Andrew; Titarenko, Sofya; Cliff, Robert; Ivan, Savov; Adrian, Boyce

    2015-04-01

    IODP Expedition 345 drilled the first holes in the lower plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge, recovering primitive layered gabbros [1]. Alteration occurred as: 1) a largely static pseudomorphic alteration, predominantly in the greenschist and sub-greenschist facies with mainly talc and serpentine replacing olivine, and prehnite replacing plagioclase. Talc sometimes overprints serpentine mesh texture. 2) an overprinting metasomatic alteration, spatially related to cataclastic fault zones and macroscopic veins, dominated by prehnite and chlorite. Secondary clinopyroxene and epidote locally overprint the prehnite-chlorite assemblage, but the last events are veins of prehnite and zeolite. Metamorphosed dykes show chilled margins within the cataclasites, and are themselves affected by cataclastic deformation. Faults, dykes and overprinting alteration are all inferred to be related to the westward propagation of Cocos-Nazca spreading forming Hess Deep. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of small whole rock samples of cataclasites and dyke rocks are in the range 0.7037 - 0.7048, indicating alteration by seawater at moderate integrated fluxes. The highest values were in cataclasites overprinted by prehnite. Sampling of individual minerals has been undertaken using a microscope mounted drill, and shows that alteration is mainly affecting secondary minerals, with late prehnite veins ranging up to Sr isotope ratios of 0.7054. δ18O values range from +1 to + 6 per mil. Combined with metamorphic data this indicates alteration at temperatures between 200 and 400 °C. Secondary clinopyroxene and talc replacing serpentine are interpreted to indicate transient prograde hydrothermal events. Preliminary modelling using Comsol Multiphysics suggests that the temperatures of the overprinting alteration, as well as transient prograde events, could be achieved in a permeable fault slot cutting through crust 0.5 to 1 m.y. old. The prehnite-chlorite assemblage is predicted to be important in off

  19. Transient Hydrothermal Alteration In Fault Zones Cutting The Lower Oceanic Crust, Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, A. M.; Titarenko, S.; Cliff, R. A.; Savov, I. P.; Boyce, A.; Dutt, R.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 345 drilled the first holes in the lower plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge, recovering primitive layered gabbros [1]. Alteration occurred as: 1) a largely static pseudomorphic alteration, predominantly in the greenschist and sub-greenschist facies with mainly talc and serpentine replacing olivine, and prehnite replacing plagioclase. Talc sometimes overprints serpentine mesh texture. 2) an overprinting metasomatic alteration, spatially related to cataclastic fault zones and macroscopic veins, dominated by prehnite and chlorite. Secondary clinopyroxene and epidote locally overprint the prehnite-chlorite assemblage, but the last events are veins of prehnite and zeolite. Metamorphosed dykes show chilled margins within the cataclasites, and are themselves affected by cataclastic deformation. Faults, dykes and overprinting alteration are inferred to be related to the westward propagation of Cocos-Nazca spreading forming Hess Deep. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of small whole rock samples of cataclasites and dyke rocks are in the range 0.7037 - 0.7048, indicating alteration by seawater at moderate integrated fluxes. The highest values were in cataclasites overprinted by prehnite. Sampling of individual minerals has been undertaken using a microscope mounted drill, and shows that alteration is mainly affecting secondary minerals, with late prehnite veins ranging up to 0.7054. δ18O values range from +1 to + 6 per mil. Combined with metamorphic data this indicates alteration at temperatures between 200 and 400 °C. Secondary clinopyroxene and talc replacing serpentine are interpreted to indicate transient prograde hydrothermal events. Preliminary modelling using Comsol Multiphysics suggests that the temperatures of the overprinting alteration, as well as transient prograde events, could be achieved in a permeable fault slot cutting through crust 0.5 to 1 m.y. old. The prehnite-chlorite assemblage is predicted to be important in off-axis alteration, common in any

  20. PKS 2155-304 in July 2006: H.E.S.S. results and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Boisson, Catherine; Sol, Helne; Zech, Andreas; Benbow, Wystan; Buehler, Rolf; Costamante, Luigi; Raue, Martin; Giebels, Berrie; Superina, Giulia; Punch, Michael; Volpe, Francesca

    2008-12-24

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest and best-studied VHE {gamma}-ray sources in the southern hemisphere. The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has monitored PKS 2155-304 in 2006 and a multi-wavelength campaign involving X-ray, optical and radio observatories was triggered by the detection of an active state in July 2006, followed by the detection of two extraordinary flares on July, 28th and 30th, with peak fluxes {approx}100 times the usual values. We present results from the spectral and flux variability analysis of the VHE and simultaneous X-ray observations with Chandra during the second flare, as well as the detailed evolution of the VHE flux of PKS 2155-304 observed by H.E.S.S. in 2006. A study of flux correlations in the different frequency ranges during the second flare and the adjacent nights is discussed. We also present an interpretation of the active state of PKS 2155-304 in the framework of synchrotron self-Compton emission.

  1. Clostridium difficile ribotypes 001, 017, and 027 are associated with lethal C. difficile infection in Hesse, Germany.

    PubMed

    Arvand, M; Hauri, A M; Zaiss, N H; Witte, W; Bettge-Weller, G

    2009-01-01

    From January 2008 to April 2009, 72 cases of severe Clostridium difficile infection were reported from 18 different districts in the state of Hesse, Germany. A total of 41 C. difficile isolates from 41 patients were subjected to PCR ribotyping. PCR ribotype (RT) 027 was the most prevalent strain accounting for 24 of 41 (59%) of typed isolates, followed by RT 001 (eight isolates, 20%), RT 017 and 042 (two isolates each), and RT 003, 066, 078, 081, and RKI-034 (one isolate each). Eighteen patients had died within 30 days after admission. C. difficile was reported as underlying cause of or contributing to death in 14 patients, indicating a case fatality rate of 19%. The patients with lethal outcome attributable to C. difficile were 59-89 years-old (median 78 years). Ribotyping results were available for seven isolates associated with lethal outcome, which were identified as RT 027 in three and as RT 001 and 017 in two cases each. Our data suggest that C. difficile RT 027 is prevalent in some hospitals in Hesse and that, in addition to the possibly more virulent RT 027, other toxigenic C. difficile strains like RT 001 and 017 are associated with lethal C. difficile infections in this region. PMID:19941785

  2. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in dental practices in Hesse, Germany: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hack, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    The quality of water from dental units is of considerable importance since patients and dental staff are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from the dental unit. This study analyzed the microbial quality of water obtained for periodical monitoring from 56 dental units in different dental practices in Hesse. Contamination by Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and increased total colony counts were detected in 27.8%, 3.5%, and 17% of samples. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for 28% of Legionella isolates. The Legionella concentration was >100 cfu/100 ml in 84% of contaminated samples. Samples collected from an instrument channel were more frequently contaminated by Legionella than those from cup filler (41.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.02). After release of these results, decontamination measures were performed in units that had revealed unsatisfactory results. The outcome of the intervention was followed-up by microbiological analysis. At follow-up, 65.2% and 72.7% of waterlines that had previously been contaminated by Legionella or had shown increased total colony counts were free of contamination. Our results show a high rate of contamination of water from dental units in dental practices in Hesse. They highlight the risk of exposure for patients and personnel and the need for effective strategies to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24265918

  3. Search for dark matter annihilation signatures in H.E.S.S. observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goudelis, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadsch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Serpico, P.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group are close satellites of the Milky Way characterized by a large mass-to-light ratio and are not expected to be the site of nonthermal high-energy gamma-ray emission or intense star formation. Therefore they are among the most promising candidates for indirect dark matter searches. During the last years the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes observed five of these dwarf galaxies for more than 140 hours in total, searching for TeV gamma-ray emission from annihilation of dark matter particles. The new results of the deep exposure of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, the first observations of the Coma Berenices and Fornax dwarves and the reanalysis of two more dwarf spheroidal galaxies already published by the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, Carina and Sculptor, are presented. In the absence of a significant signal new constraints on the annihilation cross section applicable to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are derived by combining the observations of the five dwarf galaxies. The combined exclusion limit depends on the WIMP mass and the best constraint is reached at 1-2 TeV masses with a cross-section upper bound of ˜ 3.9 ×10-24 cm3 s-1 at a 95% confidence level.

  4. XMM-Newton Observations Reveal the X-ray Counterpart of the Very-high-energy gamma-ray Source HESS J1640-465

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Puhlhofer, G.; Aharonian, F.A.; Hofmann, W.; Reimer, O.; Wagner, S.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Puehlhofer, G.; Aharonian, F.A.; Hofmann, W.; Reimer, O.; Wagner, S.

    2007-03-05

    We present X-ray observations of the as of yet unidentified very high-energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J1640-465 with the aim of establishing a counterpart of this source in the keV energy range, and identifying the mechanism responsible for the VHE emission. The 21.8 ksec XMM-Newton observation of HESS J1640-465 in September 2005 represents a significant improvement in sensitivity and angular resolution over previous ASCA studies in this region. These new data show a hard-spectrum X-ray emitting object at the centroid of the H.E.S.S. source, within the shell of the radio Supernova Remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0. This object is consistent with the position and flux previously measured by both ASCA and Swift-XRT but is now shown to be significantly extended. We argue that this object is very likely the counterpart to HESS J1640-465 and that both objects may represent the Pulsar Wind Nebula of an as of yet undiscovered pulsar associated with G338.3-0.0.

  5. DETECTION OF VHE {gamma}-RAYS FROM HESS J0632+057 DURING THE 2011 FEBRUARY X-RAY OUTBURST WITH THE MAGIC TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Alvarez, E. A.; Asensio, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bock, R. K.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Berger, K.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: pmunar@am.ub.es; and others

    2012-07-20

    The very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a {gamma}-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every {approx}321 days with a high eccentricity of {approx}0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE {gamma}-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no {gamma}-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus, HESS J0632+057 exhibits {gamma}-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore, our measurements provide for the first time the {gamma}-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar {gamma}-ray binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 and discuss the possible origin of the multi-wavelength emission of the source.

  6. CANGAROO-III OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCE HESS J1614-518

    SciTech Connect

    Mizukami, T.; Kubo, H.; Tanimori, T.; Kabuki, S.; Yoshida, T.; Nakamori, T.; Enomoto, R.; Kifune, T.; Akimoto, M.; Ishioka, H.; Kawachi, A.; Bicknell, G. V.; Clay, R. W.; Edwards, P. G.; Gunji, S.; Hara, S.; Hara, T.; Hayashi, S.; Kajino, F.; Katagiri, H. E-mail: kubo@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2011-10-20

    We report the detection, with the CANGAROO-III imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, of a very high energy gamma-ray signal from the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1614-518, which was discovered in the H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey. Diffuse gamma-ray emission was detected above 760 GeV at the 8.9{sigma} level during an effective exposure of 54 hr from 2008 May to August. The spectrum can be represented by a power law: (8.2 {+-} 2.2{sub stat} {+-} 2.5{sub sys}) x 10{sup -12} x (E/1 TeV){sup -}{gamma} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1} with a photon index {gamma} of 2.4 {+-} 0.3{sub stat} {+-} 0.2{sub sys}, which is compatible with that of the H.E.S.S. observations. By combining our result with multiwavelength data, we discuss the possible counterparts for HESS J1614-518 and consider radiation mechanisms based on hadronic and leptonic processes for a supernova remnant (SNR), stellar winds from massive stars, and a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Although a leptonic origin from a PWN driven by an unknown pulsar remains possible, hadronic-origin emission from an unknown SNR is preferred.

  7. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE UNIDENTIFIED SOURCE HESS J1841-055 WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Cardarelli, R.; Cattaneo, C.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Ali Staiti, G.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2013-04-20

    We report the observation of a very high energy {gamma}-ray source whose position is coincident with HESS J1841-055. This source has been observed for 4.5 years by the ARGO-YBJ experiment from 2007 November to 2012 July. Its emission is detected with a statistical significance of 5.3 standard deviations. Parameterizing the source shape with a two-dimensional Gaussian function, we estimate an extension {sigma}=(0.40{sup +0.32}{sub -0.22}){sup o}, which is consistent with the HESS measurement. The observed energy spectrum is dN/dE = (9.0 {+-} 1.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13}(E/5 TeV){sup -2.32{+-}0.23} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}, in the energy range 0.9-50 TeV. The integral {gamma}-ray flux above 1 TeV is 1.3 {+-} 0.4 Crab, which is 3.2 {+-} 1.0 times the flux derived by HESS. The differences in the flux determination between HESS and ARGO-YBJ and possible counterparts at other wavelengths are discussed.

  8. CANGAROO-III Observation of TeV Gamma Rays from the Unidentified Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1614-518

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, T.; Kubo, H.; Yoshida, T.; Nakamori, T.; Enomoto, R.; Tanimori, T.; Akimoto, M.; Bicknell, G. V.; Clay, R. W.; Edwards, P. G.; Gunji, S.; Hara, S.; Hara, T.; Hayashi, S.; Ishioka, H.; Kabuki, S.; Kajino, F.; Katagiri, H.; Kawachi, A.; Kifune, T.; Kiuchi, R.; Kunisawa, T.; Kushida, J.; Matoba, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsuzawa, I.; Mizumura, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Mori, M.; Muraishi, H.; Naito, T.; Nakayama, K.; Nishijima, K.; Ohishi, M.; Otake, Y.; Ryoki, S.; Saito, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Stamatescu, V.; Suzuki, T.; Swaby, D. L.; Thornton, G.; Tokanai, F.; Toyota, Y.; Tsuchiya, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yokoe, Y.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Yukawa, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection, with the CANGAROO-III imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, of a very high energy gamma-ray signal from the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1614-518, which was discovered in the H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey. Diffuse gamma-ray emission was detected above 760 GeV at the 8.9σ level during an effective exposure of 54 hr from 2008 May to August. The spectrum can be represented by a power law: (8.2 ± 2.2stat ± 2.5sys) × 10-12 × (E/1 TeV)-γ cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 with a photon index γ of 2.4 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys, which is compatible with that of the H.E.S.S. observations. By combining our result with multiwavelength data, we discuss the possible counterparts for HESS J1614-518 and consider radiation mechanisms based on hadronic and leptonic processes for a supernova remnant (SNR), stellar winds from massive stars, and a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Although a leptonic origin from a PWN driven by an unknown pulsar remains possible, hadronic-origin emission from an unknown SNR is preferred.

  9. [Book review] Epiphytic Lichen Diversity and its Dependence on Chemical Site Factors in Differently Elevated Dieback-affected Spruce Stands of the Harz Mountains, by Volker Hesse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Epiphytic lichen diversity and its dependence on chemical site factors in differently elevated dieback-affected spruce stands of the Harz Mountains. (Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 354). Volker Hesse. 2002. 191 pages, 66 figures, 49 tables, 23x14cm, 390 g. ISBN 978-3-443-64266-2.

  10. Detection of VHE γ-Rays from HESS J0632+057 during the 2011 February X-Ray Outburst with the MAGIC Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jankowski, F.; Jogler, T.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-07-01

    The very high energy (VHE) γ-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a γ-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every ~321 days with a high eccentricity of ~0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE γ-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no γ-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus, HESS J0632+057 exhibits γ-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore, our measurements provide for the first time the γ-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar γ-ray binary LS I +61°303 and discuss the possible origin of the multi-wavelength emission of the source.

  11. Curved spaces before Einstein: Karl Schwarzschild's cosmological speculations and the beginnings of relativistic cosmology (German Title: Gekrümmte Universen vor Einstein: Karl Schwarzschilds kosmologische Spekulationen und die Anfänge der relativistischen Kosmologie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, Matthias

    In contrast to most of his collegues in astronomy and physics, the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild immediately recognized the significance of general relativity for physics and astronomy, and played a pioneering role in its early development. In this contribution, it is argued that the clue for understanding Schwarzschild's exceptional reaction to general relativity lies in the study of his prerelativistic work. Long before the rise of general relativity, Schwarzschild occupied himself with foundational problems on the borderline of physics, astronomy, and mathematics that, from today's perspective, belong to the field of problems of that theory. In this contribution, the example of Schwarzschild's early speculations about the non-Euclidean nature of physical space on cosmological scales is presented and their reflection in his reception of general relativity is discussed.

  12. KARL: A Knowledge-Assisted Retrieval Language. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    A collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled KARL: A Knowledge-Assisted Retrieval Language, is presented. Information is given on data retrieval, natural language database front ends, generic design objectives, processing capababilities and the query processing cycle.

  13. Characterization of the in situ magnetic architecture of oceanic crust (Hess Deep) using near-source vector magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Masako; Tivey, Maurice A.; MacLeod, Christopher J.; Morris, Antony; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Shillington, Donna J.; Ferrini, Vicki

    2016-06-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies are a powerful tool for detecting geomagnetic polarity reversals, lithological boundaries, topographic contrasts, and alteration fronts in the oceanic lithosphere. Our aim here is to detect lithological contacts in fast-spreading lower crust and shallow mantle by characterizing magnetic anomalies and investigating their origins. We conducted a high-resolution, near-bottom, vector magnetic survey of crust exposed in the Hess Deep "tectonic window" using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Isis during RRS James Cook cruise JC21 in 2008. Hess Deep is located at the western tip of the propagating rift of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary near the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (2°15'N, 101°30'W). ROV Isis collected high-resolution bathymetry and near-bottom magnetic data as well as seafloor samples to determine the in situ lithostratigraphy and internal structure of a section of EPR lower crust and mantle exposed on the steep (~20°dipping) south facing slope just north of the Hess Deep nadir. Ten magnetic profiles were collected up the slope using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on ROV Isis. We develop and extend the vertical magnetic profile (VMP) approach of Tivey (1996) by incorporating, for the first time, a three-dimensional vector analysis, leading to what we here termed as "vector vertical magnetic profiling" approach. We calculate the source magnetization distribution, the deviation from two dimensionality, and the strike of magnetic boundaries using both the total field Fourier-transform inversion approach and a modified differential vector magnetic analysis. Overall, coherent, long-wavelength total field anomalies are present with a strong magnetization contrast between the upper and lower parts of the slope. The total field anomalies indicate a coherently magnetized source at depth. The upper part of the slope is weakly magnetized and magnetic structure follows the underlying slope morphology, including a "bench" and lobe

  14. H.E.S.S. discovery of VHE γ-rays from the quasar PKS 1510-089

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nguyen, N.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H. S.

    2013-06-01

    The quasar PKS 1510-089 (z = 0.361) was observed with the H.E.S.S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes during high states in the optical and GeV bands, to search for very high energy (VHE, defined as E ≥ 0.1 TeV) emission. VHE γ-rays were detected with a statistical significance of 9.2 standard deviations in 15.8 h of H.E.S.S. data taken during March and April 2009. A VHE integral flux of I(0.15 TeV < E < 1.0 TeV)= (1.0 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2sys) × 10-11 cm-2 s-1 is measured. The best-fit power law to the VHE data has a photon index of Γ = 5.4 ± 0.7stat ± 0.3sys. The GeV and optical light curves show pronounced variability during the period of H.E.S.S. observations. However, there is insufficient evidence to claim statistically significant variability in the VHE data. Because of its relatively high redshift, the VHE flux from PKS 1510-089 should suffer considerable attenuation in the intergalactic space due to the extragalactic background light (EBL). Hence, the measured γ-ray spectrum is used to derive upper limits on the opacity due to EBL, which are found to be comparable with the previously derived limits from relatively-nearby BL Lac objects. Unlike typical VHE-detected blazars where the broadband spectrum is dominated by nonthermal radiation at all wavelengths, the quasar PKS 1510-089 has a bright thermal component in the optical to UV frequency band. Among all VHE detected blazars, PKS 1510-089 has the most luminous broad line region. The detection of VHE emission from this quasar indicates a low level of γ - γ absorption on the internal optical to UV photon field.

  15. H.E.S.S. reveals a lack of TeV emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Puppis A is an interesting ~4 kyr-old supernova remnant (SNR) that shows strong evidence of interaction between the forward shock and a molecular cloud. It has been studied in detail from radio frequencies to high-energy (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) γ-rays. An analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has shown extended HE γ-ray emission with a 0.2-100 GeV spectrum exhibiting no significant deviation from a power law, unlike most of the GeV-emitting SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. This makes it a promising target for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) to probe the γ-ray emission above 100 GeV. Aims: Very-high-energy (VHE, E ≥ 0.1 TeV) γ-ray emission from Puppis A has been, for the first time, searched for with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the direction and energy of the incident γ-rays in order to produce sky images and source spectra. The profile likelihood method is applied to find constraints on the existence of a potential break or cutoff in the photon spectrum. Results: The analysis of the H.E.S.S. data does not reveal any significant emission towards Puppis A. The derived upper limits on the differential photon flux imply that its broadband γ-ray spectrum must exhibit a spectral break or cutoff. By combining Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. measurements, the 99% confidence-level upper limits on such a cutoff are found to be 450 and 280 GeV, assuming a power law with a simple exponential and a sub-exponential cutoff, respectively. It is concluded that none of the standard limitations (age, size, radiative losses) on the particle acceleration mechanism, assumed to be continuing at present, can explain the lack of VHE signal. The scenario in which particle acceleration has ceased some time ago is considered as an alternative explanation. The HE/VHE spectrum of Puppis A could then exhibit a break of non-radiative origin (as

  16. INTEGRAL IGR J18135-1751 = HESS J1813-178: A New Cosmic High-Energy Accelerator from keV to TeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; De Rosa, A.; Lebrun, F.; Moran, L.; Renaud, M.; Stephen, J. B.; Terrier, R.; Walter, R.

    2005-08-01

    We report the discovery of a soft gamma-ray source, namely, IGR J18135-1751, detected with IBIS, the Imager on Board the INTEGRAL Satellite. The source is persistent and has a 20-100 keV luminosity of ~5.7× 1034 ergs s-1 (assuming a distance of 4 kpc). This source is coincident with one of the eight unidentified objects recently reported by the HESS collaboration as part of the first TeV survey of the inner part of the Galaxy. Two of these new sources found along the Galactic plane, HESS J1813-178 and HESS J1614-518, have no obvious lower energy counterparts, a fact that motivated the suggestion that they might be dark cosmic ray accelerators. HESS J1813-178 has a strongly absorbed X-ray counterpart, the ASCA source AGPS 273.4-17.8, showing a power-law spectrum with photon index ~1.8 and a total (Galactic plus intrinsic) absorption corresponding to NH~5×1022 cm-2. We hypothesize that the source is a pulsar wind nebula embedded in its supernova remnant. The lack of X-ray or gamma-ray variability, the radio morphology, and the ASCA spectrum are all compatible with this interpretation. In any case we rule out the hypothesis that HESS J1813-178 belongs to a new class of TeV objects or that it is a cosmic ``dark particle'' accelerator. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic, and Poland and with the participation of Russia and the US.

  17. Comparative studies on pheno- and genotypic properties of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in central Java in Indonesia and Hesse in Germany.

    PubMed

    Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Khusnan, Zaini; Lammler, Christoph; Zschock, Michael

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, 35 Staphylococcal strain isolated from milk samples of 16 cows from eight farms of three different geographic locations in Central Java, Indonesia, and from milk samples of 19 cows from 19 farms of different geographic locations in Hesse, Germany, were compared pheno- and genotypically. On the basis of cultural and biochemical properties as well as by amplification of the 23S rRNA specific to Staphylococcus aureus, all isolates could be identified as S. aureus. In addition, all S. aureus isolates harboured the genes clfA and coa encoding staphylococcal clumping factor and coagulase, and the gene segments encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region and the X-region of protein A gene spa. By PCR amplification, the genes seb, seg, seh, and sei was observed for the S. aureus cultures isolated in Central Java, Indonesia and the genes sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, sej and tst for the S. aureus cultures isolated in Hesse, Germany. None of the S. aureus of both origins harboured the genes sea, see, eta and etb. All isolates were additionally positive for the genes nuc, fnbA, hla, and set1. The gene hlb was found for 6 cultures from Central Java, Indonesia and 16 cultures from Hesse, Germany. However, the gene fnbB and the gene segments cnaA and cnaB were not present among the strains isolated in Central Java, Indonesia and rare among the strains isolated in Hesse, Germany. It was of interest that most of the S. aureus isolated in Central Java, Indonesia harboured the gene cap5 and most of the strains isolated in Hesse, Germany the gene cap8. The phenotypic and genotypic results of the present study might help to understand the distribution of prevalent S. aureus clones among bovine mastitis isolates of both countries and might help to control S. aureus infections in dairy herds. PMID:15192336

  18. Search for TeV Gamma-ray Emission from GRB 100621A, an extremely bright GRB in X-rays, with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H. T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-05-01

    The long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 100621A, at the time the brightest X-ray transient ever detected by Swift-XRT in the 0.3-10 keV range, has been observed with the H.E.S.S. imaging air Cherenkov telescope array, sensitive to gamma radiation in the very-high-energy (VHE, >100 GeV) regime. Due to its relatively small redshift of z ~ 0.5, the favourable position in the southern sky and the relatively short follow-up time (<700 s after the satellite trigger) of the H.E.S.S. observations, this GRB could be within the sensitivity reach of the H.E.S.S. instrument. The analysis of the H.E.S.S. data shows no indication of emission and yields an integral flux upper limit above ~380 GeV of 4.2 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 (95% confidence level), assuming a simple Band function extension model. A comparison to a spectral-temporal model, normalised to the prompt flux at sub-MeV energies, constraints the existence of a temporally extended and strong additional hard power law, as has been observed in the other bright X-ray GRB 130427A. A comparison between the H.E.S.S. upper limit and the contemporaneous energy output in X-rays constrains the ratio between the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray fluxes to be greater than 0.4. This value is an important quantity for modelling the afterglow and can constrain leptonic emission scenarios, where leptons are responsible for the X-ray emission and might produce VHE gamma rays.

  19. IODP Expedition 345: Bulk Mineralogy From Lower Oceanic Crustal Rocks of the Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintsch, R. P.; Bish, D. L.; Meyer, R.

    2013-12-01

    Young lower oceanic crustal rocks produced along the East Pacific Rise are exposed at the sea floor of the Hess Deep by rifting of the Cocos-Nazca ridge. Coring into these rocks (IODP Expedition 345) had the goal of understanding the petrologic processes that produce lower oceanic crust. Variable orientations of magmatic layering and foliation and magnetic remanance directions in the recovered gabbro and troctolite suggest that these samples were extracted from large blocks slumped into the rift. The overall poor recovery of core (~30%) and thick sections of broken rock disaggregated by cataclasis suggest that associated fractures produced the locally intense alteration of the magmatic mineralogy. We characterized this alteration by collecting the cuttings from the rock saw that divided the core into archive and working halves. The resultant ~1 mm wide slot should yield a calculated ~150 g/m of core, constituting the most representative sample of the entire core possible. A plastic housing surrounding the entire saw assembly captured all sedimented cuttings as well as distilled wash and lubricating water. All cuttings and a final wash water (holding suspended clay-size particles) were collected through the single drain at the base of the housing. We recovered 132 g/m of core, in close agreement with the calculations above. Our results show that the suspended material constitutes 10- 30 wt.% of the total sample, demonstrating the need for collection of the rinse water. Modal mineralogy of a few samples was measured by quantitative X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld methods. These results revealed in descending order of abundance the magmatic plagioclase, augite, and Fe-forsterite identified optically. The higher-temperature alteration mineral actinolite was present at low concentrations. Alteration phyllosilicates included chlorite > prehnite > lizardite > talc. Chrysotile and antigorite were not identified. Rietveld refinements confirmed the presence of low

  20. [The Concept of Typology in Psychiatry in the Context of Historical Contributions of Max Weber and Karl Jaspers].

    PubMed

    Jäger, M; Becker, T; Wigand, M E

    2016-08-01

    Against the background of Max Weber's and Karl Jaspers' outstanding historical contributions to the conceptual development of different typologies, the importance of a psychiatric typology is examined. The term "ideal type" was introduced into social science by Weber as an analytical construct to describe and classify cultural phenomena. This concept was adopted for the psychiatric context by Jaspers who proposed to establish a typological system in the field of psychotic disturbances without an organic correlate. He emphasized the importance of the course of psychopathological symptoms for such a typological system. The concept of typology can be regarded as a promising heuristic approach in psychiatry, providing a classification system for complex psychopathological symptoms. Even though several historic typologies exist in psychopathology, their usefulness in the fields of therapy and prognosis needs to be critically assessed. Also, new typologies will have to be developed, taking into account neurobiological knowledge now available. PMID:27570905

  1. Differentiation of rye and wheat flour as well as mixtures by using the kinetics of Karl Fischer water titration.

    PubMed

    Hădărugă, Daniel I; Costescu, Corina I; Corpaş, Laura; Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Isengard, Heinz-Dieter

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to find a simple way to differentiate between rye and wheat flour and their mixtures by using the kinetic parameters of Karl Fischer water titration (KFT). Consequently, the water content and type of molecules in rye and wheat mixtures used in Romanian bread making have been investigated by means of volumetric KFT. Further, the kinetics of KFT have been determined and novel kinetic parameters corresponding to "surface" and "strongly-retained" water molecules have been identified to discriminate between rye and wheat flour and their mixtures. The "surface" and "strongly-retained" water reaction rates well correlate with the rye content in the flour mixtures, especially at higher temperature analysis (r>0.95). These parameters can be used as indicators for quality evaluation of such type of mixtures, as well as to identify adulteration by improper use of the rye-wheat flour ratios in bread making. PMID:26575711

  2. Numerical modelling of Triple Junction Tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey: implications for the mechanism of magma transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoǧlu, Özgür; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). Suitably stressed crustal materials of the extruded block on the Karlıova-type triple junctions are potential regions for magma ascent. The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple junction tectonic settings is, however, poorly understood. This study discusses the mechanism of magma propagation in the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ) tectonic regime. We aim to demonstrate how the geometry and mechanical properties of faults and rock units affect magma propagation under a variety of tectonic boundary loads. We discuss the geologic setting of the KTJ and the manifestations of shallow and deeper magma chambers within the crustal segment. Our numerical modelling study aims to quantify the crustal response of various tectonic regimes in Eastern Turkey. The region is characterised by lithological heterogeneity which is considered in our models. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models to help constrain evolving ideas regarding inversion and transtensional tectonics in an east-west direction along the KTJ. We also consider a north to south striking profile which is subjected to regional compression and local extensional tectonic phases which likely operated in the region ~3 My. A three-dimensional model is presented to investigate the effect of regional differential stresses. Our numerical models demonstrate that the regional tectonic stresses that are capable of encouraging magma-chamber failure and dyke propagation. Turnadaǧ volcanism at the western part of this triple junction has been fed by a shallow magma chamber located at 8-10 km depth during E-W extension. The Varto caldera is also fed by a shallow magma chamber at 8-10 km depth. Numerical results show that if the region were to be

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of hematologist Karl F. Hubner, M.D., December 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl F. Hubner by representatives of the US DOE Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Hubner was selected for this interview because of his participation in the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies(ORINS)/Oak Ridge Associated Universities(ORAU) Medical Division cancer therapy research program involving total body irradiation. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Hubner discusses his research in Bone Marrow Transplants, his participation in the development of Nuclear Medicine in Oak Ridge, use of the total body irradiation machine at the University of Tennessee School of Agriculture Animal Research Laboratory (later the Comparative Animal Research Laboratory or CARL) to deliver a high enough dose rate to destroy a patients immune system, the operation of a sterile environment for recovery of patients following bone- marrow transplantation, and the closing of the ORAU Medical Division`s Clinical Program following a negative review. Finally, Dr. Hubner describes his later research using PET.

  4. Spectral study of the HESS J1745-290 gamma-ray source as dark matter signal

    SciTech Connect

    Cembranos, J.A.R.; Gammaldi, V.; Maroto, A.L. E-mail: vivigamm@ucm.es

    2013-04-01

    We study the main spectral features of the gamma-ray fluxes observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source during the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. In particular, we show that these data are well fitted as the secondary gamma-rays photons generated from dark matter annihilating into Standard Model particles in combination with a simple power law background. We present explicit analyses for annihilation in a single standard model particle-antiparticle pair. In this case, the best fits are obtained for the uū and d d-bar quark channels and for the W{sup +}W{sup −} and ZZ gauge bosons, with background spectral index compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. The fits return a heavy WIMP, with a mass above ∼ 10 TeV, but well below the unitarity limit for thermal relic annihilation.

  5. Spectral study of the HESS J1745-290 gamma-ray source as dark matter signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Gammaldi, V.; Maroto, A. L.

    2013-04-01

    We study the main spectral features of the gamma-ray fluxes observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source during the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. In particular, we show that these data are well fitted as the secondary gamma-rays photons generated from dark matter annihilating into Standard Model particles in combination with a simple power law background. We present explicit analyses for annihilation in a single standard model particle-antiparticle pair. In this case, the best fits are obtained for the uū and dbar d quark channels and for the W+W- and ZZ gauge bosons, with background spectral index compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. The fits return a heavy WIMP, with a mass above ~ 10 TeV, but well below the unitarity limit for thermal relic annihilation.

  6. Detection of radio emission at mas scales from HESS J0632+057 with the e-EVN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldon, Javier; Ribo, Marc; Paredes, Josep M.

    2011-02-01

    HESS J0632+057 is a variable TeV gamma-ray source (Aharonian et al. 2007, A&A, 469, L1, Acciari et al. 2009, ApJ, 698, L94). The likely low energy counterparts of the source are XMMU J063259.3+054801, the B0pe-type star MWC 148 (Hinton et al. 2009, ApJ, 690, L101), and a point-like probable non-thermal radio source (#3 in Skilton et al. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 317). Falcone et al. 2011 (ATEL #3152) reported increased X-ray activity detected by Swift-XRT between January 23 and February 6, 2011 (MJD 55584-55598).

  7. THE TeV BINARY HESS J0632+057 IN THE LOW AND HIGH X-RAY STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, Nanda; Torres, Diego F.

    2011-08-10

    We report on a 40 ks Chandra observation of the TeV emitting high-mass X-ray binary HESS J0632+057 performed in 2011 February during a high state of X-ray and TeV activity. We have used the ACIS-S camera in continuous clocking mode to search for a possible X-ray pulsar in this system. Furthermore, we compare the emission of the source during this high state, with its X-ray properties during a low state of emission, caught by a 47 ks XMM-Newton observation on 2007 September. We did not find any periodic or quasi-periodic signal in any of the two observations. We derived an average pulsed fraction 3{sigma} upper limit for the presence of a periodic signal of {approx}<35% and 25% during the low and high emission states, respectively (although this limit is strongly dependent on the frequency and the energy band). Using the best X-ray spectra derived to date for HESS J0632+057, we found evidence for a significant spectral change between the low and high X-ray emission states, with the absorption value and the photon index varying between N{sub H} {approx_equal} (2.1-4.3) x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} and {Gamma} {approx_equal} 1.18-1.61. In contrast to what has been observed in other TeV binaries, it seems that in this source the higher the flux, the softer the X-ray spectrum.

  8. H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT discovery of VHE and HE emission from blazar 1ES 0414+009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Fegan, S.

    2009-11-01

    The H.E.S.S. and Fermi collaborations report the discovery of very-high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; E>1GeV) gamma-ray emission from the high energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0414+009 (RA: 04h16m52.41s, DEC: +01d05m24.3s, J2000) located at a redshift of z=0.287 (Sbarufatti et al., ApJ, 635:173-179, 2005), one of the furthest VHE blazars with a well-determined redshift today. The VHE emission of this source has been detected in a 60h data-set of good-quality observations taken between October 3, 2005 and September 28, 2009, with the H.E.S.S.

  9. Nature of the unidentified TeV source HESS J1614-518 revealed by Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Yajima, Yukie; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2012-03-01

    We report new results concerning HESS J1614-518, which exhibits two regions with intense γ-ray emission. The south and center regions of HESS J1614-518 were observed with Suzaku in 2008, while the north region with the 1st brightest peak was observed in 2006. No X-ray counterpart is found at the 2nd brightest peak; the upper limit of the X-ray flux is estimated as 1.6×10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. A previously-known soft X-ray source, Suzaku J1614-5152, is detected at the center of HESS J1614-518. Analyzing the XMM-Newton archival data, we reveal that Suzaku J1614-5152 consists of multiple point sources. The X-ray spectrum of the brightest point source, XMMU J161406.0-515225, could be described by a power-law model with the photon index Γ = 5.2+0.6-0.5 or a blackbody model with the temperature kT = 0.38+0.04-0.04keV. In the blackbody model, the estimated column density NH = 1.1+0.3-0.2×1022cm-2 is almost the same as that of the hard extended X-ray emission in Suzaku J1614-5141, spatially coincident with the 1st peak position. In this case, XMMU J161406.0-515225 may be physically related to Suzaku J1614-5141 and HESS J1614-518.

  10. Nature of the Unidentified TeV Source HESS J1614-518 Revealed by Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, M.; Yajima, Y.; Matsumoto, H.

    2013-03-01

    We report new results concerning HESS J1614-518, which exhibits two regions with intense γ-ray emission. The south and center regions of HESS J1614-518 were observed with Suzaku in 2008, while the north region with the 1st brightest peak was observed in 2006. No X-ray counterpart is found at the 2nd brightest peak; the upper limit of the X-ray flux is estimated as 1.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. A previously-known soft X-ray source, Suzaku J1614-5152, is detected at the center of HESS J1614-518. Analyzing the XMM-Newton archival data, we reveal that Suzaku J1614-5152 consists of multiple point sources. The X-ray spectrum of the brightest point source, XMMU J161406.0-515225, could be described by a power-law model with the photon index Γ = 5.2+0.6-0.5 or a blackbody model with the temperature kT = 0.38+0.04-0.04 {keV}. In the blackbody model, the estimated column density N H = 1.1+0.3-0.2 × 1022 {cm}-2 is almost the same as that of the hard extended X-ray emission in Suzaku J1614-5141, spatially coincident with the 1st peak position. In this case, XMMU J161406.0-515225 may be physically related to Suzaku J1614-5141 and HESS J1614-518.

  11. Nature of the Unidentified TeV Source HESS J1614-518, Revealed by Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Yajima, Yukie; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2011-11-01

    We report on new Suzaku and XMM-Newton results concerning HESS J1614-518, which is one of the brightest extended TeV γ-ray sources and has two regions with intense γ-ray emission. We newly observed the south and center regions of HESS J1614-518 with Suzaku, since the north region, including the position of the 1st brightest peak of the TeV γ-ray emission, has already been observed. No X-ray counterpart was found at the position of the 2nd brightest peak of the TeV γ-ray emission; we estimated the upper limit of the X-ray flux to be 1.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. The soft X-ray source Suzaku J1614-5152, which was found at the edge of the field of view in a previous observation, was also detected at the middle of HESS J1614-518. Analyzing the XMM-Newton archival data, we revealed that Suzaku J1614-5152 consists of multiple point sources. The X-ray spectrum of the brightest point source, XMMU J161406.0-515225, can be described by a power-law model with a photon index of Γ = 5.2+0.6-0.5, or a blackbody model with temperature kT = 0.38+0.04-0.04 keV. In the blackbody model, the hydrogen-equivalent column density is almost the same as that of the hard extended X-ray emission, Suzaku J1614-5141, which was found at the 1st peak position. If true, XMMU J161406.0-515225 may be physically related to Suzaku J1614-5141 and HESS J1614-518.

  12. Characterization of the in situ magnetic and lithologic architecture of Hess Deep using near-bottom vector magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Morris, A.; Shillington, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies are a powerful tool in detecting not only geomagnetic polarity reversals but also lithological boundaries, topographic contrasts, and alteration fronts in the oceanic lithosphere. Recent progress in marine magnetic studies shows that the lower oceanic crust is an integral part of the magnetic source layer and a complete understanding of oceanic crustal magnetization must incorporate knowledge of this lower crust as well as the extrusive upper crust. To fully investigate the possible origins of magnetic anomalies in fast-spreading lower crust, we analyzed high-resolution, near-bottom, 3-component magnetic data acquired at the Hess Deep “tectonic window” by RRS James Cook cruise JC-21. Hess Deep is located at the western tip of the propagation rift of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary near the East Pacific Rise (2° 15’N, 101° 30’W). Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) ISIS collected high-resolution bathymetry and magnetic data as well as seafloor samples to determine the in situ lithology of the Hess Deep crust. Magnetic study is focused on a south-facing slope with the total area of 3 x 1.6 km2. Rock samples indicate that the western part of the slope is primarily composed of gabbros while the eastern part is mainly dikes, although the location of the lithological boundary is ambiguous from the sampling and observations alone. A total of 10 magnetic profiles along the slope were collected by a magnetometer mounted on ISIS. The raw magnetic data were corrected for the ROV motion and external field variations, and then merged with navigation data. We used a geometrical transformation to project the magnetic data into a rotated horizotal scarp face and then calculated the source magnetization distribution, 3D indices and strikes of possible magnetic boundaries using both the total-field Fourier-transform inversion approach and a modified differential vector magnetic analysis respectively. A strong magnetization contrast is found between the

  13. KARL FRIEDRICH ZOELLNER and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry A collection of papers on the History of Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  14. Discovery of an unidentified TeV source in the field of view of PSR B1259-63 with H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Beilicke, M.; Raue, M.; Khelifi, B.; Masterson, C.; Naurois, M. de; Rolland, L.

    2005-02-21

    The detection of an unidentified extended TeV {gamma}-ray source in the Southern Cross region close to the galactic plane being named HESS J1303-631 is reported. The observations have been performed between February and June 2004 with the new stereoscopic system of four Cherenkov telescopes operated by the H.E.S.S. collaboration in Namibia. The telescopes were initially pointed to the binary system PSR B1259-63/SS 2883 which was for the first time detected at TeV energies within this observation campaign (see parallel paper). In the same dataset the unidentified TeV source HESS J1303-631 has been discovered serendipitously roughly 0.6 deg. north of the PSR B1259-63 position leading --for the first time in TeV {gamma}-ray astronomy - to the detection of two sources within the same field of view. The new source is extended on the 0.2 deg. level and - up to now - no counterpart in other wavelengths has been identified. The measured flux is compatible with constant emission on the 10% flux level of the Crab nebula and shows a hard energy spectrum which can be described by a power-law with an index of {gamma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.2stat. In this paper various consistency checks which confirm the celestial origin of the observed excess are presented and preliminary results on the source extension and energy spectrum of the source are reported.

  15. Human and animal health on three continents--a biography of the early life of Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974).

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Karl Friedrich Meyer (KF) was born and educated as a veterinarian in Europe; he researched infectious diseases in Europe, South Africa and the United States. He is one of the true forefathers of the 'one health-one medicine' concept. The broad scope of his research covered botulism, leptospirosis, brucellosis, plague, ornithosis, Western equine encephalitis, mussel poisoning and clostridia. This manuscript adds some more details of his early biography. PMID:26032783

  16. IODP Expedition 345: Paleomagnetism and physical properties of primitive lower crustal rocks recovered from the Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A.; Ildefonse, B.; Horst, A. J.; Friedman, S. A.; Machi, S.; Adrião

    2013-12-01

    We report preliminary paleomagnetic and physical property results from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345, which recovered primitive gabbroic rocks from the Hess Deep Rift, where propagation of the Cocos-Nazca Ridge into young, fast-spreading East Pacific Rise crust has exposed a dismembered, but nearly complete lower crustal section. Gabbros and troctolites hold stable magnetizations with a variety of remanence structures. In all samples, components that unblock close to the magnetite Curie temperature are considered to represent primary thermoremanent magnetizations acquired during crustal accretion. Downhole variations in the inclination of this stable, high temperature component indicate that at least two blocks have been sampled in each of the two deepest holes (U1415J and U1415P). The data provide evidence of relative displacements of individual, internally coherent blocks (10's metres in size), consistent with emplacement by mass-wasting on the southern slope of the Hess Deep intrarift ridge. In addition to high unblocking temperature components, thermal demagnetization experiments also identified more complex remanences in some core pieces sampled in Hole U1415J. These show nearly antipodal components of magnetization that unblock over different temperature ranges, indicating that magnetizations were acquired across a time interval spanning at least two geomagnetic polarity chrons. Such multicomponent remanences have been observed only rarely in oceanic crust, and post-cruise research aimed at understanding their origin may provide constraints on conditions and processes at the time of geomagnetic reversals. Grain density ranges from 2.77 g/cc in troctolites to 2.90 g/cc in gabbro-gabbronorites, on average. Density decreases with increasing olivine mode, because olivine is significantly more altered than other minerals. Porosity is relatively low (0.6 to 1.2% on average), does not depend on lithology, and is higher (>3%) in the

  17. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high. PMID:12659179

  18. Karl Schwarzschild's investigations of ``out-of-focus photometry'' between 1897-1899 and his contribution to photographic photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1897 to 1899 Karl Schwarzschild was working at Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. During these years he developed new measuring techniques in the field of photographic photometry, where he particularly studied the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law during photographic exposures. During that time stellar magnitudes were almost exclusively determined by measuring the size of in-focus stellar disks. Photometry using out-of-focus exposures had been proposed, but had not yet been tried. Schwarzschild's very first paper in this context contains two important results: The intimation that estimating densities on out-of-focus plates could give an accuracy of better than 0.05 mag and the analysis of his photographic data indicated that the reciprocity law (S=Iṡ t), was not obeyed. >From the paper it is not clear how he came to set himself this double task. A series of singly exposed plates date from September 1897, whereas the series of exposures of particular relevance to the question of the time dependence of plate density all date from October 1897. It is remarkable how Schwarzschild succeeded in deriving a better approximation of the characteristic curve's dependence on intensity and time. The talk will focus on Schwarzschild's investigations of ``out-of-focus photometry'' between 1897 and 1899. A few selected original photographic plates will be presented and discussed.

  19. Monitoring observations of the interaction between Sgr A* and G2 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjouwerman, Loránt O.; Chandler, Claire J.

    2014-05-01

    We report on an ongoing community service observing program to follow the expected encounter of the G2 cloud with the black hole Sgr A* in 2013. The NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has been observing the Sgr A region since 2012 October on roughly a bi-monthly interval, each for two hours, cycling through eight observing bands at their default continuum frequencies, using 2 GHz of bandwidth. The data from the monitoring program are publicly available through the NRAO data archive immediately after observing has completed, and the flux densities are published by NRAO staff as soon as the data are reduced. The cumulative results of the monitoring effort are posted on the service observing web page https://science.nrao.edu/science/service-observing and so far do not indicate a significant brightening of the emission from the direction of Sgr A* over the period 2012 October to 2013 September, within the calibration uncertainties.

  20. Transforming sexuality: the medical sources of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-95) and the origins of the theory of bisexuality.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Ross

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the medical references in the writings of the German jurist and activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs as a means of breaking new ground in diverse fields (including history of medicine, history of sexuality, and gender history). It demonstrates that the theory of bisexuality has a much deeper and more textured genealogy than has been hitherto appreciated and that dual-gendered bodies and minds must be better recognized as important through the nineteenth century. Specifically, it demonstrates that classifications and rhetoric of hermaphroditism, and other dual-gendered categories (e.g., sexual dualism and anatomical bisexuality), were deployed in diverse contexts through the period, often with little or no reference to the occurrence of genital ambiguities. Important discourses in embryology, utilized by Ulrichs, suggested that all individuals, in the earliest stages of fetal development, were hermaphroditic. In making an analogy among the ontogeny of sex anatomy, hermaphroditism, and the development of erotic preferences, Ulrichs sought to naturalize homoeroticism, rendering social and legal prohibitions untenable. His advocacy, however, was counterbalanced by the Prussian forensic expert Johann Ludwig Casper who had made some conceptual maneuvers similar to Ulrichs only couched in the rhetoric of pathology. Ulrichs was equivocal in his use of forensic works such as Casper's, condemning their authors but recognizing similarities with his own gender schema. PMID:21081540

  1. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    SciTech Connect

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen; Güdel, Manuel; Rupen, Michael

    2014-06-20

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  2. Continued Development of in Situ Geochronology for Planetary Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    Geochronology is a fundamental measurement for planetary samples, providing the ability to establish an absolute chronology for geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration events, and providing global and solar system context for such events. The capability for in situ geochronology will open up the ability for geochronology to be accomplished as part of lander or rover complement, on multiple samples rather than just those returned. An in situ geochronology package can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache or return to Earth. The K-Ar radiometric dating approach to in situ dating has been validated by the Curiosity rover on Mars as well as several laboratories on Earth. Several independent projects developing in situ rock dating for planetary samples, based on the K-Ar method, are giving promising results. Among them, the Potassium (K)-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) at MSFC is based on techniques already in use for in planetary exploration, specifically, Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS, used on the Curiosity Chemcam), mass spectroscopy (used on multiple planetary missions, including Curiosity, ExoMars, and Rosetta), and optical imaging (used on most missions).

  3. 'Tipping the Balance': Karl Friedrich Meyer, Latent Infections, and the Birth of Modern Ideas of Disease Ecology.

    PubMed

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss-born medical researcher Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974) is best known as a 'microbe hunter' who pioneered investigations into diseases at the intersection of animal and human health in California in the 1920s and 1930s. In particular, historians have singled out Meyer's 1931 Ludwig Hektoen Lecture in which he described the animal kingdom as a 'reservoir of disease' as a forerunner of 'one medicine' approaches to emerging zoonoses. In so doing, however, historians risk overlooking Meyer's other intellectual contributions. Developed in a series of papers from the mid-1930s onwards, these were ordered around the concept of latent infections and sought to link microbial behavior to broader bio-ecological, environmental, and social factors that impact hostpathogen interactions. In this respect Meyer-like the comparative pathologist Theobald Smith and the immunologist Frank Macfarlane Burnet-can be seen as a pioneer of modern ideas of disease ecology. However, while Burnet's and Smith's contributions to this scientific field have been widely acknowledged, Meyer's have been largely ignored. Drawing on Meyer's published writings and private correspondence, this paper aims to correct that lacuna while contributing to a reorientation of the historiography of bacteriological epidemiology. In particular I trace Meyer's intellectual exchanges with Smith, Burnet and the animal ecologist Charles Elton, over brucellosis, psittacosis and plague-exchanges that not only showed how environmental and ecological conditions could 'tip the balance' in favor of parasites but which transformed Meyer thinking about resistance to infection and disease. PMID:26612760

  4. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Berg, G.P.A.; Hardt, A.; Huerlimann, W.; Meissburger, J.; Roemer, J.G.M.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  5. SPIN-DOWN MEASUREMENT OF PSR J1813-1749: THE ENERGETIC PULSAR POWERING HESS J1813-178

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.

    2012-07-01

    Two new X-ray timing observations of the 44.7 ms pulsar in G12.82-0.02/HESS J1813-178 were obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton to determine its precise spin-down rate. With a period derivative of P-dot 1.265 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13}, PSR J1813-1749 is the third most energetic pulsar in the Galaxy, having spin-down luminosity E-dot 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. Lack of pulsed detection in a deep radio search from the Green Bank Telescope, and in {gamma}-rays from Fermi, are reported. We reconsider the distance to PSR J1813-1749/G12.82-0.02 in view of its large X-ray measured column density, N{sub H} = 10 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, which exceeds the visual extinction A{sub V} = 9.1 to a young stellar cluster at d = 4.8 kpc that has been associated with it. Although the distance may well be larger, existing data do not constrain it further. The small radiative output of PSR J1813-1749/G12.82-0.02 in all bands would not exceed its spin-down power at any distance in the Galactic disk.

  6. Development of a Haptic Elbow Spasticity Simulator (HESS) for Improving Accuracy and Reliability of Clinical Assessment of Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung-Soon; Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the framework for developing a robotic system to improve accuracy and reliability of clinical assessment. Clinical assessment of spasticity tends to have poor reliability because of the nature of the in-person assessment. To improve accuracy and reliability of spasticity assessment, a haptic device, named the HESS (Haptic Elbow Spasticity Simulator) has been designed and constructed to recreate the clinical “feel” of elbow spasticity based on quantitative measurements. A mathematical model representing the spastic elbow joint was proposed based on clinical assessment using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and quantitative data (position, velocity, and torque) collected on subjects with elbow spasticity. Four haptic models (HMs) were created to represent the haptic feel of MAS 1, 1+, 2, and 3. The four HMs were assessed by experienced clinicians; three clinicians performed both in-person and haptic assessments, and had 100% agreement in MAS scores; and eight clinicians who were experienced with MAS assessed the four HMs without receiving any training prior to the test. Inter-rater reliability among the eight clinicians had substantial agreement (κ = 0.626). The eight clinicians also rated the level of realism (7.63 ± 0.92 out of 10) as compared to their experience with real patients. PMID:22562769

  7. Uranium and thorium enrichment in rocks from the base of DSDP Hole 465A, Hess Rise, central North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Koski, R.A.; Morgenson, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium and thorium are concentrated in Cretaceous limestone, chert, ash, basalt, and other rock types at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 465 located on the southern Hess Rise in the central North Pacific. U concentrations, up to 194 ppm on a carbonate-free basis, are among the highest recorded for any deep-sea deposits. U was initially derived from seawater and concentrated by absorption on terrigenous (humic) organic matter in limestone in a shallow marine environment. U and Th were probably concentrated further by low-temperature hydrothermal fluids emanating from the basaltic basement. Mainly montmorillonite, an alteration product of basalt and ash, and organic matter in sedimentary rocks acted as hosts for U and Th. The unique combination of sediments rich in humic organic matter, abundant smectite in altered ash and basalt, and warm hydrothermal solutions provided the necessary conditions for migration and concentration of U and Th. To better understand the conditions limiting the migrating and concentration of U and Th, other rocks deposited during the ocean-wide Cretaceous anoxic events should be analyzed for these elements. ?? 1982.

  8. Transfer of metals in soil-grass ecosystems under long-term N, P, K fertilization in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    With this study focuses on the influence of long-term (14 years) fertilization on metal transition from soil to plants is presented. Accumulation of metals in plants due to long-term fertilization and predicting the bioavailability and transfer of metals in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regard to human health as plants represent the first compartment of the terrestrial food chain. Soil and plant (Lolio-Cynosuretum) samples were taken from a 14 years long-term fertilization field experiment which was carried out in Hesse, Germany. Correlation coefficients, transfer factors, and regression analysis was performed for Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to quantify the relative difference in bioavailability of metals to plants or to identify the capacity of plants to accumulate a given metal. Correlation coefficients between metals in soils and in plants show significant relationships (p<0.01) for selected metals. Metal bioavailability from soil to plant based on transfer factor (TF) was observed to decrease in the order Cd>Cu>Zn>Mn>Pb. Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that Corg, CEC and bioavailable metal content are the most important predictors for plant metal uptake.

  9. Possible radio and IR counterparts of the unidentified MILAGRO source MGRO J1908+06 (HESS J1908+063)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, Jorge A.; Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro; Muñoz-Arjonilla, Alvaro; Sánchez-Sutil, Juan R.

    2007-10-01

    Within the error box of the new VHE source HESS J1908+063 (astro- ph/07102418), which coincides with the recently reported MILAGRO unidentified source MGRO J1908+06, we have found one weak radio source in the 1.4 GHz NVSS maps and the variable star V* V347 Aql. The radio source, named NVSS J190803+061822, is located at an estimated J2000.0 ICRS position of RA=19h08m03.73s (+/-0.43s), DEC=+06d18'22.4" (+/-10.5") (1-sigma uncertainties), with a 20 cm flux density of 9.1 (+/- 1.9) mJy and may have a faint near IR counterpart in the 2MASS images (see the NVSS and Ks-band 2MASS plots, where the circle and rectangle represent the 1-sigma uncertainties, respectively).

  10. Detection of the Pulsar Wind Nebula HESS J1825-137 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondin, M.-H.; Funk, S.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Van Etten, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Espinoza, C. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Johnston, S.; Kramer, M.; Lande, J.; Michelson, P.; Possenti, A.; Romani, R. W.; Skilton, J. L.; Theureau, G.; Weltevrede, P.

    2011-09-01

    We announce the discovery of 1-100 GeV gamma-ray emission from the archetypal TeV pulsar wind nebula (PWN) HESS J1825-137 using 20 months of survey data from the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT is significantly spatially extended, with a best-fit rms extension of σ = 0fdg56 ± 0fdg07 for an assumed Gaussian model. The 1-100 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 1.38 ± 0.12 ± 0.16 and an integral flux above 1 GeV of (6.50 ± 0.21 ± 3.90) × 10-9 cm-2 s-1. The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses bring new constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the PWN system. The spatial extent and hard spectrum of the GeV emission are consistent with the picture of an inverse Compton origin of the GeV-TeV emission in a cooling-limited nebula powered by the pulsar PSR J1826-1334.

  11. Development of a modified Hess-Murray law for non-Newtonian fluids in bifurcating micro-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, David; Barber, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Microfluidic manifolds frequently require the use of bifurcating channels and these can be used to create precise concentration gradients for chemical applications. More recently, novel devices have been attempting to replicate vasculatures or bronchial structures occurring in nature with the goal of creating artificial bifurcations that mimic the basic principles of designs found in nature. In previous work, we have used the biological principles behind the Hess-Murray Law, where bifurcating structures exhibit a constant stress profile and follow a third-power rule, to enable rectangular or trapezoidal micro-channels to be fabricated using conventional lithographic or wet-etching techniques. Using biological principles to design man made devices is generally referred to as biomimetics and this approach has found success in a range of new and emerging topics. However, our previous work was limited to Newtonian flows. More recently, we have used the Rabinovitsch-Mooney equation to be able to extend our analysis to non-Newtonian fluids. This has allowed us to develop a new rule that can provide a design criterion to predict channel dimensions for non-Newtonian flows obeying a constant stress biological principle. The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council for support of CCP12 and Programme Grant award (grant number EP/I011927/1).

  12. DETECTION OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA HESS J1825-137 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Hinton, J. A.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Theureau, G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Guillemot, L.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Possenti, A.; Skilton, J. L. E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr E-mail: ave@stanford.edu

    2011-09-01

    We announce the discovery of 1-100 GeV gamma-ray emission from the archetypal TeV pulsar wind nebula (PWN) HESS J1825-137 using 20 months of survey data from the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT is significantly spatially extended, with a best-fit rms extension of {sigma} = 0.{sup 0}56 {+-} 0.{sup 0}07 for an assumed Gaussian model. The 1-100 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 1.38 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.16 and an integral flux above 1 GeV of (6.50 {+-} 0.21 {+-} 3.90) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses bring new constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the PWN system. The spatial extent and hard spectrum of the GeV emission are consistent with the picture of an inverse Compton origin of the GeV-TeV emission in a cooling-limited nebula powered by the pulsar PSR J1826-1334.

  13. HESS and Fermi-LAT discovery of γ-rays from the blazar 1ES 1312-423

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HESS Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Perkins, J. S.; Ojha, R.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Kadler, M.

    2013-09-01

    A deep observation campaign carried out by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) on Centaurus A enabled the discovery of γ-rays from the blazar 1ES 1312-423, 2° away from the radio galaxy. With a differential flux at 1 TeV of φ(1 TeV) = (1.9 ± 0.6stat ± 0.4sys) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 corresponding to 0.5 per cent of the Crab nebula differential flux and a spectral index Γ = 2.9 ± 0.5stat ± 0.2sys, 1ES 1312-423 is one of the faintest sources ever detected in the very high energy (E > 100 GeV) extragalactic sky. A careful analysis using three and a half years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) data allows the discovery at high energies (E > 100 MeV) of a hard spectrum (Γ = 1.4 ± 0.4stat ± 0.2sys) source coincident with 1ES 1312-423. Radio, optical, UV and X-ray observations complete the spectral energy distribution of this blazar, now covering 16 decades in energy. The emission is successfully fitted with a synchrotron self-Compton model for the non-thermal component, combined with a blackbody spectrum for the optical emission from the host galaxy.

  14. The 2012 Flare of PG 1553+113 Seen with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiaßon, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; FüSSling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadsch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemiére, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray flaring activity of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PG 1553+113 has been detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes. The flux of the source increased by a factor of 3 during the nights of 2012 April 26 and 27 with respect to the archival measurements with a hint of intra-night variability. No counterpart of this event has been detected in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope data. This pattern is consistent with VHE γ-ray flaring being caused by the injection of ultrarelativistic particles, emitting γ-rays at the highest energies. The dataset offers a unique opportunity to constrain the redshift of this source at z = 0.49 ± 0.04 using a novel method based on Bayesian statistics. The indication of intra-night variability is used to introduce a novel method to probe for a possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV), and to set limits on the energy scale at which Quantum Gravity (QG) effects causing LIV may arise. For the subluminal case, the derived limits are EQG,1 > 4.10 × 1017 GeV and EQG,2 > 2.10 × 1010 GeV for linear and quadratic LIV effects, respectively.

  15. Search for a dark matter annihilation signal from the galactic center halo with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abramowski, A; Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barnacka, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Conrad, J; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füssling, M; Gallant, Y A; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hague, J D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Keogh, D; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C-C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; Maxted, N; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Ryde, F; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schönwald, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Wierzcholska, A; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H-S

    2011-04-22

    A search for a very-high-energy (VHE; ≥100  GeV) γ-ray signal from self-annihilating particle dark matter (DM) is performed towards a region of projected distance r∼45-150  pc from the Galactic center. The background-subtracted γ-ray spectrum measured with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) γ-ray instrument in the energy range between 300 GeV and 30 TeV shows no hint of a residual γ-ray flux. Assuming conventional Navarro-Frenk-White and Einasto density profiles, limits are derived on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section (σv) as a function of the DM particle mass. These are among the best reported so far for this energy range and in particular differ only little between the chosen density profile parametrizations. In particular, for the DM particle mass of ∼1  TeV, values for (σv) above 3×10(-25)  cm(3) s(-1) are excluded for the Einasto density profile. PMID:21599352

  16. Multiresistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from humans, companion animals and horses in central Hesse, Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are an emerging problem in human and veterinary medicine. This study focused on comparative molecular characterization of β-lactamase and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from central Hesse in Germany. Isolates originated from humans, companion animals (dogs and cats) and horses. Results In this study 153 (83.6%) of the human isolates (n = 183) and 163 (91.6%) of the animal isolates (n = 178) were confirmed as ESBL producers by PCR and subsequent sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Predominant ESBL subtypes in human and animal samples were CTX-M-15 (49.3%) and CTX-M-1 (25.8%) respectively. Subtype blaCTX-M-2 was found almost exclusively in equine and was absent from human isolates. The carbapenemase OXA-48 was detected in 19 ertapenem-resistant companion animal isolates in this study. The Plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene aac(‘6)-Ib-cr was the most frequently detected antibiotic- resistance gene present in 27.9% of the human and 36.9% of the animal ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Combinations of two or up to six different resistance genes (penicillinases, ESBLs and PMQR) were detected in 70% of all isolates investigated. The most frequent species in this study was Escherichia coli (74%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.5%), and Enterobacter cloacae (4.2%). Investigation of Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups revealed underrepresentation of group B2 within the animal isolates. Conclusions Isolates from human, companion animals and horses shared several characteristics regarding presence of ESBL, PMQR and combination of different resistance genes. The results indicate active transmission and dissemination of multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among human and animal populations. PMID:25014994

  17. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE TeV {gamma}-RAY SOURCE HESS J1804-216

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Dacheng; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier

    2013-03-20

    We have analyzed three XMM-Newton observations of the central part of the unidentified TeV {gamma}-ray source HESS J1804-216. We focus on two X-ray sources, 2XMMi J180442.0-214221 (Src 1) and 2XMMi J180432.5-214009 (Src 2), which were suggested to be the possible X-ray counterparts to the TeV source. We discover a 2.93 hr X-ray periodicity from Src 1, with the pulse profile explained with a self-eclipsing pole in an eclipsing polar. Src 2 exhibits a strong Fe emission line (FWHM {approx} 0.3 keV and equivalent width {approx}0.8 keV) and large X-ray variability on timescales of hours and is probably an intermediate polar. Thus Src 1 and Src 2 are probably two field sources not responsible for the TeV emission. The observations were contaminated by strong stray light from a nearby bright source, and we see no clear extended X-ray emission that can be attributed to the supernova remnant G8.7-0.1, a popular possible association with the TeV source. The other possible association, the pulsar wind nebula candidate PSR J1803-2137, shows little long-term variability compared with a previous Chandra observation. Many point sources were serendipitously detected, but most of them are probably normal stars. Three new candidate compact object systems (other than Src 1, Src 2, and PSR J1803-2137) are also found. They are far away from the TeV source and are probably also magnetic cataclysmic variables, thus unlikely to be responsible for the TeV emission.

  18. Hydrothermal Spinel, Corundum and Diaspore in Gabbroic Rocks from the Hess Deep Rift, IODP Site U1415

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaka, T.; Meyer, R.; Wintsch, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of oceanic lower crust has significant implications on geophysical properties of oceanic plates and global-scale geochemical cycles. A first order observation on the hydrothermal alteration at fast-spreading ridges is provided by the gabbroic rocks recovered from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1415 at the Hess Deep Rift near the East Pacific Rise. Shipboard observations of these rocks have revealed an alteration sequence formed under temperature conditions ranging from amphibolite to zeolite facies with mineral assemblages including amphibole, secondary clinopyroxene, chlorite, talc, serpentine, prehnite, zeolite and clay minerals (Gillis et al., 2014). Amphibolite-facies alteration is illustrated by the tremolite-chlorite corona textures between primary olivine and plagioclase in primitive olivine gabbro or troctolite lithologies (Nozaka and Fryer, 2011). The abundance of these alteration mineral assemblages within some sampled intervals suggests localized high-temperature fluid flow near the spreading axis. Our post-cruise studies prove that some of the coronitic amphiboles, particularly those of incipient-stage corona have hornblendic compositions, suggesting a somewhat higher-temperature formation condition than tremolite. We report here another set of alteration products from Site U1415: that is, Al-spinel, corundum and diaspore. They occur in intensely altered parts of the drilled troctolites. The Al-spinel is associated with An-rich plagioclase and pargasitic amphibole that points to even higher temperature conditions than the amphibole-chlorite corona formation. The Al-spinel is partly replaced by corundum, and the corundum, in turn, is pseudomorphically replaced by diaspore. From modes of occurrence and chemical compositions of minerals, and thermodynamic calculations of the stability conditions for these mineral assemblages, we conclude that the highly aluminous phases were formed by localized fluid flow at

  19. Search for extended γ-ray emission around AGN with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Atäı, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemie`re, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Malyshev, D.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from blazars inevitably gives rise to electron-positron pair production through the interaction of these γ-rays with the extragalactic background light (EBL). Depending on the magnetic fields in the proximity of the source, the cascade initiated from pair production can result in either an isotropic halo around an initially beamed source or a magnetically broadened cascade flux. Aims: Both extended pair-halo (PH) and magnetically broadened cascade (MBC) emission from regions surrounding the blazars 1ES 1101-232, 1ES 0229+200, and PKS 2155-304 were searched for using VHE γ-ray data taken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray data with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Methods: By comparing the angular distributions of the reconstructed γ-ray events to the angular profiles calculated from detailed theoretical models, the presence of PH and MBC was investigated. Results: Upper limits on the extended emission around 1ES 1101-232, 1ES 0229+200, and PKS 2155-304 are found to be at a level of a few per cent of the Crab nebula flux above 1 TeV, depending on the assumed photon index of the cascade emission. Assuming strong extra-Galactic magnetic field (EGMF) values, >10-12 G, this limits the production of pair haloes developing from electromagnetic cascades. For weaker magnetic fields, in which electromagnetic cascades would result in MBCs, EGMF strengths in the range (0.3-3)× 10-15 G were excluded for PKS 2155-304 at the 99% confidence level, under the assumption of a 1 Mpc coherence length.

  20. One-electron contributions to the g-tensor for second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhoefer, B.; Neese, F.

    2012-09-01

    The electric g-tensor is a central quantity for the interpretation of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. In this paper, a detailed derivation of the 1-electron contributions to the g-tensor is presented in the framework of linear response theory and the second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) transformation. Importantly, the DKH transformation in the presence of a magnetic field is not unique. Whether or not the magnetic field is included in the required Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, different transformation matrices and, consequently, Hamiltonians result. In this paper, a detailed comparison of both approaches is presented, paying particular attention to the mathematical properties of the resulting Hamiltonians. In contrast to previous studies that address the g-tensor in the framework of DKH theory, the resulting terms are compared to those of the conventional Pauli theory and are given a physical interpretation. Based on these mathematical and physical arguments, we establish that the proper DKH transformation for systems with constant magnetic fields is based on a gauge-invariant Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, i.e., a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation including the magnetic field. Calculations using density functional theory (DFT) are carried out on a set of heavy, diatomic molecules, and a set of transition-metal complexes. Based on these calculations, the performance of the relativistic calculation with and without inclusion of picture-change effects is compared. Additionally, the g-tensor is calculated for the Lanthanide dihydrides. Together with the results from the other two molecular test sets, these calculations serve to quantify the magnitude of picture-change effects and elucidate trends across the periodic table.

  1. PROBING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED TeV GAMMA-RAY SOURCE HESS J0632+057 WITH SWIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, A. D.; Stroh, M.; Grube, J.; Hinton, J.; Skilton, J.; Holder, J.; Maier, G.; Mukherjee, R.

    2010-01-01

    New generation TeV gamma-ray telescopes have discovered many new sources, including several enigmatic unidentified TeV objects. HESS J0632+057 is a particularly interesting unidentified TeV source since: it is a point source, it has a possible hard-spectrum X-ray counterpart and a positionally consistent Be star, it has evidence of long-term very high energy gamma-ray flux variability, and it is postulated to be a newly detected TeV/X-ray binary. We have obtained Swift X-ray telescope observations of this source from MJD 54857 to 54965, in an attempt to ascertain its nature and to investigate the hypothesis that it is a previously unknown X-ray/TeV binary. Variability and spectral properties similar to those of the other three known X-ray/TeV binaries have been observed, with measured flux increases by factors of {approx}3. X-ray variability is present on multiple timescales including days to months; however, no clear signature of periodicity is present on the timescales probed by these data. If binary modulation is present and dominating the measured variability, then the period of the orbit is likely to be {>=}54 days (half of this campaign), or it has a shorter period with a variable degree of flux modulation on successive high states. If the two high states measured to date are due to binary modulation, then the favored period is approximately 35-40 days. More observations are required to determine if this object is truly a binary system and to determine the extent that the measured variability is due to inter-orbit flaring effects or periodic binary modulation.

  2. One-electron contributions to the g-tensor for second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess theory.

    PubMed

    Sandhoefer, B; Neese, F

    2012-09-01

    The electric g-tensor is a central quantity for the interpretation of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. In this paper, a detailed derivation of the 1-electron contributions to the g-tensor is presented in the framework of linear response theory and the second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) transformation. Importantly, the DKH transformation in the presence of a magnetic field is not unique. Whether or not the magnetic field is included in the required Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, different transformation matrices and, consequently, Hamiltonians result. In this paper, a detailed comparison of both approaches is presented, paying particular attention to the mathematical properties of the resulting Hamiltonians. In contrast to previous studies that address the g-tensor in the framework of DKH theory, the resulting terms are compared to those of the conventional Pauli theory and are given a physical interpretation. Based on these mathematical and physical arguments, we establish that the proper DKH transformation for systems with constant magnetic fields is based on a gauge-invariant Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, i.e., a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation including the magnetic field. Calculations using density functional theory (DFT) are carried out on a set of heavy, diatomic molecules, and a set of transition-metal complexes. Based on these calculations, the performance of the relativistic calculation with and without inclusion of picture-change effects is compared. Additionally, the g-tensor is calculated for the Lanthanide dihydrides. Together with the results from the other two molecular test sets, these calculations serve to quantify the magnitude of picture-change effects and elucidate trends across the periodic table. PMID:22957550

  3. NuSTAR Discovery Of A Young, Energetic Pulsar Associated with the Luminous Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1640-465

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Halpern, J. P.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, J. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV gamme-ray source HESS J1640-465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640-4631 lies within the shelltype supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P = 9.758(44) × 10(exp -13), yielding a spin-down luminosity E = 4.4 × 10(exp 36) erg s(exp -1), characteristic age tau(sub c) if and only if P/2 P = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub s) = 1.4×10(exp 13) G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3-0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640-465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E. The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5-4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640-4631, but we find no gamma-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640-465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n approximately equal to 2, and that its initial spin period was P(sub 0) approximately 15 ms.

  4. X-RAY EMISSION FROM HESS J1731-347/SNR G353.6-0.7 AND CENTRAL COMPACT SOURCE XMMS J173203-344518

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, W. W.; Li, Z.; Leahy, D. A.; Yang, J.; Lu, D.; Yang, X. J.; Yamazaki, R. E-mail: wtian@ucalgary.c

    2010-04-01

    We present new results of the HESS J1731-347/SNR G353.6-0.7 system from XMM-Newton and Suzaku X-ray observations and Delinha CO observations. We discover extended hard X-rays coincident with the bright, extended TeV source HESS J1731-347 and the shell of the radio supernova remnant (SNR). We find that spatially resolved X-ray spectra can generally be characterized by an absorbed power-law model, with a photon index of {approx}2, typical of non-thermal emission. A bright X-ray compact source, XMMS J173203-344518, is also detected near the center of the SNR. We find no evidence of a radio counterpart or an extended X-ray morphology for this source, making it unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebular (PWN). The spectrum of the source can be well fitted by an absorbed blackbody with a temperature of {approx}0.5 keV plus a power-law tail with a photon index of {approx}5, reminiscent of the X-ray emission of a magnetar. CO observations toward the inner part of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) source reveal a bright cloud component at -20 +- 4 km s{sup -1}, which is likely located at the same distance of {approx}3.2 kpc as the SNR. Based on the probable association between the X-ray and gamma-ray emissions and likely association between the CO cloud and the SNR, we argue that the extended TeV emission originates from the interaction between the SNR shock and the adjacent CO clouds rather than from a PWN.

  5. Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1832-093 in the vicinity of SNR G22.7-0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HESS Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Clapson, A.-C.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2015-01-01

    The region around the supernova remnant (SNR) W41 contains several TeV sources and has prompted the HESS Collaboration to perform deep observations of this field of view. This resulted in the discovery of the new very high energy (VHE) source HESS J1832-093, at the position {RA=18^h 32^m 50^s ± 3^s_{stat} ± 2^s_{syst}}, {Dec=-9*deg;22'36" ± 32"}_{stat} ± 20^' '}_{syst} (J2000)}, spatially coincident with a part of the radio shell of the neighbouring remnant G22.7-0.2. The photon spectrum is well described by a power law of index Γ = 2.6 ± 0.3stat ± 0.1syst and a normalization at 1 TeV of Φ _0=(4.8 ± 0.8_stat± 1.0_syst) × 10^{-13} cm ^{-2} s^{-1} TeV^{-1}. The location of the gamma-ray emission on the edge of the SNR rim first suggested a signature of escaping cosmic rays illuminating a nearby molecular cloud. Then a dedicated XMM-Newton observation led to the discovery of a new X-ray point source spatially coincident with the TeV excess. Two other scenarios were hence proposed to identify the nature of HESS J1832-093. Gamma-rays from inverse Compton radiation in the framework of a pulsar wind nebula scenario or the possibility of gamma-ray production within a binary system are therefore also considered. Deeper multiwavelength observations will help to shed new light on this intriguing VHE source.

  6. NuSTAR discovery of a young, energetic pulsar associated with the luminous gamma-ray source HESS J1640–465

    SciTech Connect

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Hailey, J. C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Christensen, F. E.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-06-20

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640–465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640–4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3–0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P-dot = 9.758(44) × 10{sup –13}, yielding a spin-down luminosity E-dot = 4.4 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}, characteristic age τ{sub c}≡P/2 P-dot = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 1.4 × 10{sup 13} G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3–0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640–465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E-dot . The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5–4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640–4631, but we find no γ-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640–465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n ≈ 2, and that its initial spin period was P {sub 0} ∼ 15 ms.

  7. Evidence for full-glacial flow and retreat of the Late Weichselian Ice Sheet from the waters around Kong Karls Land, eastern Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Kelly A.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Noormets, Riko; Evans, Jeffrey; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.

    2010-12-01

    Marine-geophysical and geological data from the seafloor surrounding Kong Karls Land in eastern Svalbard are used to reconstruct Late Weichselian full-glacial flow dynamics and retreat history of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet (BSIS). Grounded ice extended over the entire area during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and produced streamlined sedimentary landforms in the broad bathymetric troughs that flank the Kong Karls Land archipelago. The landforms were produced in subglacial till as a result of subglacial processes at the base of the ice sheet. Drumlins and hill-hole pairs confirm that regional ice-flow was towards the east-northeast through the troughs. Based on the absence of ice-margin recessional features, deglaciation in Olga Strait, Erik Eriksen Strait and the unnamed deep northeast of Kong Karls Land appears to have been rapid in the deeper, outer parts of the troughs. In contrast, in the shallower parts of the troughs, ice recession was slower and minor readvances/still-stands of the ice margin resulted in the formation of recessional moraines. During deglaciation, temporary calving bays formed in the deeper parts of the troughs and calved icebergs were evacuated away from the ice margin through the troughs. Grounding-zone features formed in Olga Strait indicate that retreat here was gradual and punctuated by longer still-stands. The transition from a grounded ice sheet to ice-proximal settings is marked locally by a laminated mud sequence deposited from meltwater plumes from a nearby ice margin. The presence of meltwater-derived facies suggests that melting may have also been a significant ice loss mechanism during retreat. In a broader context, this study is one of the first investigations of the seafloor east of Svalbard, providing evidence that ice drained towards the east-northeast during full-glacial conditions. Ice from this part of the BSIS was an important contributor to the palaeo-ice stream in the large Franz Victoria Trough during the LGM.

  8. The Douglas-Kroll-Hess method based on vector-potential-including Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation: Application to NMR shielding tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Hada, Masahiko

    2013-08-01

    We propose a novel Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation including a vector potential A, which can be used to introduce restricted magnetic balance in the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) method. We also demonstrate that the DKH method can be used in combination with the gauge-including atomic orbital method. For the numerical examination, we calculate the NMR shielding constants and anisotropies of noble gas atoms (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), halogens (F, Cl, Br, I), and chalcogens (O, S, Se, Te) in molecules without using extremely large basis sets.

  9. The environment of the γ-ray emitting SNR G338.3-0.0: a hadronic interpretation for HESS J1640-465

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supan, L.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Castelletti, G.

    2016-05-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0 spatially correlates with HESS J1640-465, which is considered the most luminous γ-ray source associated with a SNR in our Galaxy. The X-ray pulsar PSR J1640-4631 has been recently discovered within the SNR shell, which could favor a leptonic origin for the detected very-high-energy (VHE) emission. In spite of this, the origin of the VHE radiation from HESS J1640-465 has not been unambiguously clarified so far. Indeed, a hadronic explanation cannot be ruled out by current observations. On the basis of atomic (HI) and molecular (12CO) archival data, we determine, for the first time, the total ambient density of protons in the region of the G338.3-0.0/HESS J1640-465 system, a critical parameter for understanding the emission mechanisms at very high energies. The value obtained is in the 100-130 cm-3 range. Besides this, we developed a new hadronic model to describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the HESS J1640-465 source, which includes the latest total γ-ray cross-section for proton-proton collisions available in the literature. By using the assessed ambient proton density, we found that the total energy in accelerated protons required to fit the data is 5.4+4.7-2.3 ×1049 erg and 1.6+1.4-0.7 ×1050 erg for a source distance of 8.5 and 13 kpc, respectively. The case where the source distance is 8.5 kpc agrees with the typical scenario in which the energy released is on the order of 1051 erg and ~10% of that energy is transferred to the accelerated protons, whereas the case corresponding to a source distance of 13 kpc requires either a higher value of the energy released in the explosion or a larger energy fraction to accelerate protons.

  10. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D., conducted January 7, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report provided a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl. Z. Morgan by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Morgan was selected for this interview because of his research for the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago and his work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The oral history covers Dr. Morgan`s work as a pioneer in the field of Health Physics, his research at ORNL and his work since he retired from ORNL.

  11. Methanotrophic activity in the water column above shallow gas flares west of Prins Karls Forland, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gründger, Friederike; Svenning, Mette M.; Niemann, Helge; Silyakova, Anna; Serov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Ferre, Bénédicte; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Numerous gas flares, interpreted to be streams of methane bubbles, were discovered in shallow waters (average water depth about 90 m) on the continental shelf west of Prins Karls Forland (Western Svalbard) in the Arctic Ocean. Gas is released from the seabed to the water column and potentially transferred into the atmosphere where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In order to resolve the fate of dissolved methane in the water column, we carried out grid-pattern biogeochemical measurements in the study area of 30 x 15 km. Specifically, we measured concentrations of dissolved methane and microbial methane oxidation (MOx) rates at 8 water depths at 31 sampling stations and performed 16S rRNA sequencing analysis on selected samples to characterize the microbial community composition. Availability of dissolved methane is essential for the process of microbial methane oxidation. However, our measurements reveal that high concentrations of dissolved methane in the water column do not necessarily lead to high MOx rates. Our results indicated that the presence of marine methanotrophic biomass as well as dissolved organic matter is of larger importance for the process of microbial methane oxidation. For example, we found MOx hot spots with values up to 13 nmol l‑1 d‑1 at bottom water depth with dissolved methane concentrations less than 160 nmol l‑1. In contrast, at stations where bottom methane concentration values reached 640 nmol l‑1, MOx rates were less than 0.7 nmol l‑1 d‑1. To interpret observed interconnection between methane concentrations and MOx rates, we use vertical distributions of seawater temperature, salinity and properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). This information helps us characterize the oceanographic setting and circulation patterns in the area, which we believe has a major impact on the origin and distribution of methanotrophic microbial biomass and methane oxidation in methanerich bottom water. This study is part of the

  12. The Paradox of the Axial Melt Lens: Petrology and Geochemistry of the Upper Plutonics at Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenberg, C. J.; Loocke, M. P.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The axial melt lens (AML) is a steady-state magma-rich body located at the dyke-gabbro transition at intermediate- and fast-spreading ridges. It is widely believed to be the reservoir from which mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is erupted. The paradox of the axial melt lens is that the plutonic rocks that occur at this level are far too evolved to be in equilibrium with MORB, which is basaltic by definition; hence, the plutonic and volcanic records do not match. We explore this paradox by study of the first comprehensive sample suite of the uppermost plutonics of a fast-spreading ridge, taken by remotely-operated vehicle from the Hess Deep rift during cruise JC21. 23 samples (8 dolerites, 14 gabbronorites, and 1 gabbro) were collected from a section containing the transition from the uppermost gabbroic section into sheeted dykes. We present the results of a detailed petrographic and microanalytical investigation of these samples. They are dominated by evolved, varitextured (both in hand sample and thin section) oxide gabbronorites; olivine occurs in only one sample. A preponderance of the samples have positive Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr*, indicating a cumulate origin. However, the minerals have evolved compositions, and are in equilibrium with melts significantly more evolved than East Pacific Rise MORB. Furthermore, the trace element contents of clinopyroxene differ significantly from clinopyroxene in equilibrium with MORB, being more enriched in incompatible elements. To account for both the evidence of derivation of MORB from the AML and the evolved nature of its rock record, we posit that the AML must be fed by melts on two different timescales: continual low-volume feeding by evolved interstitial melt from the cumulus pile below is augmented episodically by delivery of high volumes of more primitive melt. The latter episodes may trigger eruptions; hence the primitive melts are held in the magma chamber for only short periods, and erupt on the seafloor before significant

  13. Long-term TeV and X-ray observations of the gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Byrum, K.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J. E-mail: afalcone@astro.psu.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2014-01-10

    HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary known so far whose position in the sky allows observations with ground-based observatories in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Here we report on long-term observations of HESS J0632+057 conducted with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System and High Energy Stereoscopic System Cherenkov telescopes and the X-ray satellite Swift, spanning a time range from 2004 to 2012 and covering most of the system's orbit. The very-high-energy (VHE) emission is found to be variable and is correlated with that at X-ray energies. An orbital period of 315{sub −4}{sup +6} days is derived from the X-ray data set, which is compatible with previous results, P = (321 ± 5) days. The VHE light curve shows a distinct maximum at orbital phases close to 0.3, or about 100 days after periastron passage, which coincides with the periodic enhancement of the X-ray emission. Furthermore, the analysis of the TeV data shows for the first time a statistically significant (>6.5σ) detection at orbital phases 0.6-0.9. The obtained gamma-ray and X-ray light curves and the correlation of the source emission at these two energy bands are discussed in the context of the recent ephemeris obtained for the system. Our results are compared to those reported for other gamma-ray binaries.

  14. Long-term TeV and X-Ray Observations of the Gamma-Ray Binary HESS J0632+057

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rousselle, J.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sheidaei, F.; Skole, C.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Stroh, M.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Williams, D. A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füssling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary known so far whose position in the sky allows observations with ground-based observatories in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Here we report on long-term observations of HESS J0632+057 conducted with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System and High Energy Stereoscopic System Cherenkov telescopes and the X-ray satellite Swift, spanning a time range from 2004 to 2012 and covering most of the system's orbit. The very-high-energy (VHE) emission is found to be variable and is correlated with that at X-ray energies. An orbital period of 315 ^{+6}_{-4} days is derived from the X-ray data set, which is compatible with previous results, P = (321 ± 5) days. The VHE light curve shows a distinct maximum at orbital phases close to 0.3, or about 100 days after periastron passage, which coincides with the periodic enhancement of the X-ray emission. Furthermore, the analysis of the TeV data shows for the first time a statistically significant (>6.5σ) detection at orbital phases 0.6-0.9. The obtained gamma-ray and X-ray light curves and the correlation of the source emission at these two energy bands are discussed in the context of the recent ephemeris obtained for the system. Our results are compared to those reported for other gamma-ray binaries.

  15. Probing the extent of the non-thermal emission from the Vela X region at TeV energies with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.' C.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nguyen, N.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Vela X is a region of extended radio emission in the western part of the Vela constellation: one of the nearest pulsar wind nebulae, and associated with the energetic Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). Extended very-high-energy (VHE) γ-ray emission (HESS J0835-455) was discovered using the H.E.S.S. experiment in 2004. The VHE γ-ray emission was found to be coincident with a region of X-ray emission discovered with ROSAT above 1.5 keV (the so-called Vela X cocoon): a filamentary structure extending southwest from the pulsar to the centre of Vela X. Aims: A deeper observation of the entire Vela X nebula region, also including larger offsets from the cocoon, has been performed with H.E.S.S. This re-observation was carried out in order to probe the extent of the non-thermal emission from the Vela X region at TeV energies and to investigate its spectral properties. Methods: To increase the sensitivity to the faint γ-ray emission from the very extended Vela X region, a multivariate analysis method combining three complementary reconstruction techniques of Cherenkov-shower images is applied for the selection of γ-ray events. The analysis is performed with the On/Off background method, which estimates the background from separate observations pointing away from Vela X; towards regions free of γ-ray sources but with comparable observation conditions. Results: The γ-ray surface brightness over the large Vela X region reveals that the detection of non-thermal VHE γ-ray emission from the PWN HESS J0835-455 is statistically significant over a region of radius 1.2° around the position α = 08h35m00s, δ = -45°36'00'' (J2000). The Vela X region exhibits almost uniform γ-ray spectra over its full extent: the differential energy spectrum can be described by a power-law function with a hard spectral index Γ = 1.32 ± 0.06stat ± 0.12sys and an exponential cutoff at an energy of (14.0 ± 1.6stat ± 2.6sys) TeV. Compared to the previous H.E.S.S. observations of Vela X the

  16. Insights into Oceanic Crust Accretion from a Comparison of Rock Magnetic and Silicate Fabrics from Lower Crustal Gabbros from Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, A. J.; Morris, A.; Friedman, S. A.; Cheadle, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of lower crustal accretion remain a long-standing question for those who study fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. One of the goals of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 is to test accretionary models by investigating the structure of the lower oceanic crust exposed within the Hess Deep Rift. Located near the tip of the westward-propagating Cocos-Nazca spreading center, Hess Deep Rift exposes crust formed at the East Pacific Rise. During IODP Expedition 345, primitive gabbroic rocks were recovered from a dismembered lower crustal section at ~4850 meters below sealevel. Constraints on physical processes during magmatic accretion are provided by the relative orientation and strength of rock fabrics. We present anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabric data from gabbros recovered from the two deepest holes (U1415J and U1415P). AMS measurements provide petrofabric data that may be used to constrain magma emplacement and subsequent magmatic flow. Bulk susceptibility ranges from 1.15 x 10-4 to 5.73 x 10-2 SI, with a majority of the samples having susceptibility greater than 10-3 SI, suggesting magnetite is the dominant contributor to the AMS signal. Low-temperature demagnetization data show Verwey transitions near 125K indicating the presence of nearly stoichiometric magnetite in most samples. AMS reveals dominantly oblate fabrics with a moderate degree of anisotropy (P') ranging from 1.01 to 1.38 (average P' = 1.13). Fabric strength varies within each of the petrologically-defined units recovered from different crustal blocks. Additional remanence anisotropy fabric analyses of a few specimens reveal nearly identical directions of principal axes compared to AMS, but with larger degrees of anisotropy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data from one sample shows a moderate plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation best defined by a b-axis maxima that is coincident with the AMS minimum principal axis. This comparison

  17. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA ASSOCIATED WITH THE GAMMA-RAY SOURCE HESS J1640-465

    SciTech Connect

    Lemiere, A.; Slane, P.; Murray, S.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray observation of the very high energy gamma-ray source HESS J1640 - 465. We identify a point source surrounded by a diffuse emission that fills the extended object previously detected by XMM-Newton at the centroid of the HESS source, within the shell of the radio supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3 - 0.0. The morphology of the diffuse emission strongly resembles that of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and extends asymmetrically to the southwest of a point source presented as a potential pulsar. The spectrum of the putative pulsar and compact nebula are well characterized by an absorbed power-law model which, for a reasonable N{sub H} value of 14 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, exhibit an index of 1.1 and 2.5 respectively, typical of Vela-like PWNe. We demonstrate that, given the H I absorption features observed along the line of sight, the SNR and the H II surrounding region are probably connected and lie between 8 kpc and 13 kpc. The resulting age of the system is between 10 and 30 kyr. For a 10 kpc distance (also consistent with the X-ray absorption) the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities of the putative pulsar and nebula are L{sub PSR} approx 1.3 x 10{sup 33} d {sup 2}{sub 10kpc} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub PWN} approx 3.9 x 10{sup 33} d {sup 2}{sub 10} erg s{sup -1} (d {sub 10} = d/10 kpc). Both the flux ratio of L {sub PWN}/L{sub PSR} approx 3.4 and the total luminosity of this system predict a pulsar spin-down power around E-dotapprox4 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. We finally consider several reasons for the asymmetries observed in the PWN morphology and discuss the potential association with the HESS source in terms of a time-dependent one-zone leptonic model.

  18. HESS J1818-154, a new composite supernova remnant discovered in TeV gamma rays and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) constitute a small subclass of the remnants of massive stellar explosions where non-thermal radiation is observed from both the expanding shell-like shock front and from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located inside of the SNR. These systems represent a unique evolutionary phase of SNRs where observations in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regimes allow the study of the co-evolution of both these energetic phenomena. In this article, we report results from observations of the shell-type SNR G 15.4+0.1 performed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) and XMM-Newton. A compact TeV γ-ray source, HESS J1818-154, located in the center and contained within the shell of G 15.4+0.1 is detected by H.E.S.S. and featurs a spectrum best represented by a power-law model with a spectral index of -2.3 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys and an integral flux of F(> 0.42 TeV) = (0.9 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Furthermore, a recent observation with XMM-Newton reveals extended X-ray emission strongly peaked in the center of G 15.4+0.1. The X-ray source shows indications of an energy-dependent morphology featuring a compact core at energies above 4 keV and more extended emission that fills the entire region within the SNR at lower energies. Together, the X-ray and VHE γ-ray emission provide strong evidence of a PWN located inside the shell of G 15.4+0.1 and this SNR can therefore be classified as a composite based on these observations. The radio, X-ray, and γ-ray emission from the PWN is compatible with a one-zone leptonic model that requires a low average magnetic field inside the emission region. An unambiguous counterpart to the putative pulsar, which is thought to power the PWN, has been detected neither in radio nor in X-ray observations of G 15.4+0.1.

  19. Water in orthopyroxene from abyssal spinel peridotites of the East Pacific Rise (ODP Leg 147: Hess Deep)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Kirsten T.; Gose, Jürgen; Stalder, Roland; Schmädicke, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Abyssal spinel peridotites from Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise (ODP Leg 147) were investigated concerning their major, minor, and trace element mineral chemistry and the incorporation of structural water in orthopyroxene. The rocks are partially serpentinized harzburgites containing primary minerals of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel. Orthopyroxene is enstatitic with Mg# (Mg/(Mg + Fe)) between 0.90 and 0.92 and Al2O3 from 0.5 to 2.9 wt.%. The residual harzburgite experienced high degrees of melt removal in the spinel peridotite stability field. The average degree of partial melting was calculated to be 17.5% (range: 16.4-17.8%). Trace element data of ortho- and clinopyroxenes reflect this strong depletion, characteristic for the restitic nature of abyssal peridotites. Mantle re-equilibration temperatures around 1000 °C indicate that, after melt extraction and before exhumation to the ocean floor, the rocks experienced significant cooling in the spinel peridotite facies. Water contents of orthopyroxene range from 86 to 233 wt. ppm H2O with an average concentration of 142 wt. ppm H2O. These results represent the first data on water contents in the sub-pacific mantle obtained by direct measurements of sub-oceanic peridotite. The water contents are not related to mineral chemistry, stratigraphy, melting degree, mantle equilibrium conditions or oxidation state. Calculated post-melt peridotite water contents vary between 40 and 100 wt. ppm H2O. Compared to Mid-Atlantic Ridge peridotites, the East Pacific Rise samples of Leg 147 contain somewhat lower water concentrations than samples from Leg 153 and considerably higher contents than those of Leg 209 (Gose et al., 2009; Schmädicke et al., 2011). In Leg 147, the strongest OH absorbtion band occurs at 3420 cm- 1, wheras orthopyroxene from MAR peridotite (Legs 153 and 209) has its strongest absorbtion band at 3566 and 3522 cm- 1. The mantle equilibrium temperature of Leg 147 peridotites is lower than that

  20. The Pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - The medical scientists: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) and Otto Loewi (1873-1961).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lily Bzl; Shaw, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Two famous medical scientists are described whose major advances were made largely from laboratory-based research. Karl Landsteiner, who received the Nobel Prize in 1930, was the discoverer or co-discoverer of the blood groups and the Rhesus factor. He contributed to the understanding of poliomyelitis, syphilis and typhus. He made major contributions to immunology, inter alia by isolating haptens. After World War I, he left Austria and continued his work initially in the Netherlands and then at the Rockefeller Institute in the USA. Otto Loewi, a pharmacologist, received his Nobel Prize (jointly with his life-long friend, Sir Henry Dale) in 1936 for his discovery that acetylcholine was the chemical agent for the stimulation of autonomic nerves to transmit to the organs they govern. He also made numerous other contributions including the demonstration that amino acids could be converted by animals to proteins. He left Austria after the Anschluss and settled in the USA. PMID:25052151

  1. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  2. H.E.S.S. observations of the binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around the 2010/2011 periastron passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häer, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Lan, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nguyen, N.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We present very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) data from the γ-ray binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 taken around its periastron passage on 15th of December 2010 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of Cherenkov Telescopes. We aim to search for a possible TeV counterpart of the GeV flare detected by the Fermi LAT. In addition, we aim to study the current periastron passage in the context of previous observations taken at similar orbital phases, testing the repetitive behaviour of the source. Methods: Observations at VHEs were conducted with H.E.S.S. from 9th to 16th of January 2011. The total dataset amounts to ~6 h of observing time. The data taken around the 2004 periastron passage were also re-analysed with the current analysis techniques in order to extend the energy spectrum above 3 TeV to fully compare observation results from 2004 and 2011. Results: The source is detected in the 2011 data at a significance level of 11.5σ revealing an averaged integral flux above 1 TeV of (1.01 ± 0.18stat ± 0.20sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. The differential energy spectrum follows a power-law shape with a spectral index Γ = 2.92 ± 0.30stat ± 0.20sys and a flux normalisation at 1 TeV of N0 = (1.95 ± 0.32stat ± 0.39sys) × 10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1. The measured light curve does not show any evidence for variability of the source on the daily scale. The re-analysis of the 2004 data yields results compatible with the published ones. The differential energy spectrum measured up to ~10 TeV is consistent with a power law with a spectral index Γ = 2.81 ± 0.10stat ± 0.20sys and a flux normalisation at 1 TeV of N0 = (1.29 ± 0.08stat ± 0.26sys) × 10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1. Conclusions: The measured integral flux and the spectral shape of the 2011 data are compatible with the results obtained around previous periastron passages. The absence of variability in the H.E.S.S. data indicates that the GeV flare observed by Fermi LAT in the time period covered also by H.E.S.S

  3. Interstellar protons in the TeV γ-ray SNR HESS J1731-347: Possible evidence for the coexistence of hadronic and leptonic γ-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sano, H.; Torii, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Fukui, Y.; Acero, F.

    2014-06-10

    HESS J1731-347 (G353.6-0.7) is one of the TeV γ-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) that shows the shell-like morphology. We have made a new analysis of the interstellar protons toward the SNR by using both the {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) and H I data sets. The results indicate that the TeV γ-ray shell shows significant spatial correlation with the interstellar protons at a velocity range from –90 km s{sup –1} to –75 km s{sup –1}. The total mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) protons is estimated to be 6.4 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, 25% of which is atomic gas, and the distance corresponding to the velocity range is ∼5.2 kpc, a factor of 2 larger than the previous figure, 3 kpc. We have identified the cold H I gas observed as self-absorption which shows significant correspondence with the northeastern γ-ray peak. While the good correspondence between the ISM protons and TeV γ-rays in the north of the SNR lends support to the hadronic scenario for the TeV γ-rays, the southern part of the shell shows a break in the correspondence; in particular, the southwestern rim of the SNR shell shows a significant decrease of the interstellar protons by a factor of two. We argue that this discrepancy can be explained due to leptonic γ-rays because this region coincides well with the bright shell that emits non-thermal radio continuum emission and non-thermal X-rays, suggesting that the γ-rays of HESS J1713-347 consist of both the hadronic and leptonic components. The leptonic contribution corresponds to ∼20% of the total γ-rays.

  4. Interstellar Protons in the TeV γ-Ray SNR HESS J1731-347: Possible Evidence for the Coexistence of Hadronic and Leptonic γ-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sano, H.; Torii, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Acero, F.; Fukui, Y.

    2014-06-01

    HESS J1731-347 (G353.6-0.7) is one of the TeV γ-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) that shows the shell-like morphology. We have made a new analysis of the interstellar protons toward the SNR by using both the 12CO(J = 1-0) and H I data sets. The results indicate that the TeV γ-ray shell shows significant spatial correlation with the interstellar protons at a velocity range from -90 km s-1 to -75 km s-1. The total mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) protons is estimated to be 6.4 × 104 M ⊙, 25% of which is atomic gas, and the distance corresponding to the velocity range is ~5.2 kpc, a factor of 2 larger than the previous figure, 3 kpc. We have identified the cold H I gas observed as self-absorption which shows significant correspondence with the northeastern γ-ray peak. While the good correspondence between the ISM protons and TeV γ-rays in the north of the SNR lends support to the hadronic scenario for the TeV γ-rays, the southern part of the shell shows a break in the correspondence; in particular, the southwestern rim of the SNR shell shows a significant decrease of the interstellar protons by a factor of two. We argue that this discrepancy can be explained due to leptonic γ-rays because this region coincides well with the bright shell that emits non-thermal radio continuum emission and non-thermal X-rays, suggesting that the γ-rays of HESS J1713-347 consist of both the hadronic and leptonic components. The leptonic contribution corresponds to ~20% of the total γ-rays.

  5. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given. PMID:27221003

  6. Mid-tropospheric Moisture Variations During the Development of Hurricane Karl as Resolved by Airborne GPS Radio Occultation with Open Loop Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B.; Wang, K. N.; Garrison, J. L.; Adhikari, L.; Xie, F.

    2015-12-01

    The development of hurricane Karl in 2010 was investigated with dropsonde and airborne radio occultation (ARO) measurements from the stage of tropical disturbance within an easterly wave through to genesis of the tropical storm. Infrared imagery showed deep convection with extensive cold cloud tops on 11 September however the storm failed to develop until 3 days later. One possible explanation is the horizontal offset of the mid and lower level circulation centers. We illustrate with airborne radio occultation measurements additional information on the moisture distribution during this stage of development that indicates that average mid-level moisture was lower the following day and then increased again over the next two days prior to development. High sample rate RF data recorded by the GNSS instrument system for multistatic and occultation sensing (GISMOS) was analyzed with a version of the Purdue Software Receiver that has open-loop tracking implemented. Open loop tracking eliminates the feedback loop of conventional receivers that fails in the complex signal propagation environment typical of atmosphere with sharp moisture gradients. The open-loop excess phase profiles routinely sample below 4 km, with half of the profiles extending below 2 km. We retrieve slanted vertical profiles of atmospheric refractivity that can be considered a proxy for moisture in this tropical environment. We illustrate that in the mid to upper troposphere, ARO refractivity profiles sampling different areas within the tropical wave showed characteristics that were consistent with (~150 to 200 km scale) horizontal moisture gradients present in the NWP model representation of the developing tropical storm. Variation in refractivity preceding the development of the pre-Karl system is consistent with increasing moisture near the storm center. The ARO observations almost double the amount of thermodynamic data over that provided by the dropsondes. They provide interesting complementary

  7. DISCOVERY OF AN ENERGETIC 38.5 ms PULSAR POWERING THE GAMMA-RAY SOURCE IGR J18490-0000/HESS J1849-000

    SciTech Connect

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Terrier, R.; Mattana, F.

    2011-03-10

    We report the discovery of a 38.5 ms X-ray pulsar in observations of the soft {gamma}-ray source IGR J18490-0000 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). PSR J1849-0001 is spinning down rapidly with period derivative 1.42 x 10{sup -14} s s{sup -1}, yielding a spin-down luminosity E-dot = 9.8 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}, characteristic age {tau}{sub c}{identical_to}P/2 P-dot = 42.9 kyr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 7.5 x 10{sup 11} G. Within the INTEGRAL/IBIS error circle lies a point-like XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray source that shows evidence of faint extended emission consistent with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The XMM-Newton spectrum of the point source is well fitted by an absorbed power-law model with photon index {Gamma}{sub PSR} = 1.1 {+-} 0.2, N{sub H} = (4.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, and F{sub PSR}(2-10 keV) = (3.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, while the spectral parameters of the extended emission are roughly {Gamma}{sub PWN} {approx} 2.1 and F{sub PWN}(2-10 keV) {approx} 9 x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. IGR J18490-0000 is also coincident with the compact TeV source HESS J1849-000. For an assumed distance of 7 kpc in the Scutum arm tangent region, the 0.35-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1849-000 is 0.13% of the pulsar's spin-down energy, while the ratio F(0.35-10 TeV)/F{sub PWN}(2-10 keV) {approx} 2. These properties are consistent with leptonic models of TeV emission from PWNe, with PSR J1849-0001 in a stage of transition from a synchrotron X-ray source to an inverse Compton {gamma}-ray source.

  8. Simultaneous Observations of PKS 2155--304 with H.E.S.S., Fermi, RXTE and ATOM: Spectral Energy Distributions and Variability in a Low State

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A.R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlohr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bochow, A.; Borrel, V.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Brun, P.; Buhler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P.M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R.C.G.; /more authors..

    2009-05-07

    We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.

  9. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF PKS 2155-304 WITH HESS, FERMI, RXTE, AND ATOM: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND VARIABILITY IN A LOW STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A.; Buehler, R.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Brucker, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Chadwick, P. M.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Behera, B.; Boisson, C.; Brion, E.; Brun, P.; Buesching, I.; Boutelier, T. E-mail: berrie@in2p3.fr E-mail: jchiang@slac.stanford.edu

    2009-05-10

    We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.

  10. Constraints on an annihilation signal from a core of constant dark matter density around the milky way center with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Backes, M; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C-C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reichardt, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H-S

    2015-02-27

    An annihilation signal of dark matter is searched for from the central region of the Milky Way. Data acquired in dedicated on-off observations of the Galactic center region with H.E.S.S. are analyzed for this purpose. No significant signal is found in a total of ∼9  h of on-off observations. Upper limits on the velocity averaged cross section, ⟨σv⟩, for the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses in the range of ∼300  GeV to ∼10  TeV are derived. In contrast to previous constraints derived from observations of the Galactic center region, the constraints that are derived here apply also under the assumption of a central core of constant dark matter density around the center of the Galaxy. Values of ⟨σv⟩ that are larger than 3×10^{-24}  cm^{3}/s are excluded for dark matter particles with masses between ∼1 and ∼4  TeV at 95% C.L. if the radius of the central dark matter density core does not exceed 500 pc. This is the strongest constraint that is derived on ⟨σv⟩ for annihilating TeV mass dark matter without the assumption of a centrally cusped dark matter density distribution in the search region. PMID:25768750

  11. Long-term monitoring of PKS 2155-304 with ATOM and H.E.S.S.: investigation of optical/γ-ray correlations in different spectral states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadsch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we report on the analysis of all the available optical and very high-energy γ-ray (>200 GeV) data for the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, collected simultaneously with the ATOM and H.E.S.S. telescopes from 2007 until 2009. This study also includes X-ray (RXTE, Swift) and high-energy γ-ray (Fermi-LAT) data. During the period analysed, the source was transitioning from its flaring to quiescent optical states, and was characterized by only moderate flux changes at different wavelengths on the timescales of days and months. A flattening of the optical continuum with an increasing optical flux can be noted in the collected dataset, but only occasionally and only at higher flux levels. We did not find any universal relation between the very high-energy γ-ray and optical flux changes on the timescales from days and weeks up to several years. On the other hand, we noted that at higher flux levels the source can follow two distinct tracks in the optical flux-colour diagrams, which seem to be related to distinct γ-ray states of the blazar. The obtained results therefore indicate a complex scaling between the optical and γ-ray emission of PKS 2155-304, with different correlation patterns holding at different epochs, and a γ-ray flux depending on the combination of an optical flux and colour rather than a flux alone.

  12. Constraints on axionlike particles with H.E.S.S. from the irregularity of the PKS 2155-304 energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Axionlike particles (ALPs) are hypothetical light (sub-eV) bosons predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. In astrophysical environments comprising high-energy gamma rays and turbulent magnetic fields, the existence of ALPs can modify the energy spectrum of the gamma rays for a sufficiently large coupling between ALPs and photons. This modification would take the form of an irregular behavior of the energy spectrum in a limited energy range. Data from the H.E.S.S. observations of the distant BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 (z=0.116) are used to derive upper limits at the 95% C.L. on the strength of the ALP coupling to photons, gγa<2.1×10-11GeV-1 for an ALP mass between 15 and 60 neV. The results depend on assumptions on the magnetic field around the source, which are chosen conservatively. The derived constraints apply to both light pseudoscalar and scalar bosons that couple to the electromagnetic field.

  13. Constraints on an Annihilation Signal from a Core of Constant Dark Matter Density around the Milky Way Center with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    An annihilation signal of dark matter is searched for from the central region of the Milky Way. Data acquired in dedicated on-off observations of the Galactic center region with H.E.S.S. are analyzed for this purpose. No significant signal is found in a total of ˜9 h of on-off observations. Upper limits on the velocity averaged cross section, ⟨σ v ⟩, for the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses in the range of ˜300 GeV to ˜10 TeV are derived. In contrast to previous constraints derived from observations of the Galactic center region, the constraints that are derived here apply also under the assumption of a central core of constant dark matter density around the center of the Galaxy. Values of ⟨σ v ⟩ that are larger than 3 ×10-24 cm3/s are excluded for dark matter particles with masses between ˜1 and ˜4 TeV at 95% C.L. if the radius of the central dark matter density core does not exceed 500 pc. This is the strongest constraint that is derived on ⟨σ v ⟩ for annihilating TeV mass dark matter without the assumption of a centrally cusped dark matter density distribution in the search region.

  14. Approximate two-electron spin-orbit coupling term for density-functional-theory DFT calculations using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettger, J. C.

    2000-09-01

    A simple approximation is developed for the two-electron spin-orbit coupling terms generated by the Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation, in the context of density-functional theory (DFT). For the special case of an isolated atom, the two-electron spin-orbit matrix element for each pair of basis functions of type l is replaced with the spin-orbit matrix element for a point charge -Q(l) placed at the origin; where Q(l)=0,2,10,28,... . Application of this screened-nuclear-spin-orbit (SNSO) approximation to linear combination of Gaussian-type orbital (LCGTO) DFT calculations on Ce, Ta, and Pu atoms yields spin-orbit splittings that agree with results from a numerical solution of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham equations to within about 6%. This is a marked improvement over the nuclear-only spin-orbit approximation, which systematically overestimates spin-orbit splittings; in some cases by as much as 100%. Crystalline LCGTO DFT calculations on the fcc phases of the light-actinide metals Th-->Pu, using a multiatom generalization of the SNSO approximation, yield atomic volumes that are in excellent agreement with results from full-potential linear-augmented-plane-wave calculations.

  15. Updates of the KArLE Experiment: New Libs Calibration Under High Vacuum for the Quantification of Potassium in Basalt for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, B. A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary exploration, in situ absolute geochronology is one of the main important measurements that needs to be accomplished. Until now, on Mars, the age of the surface is only determined by crater density counting, which gives relative ages. These ages can have a lot of uncertainty as they depend on many parameters. More than that, the curves must be ties to absolute ages. Thus far, only the lost lander Beagle 2 was designed to conduct absolute geochronology measurements, though some recent attempts using MSL Curiosity show that this investigation is feasible and should be strongly encouraged for future flight. Experimental: The Potassium (K)-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) is being developed at MSFC through the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this experiment is to provide in situ geochronology based on the K-Ar method. A laser ablates a rock under high vacuum, creating a plasma which is sensed by an optical spectrometer to do Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The ablated material frees gases, including radiogenic 40Ar,which is measured by a mass spectrometer (MS). As the potassium is a content and the 40Ar is a quantity, the ablated mass needed in order to relate them. The mass is given by the product of the ablated volume by the density of this material. So we determine the mineralogy of the ablated material with the LIBS spectra and images and calculate its density. The volume of the pit is measured by using microscopy. LIBS measurement of K under high vacuum: Three independant projects [1, 2, 3] including KArLE, are developing geochronological instruments based on this LA-LIBS-MS method. Despite several differences in their setup, all of them have validated the methods with analyses and ages. However, they all described difficulties with the LIBS measurements of K [3,4]. At ambient pressure, the quantification of K by LIBS on geological materials can be accurate [5]. However the protocol of the LA

  16. A deep/wide 1-2 GHz snapshot survey of SDSS Stripe 82 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in a compact hybrid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, I.; Jarvis, M. J.; Baker, A. J.; Bannister, K. W.; Carvalho, C. S.; Hardcastle, M.; Hilton, M.; Moodley, K.; Smirnov, O. M.; Smith, D. J. B.; White, S. V.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image ˜100 deg2 of SDSS Stripe 82 at 1-2 GHz. The survey consists of 1026 snapshot observations of 2.5 min duration, using the hybrid CnB configuration. The survey has good sensitivity to diffuse, low surface brightness structures and extended radio emission, making it highly synergistic with existing 1.4 GHz radio observations of the region. The principal data products are continuum images, with 16 × 10 arcsec resolution, and a catalogue containing 11 782 point and Gaussian components resulting from fits to the thresholded Stokes-I brightness distribution, forming approximately 8948 unique radio sources. The typical effective 1σ noise level is 88 μJy beam-1. Spectral index estimates are included, as derived from the 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. Astrometric and photometric accuracy are in excellent agreement with existing narrowband observations. A large-scale simulation is used to investigate clean bias, which we extend into the spectral domain. Clean bias remains an issue for snapshot surveys with the VLA, affecting our total intensity measurements at the ˜1σ level. Statistical spectral index measurements are in good agreement with existing measurements derived from matching separate surveys at two frequencies. At flux densities below ˜35σ the median in-band spectral index measurements begin to exhibit a bias towards flatness that is dependent on both flux density and the intrinsic spectral index. In-band spectral curvature measurements are likely to be unreliable for all but the very brightest components. Image products and catalogues are publicly available via an FTP server.

  17. Determination of water uptake of polymeric ion-selective membranes with the coulometric Karl Fischer and FT-IR-attenuated total reflection techniques.

    PubMed

    He, Ning; Lindfors, Tom

    2013-01-15

    The water uptake of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and silicone rubber (SR) based calcium-selective membranes which are commonly used in solid-contact and coated-wire ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs and CWEs) was quantified with the oven based coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) technique. Two different membrane types were studied: (1) the plasticized PVC or SR (RTV 3140) membrane matrix without other added membrane components and (2) the full Ca(2+)-selective membrane formulation consisting of the membrane matrixes, potassium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate and calcium ionophore IV (ETH 5234) or calcium ionophore I (ETH 1001). The membranes were contacted for 24 h either asymmetrically from one side or symmetrically from both sides with deionized water (DIW) or 0.1 M solutions of CaCl(2), KCl, or NaCl. It was found that the water uptake was higher for symmetrically contacted membranes. The highest water uptake (0.15-0.17 wt %) was obtained for the plasticized PVC based Ca(2+)-selective membranes in DIW, whereas the water uptake was lower in 0.1 M electrolyte solutions. Symmetrically contacted Ca(2+)-selective SR membranes had much lower water uptake in 0.1 M CaCl(2) (0.03 wt %) than their plasticized PVC counterparts (0.1 wt %). However, the (noncontacted) SR membranes contained initially much more water (0.09-0.15 wt %) than the PVC membranes (0.04-0.07 wt %). Furthermore, in good accordance with the KF measurements, it was verified with FT-IR-attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy that the water content at the substrate/membrane interface and consequently in the whole membrane was influenced by the electrolyte solution. PMID:23249325

  18. A deep/wide 1-2 GHz snapshot survey of SDSS Stripe 82 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in a compact hybrid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, I.; Jarvis, M. J.; Baker, A. J.; Bannister, K. W.; Carvalho, C. S.; Hardcastle, M.; Hilton, M.; Moodley, K.; Smirnov, O. M.; Smith, D. J. B.; White, S. V.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image ~100 sq. deg. of SDSS Stripe 82 at 1-2 GHz. The survey consists of 1,026 snapshot observations of 2.5 minutes duration, using the hybrid CnB configuration. The survey has good sensitivity to diffuse, low surface brightness structures and extended radio emission, making it highly synergistic with existing 1.4 GHz radio observations of the region. The principal data products are continuum images, with 16 x 10 arcsecond resolution, and a catalogue containing 11,782 point and Gaussian components resulting from fits to the thresholded Stokes-I brightness distribution, forming approximately 8,948 unique radio sources. The typical effective 1{\\sigma} noise level is 88 {\\mu}Jy / beam. Spectral index estimates are included, as derived from the 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. Astrometric and photometric accuracy are in excellent agreement with existing narrowband observations. A large-scale simulation is used to investigate clean bias, which we extend into the spectral domain. Clean bias remains an issue for snapshot surveys with the VLA, affecting our total intensity measurements at the ~1{\\sigma} level. Statistical spectral index measurements are in good agreement with existing measurements derived from matching separate surveys at two frequencies. At flux densities below ~35{\\sigma} the median in-band spectral index measurements begin to exhibit a bias towards flatness that is dependent on both flux density and the intrinsic spectral index. In-band spectral curvature measurements are likely to be unreliable for all but the very brightest components. Image products and catalogues are publicly available via an FTP server.

  19. EnKF OSSE Experiments Assessing the Impact of HIRAD Wind Speed and HIWRAP Radial Velocity Data on Analysis of Hurricane Karl (2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, Cerese; Sippel, Jason A.; Braun, Scott A.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies (e.g., Zhang et al. 2009, Weng et al. 2011) have shown that radial velocity data from airborne and ground-based radars can be assimilated into ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) systems to produce accurate analyses of tropical cyclone vortices, which can reduce forecast intensity error. Recently, wind speed data from SFMR technology has also been assimilated into the same types of systems and has been shown to improve the forecast intensity of mature tropical cyclones. Two instruments that measure these properties were present during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field experiment in 2010 which sampled Hurricane Karl, and will next be co-located on the same aircraft for the subsequent NASA HS3 experiment. The High Altitude Wind and Rain Profiling Radar (HIWRAP) is a conically scanning Doppler radar mounted upon NASAs Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, and the usefulness of its radial velocity data for assimilation has not been previously examined. Since the radar scans from above with a fairly large fixed elevation angle, it observes a large component of the vertical wind, which could degrade EnKF analyses compared to analyses with data taken from lesser elevation angles. The NASA Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a passive microwave radiometer similar to SFMR, and measures emissivity and retrieves hurricane surface wind speeds and rain rates over a much wider swath. Thus, this study examines the impact of assimilating simulated HIWRAP radial velocity data into an EnKF system, simulated HIRAD wind speed, and HIWRAP+HIRAD with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and compares the results to no data assimilation and also to the Truth from which the data was simulated for both instruments.

  20. New constraints on the structure of Hess Deep from regional- and micro-bathymetry data acquired during RRS James Cook in Jan-Feb 2008 (JC021)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillington, D. J.; Ferrini, V. L.; MacLeod, C. J.; Teagle, D. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Cazenave, P. W.; Hurst, S. D.; Scientific Party, J.

    2008-12-01

    In January-February 2008, new geophysical and geological data were acquired in Hess Deep using the RRS James Cook and the British ROV Isis. Hess Deep provides a tectonic window into oceanic crust emplaced by fast seafloor spreading at the East Pacific Rise, thereby offering the opportunity to test competing hypotheses for oceanic crustal accretion. The goal of this cruise was to collect datasets that can constrain the structure and composition of the lower crustal section exposed in the south-facing slope of the Intrarift Ridge just north of the Deep, and thus provide insights into the emplacement of gabbroic lower crust at fast spreading rates. Additionally, the acquired datasets provide site survey data for IODP Proposal 551-Full. The following datasets were acquired during JC021: 1) regional multibeam bathymetry survey complemented with sub-bottom profiler (SBP) data (in selected areas), 2) two micro-bathymetry surveys, and 3) seafloor rock samples acquired with an ROV. Here we present grids of regional multibeam and microbathymetry data following post-cruise processing. Regional multibeam bathymetry were acquired using the hull-mounted Kongsberg Simrad EM120 system (12 kHz). These data provide new coverage of the northern flank of the rift as far east as 100°W, which show that it comprises of a series of 50- to 100-km-long en echelon segments. Both E-W and NE-SW striking features are observed in the immediate vicinity of the Deep, including in a newly covered region to the SW of the rift tip. Such features might arise due to the rotation of the Galapagos microplate(s), as proposed by other authors. The ROV Isis acquired micro-bathymetry data in two areas using a Simrad SM2000 (200 kHz) multibeam sonar. Data were acquired at a nominal altitude of ~100 m and speed of 0.3 kts to facilitate high-resolution mapping of seabed features and also permit coverage of two relatively large areas. Swath widths were ~200- 350 m depending on noise and seabed characteristics

  1. Identification of HESS J1303-631 as a pulsar wind nebula through γ-ray, X-ray, and radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2012-12-01

    Aims: The previously unidentified very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray source HESS J1303-631, discovered in 2004, is re-examined including new data from the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope array in order to identify this object. Archival data from the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite and from the PMN radio survey are also examined. Methods: Detailed morphological and spectral studies of VHE γ-ray emission as well as of the XMM-Newton X-ray data are performed. Radio data from the PMN survey are used as well to construct a leptonic model of the source. The γ-ray and X-ray spectra and radio upper limit are used to construct a one zone leptonic model of the spectral energy distribution (SED). Results: Significant energy-dependent morphology of the γ-ray source is detected with high-energy emission (E > 10 TeV) positionally coincident with the pulsar PSR J1301-6305 and lower energy emission (E < 2 TeV) extending 0.4° to the southeast of the pulsar. The spectrum of the VHE source can be described with a power-law with an exponential cut-off N0 = (5.6 ± 0.5) × 10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1, Γ = 1.5 ± 0.2) and Ecut = (7.7 ± 2.2) TeV. The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is also detected in X-rays, extending 2-3' from the pulsar position towards the center of the γ-ray emission region. A potential radio counterpart from the PMN survey is also discussed, showing a hint for a counterpart at the edge of the X-ray PWN trail and is taken as an upper limit in the SED. The extended X-ray PWN has an unabsorbed flux of F_2{-10 keV ˜ 1.6+0.2-0.4× 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1} and is detected at a significance of 6.5σ. The SED is well described by a one zone leptonic scenario which, with its associated caveats, predicts a very low average magnetic field for this source. Conclusions: Significant energy-dependent morphology of this source, as well as the identification of an associated X-ray PWN from XMM-Newton observations enable identification of the VHE source as an evolved PWN associated to the

  2. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  3. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2014-06-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH-value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and by the way increase their concentrations in agricultural products. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg and CEC) and pseudo total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations 210, 260, 360, and 620 m a.s.l., in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Fertilization is one of the major paths for metal input to agricultural soils, therefore monitoring of the long term impact of fertilization is necessary. 8 years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6%, 54.2%, 48.5%, 74.4%, and 56.9%, respectively, in pseudo total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents was determined.

  4. Toward a comprehensive model for feedback by active galactic nuclei: New insights from M87 observations by LOFAR, Fermi, and H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Pfrommer, Christoph

    2013-12-10

    Feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) appears to be critical in balancing radiative cooling of the low-entropy gas at the centers of galaxy clusters and in mitigating the star formation of elliptical galaxies. New observations of M87 enable us to put forward a comprehensive model for the physical heating mechanism. Low-frequency radio observations by LOFAR revealed the absence of fossil cosmic-ray (CR) electrons in the radio halo surrounding M87. This puzzle can be resolved by accounting for the CR release from the radio lobes and the subsequent mixing of CRs with the dense ambient intracluster gas, which thermalizes the electrons on a timescale similar to the radio halo age of 40 Myr. Hadronic interactions of similarly injected CR protons with the ambient gas should produce an observable gamma-ray signal in accordance with the steady emission of the low state of M87 detected by Fermi and H.E.S.S. Hence, we normalize the CR population to the gamma-ray emission, which shows the same spectral slope as the CR injection spectrum probed by LOFAR, thereby supporting a common origin. We show that CRs, which stream at the Alfvén velocity with respect to the plasma rest frame, heat the surrounding thermal plasma at a rate that balances that of radiative cooling on average at each radius. However, the resulting global thermal equilibrium is locally unstable and allows for the formation of the observed cooling multi-phase medium through thermal instability. Provided that CR heating balances cooling during the emerging 'cooling flow', the collapse of the majority of the gas is halted around 1 keV—in accordance with X-ray data. We show that both the existence of a temperature floor and the similar radial scaling of the heating and cooling rates are generic predictions of the CR heating model.

  5. Soil data from fire and permafrost-thaw chronosequences in upland Picea mariana stands near Hess Creek and Tok, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Xu, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Soils of the Northern Circumpolar Permafrost region harbor 1,672 petagrams (Pg) (1 Pg = 1,000,000,000 kilograms) of organic carbon (OC), nearly 50 percent of the global belowground OC pool (Tarnocai and others, 2009). Of that soil OC, nearly 88 percent is presently stored in perennially frozen ground. Recent climate warming at northern latitudes has resulted in warming and thawing of permafrost in many regions (Osterkamp, 2007), which might mobilize OC stocks from associated soil reservoirs via decomposition, leaching, or erosion. Warming also has increased the magnitude and severity of wildfires in the boreal region (Turetsky and others, 2011), which might exacerbate rates of permafrost degradation relative to warming alone. Given the size and vulnerability of the soil OC pool in permafrost soils, permafrost thaw will likely function as a strong positive feedback to the climate system (Koven and others, 2011; Schaefer and others, 2011). In this report, we report soil OC inventories from two upland fire chronosequences located near Hess Creek and Tok in Interior Alaska. We sampled organic and mineral soils in the top 2 meters (m) across a range of stand ages to evaluate the effects of wildfire and permafrost thaw on soil C dynamics. These data were used to parameterize a simple process-based fire-permafrost-carbon model, which is described in detail by O’Donnell and others (2011a, b). Model simulations examine long-term changes in soil OC storage in response to fire, permafrost thaw, and climate change. These data also have been used in other papers, including Harden and others (2012), which examines C recovery post-fire, and Johnson and others (2011), which synthesizes data within the Alaska Soil Carbon Database. Findings from these studies highlight the importance of climate and disturbance (wildfire, permafrost thaw) on soil C storage, and loss of soil C from high-latitude ecosystems.

  6. NuSTAR pulsar discoveries: SGR J1745-2900 near the Galactic Center and PSR J1640- 4631 associated with HESS J1640-465

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E.; NuSTAR Observatory Team

    2014-07-01

    Two young pulsars have been discovered using the NuSTAR observatory over the last year. SGR J1745-2900: this 3.76 s transient magnetar was detected during a NuSTAR ToO followup of a large flare observed by Swift towards the Galactic center. Its large, erratic spin-down implies a magnetic field B_{s} ˜ 1.6×10^{14} G and characteristic age τ˜ 9 kyr. We followed the magnetar's spectral and timing evolution 4 months post-outburst as its flux and temperature leveled off. In 2013 June, we observed an abrupt tripling of its spin-down rate, likely coincident with a bright Swift burst. We discuss implications of a magnetar near Sgr A*. PSR J1640-4631: This energetic 206 ms pulsar and its surrounding PWN lies within SNR G338.3-0.0 and is likely associated with the extreme gamma-ray sources HESS J1640-465 and 1FHL J1640.5-4634. Its spin-down rate implies a B_{s}=1.4×10^{13} G, τ=3350 yrs, and dot E=4.4×10^{36} erg/s. The origin of the gamma-ray emission is difficult to discern given the complex local environment, both leptonic and hadronic model for the emission mechanism have been proposed. The present work supports an evolutionary PWN model for the spectrum energy distribution, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n≈2, and that its initial spin period was <22 ms. A NuSTAR program to measure its braking index is underway.

  7. Discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object PKS 0301-243 with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2013-11-01

    The active galactic nucleus PKS 0301-243 (z = 0.266) is a high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lac object that is detected at high energies (HE, 100 MeV 100 GeV) by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) from observations between September 2009 and December 2011 for a total live time of 34.9 h. Gamma rays above 200 GeV are detected at a significance of 9.4σ. A hint of variability at the 2.5σ level is found. An integral flux I(E > 200 GeV) = (3.3 ± 1.1stat ± 0.7syst) × 10-12 ph cm-2 s-1 and a photon index Γ = 4.6 ± 0.7stat ± 0.2syst are measured. Multi-wavelength light curves in HE, X-ray and optical bands show strong variability, and a minimal variability timescale of eight days is estimated from the optical light curve. A single-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton scenario satisfactorily reproduces the multi-wavelength data. In this model, the emitting region is out of equipartition and the jet is particle dominated. Because of its high redshift compared to other sources observed at TeV energies, the very high energy emission from PKS 0301-243 is attenuated by the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the measured spectrum is used to derive an upper limit on the opacity of the EBL.

  8. The jet and arc molecular clouds toward Westerlund 2, RCW 49, and HESS J1023–575; {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (J = 2-1 and J = 1-0) observations with NANTEN2 and Mopra telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, N.; Ohama, A.; Fukuda, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Sano, H.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Moribe, N.; Mizuno, A.; Maezawa, H.; Onishi, T.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Dame, T. M.; Yonekura, Y.; Aharonian, F.; De Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Rowell, G. P. E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; and others

    2014-02-01

    We have made new CO observations of two molecular clouds, which we call 'jet' and 'arc' clouds, toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 and the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1023–575. The jet cloud shows a linear structure from the position of Westerlund 2 on the east. In addition, we have found a new counter jet cloud on the west. The arc cloud shows a crescent shape in the west of HESS J1023–575. A sign of star formation is found at the edge of the jet cloud and gives a constraint on the age of the jet cloud to be ∼Myr. An analysis with the multi CO transitions gives temperature as high as 20 K in a few places of the jet cloud, suggesting that some additional heating may be operating locally. The new TeV γ-ray images by H.E.S.S. correspond to the jet and arc clouds spatially better than the giant molecular clouds associated with Westerlund 2. We suggest that the jet and arc clouds are not physically linked with Westerlund 2 but are located at a greater distance around 7.5 kpc. A microquasar with long-term activity may be able to offer a possible engine to form the jet and arc clouds and to produce the TeV γ-rays, although none of the known microquasars have a Myr age or steady TeV γ-rays. Alternatively, an anisotropic supernova explosion which occurred ∼Myr ago may be able to form the jet and arc clouds, whereas the TeV γ-ray emission requires a microquasar formed after the explosion.

  9. Karl G. Jansky very large array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R.; Hills, R.; Aravena, M.; Cox, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Riechers, D.; Walter, F.; Andreani, P.; Wolfe, A.

    2014-03-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J = 2-1 line emission in BRI 1202–0725 at z = 4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI 1335–0417 at z = 4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J = 2-1 line luminosities of BRI 1202–0725 are L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(8.7±0.8)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} and L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(6.0 ± 0.5)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} for the submillimeter galaxy (SMG) and quasar, respectively, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J = 5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission, and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ∼9×10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. In BRI 1335–0417 we measure L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(7.3±0.6)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BRI 1202–0725 North (S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 51 ± 6 μJy), while the quasar is detected with S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 24 ± 6 μJy and in BRI 1335–0417 we measure S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 40 ± 7 μJy. Combining our continuum observations with previous data at (rest-frame) far-infrared and centimeter wavelengths, we fit three-component models in order to estimate the star formation rates. This spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that the dominant contribution to the observed 44 GHz continuum is thermal dust emission, while either thermal free-free or synchrotron emission contributes less than 30%.

  10. A Dual-Porosity, In Situ Crystallisation Model For Fast-Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridge Magma Chambers Based Upon Direct Observation From Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Lissenberg, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a revised magma chamber model for fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges based upon a synthesis of new data from a complete section of lower crust from the East Pacific Rise, reconstructed from samples collected from the Hess Deep rift valley during cruise JC21. Our investigation includes detailed sampling across critical transitions in the upper part of the plutonic section, including the inferred axial melt lens (AML) within the dyke-gabbro transition. We find that an overall petrological progression, from troctolite and primitive gabbro at the base up into evolved (oxide) gabbro and gabbronorite at the top of the lower crustal section, is mirrored by a progressive upward chemical fractionation as recorded in bulk rock and mineral compositions. Crystallographic preferred orientations measured using EBSD show that the downward increase in deformation of mush required in crystal subsidence models is not observed. Together these observations are consistent only with a model in which crystallisation of upward migrating evolving melts occurs in situ in the lower crust. Over-enrichment in incompatible trace element concentrations and ratios above that possible by fractional crystallisation is ubiquitous. This implies redistribution of incompatible trace elements in the lower crust by low porosity, near-pervasive reactive porous flow of interstitial melt moving continuously upward through the mush pile. Mass balance calculations reveal a significant proportion of this trace element enriched melt is trapped at mid-crustal levels. Mineral compositions in the upper third to half of the plutonic section are too evolved to represent the crystal residues of MORB. Erupted MORB therefore must be fed from melts sourced in the deeper part of the crystal mush pile, and which must ascend rapidly without significant modification in the upper plutonics or AML. From physical models of mush processes we posit that primitive melts are transported through transient, high porosity

  11. The neutron star in HESS J1731-347: Central compact objects as laboratories to study the equation of state of superdense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Pühlhofer, G.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Santangelo, A.; Werner, K.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Central compact objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants are isolated thermally emitting neutron stars (NSs). They are most probably characterized by a magnetic field strength that is roughly two orders of magnitude lower than that of most of the radio and accreting pulsars. The thermal emission of CCOs can be modeled to obtain constraints on the physical parameters of the star such as its mass, radius, effective temperature, and chemical composition. Aims: The CCO in HESS J1731-347 is one of the brightest objects in this class. Starting from 2007, it was observed several times with different X-ray satellites. Here we present our analysis of two new XMM-Newton observations of the source performed in 2013 which increase the total exposure time of the data available for spectral analysis by a factor of about five compared to the analyses presented before. Methods: We use our numerical spectral models for carbon and hydrogen atmospheres to fit the spectrum of the CCO. From our fits, we derive constraints on the physical parameters of the emitting star such as its mass, radius, distance, and effective temperature. We also use the new data to derive new upper limits on the source pulsations and to confirm the absence of a long-term flux and spectral variability. Results: The analysis shows that atmosphere models are clearly preferred by the fit over the blackbody spectral function. Under the assumption that the X-ray emission is uniformly produced by the entire star surface (supported by the lack of pulsations), hydrogen atmosphere models lead to uncomfortably large distances of the CCO, above 7-8 kpc. On the other hand, the carbon atmosphere model formally excludes distances above 5-6 kpc and is compatible with the source located in the Scutum-Crux (~3 kpc) or Norma-Cygnus (~4.5 kpc) Galactic spiral arm. We provide and discuss the corresponding confidence contours in the NS mass-radius plane. The measured effective temperature indicates that the NS is

  12. Occurrences of Orthopyroxene in the "Multi-textured" Layered Gabbros from the Hess Deep Rift, East Pacific Rise (the Site U1415P, IODP Expedition 345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshide, T.; Machi, S.; Maeda, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Exp.345 drilled three main holes (Holes U1415 I, J & P) from the lowermost plutonic crust exposed at the Hess Deep Rift, East Pacific Rise and primitive layered gabbroic rocks were newly discovered from these holes (Gillis et al., 2014). One of the mysteries about the layered gabbros is the fact that Opx, which is considered to appear in the late stage of crystallization on the basis of crystallization experiments of MORB, occurs as a dominant phase in many of the layered gabbros. In this presentation, we report the occurrence of Opx from the Hole U1415P and consider the significance of Opx in the origin of the layered gabbros. Hole U1415P (about 100m in thickness) is divided into two units, the upper Multi-textured Layered Gabbro Series (MLGS) and lower Troctolite Series (TS). Gabbroic rocks from the MLGS contain Opx (< 4 vol%) and are macroscopically classified into Opx-bearing olivine gabbro. However, these rocks are mesoscopically (on cm scale) inhomogeneous and have a great variation of mode, grain size and texture. On the other hand, TS consists of homogeneous troctolites and Opx rarely occurs in the series. The occurrences of Opx from the MLGS are as follows: (i) coarse-grained Opx+Cpx+Pl vein parallel to the layered structure of the surrounding troctolite (ii) undeformed Opx+Pl veinlets in kinked Ol (iii) Opx in the concave of anhedral Ol (iv) Opx rimming Cr-spl crystals in contact with Ol. The occurrence of Opx like (ii) and (iii) resembles the texture which is considered to be formed by the reaction between mantle peridotite and a SiO2-saturated melt (e.g, Piccardo et al., 2007). The facts that Opx is often found in association with Cr-spl and Cr-spl lamellae occur in pyroxenes of the Opx+Cpx+Pl vein suggest that the SiO2-saturated melt which reacted with Ol was rich in chromium. In addition, Cr-spl crystals rimmed by Opx contain multiphase-solid inclusions. The inclusions should be key in understanding the chemical composition of the reacted melt.

  13. Geochemistry of Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust: Results from Drilling at the Hess Deep Rift (ODP Leg 147 and IODP Expedition 345; East Pacific Rise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Falloon, T.; Gillis, K. M.; Akizawa, N.; de Brito Adriao, A.; Koepke, J.; Marks, N.; Meyer, R.; Saha, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Hess Deep Rift, where the Cocos Nazca Ridge propagates into the young, fast-spread East Pacific Rise crust, exposes a dismembered, but nearly complete, lower crustal section. The extensive exposures of the plutonic crust were drilled at 3 sites during ODP Leg 147 (Nov. 1992-Jan. 1993) and IODP Expedition 345 (Dec. 2012-Feb. 2013). We report preliminary results of a bulk rock geochemical study (major and trace elements) carried out on 109 samples representative of the different drilled lithologies. The shallowest gabbroic rocks were sampled at ODP Site 894. They comprise gabbronorite, gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbronorite. They have evolved compositions with Mg# 39-55, Yb 4-8 x chondrite and Eu/Eu* 1-1.6. Olivine gabbro and troctolite were dominant at IODP Site U1415, with minor gabbro, gabbronorite and clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite and gabbro. All U1415 gabbroic rocks have primitive compositions except for one gabbronorite rubble that is similar in composition to the shallow gabbros. Olivine gabbro, gabbro and gabbronorite overlap in composition: they have high Mg# (79-87) and Ni (130-570 ppm), low TiO2 (0.1-0.3 wt.%) and Yb (1.3-2.3 x chondrite) and positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=1.9-2.7). Troctolite has high Mg# (81-89), Ni (260-1500 ppm) and low TiO2 (<0.1 wt.%) and Yb (~0.5xchondrite) and large Eu/Eu* (>4). ODP Site 895 recovered sequences of highly depleted harzburgite, dunite and troctolite (Yb down to <0.1xchondrite) that are interpreted as a mantle-crust transition zone. Basalts were recovered at Sites 894 and U1415: they have low Yb (0.5-0.9xN6MORB) and are depleted in the most incompatible elements (Ce/Yb=0.6-0.9xN-MORB). The main geochemical characteristics of Site U1415 and 894 gabbroic rocks are consistent with formation as a cumulate sequence from a common parental MORB melt; troctolites are the most primitive end-member of this sequence. They overlap in composition with the most primitive of slow and fast spread crust gabbroic rocks.

  14. Schwarzschild, Karl (1873-1916)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematical physicist, born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, at first worked on celestial mechanics, including POINCARÉ's theory of rotating bodies, the tidal deformation of moons and LAPLACE's origin of the solar system. He became professor at Göttingen and Potsdam. He wrote on relativity and quantum theory. He early on proposed that space was non-Euclidean, giving a lower limit for the radius of...

  15. An interview with Karl Steinbrugge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1985-01-01

    He has served on numerous national and international committees on earthquake hazards, and he is now a consulting structural engineer, specializing in earthquake hazard evaluation. At the present moment he is chairman of an independent panel of the Federal Emergency Management Agency that is reviewing the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. Henry Spall recently asked Steinbrugge some questions about his long career. 

  16. Development stages of Holocene soils formed in loess and loess bearing sediments at the Roman wall (Limes) in the Wetterau (Hesse, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, P.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    About 2000 years ago the Romans built a wall through Europe - named Limes (lat. border) in Middle Europe and Hadrian's wall in UK - with the aim to protect the borders of their empire. In many parts the Limes was constructed by digging a trench and by accumulating the excavated soil material at one side of the trench. The upper decimetres of the wall are mainly made of calcareous sediments, because the trench was dug to a depth of C horizons which are composed of loess with high carbonate content. One prerequisite for research on pedogenesis is to obtain most precise data about the age of the parent material of soil formation. Regarding this, the Limes gives an excellent opportunity to distinguish different stages of Late Holocene soil development. The study area is part of the soilscape of the Wetterau (100 - 250 m asl) situated between Taunus and Vogelsberg in Hesse, Germany. The precipitation is around 500 mm per year. Wetterau's gentle rolling hills were originally covered with loess and periglacial slope deposits. The soilscape is characterized by (Albic) Luvisols, Haplic Phaeozems, Luvic Phaeozems as well as Calcaric Regosols on upper slopes and Anthrosols in footslope positions. Particulary Haplic Phaeozems and Luvic Phaeozems have been of a wider interest of pedogenic research, since they have been formed in the Early and Mid-Holocene and, therefore, they are relic. It is supposed that the Wetterau was a Chernozem soilscape during the Early Holocene changing to a soilscape characterised by (Luvic) Phaeozems and Luvisols during the Atlantic period. Results of archaeological research on the Roman wall in the Wetterau showed that the wall was constructed in the 2nd century AD and that it had different functions over time. In this context soil investigations revealed three different stages of Holocene soil development: (i) a youngest (recent) soil situated in the wall, (ii) a paleosol conserved below the wall and (iii) a soil developed in the area nearby the

  17. Implementation of Analytical Energy Gradient of Spin-Dependent General Hartree-Fock Method Based on the Infinite-Order Douglas-Kroll-Hess Relativistic Hamiltonian with Local Unitary Transformation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-05-10

    An analytical energy gradient for the spin-dependent general Hartree-Fock method based on the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method was developed. To treat realistic systems, the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme was employed both in energy and energy gradient calculations. The present energy gradient method was numerically assessed to investigate the accuracy in several diatomic molecules containing fifth- and sixth-period elements and to examine the efficiency in one-, two-, and three-dimensional silver clusters. To arrive at a practical calculation, we also determined the geometrical parameters of fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium and investigated the efficiency. The numerical results confirmed that the present method describes a highly accurate relativistic effect with high efficiency. The present method can be a powerful scheme for determining geometries of large molecules, including heavy-element atoms. PMID:27045757

  18. Identification and frequency of atmospheric circulation patterns causing spring frost in the northern French vineyards using the objective version of the Hess-Brezowsky classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quénol, H.; Planchon, O.; Wahl, L.

    2009-04-01

    frosts (until June). In the Loire Valley area, frost is rare as early as April. The combined effects of the continentality and the topographical features of the Upper Rhine Graben explain the hard frosts in early spring at Colmar, but also higher temperature at Colmar than at Reims from April. The Champagne area is the most exposed to frost-producing North-Westerly and Northerly atmospheric circulations in late spring (e.g. on May the 5th, 1996: minimum temperature of -1°C at Reims / Champagne and +3.8°C at Colmar). The identification and frequency of atmospheric circulation patterns causing spring frost (daily minimum temperature below 0°C) and hard frost (daily minimum temperature below -5°C) were carried out using the objective computational version of the 29-type Hess and Brezowsky Grosswetterlagen system of classifying European synoptic regimes (James, 2007). Minimum temperature data were got from the Meteo-France database (Climathèque), for the spring months (March, April and May) and for the period 1960-2007, at the weather stations of Saumur (Loire Valley), Reims (Champagne), Dijon (Burgundy) and Colmar (Alsace). More than 40% of the frost days occurring at all weather stations were associated with North-Westerly and Northerly circulation types, 27% with North-Easterly and Easterly circulation types and 16% with a main high or low pressure area over central Europe. More precisely, the cyclonic circulations involving a northerly flow over western Europe (15.6%) and Anticyclonic North-Easterly circulations (9,3%) are the most frequent circulations types associated with frost days. These circulation types bring air-masses favourable to radiation cooling, under clear sky and light wind, or cold air-masses from northern or eastern Europe causing advection cooling. The stations of eastern France can be subjected to frost events even during Westerly or Southerly circulations, while frost occurrence in the Saumur area requires a higher ratio of North-Easterly and

  19. TeV γ-ray observations of the young synchrotron-dominated SNRs G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; Wilhelmi, E. de Oña; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. de los; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-06-01

    The non-thermal nature of the X-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 is an indication of intense particle acceleration in the shock fronts of both objects. This suggests that the SNRs are prime candidates for very-high-energy (VHE; E > 0.1 TeV) γ-ray observations. G1.9+0.3, recently established as the youngest known SNR in the Galaxy, also offers a unique opportunity to study the earliest stages of SNR evolution in the VHE domain. The purpose of this work is to probe the level of VHE γ-ray emission from both SNRs and use this to constrain their physical properties. Observations were conducted with the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) Cherenkov Telescope Array over a more than six-year period spanning 2004-2010. The obtained data have effective livetimes of 67 h for G1.9+0.3 and 16 h for G330.2+1.0. The data are analysed in the context of the multiwavelength observations currently available and in the framework of both leptonic and hadronic particle acceleration scenarios. No significant γ-ray signal from G1.9+0.3 or G330.2+1.0 was detected. Upper limits (99 per cent confidence level) to the TeV flux from G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 for the assumed spectral index Γ = 2.5 were set at 5.6 × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 above 0.26 TeV and 3.2 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 above 0.38 TeV, respectively. In a one-zone leptonic scenario, these upper limits imply lower limits on the interior magnetic field to BG1.9 ≳ 12 μG for G1.9+0.3 and to BG330 ≳ 8 μG for G330.2+1.0. In a hadronic scenario, the low ambient densities and the large distances to the SNRs result in very low predicted fluxes, for which the H.E.S.S. upper limits are not constraining.

  20. Artificial neural networks and ecological communities (Book Review: Modelling community structure in freshwater ecosystems)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    Review info: Modeling community structure in freshwater ecosystems. Edited by Sovan Lek, Michele Scardi, Piet F.M. Verdonschot, Jean-Pierre Descy, and Young-Seuk Park, 2005. ISBN: 3-540-23940-5, 518 pp.

  1. CHANG-ES. IV. Radio Continuum Emission of 35 Edge-on Galaxies Observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in D Configuration—Data Release 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, Theresa; Irwin, Judith; Miskolczi, Arpad; Schmidt, Philip; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Stein, Yelena; English, Jayanne; Rand, Richard J.; Santistevan, Isaiah; Walterbos, Rene; Krause, Marita; Beck, Rainer; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Kepley, Amanda; Wezgowiec, Marek; Wang, Q. Daniel; Heald, George; Li, Jiangtao; MacGregor, Stephen; Johnson, Megan; Strong, A. W.; DeSouza, Amanda; Porter, Troy A.

    2015-09-01

    We present the first part of the observations made for the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) project. The aim of the CHANG-ES project is to study and characterize the nature of radio halos, their prevalence as well as their magnetic fields, and the cosmic rays illuminating these fields. This paper reports observations with the compact D configuration of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) for the sample of 35 nearby edge-on galaxies of CHANG-ES. With the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the VLA, an unprecedented sensitivity was achieved for all polarization products. The beam resolution is an average of 9.″6 and 36″ with noise levels reaching approximately 6 and 30 μJy beam-1 for C- and L-bands, respectively (robust weighting). We present intensity maps in these two frequency bands (C and L), with different weightings, as well as spectral index maps, polarization maps, and new measurements of star formation rates (SFRs). The data products described herein are available to the public in the CHANG-ES data release available at http://www.queensu.ca/changes. We also present evidence of a trend among galaxies with larger halos having higher SFR surface density, and we show, for the first time, a radio continuum image of the median galaxy, taking advantage of the collective signal-to-noise ratio of 30 of our galaxies. This image shows clearly that a “typical” spiral galaxy is surrounded by a halo of magnetic fields and cosmic rays.

  2. H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2015-02-01

    G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE; 0.1 GeV 100 GeV) γ-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. This makes it one of the farthest Galactic SNR ever detected in this domain. An integral flux F(E> 400 GeV) = (6.5 ± 1.1stat ± 1.3syst) × 10-13 ph cm-2 s-1 corresponding to ~0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of ~1034 erg s-1 above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index ΓVHE = 2.8 ± 0.27stat ± 0.20syst are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index ΓHE = 2.2 ± 0.04stat+0.13-0.31 sys. The combined γ-ray spectrum of G349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power-law (BPL) or a power-law with exponential (or sub-exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at Ebr,γ = 55+70-30 GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE γ-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case, the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at Ecut,γ = 1.4+1.6-0.55 (respectively 0.35+0.75-0.21) TeV. A pion-decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the γ-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nHWp ~ 5 × 1051 erg cm-3.

  3. Harding, Karl Ludwig (1765-1834)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, became professor of astronomy at Göttingen,where he advised HEINRICH SCHWABE on solar observations. Discovered Juno, the third asteroid, from J H SCHRÖTER's observatory at Liliethal, where he was an assistant....

  4. Karl Marx: "A Swarthy Fellow from Trier."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalek, Richard

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are Marx's roles as a student, a journalist-scholar, a revolutionary, and a family member. Revealed is a political and intellectual figure of enormous stature and complexity, but a person typically human in passions and commitments, strengths, and shortcomings. (RM)

  5. Karl Marx vs. Adam Smith Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.; Flanagan, Jennifer; Dubey, Anvit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ability of freshman college students to identify the founding fathers of free enterprise and of communism has improved. This study is a follow-up to four previous studies. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to College of Business and College of Education & Human Services…

  6. Economic Heritage: Adam Smith vs. Karl Marx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the number of first semester college freshmen who could correctly identify the individuals who are generally considered the "fathers" of communism and capitalism. A questionnaire was administered to 241 freshmen students enrolled in English 101, College Reading and Writing, at Texas A&M…

  7. HESS Opinions "A random walk on water"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2009-10-01

    According to the traditional notion of randomness and uncertainty, natural phenomena are separated into two mutually exclusive components, random (or stochastic) and deterministic. Within this dichotomous logic, the deterministic part supposedly represents cause-effect relationships and, thus, is physics and science (the "good"), whereas randomness has little relationship with science and no relationship with understanding (the "evil"). We argue that such views should be reconsidered by admitting that uncertainty is an intrinsic property of nature, that causality implies dependence of natural processes in time, thus suggesting predictability, but even the tiniest uncertainty (e.g., in initial conditions) may result in unpredictability after a certain time horizon. On these premises it is possible to shape a consistent stochastic representation of natural processes, in which predictability (suggested by deterministic laws) and unpredictability (randomness) coexist and are not separable or additive components. Deciding which of the two dominates is simply a matter of specifying the time horizon of the prediction. Long horizons of prediction are inevitably associated with high uncertainty, whose quantification relies on understanding the long-term stochastic properties of the processes.

  8. HESS Opinions "A random walk on water"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2010-03-01

    According to the traditional notion of randomness and uncertainty, natural phenomena are separated into two mutually exclusive components, random (or stochastic) and deterministic. Within this dichotomous logic, the deterministic part supposedly represents cause-effect relationships and, thus, is physics and science (the "good"), whereas randomness has little relationship with science and no relationship with understanding (the "evil"). Here I argue that such views should be reconsidered by admitting that uncertainty is an intrinsic property of nature, that causality implies dependence of natural processes in time, thus suggesting predictability, but even the tiniest uncertainty (e.g. in initial conditions) may result in unpredictability after a certain time horizon. On these premises it is possible to shape a consistent stochastic representation of natural processes, in which predictability (suggested by deterministic laws) and unpredictability (randomness) coexist and are not separable or additive components. Deciding which of the two dominates is simply a matter of specifying the time horizon and scale of the prediction. Long horizons of prediction are inevitably associated with high uncertainty, whose quantification relies on the long-term stochastic properties of the processes.

  9. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audoin, Bertrand; Dehoux, Thomas; Guillet, Yannick

    2011-02-01

    and the gala dinner took place in a wine chateau in the medieval village. We hope this experience will remain in the attendees' memories as a pleasant and convivial time. We would like to express our thanks to the members of the organizing committee, the scientific committee, and all our generous sponsors, either institutions or companies, for their help in making this event possible. We would also like to thank the scientists involved for their confidence in our organization, and for their contributions. As unanimously decided by the attendees, the next symposium will be held in Japan, most likely in 2012. The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series provide a collection of state-of-the-art and recent advances in research and applications of laser ultrasonics as presented at this second Symposium. Bertrand Audoin - Conference ChairThomas Dehoux - Conference proceedings co-editorYannick Guillet - Conference proceedings co-editor Conference photograph Scientific committee Bertrand AudoinUniversité Bordeaux 1, France Alain BlouinNRC, Canada Christ GlorieuxKatholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Vitalyi GusevUniversité du Maine, France Peter HessUniversity of Heidelberg, Germany Alexander A KarabutovMoscow State University, Russia Sridhar KrishnaswamyNorthwestern University, USA Humphrey MarisBrown University, USA Jean-Pierre MonchalinNRC, Canada Todd MurrayBoston University, USA Makoto OchiaiToshiba Corp, Japan Menglu QianTongji University, China Daniel RoyerEcole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie, France Hervé TrétoutDassault Aviation, France Hubert VoillaumeEADS, France Oliver B WrightHokkaido University, Japan Shu-yi ZhangNanjing University, China Organizing committee Bertrand AudoinChair Sandrine GuitLocal administrator Christophe Aristégui Thomas Dehoux Evelyne Dewayse Yannick Guillet Armelle Guilloux

  10. Carleton Papers in Applied Language Studies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lynne, Ed.

    The papers in this collection focus on both underlying theoretical principles of language teaching, learning, and research and exchanges of information between teachers and researchers. The following titles are included: "CALS at Carleton" (Janice Yalden); "Computers in the Teaching of Linguistics" (Jean-Pierre Paillet); "English in the Workplace:…

  11. Stendhal: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brombert, Victor, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Victor Brombert, Martin Turnell, Erich Auerbach, Jean Prevost, Raymond Giraud, Irving Howe, Judd D. Hubert, Leon Blum, Jean Starobinski, Jean-Pierre Richard, and Simone de Beauvoir--all dealing with the biography and…

  12. Book Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeinger, Philip R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents and review six books. Topics include earth science topics (Philip R. Holzinger, 1985), the wild horse controversy (Richard Symanski, 1985), historical Dutch geography (Audrey M. Lambert, 1985), urban geography (Susan L. Cutter, 1985), a geopolitical atlas (Gerard Chaliand and Jean-Pierre Rageau, 1985), and remote sensing (Robert K. Holz,…

  13. The CDCC Teacher Bursaries Scheme. European Teachers' Seminar on "Towards Intercultural Education: Training for Teachers of Gypsy Pupils" (Benidorm, Spain, June 9-13, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liegois, Jean-Pierre

    The Council of Europe's third seminar on Gypsy and migrant children's education attracted 75 educators from 6 European countries. This report provides a synopsis of each of eight plenary lectures and complete reports from four workshops. An introduction offers background information and an opening address by Jean-Pierre Liegois is given in full.…

  14. Congo: Elections and the Battle for Mineral Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Twenty million voters cast ballots July 30, 2006, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's first free election since 1960. A runoff election three months later, between transitional president Joseph Kabila and transitional vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba, gave Kabila a mandate to lead the war-torn nation for five more years. The elections, in…

  15. "Ambivalence to Technology in Jeunet's" Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rick Clifton

    2006-01-01

    Although at one level Jean-Pierre Jeunets "Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain" is a sweet, attractive film about a young Parisian doing good deeds, it also offers a compelling analysis of the role of technology in our modern lives. The film paints a world where machines and a mechanistic worldview are appealing because humans have a desire to…

  16. French Education: Back to Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David

    1985-01-01

    The French government has announced new moves designed to reinforce the teaching of basic skills in this nation's elementary schools. Highlights of these moves and of Jean-Pierre Chevenement's (minister of national education) recommendations on what should be emphasized in schools are presented. (JN)

  17. HectoMAPping the Universe. Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2015-06-01

    During the last three decades progress in mapping the Universe from an age of 400 000 years to the present has been stunning. Instrument/telescope combinations have naturally determined the sampling of various redshift ranges. Here we outline the impact of the Hectospec on the MMT on exploration of the Universe in the redshift range 0.2 ⪉ z ⪉ 0.8. We focus on dense redshift surveys, SHELS and HectoMAP. SHELS is a complete magnitude limited survey covering 8 square degrees. The HectoMAP survey combines a red-selected dense redshift survey and a weak lensing map covering 50 square degrees. Combining the dense redshift survey with a Subaru HyperSuprimeCam (HSC) weak lensing map will provide a powerful probe of the way galaxies trace the distribution of dark matter on a wide range of physical scales.

  18. [The concept of "understanding" (Verstehen) in Karl Jaspers].

    PubMed

    Villareal, Helena; Aragona, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between empathy and psychopathology. It deals with the concept of "understanding" in Jaspers' General Psychopathology, 100 years after the publication of its first edition. The Jaspersian proposal has the person and his/her experience as its primary object of study, just as in Ortegas' vital reason. Jaspers' understanding is not rational but empathetic, based on the co-presence of emotional content and detailed descriptions. Jaspers' methodology is essentially pluralistic, considering both explanation and understanding, necessary for psychopathology. Despite certain limits, the concept of understanding is the backbone of the psychopathological reasoning, and has proven useful over a century of clinical practice. However, it needs a review covering the recent epistemological and clinical findings. "To be understandable" is a relational property that emerges from a semiotic process. Therefore, an effective psychology should encompass an inter-subjective process, and get away from strict rationalism. PMID:25546640

  19. MOISTURE IN COTTON BY THE KARL FISCHER TITRATION REFERENCE METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is a critical parameter that influences many aspects of cotton fiber from harvesting and ginning to various fiber properties. Because of their importance, reference moisture methods that are more accurate than the existing oven-drying techniques and relatively easy to generate results are ...

  20. Zöllner, Johann Karl [Carl] Friedrich (1834-82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, born in Leipzig, was a pioneer solar astronomer, classifying solar prominences. He first suggested that the spectral types of stars represent an evolutionary sequence, starting hot and cooling. This idea was taken up with variations by H C VOGEL and NORMAN LOCKYER....

  1. Karl Krueger, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. HESS Opinions "Forecaster priorities for improving probabilistic flood forecasts"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterhall, F.; Pappenberger, F.; Alfieri, L.; Cloke, H. L.; Thielen-del Pozo, J.; Balabanova, S.; Daňhelka, J.; Vogelbacher, A.; Salamon, P.; Carrasco, I.; Cabrera-Tordera, A. J.; Corzo-Toscano, M.; Garcia-Padilla, M.; Garcia-Sanchez, R. J.; Ardilouze, C.; Jurela, S.; Terek, B.; Csik, A.; Casey, J.; Stankūnavičius, G.; Ceres, V.; Sprokkereef, E.; Stam, J.; Anghel, E.; Vladikovic, D.; Alionte Eklund, C.; Hjerdt, N.; Djerv, H.; Holmberg, F.; Nilsson, J.; Nyström, K.; Sušnik, M.; Hazlinger, M.; Holubecka, M.

    2013-11-01

    Hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have in recent years been increasingly used for the operational forecasting of floods by European hydrometeorological agencies. The most obvious advantage of HEPS is that more of the uncertainty in the modelling system can be assessed. In addition, ensemble prediction systems generally have better skill than deterministic systems both in the terms of the mean forecast performance and the potential forecasting of extreme events. Research efforts have so far mostly been devoted to the improvement of the physical and technical aspects of the model systems, such as increased resolution in time and space and better description of physical processes. Developments like these are certainly needed; however, in this paper we argue that there are other areas of HEPS that need urgent attention. This was also the result from a group exercise and a survey conducted to operational forecasters within the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) to identify the top priorities of improvement regarding their own system. They turned out to span a range of areas, the most popular being to include verification of an assessment of past forecast performance, a multi-model approach for hydrological modelling, to increase the forecast skill on the medium range (>3 days) and more focus on education and training on the interpretation of forecasts. In light of limited resources, we suggest a simple model to classify the identified priorities in terms of their cost and complexity to decide in which order to tackle them. This model is then used to create an action plan of short-, medium- and long-term research priorities with the ultimate goal of an optimal improvement of EFAS in particular and to spur the development of operational HEPS in general.

  3. Hybrid energy systems (HESs) using small modular reactors (SMRs)

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bragg-Sitton

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, small modular reactors (SMRs) offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal ap plications in more locations – while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources.

  4. Spontaneous ionization to subatomic physics: Victor Hess to Peter Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays, a milestone in science, was based on the work by scientists in Europe and the New World. Many scientists that took part in this research a century ago were intrigued by the penetrating radiation and tried to understand the origin of it. Cosmic ray physics is at the foundations of modern particle physics, and some of the recent discoveries in particle physics find their roots in cosmic-ray physics.

  5. Implications of HESS Observations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jager, Ocker C.; Djannati-Ataï, Arache

    Even before the discovery of pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) like the Crab Nebula were identified as belonging to a class of cosmic radio sources with rela-tivistic electrons moving in magnetized plasmas to give the continuum radiation as observed. Visionaries like [36] already predicted that we should be able to measure the magnetic field strength in PWN using the combination of synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) radiation. Following this, [43] were the first to provide us with a sophisticated one dimensional (1D) magneto hydrodynamical models (MHD) model of the Crab Nebula, which predicted a magnetic field strength distribution, consistent with broadband multi-wavelength (radio through very high energy gamma-ray) constraints [12,25, 39].

  6. HESS Opinions "Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zaag, P.; Gupta, J.; Darvis, L. P.

    2009-06-01

    In this opinion paper we submit that water experts conduct comparatively little research on the more urgent challenges facing the global community. Five specific biases are identified. First, research in the field of water and sanitation is heavily biased against sanitation. Second, research on food security is biased in favour of conventional irrigation and fails to address the problems and opportunities of rainfed agriculture. Third, insufficient water research is dedicated to developmental compared to environmental issues. Fourth, too little research is conducted on adaptation to climate change by developing countries. And finally, research on water governance has a fascination for conflict but too little eye for cooperation and meeting basic needs. This paper illustrates these biases with bibliometric indicators extracted from the ISI Web of Science. There is a stark mismatch between the global demand for knowledge and the supply of it. This mismatch is identified here as a problem that we water scientists must confront and resolve. We still lack a full understanding why this divergence between demand and supply occurs and persists; an understanding that is required to guide us towards aligning our research priorities to societal demands. The paper, however, makes some inferences. On the one hand, we should promote the global South to create its own research biases and allow it to develop alternative solutions. Simultaneously we would benefit from critical examination of our own research practice. Although this paper addresses a critical challenge it does not aim to be exhaustive or definitive. We merely identify the persistence of intransigent water problems as a valid research object in itself.

  7. EdF`s Mercier on the biggest maintenance program in the world

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, E.F.

    1993-08-01

    This article presents an interview with Jean-Pierre Mercier, present vice president of operations and maintenance engineering at Electricite de France (EdF). The maintenance budget for EdF is in the range of 1.5 to 1.7 billion US dollars per year. Mercier discusses the changing direction of the EdF maintenance program, with increasing emphasis on human performance, safety culture, and professionalism at the power station sites and among the many outside contractors.

  8. Erratum

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster epidemiology, management, and disease and economic burden in Europe: a multidisciplinary perspective By Robert W. Johnston, Marie-José Alvarez-Pasquin, Marc Bijl, Elisabetta Franco, Jacques Gaillat, João G. Clara, Marc Labetoulle, Jean-Pierre Michel, Luigi Naldi, Luis S. Sanmarti and Thomas Weinke. Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines 2015, Vol. 3(4) 109–120. PMID:27551430

  9. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  10. Pop Culture in the Classroom: "American Idol," Karl Marx, and Alexis de Tocqueville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centellas, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of pop culture in the classroom as a means to teach foundational political science authors and concepts. I focus on my experience using "American Idol" as a point of reference to discuss Marx and Engel's "The Communist Manifesto" and Tocqueville's "Democracy in America" in undergraduate comparative politics courses.…

  11. Gravitational Radiation - a New Window Onto the Universe. (Karl Schwarzschild Lecture 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    A summary is given of the current status and plans for gravitational-wave searches at all plausible wavelengths, from the size of the observable universe to a few kilometers. The anticipated scientific payoff from these searches is described, including expectations for detailed studies of black holes and neutron stars, high-accuracy tests of general relativity, and hopes for the discovery of exotic new kinds of objects.

  12. Karl Schwarzschild Lecture: The Ups and Downs of the Hubble Constant (With 12 Figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammann, G. Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A brief history of the determination of the Hubble constant H_0 is given. Early attempts following Lemaitre (1927) gave much too high values due to errors of the magnitude scale, Malmquist bias and calibration problems. By 1962 most authors agreed that 75< H_0 <130. After 1975 a dichotomy arose with values near 100 and others around 55. The former came from apparent-magnitude-limited samples and were affected by Malmquist bias. New distance indicators were introduced; they were sometimes claimed to yield high values of H_0, but the most recent data lead to H_0 in the 60's, yet with remaining difficulties as to the zero-point of the respective distance indicators. SNe Ia with their large range and very small luminosity dispersion (avoiding Malmquist bias) offer a unique opportunity to determine the large-scale value of H_0. Their maximum luminosity can be well calibrated from 10 SNe Ia in local parent galaxies whose Cepheids have been observed with HST. An unforeseen difficulty - affecting all Cepheid distances - is that their P-L relation varies from galaxy to galaxy, presumably in function of metallicity. A proposed solution is summarized here. The conclusion is that H_0 = 63.2 +/- 1.3 (random) +/- 5.3 (systematic) on all scales. The expansion age becomes then (with Omega_m=0.3, Omega_Lambda=0.7) 15.1 Gyr.

  13. Mean-field dynamos: The old concept and some recent developments. Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rädler, K.-H.

    This article elucidates the basic ideas of electrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics of mean fields in turbulently moving conducting fluids. It is stressed that the connection of the mean electromotive force with the mean magnetic field and its first spatial derivatives is in general neither local nor instantaneous and that quite a few claims concerning pretended failures of the mean-field concept result from ignoring this aspect. In addition to the mean-field dynamo mechanisms of α2 and α Ω type several others are considered. Much progress in mean-field electrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics results from the test-field method for calculating the coefficients that determine the connection of the mean electromotive force with the mean magnetic field. As an important example the memory effect in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is explained. In magnetohydrodynamic turbulence there is the possibility of a mean electromotive force that is primarily independent of the mean magnetic field and labeled as Yoshizawa effect. Despite of many efforts there is so far no convincing comprehensive theory of α quenching, that is, the reduction of the α effect with growing mean magnetic field, and of the saturation of mean-field dynamos. Steps toward such a theory are explained. Finally, some remarks on laboratory experiments with dynamos are made.

  14. Karl Abraham's revolution of 1916: from sensual sucking to the oral-aggressive wish of destruction.

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that "The First Pregenital Stage of the Libido" (Abraham 1916-1917) expounds a new conception of orality, i.e., of purposeful oral aggression directed against an object during the first stage of psychic development. This conception is shown to be contrary to Freud's view of orality as elaborated in Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), as well as in other writings of late 1914 and 1915. Abraham's conception ignores fundamental dimensions of Freud's thinking during these years, namely, the difference between autoerotism/narcissism and object love, on the one hand, and also between the leading role of sexuality and the secondary role of aggression, on the other. Thus, Abraham's thinking represents a basic theoretical change that had far-reaching consequences for psychoanalytic practice. PMID:22423435

  15. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD. PMID:19257888

  16. Comparison of Karl Fischer titrimetric and gravimetric methods for determination of moisture content in BCG vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shi, M; Klegerman, M E; Groves, M J

    1989-01-01

    A model 447 Coulomatic K-F titrimeter was used to determine the water content of seventeen lots of freeze-dried Tice-substrain BCG vaccine. The results were compared with corresponding moisture contents determined by a standard gravimetric method at the time of manufacture. The advantages of the titrimetric method include simplicity, rapidity, convenience, sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity, whereas the gravimetric method is tedious and time-consuming. Although moisture content determined by the K-F titrimeter tended to be higher than that determined by the gravimetric method, the results correlated significantly (r = 0.882, P less than 10(-5]. Alteration of national and international regulations to permit use of the K-F titrimeter is recommended. PMID:2770557

  17. Evolutionary Trends and the Salience Bias (with Apologies to Oil Tankers, Karl Marx, and Others).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShea, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    Examines evolutionary trends, specifically trends in size, complexity, and fitness. Notes that documentation of these trends consists of either long lists of cases, or descriptions of a small number of salient cases. Proposes the use of random samples to avoid this "saliency bias." (SR)

  18. Karl Marx and Group Therapy: An Old Warning about a New Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terry D.

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marx's classic critique of religion to explore the social function of therapy groups. Investigates the manner in which groups conserve the status quo and argues that the Marxist critique can help promote a more realistic social awareness and a more effective perception of groups. (Author/JAC)

  19. Karl Marx, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Black Underachievement in the United States and United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlin, Carol; Wright, Cecile; Mocombe, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes Marxian conceptions of identity construction within capitalist relations of production with the Wittgensteinian notion of "language games" to offer a more appropriate relational framework within which scholars ought to understand the Black-White academic achievement gap in America, the United Kingdom, and…

  20. The Beta Distribution,moment method, Karl Pearson and R.A.Fisher

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2007-01-01

    Simulation studies provide four moment approximating distributions to each of the four parameters of a beta distribution (Pearson Type I). Two of the parameters refer to origin and scale, two to shape (skewness and kurtosis). Type I random number generator is checked out, and the stability of moments of random samples of size n over cycles; particular attention is paid to shape parameter moments. In Type I region of validity (referred to skewness and kurtosis), moment methods become unstable in the neighborhood of Type III ({chi}{sup 2}) line, and ultimately abort. Thus extremely large variances and large higher moments arise. We probe the cause of this phenomenon. Simulation studies are turned to since alternative power series methods are forbiddingly complicated. However, use is made of the delta method to provide asymptotic variances of the estimators, and asymptotic variances of percentage points of the basic distribution. An account of work on the subject by K. Pearson, some of it a century ago, is given. In particular an important paper by Pearson and Filon provides some estimates of probable errors of moment parameter estimators such as the basic distribution parameters, the mode, the skewness and others. The heated controversy between Pearson and Fisher is considered.

  1. Signals from the epoch of cosmological recombination (Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunyaev, R. A.; Chluba, J.

    2009-07-01

    The physical ingredients to describe the epoch of cosmological recombination are amazingly simple and well-understood. This fact allows us to take into account a very large variety of physical processes, still finding potentially measurable consequences for the energy spectrum and temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In this contribution we provide a short historical overview in connection with the cosmological recombination epoch and its connection to the CMB. Also we highlight some of the detailed physics that were studied over the past few years in the context of the cosmological recombination of hydrogen and helium. The impact of these considerations is two-fold: The associated release of photons during this epoch leads to interesting and unique deviations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) energy spectrum from a perfect blackbody, which, in particular at decimeter wavelength and the Wien part of the CMB spectrum, may become observable in the near future. Despite the fact that the abundance of helium is rather small, it still contributes a sizeable amount of photons to the full recombination spectrum, leading to additional distinct spectral features. Observing the spectral distortions from the epochs of hydrogen and helium recombination, in principle would provide an additional way to determine some of the key parameters of the Universe (e.g. the specific entropy, the CMB monopole temperature and the pre-stellar abundance of helium). Also it permits us to confront our detailed understanding of the recombination process with direct observational evidence. In this contribution we illustrate how the theoretical spectral template of the cosmological recombination spectrum may be utilized for this purpose. We also show that because hydrogen and helium recombine at very different epochs it is possible to address questions related to the thermal history of our Universe. In particular the cosmological recombination radiation may allow us to distinguish between Compton y-distortions that were created by energy release before or after the recombination of the Universe finished. With the advent of high precision CMB data, e.g. as will be available using the PLANCK Surveyor or CMBPOL, a very accurate theoretical understanding of the ionization history of the Universe becomes necessary for the interpretation of the CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies. Here we show that the uncertainty in the ionization history due to several processes, which until now were not taken in to account in the standard recombination code RECFAST, reaches the percent level. In particular He II->He I recombination occurs significantly faster because of the presence of a tiny fraction of neutral hydrogen at {z⪉ 2400}. Also recently it was demonstrated that in the case of H I Lyman α photons the time-dependence of the emission process and the asymmetry between the emission and absorption profile cannot be ignored. However, it is indeed surprising how inert the cosmological recombination history is even at percent-level accuracy. Observing the cosmological recombination spectrum should in principle allow us to directly check this conclusion, which until now is purely theoretical. Also it may allow to reconstruct the ionization history using observational data.

  2. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed a different theory, methodology and terminology. However, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences, which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of a truly unifying interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we may have to start integration by analyzing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply a (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few immediate incentives are experienced. The objective of the present opinion paper is to stimulate a discussion rather than to provide recipes on how to integrate GW and SW research or to explain how specific problems of GW-SW interaction should be solved on a technical level. For that purpose it presents complicated topics in a rather simplified, bold way, ignoring to some degree subtleties and potentially controversial issues.

  3. HESS Opinions "On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.

    2011-07-01

    Flood forecasting increasingly relies on numerical weather prediction forecasts to achieve longer lead times. One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is what to dowhen consecutive forecasts are so different that they lead to different conclusions regarding the issuing of warnings or triggering other action. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "Jumpiness", "Turning points", "Continuity" or number of "Swings"). In thsi opinion paper we define forecast inconsistency; discuss the reasons why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse inconsistency; and what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments.

  4. HESS Opinions "On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.

    2011-01-01

    Flood forecasting increasingly relies on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts to achieve longer lead times (see Cloke et al., 2009; Cloke and Pappenberger, 2009). One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is when consecutive forecasts are different, leading to different conclusions regarding the issuing of forecasts, and hence inconsistent. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "jumpiness", "turning points", "continuity" or number of "swings"; Zoster et al., 2009; Mills and Pepper, 1999; Lashley et al., 2008). We begin by defining what forecast inconsistency is; why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse it; what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments (for a limited discussion on NWP inconsistency see Persson, 2011). However, in this opinion paper we restrict the discussion to a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain in which river discharge forecasts are produced using inputs from NWP. In this area of research (in)consistency is receiving recent interest and application (see e.g., Bartholmes et al., 2008; Pappenberger et al., 2011).

  5. HESS Opinions: Advocating process modeling and de-emphasizing parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahremand, Abdolreza

    2016-04-01

    Since its origins as an engineering discipline, with its widespread use of "black box" (empirical) modeling approaches, hydrology has evolved into a scientific discipline that seeks a more "white box" (physics-based) modeling approach to solving problems such as the description and simulation of the rainfall-runoff responses of a watershed. There has been much recent debate regarding the future of the hydrological sciences, and several publications have voiced opinions on this subject. This opinion paper seeks to comment and expand upon some recent publications that have advocated an increased focus on process-based modeling while de-emphasizing the focus on detailed attention to parameter estimation. In particular, it offers a perspective that emphasizes a more hydraulic (more physics-based and less empirical) approach to development and implementation of hydrological models.

  6. The light-sensitive conductance of melanopsin-expressing Joseph and Hesse cells in amphioxus

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Camila; Malagón, Gerardo; Ferrer, Camilo; Chen, Jun Kui; Angueyra, Juan Manuel; Nasi, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Two types of microvillar photoreceptors in the neural tube of amphioxus, an early chordate, sense light via melanopsin, the same photopigment as in “circadian” light detectors of higher vertebrates. Because in amphioxus melanopsin activates a Gq/phospholipase C cascade, like phototransduction in arthropods and mollusks, possible commonalities in the photoconductance were investigated. Unlike other microvillar photoreceptors, reversal of the photocurrent can only be attained upon replacement of extracellular Na+. In addition to Na+, Ca2+ is also permeant, as indicated by the fact that (a) in normal ionic conditions the photocurrent remains inward at Vm > ENa; (b) in Na-free solution a small residual inward photocurrent persists at Vm near resting level, provided that Ca is present; and (c) Vrev exhibits a modest shift with [Ca]o manipulations. The unusual reversal is accounted for by an uncommonly low permeability of the light-dependent channels to K+, as [K]o only marginally affects the photocurrent amplitude and its reversal. Lanthanum and ruthenium red (RuR), two TRP channel antagonists, reversibly suppress the response to photostimulation of moderate intensity; therefore, the melanopsin-initiated cascade may recruit ion channels of the same family as those of rhabdomeric photoreceptors. With brighter lights, blockage declines, so that both La3+ and RuR induce a right shift in the sensitivity curve without a reduction of its asymptote. Nonetheless, an effect on the transduction cascade, rather than the channels, was ruled out on the basis of the voltage dependency of the blockade and the lack of effects of intracellular application of the same substances. The mechanisms of action of these antagonists thus entail a state-dependent blockade, with a higher affinity for the channel in the closed conformation. Collectively, the results indicate a kinship of the light-sensitive channels of amphioxus with those of invertebrate rhabdomeric visual cells and support the representation of this lineage of photoreceptors among chordates. PMID:22200946

  7. HESS Opinions: Repeatable research: what hydrologistscan learn from the Duke cancer research scandal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael; Bakker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, difficulties encountered in reproducing the results of a cancer study at Duke University resulted in a scandal and an investigation which concluded that tools used for data management, analysis, and modeling were inappropriate for the documentation of the study, let alone the reproduction of the results. New protocols were developed which require that data analysis and modeling be carried out with scripts that can be used to reproduce the results and are a record of all decisions and interpretations made during an analysis or a modeling effort. In the hydrological sciences, we face similar challenges and need to develop similar standards for transparency and repeatability of results. A promising route is to start making use of open-source languages (such as R and Python) to write scripts and to use collaborative coding environments (such as Git) to share our codes for inspection and use by the hydrological community. An important side-benefit to adopting such protocols is consistency and efficiency among collaborators.

  8. 75 FR 32210 - United States v. Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports Medicine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... any natural person, corporation, firm, company, sole proprietorship, partnership, joint venture... Idaho Orthopaedic Society (``IOS'') is a non-profit corporation organized and doing business under the....A. (``ISMI''), an orthopedic practice group consisting of four physicians, is a...

  9. HESS Opinions "Should we apply bias correction to global and regional climate model data?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, U.; Zehe, E.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Warrach-Sagi, K.; Liebert, J.

    2012-04-01

    Despite considerable progress in recent years, output of both Global and Regional Circulation Models is still afflicted with biases to a degree that precludes its direct use, especially in climate change impact studies. This is well known, and to overcome this problem bias correction (BC), i.e. the correction of model output towards observations in a post processing step for its subsequent application in climate change impact studies has now become a standard procedure. In this paper we argue that bias correction, which has a considerable influence on the results of impact studies, is not a valid procedure in the way it is currently used: it impairs the advantages of Circulation Models which are based on established physical laws by altering spatiotemporal field consistency, relations among variables and by violating conservation principles. Bias correction largely neglects feedback mechanisms and it is unclear whether bias correction methods are time-invariant under climate change conditions. Applying bias correction increases agreement of Climate Model output with observations in hind casts and hence narrows the uncertainty range of simulations and predictions without, however, providing a satisfactory physical justification. This is in most cases not transparent to the end user. We argue that this masks rather than reduces uncertainty, which may lead to avoidable forejudging of end users and decision makers. We present here a brief overview of state-of-the-art bias correction methods, discuss the related assumptions and implications, draw conclusions on the validity of bias correction and propose ways to cope with biased output of Circulation Models in the short term and how to reduce the bias in the long term. The most promising strategy for improved future Global and Regional Circulation Model simulations is the increase in model resolution to the convection-permitting scale in combination with ensemble predictions based on sophisticated approaches for ensemble perturbation. With this article, we advocate communicating the entire uncertainty range associated with climate change predictions openly and hope to stimulate a lively discussion on bias correction among the atmospheric and hydrological community and end users of climate change impact studies.

  10. NATURAL PHYTOTOXINS WITH POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT FOR WEED MANAGEMENT (DAN HESS MEMORIAL LECTURE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter discusses discovery of natural products that could be used as herbicides, as well as modern molecular methods that can be helpful in exploiting natural products for weed management. Natural products with new molecular target sites, as well as those with known target sites are discussed...

  11. HESS Opinions: Advocating process modeling and de-emphasizing parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahremand, A.

    2015-11-01

    Since the origins of hydrology as an engineering discipline, where "black box" modelling approaches were common, it has evolved into a scientific discipline that seeks a more "white box" modelling approach to solving problems such as description and simulation of the rainfall-runoff responses of a watershed. There has been much recent debate regarding the future of the hydrological sciences, and several publications have voiced opinions on this subject. This opinion paper seeks to comment and expand on some recent publications that have advocated an increased focus on process modelling while de-emphasizing the focus on detailed attention to parameter estimation. In particular, it offers a perspective that emphasizes a more hydraulic (more physics and less conceptual) approach to development and implementation of hydrological models.

  12. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-02-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed different theory, methodology and terminology. Yet, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of truly unifying, interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we should start integration by analysing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few, immediate incentives are experienced.

  13. International trade and waste and fuel managment issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: HLW management in France, by Michel Debes, EDF, France; Breakthroughs from future reactors, by Jacques Bouchard, CEA, France; 'MOX for peace' a reality, by Jean-Pierre Bariteau, AREVA Group, France; Swedish spent fuel and radwaste, by Per H. Grahn and Marie Skogsberg, SKB, Sweden; ENC2005 concluding remarks, by Larry Foulke, 'Nuclear Technology Matters'; Fuel crud formation and behavior, by Charles Turk, Entergy; and, Plant profile: major vote of confidence for NP, by Martti Katka, TVO, Finland.

  14. STS-87 Mission Specialist Chawla and her husband pose at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., poses with her husband, Jean-Pierre Harrison, in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. The other STS-87 crew members are Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  15. The mechanical career of Councillor Orffyreus, confidence man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    In the early 18th century, J. E. E. Bessler, known as Orffyreus, constructed several wheels that he claimed could keep turning forever, powered only by gravity. He never revealed the details of his invention, but he conducted demonstrations (with the machine's inner workings covered) that persuaded competent observers that he might have discovered the secret of perpetual motion. Among Bessler's defenders were Gottfried Leibniz, Johann Bernoulli, Professor Willem 's Gravesande of Leiden University (who wrote to Isaac Newton on the subject), and Prince Karl, ruler of the German state of Hesse-Kassel. We review Bessler's work, placing it within the context of the intellectual debates of the time about mechanical conservation laws and the (im)possibility of perpetual motion. We also mention Bessler's long career as a confidence man, the details of which were discussed in popular 19th-century German publications but have remained unfamiliar to authors in other languages.

  16. Standard test method for water in lint cotton by oven evaporation combined with volumetric Karl Fischer Titration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The referenced test method for total water content and water regain in lint cotton was developed by USDA scientists in New Orleans at the request of the cotton industry. The method covers the determination of the total water (free and bound) in raw and lint cotton at moisture equilibrium from con...

  17. Karl Jaspers'"The Idea of the University": An Existentialist Argument for an Institution Concerned with Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The origins of Jaspers' 1923 work, with its close relationship to his own intellectual development and contribution to post-World War II German universities, is described. Jaspers' main themes demonstrate his uniqueness as an existentialist in justifying a specific social institution. (MSE)

  18. Continued Development of In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Missions Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon-Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, Damien; Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Since these techniques are very new and as they have never been used or this purpose. they will need to be replicated by several independent studies. These techniques may be very important if the optical imaging encounters difficulties, for example, if a sample is made of very dark or monochromatic material and in the case of very deep pits (>500 microns) Based on the preliminary results, the LIBS continuum technique is more appropriate to the large pits produced by long ablations The relationship may work best homogeneous samples, but the continuum is collected with every LIBS analysis so does not require any addition to the experimental suite of techniques. The integration of a QCMB in the ablation chamber may be a very interesting solution to determine the ablated mass. Even if it only measures a fraction of the total mass, its sensitivity should be able to weigh hundreds of nanograms accumulated on the crystal during ablation and relate it to the actual ablated mass. In the future. these options may help in situ K-Ar dating to give the age of the rock with the best accuracy and precision.

  19. Statistical methods in epidemiology: Karl Pearson, Ronald Ross, Major Greenwood and Austin Bradford Hill, 1900-1945.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Anne; Magnello, M Eileen

    2002-01-01

    The tradition of epidemiological study through observation and the use of vital statistics dates back to the 18th century in Britain. At the close of the 19th century, however, a new and more sophisticated statistical approach emerged, from a base in the discipline of mathematics, which was eventually to transform the practice of epidemiology. This paper traces the evolution of that new analytical approach within English epidemiology through the work of four key contributors to its inception and establishment within the wider discipline. PMID:12134737

  20. KARL: A Knowledge-Assisted Retrieval Language. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    Data classification and storage are tasks typically performed by application specialists. In contrast, information users are primarily non-computer specialists who use information in their decision-making and other activities. Interaction efficiency between such users and the computer is often reduced by machine requirements and resulting user reluctance to use the system. This thesis examines the problems associated with information retrieval for non-computer specialist users, and proposes a method for communicating in restricted English that uses knowledge of the entities involved, relationships between entities, and basic English language syntax and semantics to translate the user requests into formal queries. The proposed method includes an intelligent dictionary, syntax and semantic verifiers, and a formal query generator. In addition, the proposed system has a learning capability that can improve portability and performance. With the increasing demand for efficient human-machine communication, the significance of this thesis becomes apparent. As human resources become more valuable, software systems that will assist in improving the human-machine interface will be needed and research addressing new solutions will be of utmost importance. This thesis presents an initial design and implementation as a foundation for further research and development into the emerging field of natural language database query systems.

  1. Controlling Vision - The Photometry of Karl Friedrich Zoellner PhD Thesis, with an Appendix with photographic illustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staubermann, K. B.

    Using my training as an astronomer and drawing on resources such as museums, instrument collections, and archives, I have rebuilt Zoellner's astro-photometer designed by Zoellner in the late 1850s when he was working for his doctoral thesis at Basel University. The photometer was designed to compare an artificial star with a real star by means of a half-transparent screen which allowed simultaneously observation of the two together. The brightness and colour of the artificial star could be matched those of the real star by means of polarisation. After completing his instrument Zoellner observed with it at Berlin for almost two years. I have both replicated the instrument and carried out observations following Zoellner's own records. The replication of the instrument included all its optical components, the brass and wooden parts and the town gas used to produce the artificial star. This dissertation will follow the line of investigation of historical practice. The beginnings of nineteenth-century photometry will be presented, followed by a description of the Zoellner photometer, its replication and the observations carried out with the replica. I will contextualize my work based on my insights with the photometer, and then trace its career through the second half of the nineteenth century.

  2. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  3. Person-Centered Psychopathology of Schizophrenia: Building on Karl Jaspers’ Understanding of Patient’s Attitude Toward His Illness

    PubMed Central

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In this article, building on and extending Jaspers’ concept of the “patient’s attitude toward his illness” we draw attention to the active role that the person, as a self-interpreting agent engaged in a world shared with other persons, has in interacting with his/her basic disorder and in the shaping of psychopathological syndromes. This person-centered approach helps us to see patients as meaning-making entities rather than passive individuals and their attempt at self-understanding as not necessarily pathological and potentially adaptive. We describe 3 contemporary resources for a person-centered psychopathology: dialectical psychopathology, contemporary approaches to the meanings-causes debate, and value-based practice. Each of these provides a theoretical framework and practical resources for understanding the diversity of schizophrenic phenotypes, including symptom presentation, course, and outcome as a consequence of the different ways people with schizophrenia seek to make sense of the basic changes in self and world experiences. A person-centered approach, in building on patients’ individual values and experiences as key aspects of their self-understanding of their psychosis, supports recovery and development of self-management skills. PMID:23314193

  4. SEARCH FOR DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION SIGNALS FROM THE FORNAX GALAXY CLUSTER WITH H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Brun, F.; Bolmont, J.; Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-05-10

    The Fornax galaxy cluster was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System for a total live time of 14.5 hr, searching for very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) {gamma}-rays from dark matter (DM) annihilation. No significant signal was found in searches for point-like and extended emissions. Using several models of the DM density distribution, upper limits on the DM velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section ({sigma}v) as a function of the DM particle mass are derived. Constraints are derived for different DM particle models, such as those arising from Kaluza-Klein and supersymmetric models. Various annihilation final states are considered. Possible enhancements of the DM annihilation {gamma}-ray flux, due to DM substructures of the DM host halo, or from the Sommerfeld effect, are studied. Additional {gamma}-ray contributions from internal bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton radiation are also discussed. For a DM particle mass of 1 TeV, the exclusion limits at 95% of confidence level reach values of ({sigma}v){sup 95%C.L.} {approx} 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, depending on the DM particle model and halo properties. Additional contribution from DM substructures can improve the upper limits on ({sigma}v) by more than two orders of magnitude. At masses around 4.5 TeV, the enhancement by substructures and the Sommerfeld resonance effect results in a velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section upper limit at the level of ({sigma}v){sup 95%C.L.} {approx}10{sup -26} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}.

  5. A vectorization of the Hess McDonnell Douglas potential flow program NUED for the STAR-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boney, L. R.; Smith, R. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The computer program NUED for analyzing potential flow about arbitrary three dimensional lifting bodies using the panel method was modified to use vector operations and run on the STAR-100 computer. A high speed of computation and ability to approximate the body surface with a large number of panels are characteristics of NUEDV. The new program shows that vector operations can be readily implemented in programs of this type to increase the computational speed on the STAR-100 computer. The virtual memory architecture of the STAR-100 facilitates the use of large numbers of panels to approximate the body surface.

  6. HESS Opinions: The need for process-based evaluation of large-domain hyper-resolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke A.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.

    2016-03-01

    A meta-analysis on 192 peer-reviewed articles reporting on applications of the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model in a distributed way reveals that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has increased over the years, while the calibration and validation time interval has remained unchanged. We argue that the calibration and validation time interval should keep pace with the increase in spatial resolution in order to resolve the processes that are relevant at the applied spatial resolution. We identified six time concepts in hydrological models, which all impact the model results and conclusions. Process-based model evaluation is particularly relevant when models are applied at hyper-resolution, where stakeholders expect credible results both at a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  7. HESS Opinions: The need for process-based evaluation of large-domain hyper-resolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, L. A.; Teuling, A. J.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis on 192 peer-reviewed articles reporting applications of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model in a distributed way reveals that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has increased over the years, while the calibration and validation time interval has remained unchanged. We argue that the calibration and validation time interval should keep pace with the increase in spatial resolution in order to resolve the processes that are relevant at the applied spatial resolution. We identified six time concepts in hydrological models, which all impact the model results and conclusions. Process-based model evaluation is particularly relevant when models are applied at hyper-resolution, where stakeholders expect credible results both at a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  8. Emergent Literacy Activities in the Final Preschool Year in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Hesse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried K.; Lehrl, Simone; Anders, Yvonne; Pohlmann-Rother, Sanna; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Emergent literacy activities are considered to be important for promoting children's emergent literacy skills. However, little research exists, especially in Germany, regarding how often such activities occur and in what context. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of emergent literacy activities occurring in the final preschool…

  9. Cell scientist to watch - Emmanuel Boucrot.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Emmanuel Boucrot obtained an undergraduate and a master's degree in biochemistry at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. He pursued his PhD in immunology at the University of Aix-Marseille II in France, supervised by Stéphane Méresse in the laboratory of Jean-Pierre Gorvel. Emmanuel moved to the USA for his postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Tomas Kirchhausen at Harvard Medical School, first as an EMBO fellow and then as a Human Frontiers Science Program fellow. Before starting his own laboratory in 2011, Emmanuel held another postdoctoral position in the laboratory of Harvey McMahon at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK. He is a recipient of a Lister Institute Research Prize and a BBSRC David Phillips Research Fellowship. His group at University College London is interested in studying the mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis, as well as investigating properties of quiescent cells. PMID:27587837

  10. The STS-87 crew members and their spouses pose in front of Columbia at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of STS-87 pose with their spouses in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. From left to right are: Vera Kadenyuk, wife of Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine who is next to Vera; Mission Specialist Winston Scott and his wife, Marilyn; Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, and his wife, Hitomi; Jeannie Kregel, who is married to Commander Kevin Kregel standing next to her; Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and her husband, Jean-Pierre Harrison; and Pilot Steven Lindsey and his wife Diane. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  11. Republication of: A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extra-galactic nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, Georges

    2013-08-01

    This is an English translation of a paper by Georges Lemaître, first published in French in 1927, in which the author, having re-discovered and generalised the Friedmann models, for the first time related them to the then-already-available observations of expansion of the Universe. The translation published in 1931 in MNRAS was not perfectly faithful to the original text—it was updated. As it turned out very recently, the updates were done by Lemaître himself, but the discrepancies between the two texts caused a temporary stir among historians. Our translation follows the 1927 version exactly. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for republication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Jean-Pierre Luminet that, among other things, lists and explains the differences between the 1927 and 1931 versions.

  12. Entering the 60th year of Acta Astronautica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Chern, Jeng-Shing; Marec, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The Acta Astronautica Journal was firstly published in 1955 as the official Journal of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) with the title Astronautica Acta. It is entering its 60th year in 2014. In 1962, the Astronautica Acta became the official Journal of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) established in 1960. A total of 18 volumes had been published from 1955 to 1973 under the leadership of three Editor-in-Chiefs: F. Hecht, Theodore von Karman, and Martin Summerfield. In 1974, A.K. Oppenheim became the new Editor-in-Chief and several evolved changes were performed including change of the title to Acta Astronautica (for grammatical correctness), cover page change, and format change. From 1974 to 2010, another three Editor-in-Chiefs led the journal with 67 volumes published. They were A.K. Oppenheim, Jean-Pierre Marec, and Rupert Gerzer. The current Editor-in-Chief Jeng-Shing Chern (Rock) took over the job from 2011. Total pages and articles published in 2012 are 3586 and 356, respectively. Currently, the Acta Astronautica Editorial Board consists of one Editor-in-Chief, 15 Co-Editors, one Managing Editor and one Honorary Editor-in-Chief (Jean-Pierre Marec). After 59 years, the Acta Astronautica has become a well-known journal worldwide. Its current rank and impact factor are 7/63 and 0.701, respectively. This paper presents some of the details as well as new strategies and steps. In particular, supports from the IAA Academicians are mandatory and most welcome.

  13. Parallel inputs to memory in bee colour vision.

    PubMed

    Horridge, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    In the 19(th) century, it was found that attraction of bees to light was controlled by light intensity irrespective of colour, and a few critical entomologists inferred that vision of bees foraging on flowers was unlike human colour vision. Therefore, quite justly, Professor Carl von Hess concluded in his book on the Comparative Physiology of Vision (1912) that bees do not distinguish colours in the way that humans enjoy. Immediately, Karl von Frisch, an assistant in the Zoology Department of the same University of Münich, set to work to show that indeed bees have colour vision like humans, thereby initiating a new research tradition, and setting off a decade of controversy that ended only at the death of Hess in 1923. Until 1939, several researchers continued the tradition of trying to untangle the mechanism of bee vision by repeatedly testing trained bees, but made little progress, partly because von Frisch and his legacy dominated the scene. The theory of trichromatic colour vision further developed after three types of receptors sensitive to green, blue, and ultraviolet (UV), were demonstrated in 1964 in the bee. Then, until the end of the century, all data was interpreted in terms of trichromatic colour space. Anomalies were nothing new, but eventually after 1996 they led to the discovery that bees have a previously unknown type of colour vision based on a monochromatic measure and distribution of blue and measures of modulation in green and blue receptor pathways. Meanwhile, in the 20(th) century, search for a suitable rationalization, and explorations of sterile culs-de-sac had filled the literature of bee colour vision, but were based on the wrong theory. PMID:26960353

  14. Investigations of primary and secondary impact structures on the moon and laboratory experiments to study the ejecta of secondary particles. Ph.D. Thesis - Ruprecht Karl Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, B.

    1977-01-01

    Young lunar impact structures were investigated by using lunar orbiter, Apollo Metric and panorama photographs. Measurements on particularly homogeneous areas low in secondary craters made possible an expansion of primary crater distribution to small diameters. This is now sure for a range between 20m or = D or = 20km and this indicates that the size and velocity distribution of the impacting bodies in the last 3 billion years has been constant. A numerical approximation in the form of a 7th degree polynomial was obtained for the distribution.

  15. [Development of the clinical abortion situation at the gynecologic hospital of Karl-Marx-University, Leipzig from 1.1.1960 to 30.6.1972].

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Henning, G

    1973-07-13

    During a 12-year period (1960-1972) abortions represented 27.5% of stationary gynecological complications in a Leipzig women's clinic. According to demographic analyses, the law of March 9, 1972, legalizing abortion, has brought about a reduction in this rate to 9.9% and the relationship of abortions to births was reduced from 26.9% to 12.6%. The significant decrease in the number of fever complications and septic abortions (from .05 to .001%) has been particularly encouraging, and abortion mortality has reached a low of .724%. Average recuperation stay in the clinic was shortened to 4.7 days for uncomplicated abortions and 6.2 for those with complications. The average age for abortion patients has remained constantly around 27 years with average number of previous births between 1.1-1.2. Recently there has been an increase in the number of single and divorced women undergoing abortion. PMID:4747011

  16. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  17. H.E.S.S. OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS NGC 6388 AND M15 AND SEARCH FOR A DARK MATTER SIGNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.

    2011-07-01

    Observations of the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and M15 were carried out by the High Energy Stereoscopic System array of Cherenkov telescopes for a live time of 27.2 and 15.2 hr, respectively. No gamma-ray signal is found at the nominal target position of NGC 6388 and M15. In the primordial formation scenario, GCs are formed in a dark matter (DM) halo and DM could still be present in the baryon-dominated environment of GCs. This opens the possibility of observing a DM self-annihilation signal. The DM content of the GCs NGC 6388 and M15 is modeled taking into account the astrophysical processes that can be expected to influence the DM distribution during the evolution of the GC: the adiabatic contraction of DM by baryons, the adiabatic growth of a black hole in the DM halo, and the kinetic heating of DM by stars. Ninety-five percent confidence level exclusion limits on the DM particle velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived for these DM halos. In the TeV range, the limits on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived at the 10{sup -25} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} level and a few 10{sup -24} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for NGC 6388 and M15, respectively.

  18. New species without dead bodies: a case for photo-based descriptions, illustrated by a striking new species of Marleyimyia Hesse (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    A new bombyliid species Marleyimyia xylocopae Marshall & Evenhuis, sp. n., an apparent mimic of the carpenter bee Xylocopa flavicollis (De Geer), is described from South Africa on the basis of photographs only. The pros and cons of species descriptions in the absence of preserved type specimens are discussed. PMID:26487819

  19. HESS Opinions: Functional units: a novel framework to explore the link between spatial organization and hydrological functioning of intermediate scale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Pfister, L.; Blume, T.; Schröder, B.; Westhoff, M.; Jackisch, C.; Schymanski, S. J.; Weiler, M.; Schulz, K.; Allroggen, N.; Tronicke, J.; Dietrich, P.; Scherer, U.; Eccard, J.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-03-01

    This opinion paper proposes a novel framework for exploring how spatial organization alongside with spatial heterogeneity controls functioning of intermediate scale catchments of organized complexity. Key idea is that spatial organization in landscapes implies that functioning of intermediate scale catchments is controlled by a hierarchy of functional units: hillslope scale lead topologies and embedded elementary functional units (EFUs). We argue that similar soils and vegetation communities and thus also soil structures "co-developed" within EFUs in an adaptive, self-organizing manner as they have been exposed to similar flows of energy, water and nutrients from the past to the present. Class members of the same EFU (class) are thus deemed to belong to the same ensemble with respect to controls of the energy balance and related vertical flows of capillary bounded soil water and heat. Class members of superordinate lead topologies are characterized by the same spatially organized arrangement of EFUs along the gradient driving lateral flows of free water as well as a similar surface and bedrock topography. We hence postulate that they belong to the same ensemble with respect to controls on rainfall runoff transformation and related vertical and lateral fluxes of free water. We expect class members of these functional units to have a distinct way how their architecture controls the interplay of state dynamics and integral flows, which is typical for all members of one class but dissimilar among the classes. This implies that we might infer on the typical dynamic behavior of the most important classes of EFU and lead topologies in a catchment, by thoroughly characterizing a few members of each class. A major asset of the proposed framework, which steps beyond the concept of hydrological response units, is that it can be tested experimentally. In this respect, we reflect on suitable strategies based on stratified observations drawing from process hydrology, soil physics, geophysics, ecology and remote sensing which are currently conducted in replicates of candidate functional units in the Attert basin (Luxembourg), to search for typical and similar functional and structural characteristics. A second asset of this framework is that it blueprints a way towards a structurally more adequate model concept for water and energy cycles in intermediate scale catchments, which balances necessary complexity with falsifiability. This is because EFU and lead topologies are deemed to mark a hierarchy of "scale breaks" where simplicity with respect to the energy balance and stream flow generation emerges from spatially organized process-structure interactions. This offers the opportunity for simplified descriptions of these processes that are nevertheless physically and thermodynamically consistent. In this respect we reflect on a candidate model structure that (a) may accommodate distributed observations of states and especially terrestrial controls on driving gradients to constrain the space of feasible model structures and (b) allows testing the possible added value of organizing principles to understand the role of spatial organization from an optimality perspective.

  20. Effect of Processing on the Microflora of Norwegian Seaweed Meal, with Observations on Sporendonema minutum (Høye) Frank and Hess

    PubMed Central

    Sieburth, John McN.; Jensen, Arne

    1967-01-01

    Meal from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. is mainly used as an animal feed supplement. Since moist weed often develops a marked mold growth and since little was known about the microflora of seaweed meal, a cultural procedure was developed to enumerate the populations of bacteria, yeasts, and molds of seaweed meals manufactured by different drying processes. The microflora could be supported by a variety of media varying in levels of nutrition and in the source and concentration of salts. Fresh weed contained less than 103 bacteria and less than 102 yeasts and molds per g (dry weight). The type and extent of microbial populations in seaweed meal appeared to be dependent upon the method of seaweed drying. Rotary drum-drying at temperatures decreasing from 800 to 80 C maintained or reduced the microbial populations to 103 organisms per g (dry weight). Although meals with high nutritional quality can be obtained with warm air- or rock-dried weed, these conditions can also permit bacterial and mold development. Extended rock-drying in variable weather conditions and prolonged storage of moist weed, both of which decrease the nutritional quality, also lead to high bacterial numbers and to a marked development of the halophilic brown mold Sporendonema minutum which attained populations of 108 viable spores per g of dried weed. A poultry diet containing 5% badly molded weed had no apparent toxic or growth-depressing effect when fed to chicks. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6069160

  1. HESS Opinions: From response units to functional units: a thermodynamic reinterpretation of the HRU concept to link spatial organization and functioning of intermediate scale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Pfister, L.; Blume, T.; Schröder, B.; Westhoff, M.; Jackisch, C.; Schymanski, S. J.; Weiler, M.; Schulz, K.; Allroggen, N.; Tronicke, J.; van Schaik, L.; Dietrich, P.; Scherer, U.; Eccard, J.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-11-01

    According to Dooge (1986) intermediate-scale catchments are systems of organized complexity, being too organized and yet too small to be characterized on a statistical/conceptual basis, but too large and too heterogeneous to be characterized in a deterministic manner. A key requirement for building structurally adequate models precisely for this intermediate scale is a better understanding of how different forms of spatial organization affect storage and release of water and energy. Here, we propose that a combination of the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs) and thermodynamics offers several helpful and partly novel perspectives for gaining this improved understanding. Our key idea is to define functional similarity based on similarity of the terrestrial controls of gradients and resistance terms controlling the land surface energy balance, rainfall runoff transformation, and groundwater storage and release. This might imply that functional similarity with respect to these specific forms of water release emerges at different scales, namely the small field scale, the hillslope, and the catchment scale. We thus propose three different types of "functional units" - specialized HRUs, so to speak - which behave similarly with respect to one specific form of water release and with a characteristic extent equal to one of those three scale levels. We furthermore discuss an experimental strategy based on exemplary learning and replicate experiments to identify and delineate these functional units, and as a promising strategy for characterizing the interplay and organization of water and energy fluxes across scales. We believe the thermodynamic perspective to be well suited to unmask equifinality as inherent in the equations governing water, momentum, and energy fluxes: this is because several combinations of gradients and resistance terms yield the same mass or energy flux and the terrestrial controls of gradients and resistance terms are largely independent. We propose that structurally adequate models at this scale should consequently disentangle driving gradients and resistance terms, because this optionally allows equifinality to be partly reduced by including available observations, e.g., on driving gradients. Most importantly, the thermodynamic perspective yields an energy-centered perspective on rainfall-runoff transformation and evapotranspiration, including fundamental limits for energy fluxes associated with these processes. This might additionally reduce equifinality and opens up opportunities for testing thermodynamic optimality principles within independent predictions of rainfall-runoff or land surface energy exchange. This is pivotal to finding out whether or not spatial organization in catchments is in accordance with a fundamental organizing principle.

  2. Discovery of gamma-ray emission from the extragalactic pulsar wind nebula N 157B with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Atäı, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; G´rard, L.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; K´ski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; K´lifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; K´niak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; M´hault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Lstrok; .; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2012-09-01

    We present the significant detection of the first extragalactic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) detected in gamma rays, N 157B, located in the large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Pulsars with high spin-down luminosity are found to power energised nebulae that emit gamma rays up to energies of several tens of TeV. N 157B is associated with PSR J0537-6910, which is the pulsar with the highest known spin-down luminosity. The High Energy Stereoscopic System telescope array observed this nebula on a yearly basis from 2004 to 2009 with a dead-time corrected exposure of 46 h. The gamma-ray spectrum between 600 GeV and 12 TeV is well-described by a pure power-law with a photon index of 2.8 ± 0.2stat ± 0.3syst and a normalisation at 1 TeV of (8.2 ± 0.8stat ± 2.5syst) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1. A leptonic multi-wavelength model shows that an energy of about 4 × 1049 erg is stored in electrons and positrons. The apparent efficiency, which is the ratio of the TeV gamma-ray luminosity to the pulsar's spin-down luminosity, 0.08% ± 0.01%, is comparable to those of PWNe found in the Milky Way. The detection of a PWN at such a large distance is possible due to the pulsar's favourable spin-down luminosity and a bright infrared photon-field serving as an inverse-Compton-scattering target for accelerated leptons. By applying a calorimetric technique to these observations, the pulsar's birth period is estimated to be shorter than 10 ms. Data set is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/545/L2

  3. New species without dead bodies: a case for photo-based descriptions, illustrated by a striking new species of Marleyimyia Hesse (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephen A.; Evenhuis, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new bombyliid species Marleyimyia xylocopae Marshall & Evenhuis, sp. n., an apparent mimic of the carpenter bee Xylocopa flavicollis (De Geer), is described from South Africa on the basis of photographs only. The pros and cons of species descriptions in the absence of preserved type specimens are discussed. PMID:26487819

  4. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    panel discussion on recent advances and future challenges in group theoretical methods in physics was held on Wednesday morning. The panel members were: Maia Angelova, Heinz-Dietrich Doebner, Jean-Pierre Gazeau, Norbert Hounkonnou, Peter Olver and Luc Vinet, with Willard Miller Jr. as moderator. In this discussion, the importance of "symmetry" in physics (and other sciences) was emphasized, and some challenges were made explicit. On Wednesday evening there was a separate ceremony in the Aula Academica (the "University Palace") of Ghent University, for the presentation of the 2014 Wigner Medal and Hermann Weyl Prize. The Hermann Weyl Prize was established in 2000 to provide recognition for young scientists having performed original work of significant scientific quality in the area of the understanding of physics through symmetries. The 2014 Hermann Weyl Prize was awarded to Yuji Tachikawa (Tokyo University). He is praised for his outstanding contributions to the understanding of supersymmetric quantum field theories and in particular, to the discovery of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa correspondence that has led to spectacular advances in both mathematics and quantum physics. The Wigner Medal, established in 1978, is an award designed "to recognize outstanding contributions to the understanding of physics through Group Theory", and can be considered as a "lifetime achievement award". It was awarded to Joshua Zak (Technion, Haifa, Israel) for his discovery of the magnetic translation group and the phase and transform that bear his name. In his work, the relationship between mathematics and physics could hardly be closer, with mathematicians being familiar with the "Zak transform" and physicists with the "Zak phase", both concepts originating in group theory. The ceremony was graced by a saxophone quintet, "Sax Obsession", and followed by a reception in the adjacent Peristylium. The social programme included a variety of events. On Monday evening, the welcome address by

  5. Impact of Lupus on the Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recipients 2014 LIFELINE Grant Program™ Recipients Lupus Insight Prize Evelyn V. Hess, MD, MACP, MACR, Award About ... V. Hess Mary Betty Stevens, MD, Young Investigator Prize About Dr. Mary Betty Stevens Career Development Award ...

  6. Lupus and Your Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recipients 2014 LIFELINE Grant Program™ Recipients Lupus Insight Prize Evelyn V. Hess, MD, MACP, MACR, Award About ... V. Hess Mary Betty Stevens, MD, Young Investigator Prize About Dr. Mary Betty Stevens Career Development Award ...

  7. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    John W. Hess has been appointed the new president of the Geological Society of America Foundation beginning in 2015, succeeding Geoff Feiss. Hess is currently the executive director of the Geological Society of America.

  8. 78 FR 25261 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...: Hess Energy Marketing LLC. Description: Hess Energy Marketing LLC submits Supplement to March 29, 2013... accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the links or querying the docket number....

  9. 76 FR 36153 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Northwest Region at the address below by July 21, 2011. ADDRESSES: Dr. Sean Hess, Archeologist, Grand Coulee... associated funerary objects should contact Dr. Sean Hess, Archeologist, Grand Coulee Power Office, Bureau...

  10. A Three-Planet Extrasolar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Queloz, Didier; Udry, Stéphane; Santos, Nuno C.; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Mordasini, Christoph; Bouchy, François; Correia, Alexandre C. M.; Laskar, Jacques; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sivan, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Using the ultra-precise HARPS spectro-graph on ESO’s 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, a team of astronomers1 has discovered that a nearby star is host to three Neptune-mass planets. The in-nermost planet is most probably rocky, while the outermost is the first known Neptune-mass planet to reside in the habitable zone. This unique system is likely further enriched by an asteroid belt. Z% Lovis et al. 2006, Nature 441, 305. The team is composed of Christophe Lovis, Michel Mayor, Francesco Pepe, Didier Queloz, and Stéphane Udry (Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, Switzerland), Nuno C. Santos (Observatoire de l’Uni-versité de Genève, Switzerland, Centro de Astro-nomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa and Centro de Geofisica de Evora, Portugal), Yann Alibert, Willy Benz, Christoph Mordasini (Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bern, Switzerland), François Bouchy (Observatoire de Haute-Provence and IAP, France), Alexandre C. M. Correia (Uni-versidade de Aveiro, Portugal), Jacques Laskar (IMCCE-CNRS, Paris, France), Jean-Loup Bertaux (Service d’Aéronomie du CNRS, France), and Jean-Pierre Sivan (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, France).

  11. FCS and Single Molecule Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigler, Rudolf

    The idea to develop Fluorescence Fluctuation spectroscopy started when working in Manfred Eigens' Laboratory in G¨ottingen in the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry as a postdoctoral fellow. I had just finished the construction and testing of a fluorescence T-jump machine [1] when Jean Pierre Changeux from Institut Pasteur arrived in G¨ottingen with a bag of freshly isolated nicotinic acetyl choline receptor to use the new fluorescence T-jump apparatus for relaxation kinetic studies of the receptor. Due to the high concentration of detergents present in the preparation and limited conductivity of the solvent leading to strong cavitation in the T-jump cell we could not perform the temperature relaxation experiments. However, this experience raised the question whether the analysis of equilibrium fluctuations by observing changes in the quantum yield of fluorescence would not be an alternative way to follow kinetic processes. In this way all problems related to the instantaneous temperature change could be avoided.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of alkyl substituted nanographene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziogos, Orestis George; Theodorou, Doros Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Discotic polyaromatic molecules, similar to nanometric graphene flakes, constitute an interesting class of materials for organic electronic applications. Grafting flexible side chains around the periphery of such molecules enhances their processability and gives rise to diverse behaviours, such as the manifestation of liquid-crystalline character and anisotropic mechanical response. In this work, we examine by means of molecular dynamics simulations the properties of molecular crystals comprised of alkyl-substituted hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene mesogens. Pristine and mono-substituted systems by hydrogen or iodine atoms are modelled, with variable side chain length. A general structural and mechanical robustness to peripheral substitution is reported, with the mesogens forming tightly packed molecular wires even at elevated temperature and pressure. In their discotic ordering, the molecules present relatively low translational mobility, a beneficial phenomenon for charge transport. A thermotropic dependence of the mechanical response is identified, with the systems behaving differently in their room-temperature crystalline phase and in their liquid-crystalline phase at elevated temperatures. The melting process is also examined, elucidating an initial negative expansion along a high symmetry direction and the existence of a metastable state, before falling into the final liquid-crystalline state. Dedicated to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen, with deepest appreciation of his outstanding contributions to liquid and soft matter theory.

  13. 2004 Fellows Citations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    AGU congratulates the forty-one distinguished scientists who were selected by a committee of their peers to be AGU Fellows for 2004. This selection was based on the individuals' attainment of acknowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows selected annually is limited to no more than 0.1% of the AGU membership: Andrew D. Barry, Enrico Bonatti, Edward V. Bromwell, John P. Burrows, Philip R. Christensen, William B. Curry, Judith Curry, Margaret L. Delaney, Steven R. Emerson, Brian J. Evans, Donald H. Fairfield, Marvin Geller, David Green, William Holt, Roy Hyndman, David E. James, James F. Kasting, Peter Kelemen, Paul J. Kellogg, Michael J. Kirkby, Daniel Loucks, P.M. Mathews, Jean-Paul Montagner, William R. Normark, Gerald R. North, Michael O'Hara, Ronald S. Oremland, Roger A. Pielke, Sr., Joseph Prospero, Karsten Pruess, Edmond C. Roelof, Gary Rottman, Allan Rubin, Ernest H. Rutter, John H. Seinfeld, Sharon Smith, Pieter Tans, John M. Toole, Jean-Pierre Valet, Lionel Wilson, and E. L. Winterer

  14. Chemistry, microscopy and smell: bloodstains and nineteenth-century legal medicine.

    PubMed

    Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the development of three methods for detecting bloodstains during the first half of the nineteenth-century in France. After dealing with the main problems in detecting bloodstains, the paper describes the chemical tests introduced in the mid-1820s. Then the first uses of the microscope in the detection of bloodstains around 1827 are discussed. The most controversial method is then examined, the smell test introduced by Jean-Pierre Barruel in 1829, and the debates which took place in French academies and learned societies during ensuing years are surveyed. Moving to the courtrooms a review is conducted of how the different methods were employed in criminal trials. By reviewing these cases, the main arguments against Barruel's test during the 1830s are explored as well as the changes making possible the return of the microscope to legal medicine around 1840. By reconstructing the history of these three methods, the paper reveals how the senses of smell and vision (colours and microscopic images) were employed in order to produce convincing evidence in both academies and courts. The paper questions two linear master narratives that are organized in terms of progress and decline: the development of forensic science as a result of continued technological progress; and the supposed decline of smell in the history of the senses, particularly in the realm of chemistry and medicine. PMID:26221836

  15. The history of the development of the cerebellar examination.

    PubMed

    Fine, Edward J; Ionita, Catalina C; Lohr, Linda

    2002-12-01

    The cerebellar examination evolved from observations of experimental lesions made by neurophysiologists and clinical descriptions of patients with trauma to the cerebellum. At the beginning of the 19th century, neurophysiologists such as Luigi Rolando, Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens, and John Call Dalton, Jr. ablated portions of the cerebellum of a variety of animals and observed staggering gait, clumsiness, and falling from side to side without loss of strength. They concluded that the cerebellum coordinated voluntary movements. In 1899, Joseph Francois Félix Babinski observed that patients with cerebellar lesions could not execute complex movements without breaking down into their elemental movements and described the defect as dysmetria. In 1902, Babinski coined the term dysdiodochokinesis to describe the inability to perform rapid execution of movements requiring alternate contractions of agonist and antagonist muscles. Gordon Holmes in 1904 described the phenomena of rebound, noting that if a limb ipsilateral to a cerebellar lesion is suddenly released from tension, the appendage will flail. In 1917, Gordon Holmes reported hypotonia and dysmetria in men wounded by gunshot wounds to their cerebellum. These observations were rapidly included in descriptions of the cerebellar examination in popular contemporaneous textbooks of neurology. Modern observations have demonstrated that the cerebellum influences such cognitive functions such as planning, verbal fluency, abstract reasoning, prosody, and use of correct grammar. PMID:12539058

  16. Division XII: Commission 46: Education & Development of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.; Hearnshaw, John; Stavinschi, Magda; Garcia, Beatriz; Gerbaldi, Michele; Greve, Jean-Pierre De; Guinan, Edward; Haubold, Hans; Jones, Barrie; Marshall, Laurence A.; Pasachoff, Jay

    2015-08-01

    C46 is a Commission of the Executive Committee of the IAU under Division XII Union-Wide Activities. Aiming at improvement of astronomy education and research at all levels worldwide (through the various projects it initiates),maintains, develops, as well as through the dissemination of information. C46 has 332 members and it was managed by the Organizing Committee, formed by the Commission President (Rosa M. Ros, from Spain), the Vice-Presiden (John Hearnshaw, from New Zealand), the Retiring President (Magda Stavinschi, from Romania), the Vice-President of the IAU (George Miley, from Netherland) and the PG chairs: • Worldwide Development of Astronomy WWDA: John Hearnshaw • Teaching Astronomy for Development TAD: Edward Guinan and Laurence A. Marshall • International Schools for Young Astronomers ISYA; chair: Jean-Pierre de Greve • Network for Astronomy School Education NASE: Rosa M. Ros and Beatriz Garcia • Public Understanding at the times of Solar Eclipses and transit Phenomena PUTSE: Jay Pasachoff • National Liaison and Newsletter: Barrie Jones • Collaborative Programs: Hans Haubold

  17. Return of the living dead: Re-reading Pierre Flourens' contributions to neurophysiology and literature.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Sharman

    2013-01-01

    Historians of neurophysiology remember Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) for his experimental approach to nineteenth-century debates on cortical localization and, in particular, for his successful attacks on Frantz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) phrenology (Gall and Spurzheim, 1810-19). Whereas Gall and his colleague, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), posited correlations between features of the skull and brain development and claimed to have localized character traits, competencies and temperaments in specific cortical regions, Flourens advocated cerebral equipotentiality and provided empirical as well as philosophical grounds for his theories. Flourens has also been recognized for his contributions to the understanding of the cerebellum's role in the coordination of movement, the localization of a respiratory center in the medulla oblongata, the relationship between the semicircular canals and balance, the role of the periosteum in bone growth and regeneration, and finally, the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Less known to historians of neuroscience is the fact that Pierre Flourens was not only a neurophysiologist and Secrétaire Perpetuel of the French Académie des Sciences, he was also a member of the Académie Française, France's most prestigious literary academy. Examining Flourens' contributions as a writer and, at the same time, a prime target for criticism and caricature from journalists, yields a particularly interesting example of the problematic relations between different genres of science writing and their respective publics in mid-nineteenth-century France. PMID:24290264

  18. Social Models: Blueprints or Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Graham R.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the nature and implications of two different models for societal planning: (1) the problem-solving process approach based on Karl Popper; and (2) the goal-setting "blueprint" approach based on Karl Marx. (DC)

  19. Commitment to Higher Education; Seven West European Thinkers on the Essence of the University: Max Horkheimer, Karl Jaspers, F. R. Leavis, J. H. Newman, Jose Ortega y Gasset, Paul Tillich, Miguel de Unamuno.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, John

    The purpose of this book is to bring back to public attention seven thinkers who wrote about what they believed to be vital in higher education. Each chapter examines a particularly "key text," in which that thinker considers the nature of higher education. The background for the occasion of the delivery of that text as a speech or written essay…

  20. "Onkle Karl" aus Milwaukee: Deutsch-amerikanische Einwandererkultur im Spiegel der Jugendliteratur vor hundert Jahren (Uncle Carl from Milwaukee: German-American Newcomer Culture Reflected in Children's Literature a Hundred Years Ago).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    Examines a late nineteenth-century Milwaukee (Wisconsin) publication for children and young people as a reflection of German-American middle-class culture of the time, showing how the spirit of the 1848 revolution and the experience of the American Civil War shaped German-American intellectuals and how the ideals of freedom and equality dominated…

  1. BOOK REVIEW: The Wraparound Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2008-11-01

    I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It is written in clear language supplemented with many very helpful photographs and drawings. I like the structure of the book, which is a collection of 45 rather short chapters that make it easier for the reader to read it at his/her own speed. The main aim of the author is to interest the reader in cosmology and to convey to him/her the amazing progress that has been made in recent years in our understanding of the universe, its shape and its future. However, even to formulate this problem and to describe some recent work in this field, the author has to explain to the reader many concepts from mathematics and physics. Jean-Pierre Luminet, in addition to being a well known astrophysicist, is also a very gifted writer and so he manages to do this very successfully. In fact the book contains very few formulae and most of the explanations are given in terms of a written narrative supplemented by drawings. The author is also extremely skillful in finding and then using appropriate analogies. The required ideas from mathematics, and topology in particular, present a further aim of the book—to explain to the interested reader the beautiful world of topology and its relevance to the description of the real world. Here, again, he succeeds very impressively. The central claim of the book is as follows: instead of a simple topology, the Universe may have a multiply-connected topology—hence 'wrapped around'; in consequence, it may be much smaller than is usually assumed. If this is so some of the galaxies we see are not real galaxies, but only images of a smaller number of genuine galaxies. The author then discusses possible topologies, and finally chooses the 'dodecahedral' one. A large part of the book is dedicated to showing how this hypothesis can be tested, and what the most recent data on the cosmic background radiation from the WMAP satellite say about this issue (they are inconclusive). Jean-Pierre Luminet's suggestions

  2. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  3. Huygens is alive and well, in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    "It all went very smoothly, " said Jonh Dodsworth, ESOC's flight operations Director, "We had the option to continue checks on 26 October in case of difficulty, but we don't need to. That's good news". ESOC established connection with the Huygens probe at 10:09 hrs, Central European Time on 23 October, using NASA's link to Cassini. Thanks to ESOC's new flight operations system, engineers and scientists responsible for the mission could check quite quickly that Huygens is alive and well in all respects. ESA's project management team, and representatives of the contractors who built Huygens, were able to report that the engineering system and subsystems are all performing nominally. The principal investigators from Europe and the USA, in charge of the six instruments on Huygens, were also present for the tests. Each experiment was checked for functionality : * HASI to analyse Titan's atmosphere and weather - DWE to measure wind speeds during the descent - GCMS to analyse chemical compounds on Titan - ACP to break down aerosols for chemical analysis - DISR to produce images and spectra of Titan - SSP to determine the nature of Titan's surface. "Six experiments, six green lights", said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA's project scientist. The project manager for Huygens is Hamid Hassan. In Darmstadt he too declared himself pleased with the check-out of the Huygens systems, subsystems and instruments. "We will now let Huygens go back to sleep, except for the planned six monthly checkouts" Hassan said. "The probe will remain in that condition for the seven-year journey to Saturn. But we now have every reason to expect a successful outcome to this unprecedented mission".

  4. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  5. Where did the motor function of the cerebellum come from?

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Until the end of 18th century, the role of the cerebellum remained obscure. The turning point occurred when Luigi Galvani showed that muscle contraction is due to electricity and Alessandro Volta produced the battery, an apparatus based on the pairing of silver and zinc plates separated by brine soaked paper disks, capable to generate electricity. Luigi Rolando, at beginning of 19th century, was impressed by these two observations. He thought that, since the brain generates the movement, it must contain a device generating electricity. As a battery, it should be formed by overlapping disks and the cerebellum for Rolando seemed to be the right structure for such a characteristic laminar organization. He argued that, if the cerebellum is the battery that produces electricity for muscle activity, its removal would produce paralysis. Consequently, Rolando removed the cerebellum in a young goat and observed that the animal, before dying, could no longer stand up. He concluded that the cerebellum is a motor structure as it generates the electricity which produces the movement. The conclusions of Rolando were criticized by Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens who observed that animals undergoing cerebellectomy were still able to move, even if with problems of balance. Flourens concluded that the role of the cerebellum "is to put in order or to coordinate movements wanted by certain parts of the nervous system, excited by others". It was necessary to wait up to 1891 when Luigi Luciani, observing a dog survived the cerebellectomy, described a triad of symptoms (asthenia, atony and astasis), unquestionably of cerebellar origin. PMID:26331053

  6. Preliminary Interpretation of Titan Plasma Interaction as Observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer: Comparisons With Voyager 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, R. E.; Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.; Smith, H. T.; Crary, F.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Coates, A. J.; Neubauer, F. M.; Bolton, S.; Reisenfeld, D.; Szego, K.; Berthelier, J.; Michael, M.; Rymer, A.; Vippola, J.; Steinberg, J. T.; Andre, N.

    2005-05-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument made measurements of Titan's plasma environment when the Cassini Orbiter flew through the moon's plasma wake October 26, 2004 (flyby TA) and December 13, 2004 (flyby TB). Preliminary CAPS ion and electron measurements from these encounters (1, 2) are compared with measurements made by the Voyager I Plasma Science Instrument (PLS). The comparisons are used to evaluate previous interpretations and predictions of the Titan plasma environment that have been made using PLS measurements (3, 4). The plasma wake trajectories of flybys TA, TB and Voyager 1are similar because they occurred when Titan was near Saturn's local noon. These similarities make possible direct, meaningful comparisons between the various plasma wake measurements. The inquiries stimulated by the previous interpretations and predictions made using PLS data have produced the following results from the CAPS ion measurements: A) The major ambient ion components of Saturn's rotating magnetosphere in the vicinity of Titan are H+, H2+, and O+. B) Finite gyroradius effects are apparent in ambient O+ as the result of its interaction with Titan's atmosphere. C) The principal pickup ions are composed of H+, H2+, CH4+ and N2+. D) There is clear evidence of slowing down of the ambient plasma due to pickup ion mass loading; and, as the "ionopause" is approached, heavier pickup ions such as N2+ become dominant. The similarities and differences between the magnitudes and structures of the electron densities and temperatures along the three flyby trajectories are described. 1. D. T. Young et al. (2004), Eos Trans. AGU, 85(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P41B-07. 2. A. J. Coates et al. (2004), Eos Trans. AGU, 85(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P53A-1451. 3. R. E. Hartle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 87, 1383, 1982. 4. E. C. Sittler et al., Titan Symposium Proceedings, ESTEC, Editor, Jean-Pierre Lebreton, 2004.

  7. Preliminary Interpretation of Titan Plasma Interaction as Observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer: Comparisons With Voyager 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, R. E.; Sittler, E. C.; Andre, N.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Crary, F.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Coates, A. J.; Bolton, S.; Reisenfeld, D.; Szego, K.; Bethelier, J.; Rymer, A.; Hill, T. W.; Vilppola, J.; Steinberg, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument is scheduled to observe the plasma environment at Titan October 26, 2004 from the Cassini Orbiter. Preliminary CAPS ion measurements from this encounter (1, 2) will be compared with measurements made by the Voyager I Plasma Science Instrument (PLS). The comparison will be used to evaluate previous interpretations and predictions of the Titan plasma environment that have been made using PLS measurements (3, 4). The comparisons will focus on the composition and nature of the ambient plasma and pickup ions. Using the CAPS ion measurements, some of the questions to be addressed, as stimulated by the previous interpretations and predictions made evaluating PLS data, are the following: A) Are H+ and N+ the major ion components of Saturn's rotating magnetosphere in the vicinity of Titan? B) Are finite gyroradius effects apparent in ambient N+ as the result of its interaction with Titan's atmosphere? C) Are the principal pickup ions composed of H+, H2+, N+, N2+ and CH4+?, D) Is there evidence of slowing down of the ambient plasma due to pickup ion mass loading and as the ionopause is approached are heavier pickup ions becoming dominant such as N2+? During the Voyager I flyby, Titan was in Saturn's magnetosphere. If Titan is in Saturn's magnetosheath or the solar wind at the encounter, questions similar to the above will be addressed as appropriate. 1. Young et al., this issue, Fall AGU session, 2004. 2. Coates, et al., this issue, Fall AGU session, 2004 3. Hartle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 87, 1383, 1982. 4. Sittler et al., Titan Symposium Proceedings, ESTEC, Editor, Jean-Pierre Lebreton, 2004.

  8. Celestial Treasury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachièze-Rey, Marc; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2001-07-01

    Throughout history, the mysterious dark skies have inspired our imaginations in countless ways, influencing our endeavors in science and philosophy, religion, literature, and art. Filled with 380 full-color illustrations, Celestial Treasury shows the influence of astronomical theories and the richness of illustrations in Western civilization through the ages. The authors explore the evolution of our understanding of astronomy and weave together ancient and modern theories in a fascinating narrative. They incorporate a wealth of detail from Greek verse, medieval manuscripts and Victorian poetry with contemporary spacecraft photographs and computer-generated star charts. Celestial Treasury is more than a beautiful book: it answers a variety of questions that have intrigued scientists and laymen for centuries. -- How did philosophers and scientists try to explain the order that governs celestial motion? -- How did geometers and artists measure and map the skies? -- How many different answers have been proposed for the most fundamental of all questions: When and how did Earth come about? -- Who inhabits the heavens--gods, angels or extraterrestrials? No other book recounts humankind's fascination with the heavens as compellingly as Celestial Treasury. Marc Lachièze-Rey is a director of research at the Centre National pour la Récherche Scientifique and astrophysicist at the Centre d'Etudes de Saclay. He is the author of The Cosmic Background Radiation (Cambridge, 1999), and and The Quest for Unity, (Oxford, 1999 ), as well as many books in French. Jean-Pierre Luminet is a research director of the Centre National pour la Rechérche Scientifique, based at the Paris-Meudon observatory. He is the author of Black Holes, (Cambridge 1992), as well as science documentaries for television.

  9. STS-93 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-93 flight crew, Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman, and Michel Tognini are seen performing pre-launch activities such as crew suit-up, and ride out to the launch pad for an early morning launch. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the White Room for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. Once on-orbit the primary objective is to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility. Throughout the presentation, the astronauts take turns narrating particular aspects of the mission with which they are involved. Coleman and Tognini command Chandra to spring-eject from its cradle in the payload bay. The crew then work on the various experiments being carried out in flight. They successfully set up the first observatory using the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS). The SWUIS is used to image planets and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. Tognini conducts a ham radio conversation with Jean-Pierre Haignere on the Mir Space Station. Towards the end of the mission Ashby, Hawley and Tognini set up an exercise treadmill and the Treadmill Vibration Information System (TVIS). The live footage ends with the reentry of Columbia into the Earth's Atmosphere. The night landing includes touchdown, deployment of the drag chute and crew departure from the vehicle.

  10. IAGOS : operational start of atmospheric measurements on commercial Airbus aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, P.

    2011-12-01

    AUTHORS : Philippe Nedelec 1, Jean-Pierre Cammas 1, Gilles Athier 1, Damien Boulanger 1, Jean-Marc Cousin 1., Andreas Volz-Thomas 2. 1. Laboratoire d' Aerologie, CNRS and University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 2. FZ Jülich, Jülich, Germany The MOZAIC program (http://mozaic.aero.obs-mip.fr) measures atmospheric parameters since August 1994, on board 5 commercial Airbus A340 aircraft operated by European airlines, with about 33 000 flights up to present. Three aircraft are still in operation and a new project has been sponsored by the European Community, and French and German national budgets. This project is called IAGOS for "In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing system" and can be considered as an update of Mozaic systems, increasing the performances and the measuring capacity. Plans are to equip 10-20 aircraft in the coming years to ensure a global coverage of the observations. Instrumentation has been developed by the participating partners and has been certified for installation on commercial passenger aircraft. The basic instrumentation includes O3, CO, H2O and clouds sensors, as well as the position and meteorological parameters acquired by the aircraft. One of the optional equipment can also be installed: NOx or NOy or CO2/CH4 or Aerosols. Data measured during flight are automatically transmitted after aircraft landing to CNRS reception centre in Toulouse, France, and made available to scientist some days later. The installation on a Lufthansa Airbus A340 has been finalised and certified by EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) on July 7th, 2011 and operations started the following day, with data transmitted every landing to the CNRS centre. We will present technical details of the IAGOS aeronautic installation, measuring instruments of the basic system and some results of the first months of IAGOS operation.

  11. Preface for DRIP X proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landesman (Chairman), Jean-Pierre; Montgomery (Co-Chairman), Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    This issue of the “European Physical Journal Applied Physics” contains the papers presented at the Tenth International Conference on Defects: Recognition, Imaging and Physics in Semiconductors (DRIP X), held in Batz-sur-Mer, France, from 29th September to 2nd October, 2003. The conference gathered 150 scientists from academic institutions and industry of 20 countries from around the world, showing the pertinence of the biennial series of DRIP conferences. A much appreciated aspect of DRIP X was the variety of the different backgrounds of the participants, leading to much fruitful exchange and stimulating discussion. Following the spirit of previous DRIP conferences, the main concern of DRIP X was the methodology and the physics of measurement procedures, together with specific developments in instrumentation, and their relationship with the structural, optical and electrical properties of semiconductor defects. The topics covered related to the different methods and techniques used for the recognition and imaging of defects in semiconductor materials (Si, III-V's including nitrides, SiC, IV-IV's, II-VI's, organic compounds, ...) and in semiconductor devices ranging from defects in the raw materials at the wafer level, through process-induced defects and defects that appear during operation (burn-in, aging tests, ...). One of the highlights of the social events of DRIP X was the awards ceremony as part of the celebrations for the Tenth meeting of DRIP. The founders of the DRIP series, Professor Jean-Pierre Fillard and Professor Tomoya Ogawa were both invited to be permanent members of the International Steering Committee and awarded with appropriately engraved trophies to mark the occasion. With help form Tomoya Ogawa, Jean-Pierre Fillard organized the first DRIP conference in 1985 in La Grande Motte, France. The amusing and thought provoking slide presentation by Jean-Pierre Fillard went a great way to remind us of the history of this conference series and to

  12. 76 FR 27175 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HIRSCH COLETTE ROSANNE HO CHAK KIE HOFFMANN HERBERT HOLT MICHAEL LAWRENCE HOLTER KARL GUNNAR HOLTERMANN... PANAGIOTA SOWELL TIMOTHY SPENCER CAITLIN SARAH SPERLING JOERG JACQUES SRINIVASAN VENKATRAMAN...

  13. Be a Cage-Buster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    "A cage-buster can't settle for ambiguity, banalities, or imprecision," writes well-known educator and author Rick Hess. "These things provide dark corners where all manners of ineptitude and excuse-making can hide." Hess suggests that leaders need to clearly define the problems they're trying to solve and open…

  14. 78 FR 7425 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...: Hess Corporation, Hess Small Business Services LLC, Bayonne Energy Center, LLC. Description: Notice of... to PJM a Transitional Fixed Resource Requirement Plan for Integration into PJM. Filed Date: 1/23/13... relating to filing requirements, interventions, protests, service, and qualifying facilities filings ]...

  15. Sociometric Choice: A Study in Pupillary Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Robert H.; Hawkes, Thomas H.

    Pupillary dilatation has recently been reported as a physiological measure of degree of attention paid to environmental stimuli (Hess and Polt, 1960, 1964). Hess and Polt's research has operationally defined one variable and has provided data that allows researchers to speculate about several others. This variable is interest-disinterest. The…

  16. 40 CFR 52.2770 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....2770, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both located in the Southern Industrial Complex on... weight, applicable to Martin Marietta Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2770 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....2770, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both located in the Southern Industrial Complex on... weight, applicable to Martin Marietta Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2770 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....2770, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both located in the Southern Industrial Complex on... weight, applicable to Martin Marietta Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2770 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....2770, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both located in the Southern Industrial Complex on... weight, applicable to Martin Marietta Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both...

  20. Forum: A New Culture of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Mary E.; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Turpin, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    These brief essays by Mary Hess, Eugene Gallagher, and Katherine Turpin are solicited responses from three different contexts to the provocative book by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown, "The New Culture of Learning" (2011). Mary Hess writes from a seminary context, providing a critical summary of the authors' major concepts and…

  1. How I treat hypereosinophilic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a group of rare disorders characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia of 1.5 × 109/L or higher and evidence of end organ manifestations attributable to the eosinophilia and not otherwise explained in the clinical setting. HESs are pleomorphic in clinical presentation and can be idiopathic or associated with a variety of underlying conditions, including allergic, rheumatologic, infectious, and neoplastic disorders. Moreover, the etiology of the eosinophilia in HESs can be primary (myeloid), secondary (lymphocyte-driven), or unknown. Although corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy for most forms of HESs, the availability of an increasing number of novel therapeutic agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, has necessarily altered the approach to treatment of HESs. This review presents an updated treatment-based approach to the classification of patients with presumed HES and discusses the roles of conventional and novel agents in the management of these patients. PMID:25964669

  2. Mayer-rokitansky-kuster-hauser (MRKH) syndrome: a historical perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a congenital defect of the Müllerian ducts characterized by uterovaginal agenesis and underdeveloped female genital organs. This paper is a tribute to the contributors of this condition - August Franz Joseph Karl Mayer, Karl Freiherr von Rokitansky, ...

  3. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  4. 78 FR 68151 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... BAUREITHEL KARL HERBERT BEECHING SUSAN MARIE BENNETT SUSAN JANE BERAHA ALBERTO BERAHA BELLA CAROLINA BERAHA... KRASTEL-NICHOLS HELGA IRMA KREISELMEYER MARTHA MARIA KRUSELL PETER KARL KUBLIN JOYCE ARLENE KUSTER JANINE... TAN YANQIANG TANAKA RYO TANG MARX THERN EDINA RITTER THERN JR ROBERT WILLIAM TIEN LAUREN TSAK...

  5. Falsification and Demarcation in Astronomy and Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    This work inaugurates a critical inquiry into whether the ideas of Karl Popper, a philosopher of science, are used by astronomers and astrophysicists, a practicing community of scientists. It examines four basic components of Karl Popper's philosophy falsification, prohibition, simplicity, and risk taking and the extent that these themes become…

  6. Preface for DRIP X proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landesman (Chairman), Jean-Pierre; Montgomery (Co-Chairman), Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    This issue of the “European Physical Journal Applied Physics” contains the papers presented at the Tenth International Conference on Defects: Recognition, Imaging and Physics in Semiconductors (DRIP X), held in Batz-sur-Mer, France, from 29th September to 2nd October, 2003. The conference gathered 150 scientists from academic institutions and industry of 20 countries from around the world, showing the pertinence of the biennial series of DRIP conferences. A much appreciated aspect of DRIP X was the variety of the different backgrounds of the participants, leading to much fruitful exchange and stimulating discussion. Following the spirit of previous DRIP conferences, the main concern of DRIP X was the methodology and the physics of measurement procedures, together with specific developments in instrumentation, and their relationship with the structural, optical and electrical properties of semiconductor defects. The topics covered related to the different methods and techniques used for the recognition and imaging of defects in semiconductor materials (Si, III-V's including nitrides, SiC, IV-IV's, II-VI's, organic compounds, ...) and in semiconductor devices ranging from defects in the raw materials at the wafer level, through process-induced defects and defects that appear during operation (burn-in, aging tests, ...). One of the highlights of the social events of DRIP X was the awards ceremony as part of the celebrations for the Tenth meeting of DRIP. The founders of the DRIP series, Professor Jean-Pierre Fillard and Professor Tomoya Ogawa were both invited to be permanent members of the International Steering Committee and awarded with appropriately engraved trophies to mark the occasion. With help form Tomoya Ogawa, Jean-Pierre Fillard organized the first DRIP conference in 1985 in La Grande Motte, France. The amusing and thought provoking slide presentation by Jean-Pierre Fillard went a great way to remind us of the history of this conference series and to

  7. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Based on the use of laser as a coherent and intense light source, the photo-acoustics originated from the discovery made by Alexander Graham Bell was extended to laser-ultrasonics (LU), and it has been applied to wide area of ultrasonics, optics, material characterization and nondestructive inspection. In 1996, a research group for LU was started in the Japanese Society for Nondestructive Inspection (JSNDI), and researches on LU and related topics such as noncontact measurements and elastic wave theories were discussed. Similar activities were pursued also in North America and in Europe. The international symposium on LU was started in Montreal, Canada in 2008 by Jean Pierre Monchalin in order to offer a forum for involved with basic researches and industrial applications of LU. In the second symposium in Bordeaux, France nearly 120 papers were presented. It is our honor to have organized the third symposium, LU2013 on 25-28 June in Yokohama, Japan. The articles published here provide a sample of achievements presented there. In LU2013, we focused on the laser generation and/or detection of acoustic waves, application to nondestructive testing, ultrafast-optoacoustics and innovative instruments. Research achievements in biomedical applications, advanced sensing including noncontact, micro/nanoscale or nonlinear measurements, as well as theory and simulation of ultrasound were also included, considering the interdisciplinary nature of this field. We enjoyed very excellent and informative 3 plenary talks, 11 invited talks, 81 oral and 41 poster presentations with 168 attendees. According to requests, we organized a post deadline poster session to give an opportunity to present recent achievements after the deadline. Contributions of the participants, the scientific and organizing committees are highly appreciated. The conference tour was a dinner cruise to the Tokyo bay, and we hope this experience will remain as a pleasant memory in attendees. As decided in the

  8. Out of the Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Nina; Williams, Gary

    2006-08-01

    Foreword Freeman J. Dyson; Introduction Nina Byers; 1. Hertha Aryton 1854-1923 Joan Mason; 2. Margaret Maltby 1860-1944 Peggy Kidwell; 3. Agnes Pockels 1862-1935 Gary A. Williams; 4. Marie Curie 1867-1934 A. Pais; 5. Henrietta Leavitt 1868-1921 Jean L. Turner; 6. Harriet Brooks 1876-1933 C. W. Wong; 7. Lise Meitner 1878-1968 Ruth Lewin Sime; 8. Emmy Noether 1882-1935 Nina Byers; 9. Inge Lehmann 1888-1993 Bruce A. Bolt; 10. Marietta Blau 1894-1970 Leopold Halpern and Maurice M. Shapiro; 11. Hertha Sponer 1895-1968 Helmut Rechenberg; 12. Irene Joliot-Curie 1897-1956 Hélène Langevin-Joliot and Pierre Radvanyi; 13. Katherine Burr Blodgett 1898-1979 Gary A. Williams; 14. Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin 1900-1979 Vera C. Rubin; 15. Mary Cartwright 1900-1998 Freeman J. Dyson; 16. Bertha Jeffreys 1903-1999 Ruth M. Williams; 17. Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale1903-1971 Judith Milledge; 18. Maria Goeppert Mayer 1906-1972 Steven A. Moszkowski; 19. Helen Megaw 1907-2002 A. Michael Glazer and Christine Kelsey; 20. Yvette Cauchois 1908-1999 Christiane Bonnelle; 21. Marguerite Perey 1909-1975 Jean-Pierre Adloff and George B. Kauffman; 22. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin 1910-1994 Jenny P. Glusker; 23. Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber 1911-1998 Alfred Scharff Goldhaber; 24. Chien Shiung Wu 1912-1997 Noemie Bencze-Koller; 25. Margaret E. Burbidge 1919 Virginia Trimble; 26. Phyllis Freier 1921-1992 Cecil J. Waddington; 27. Rosalyn S. Yalow 1921 M. S. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 28. Esther Conwell 1922 Lewis Rothberg; 29. Cecile Dewitt-Morette 1922 Bryce DeWitt; 30. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat 1923 James W. York Jr.; 31. Vera Rubin 1928 Robert J. Rubin; 32. Mildred S. Dresselhaus 1930 G. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 33. Myriam Sarachik 1933 Jonathan R. Friedman; 34. Juliet Lee-Franzini 1933 Paolo Franzini; 35. Helen T. Edwards 1936 John Peoples; 36. Mary K. Gaillard 1939 Andreszej Buras; 37. Renata Kallosh 1943 Andrei Linde and Michael Gutperle; 38. Jocelyn Bell Burnell 1943 Ferdinand V. Coroniti and Gary A

  9. Out of the Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Nina; Williams, Gary

    2010-12-01

    Foreword Freeman J. Dyson; Introduction Nina Byers; 1. Hertha Aryton 1854-1923 Joan Mason; 2. Margaret Maltby 1860-1944 Peggy Kidwell; 3. Agnes Pockels 1862-1935 Gary A. Williams; 4. Marie Curie 1867-1934 A. Pais; 5. Henrietta Leavitt 1868-1921 Jean L. Turner; 6. Harriet Brooks 1876-1933 C. W. Wong; 7. Lise Meitner 1878-1968 Ruth Lewin Sime; 8. Emmy Noether 1882-1935 Nina Byers; 9. Inge Lehmann 1888-1993 Bruce A. Bolt; 10. Marietta Blau 1894-1970 Leopold Halpern and Maurice M. Shapiro; 11. Hertha Sponer 1895-1968 Helmut Rechenberg; 12. Irene Joliot-Curie 1897-1956 Hélène Langevin-Joliot and Pierre Radvanyi; 13. Katherine Burr Blodgett 1898-1979 Gary A. Williams; 14. Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin 1900-1979 Vera C. Rubin; 15. Mary Cartwright 1900-1998 Freeman J. Dyson; 16. Bertha Jeffreys 1903-1999 Ruth M. Williams; 17. Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale1903-1971 Judith Milledge; 18. Maria Goeppert Mayer 1906-1972 Steven A. Moszkowski; 19. Helen Megaw 1907-2002 A. Michael Glazer and Christine Kelsey; 20. Yvette Cauchois 1908-1999 Christiane Bonnelle; 21. Marguerite Perey 1909-1975 Jean-Pierre Adloff and George B. Kauffman; 22. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin 1910-1994 Jenny P. Glusker; 23. Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber 1911-1998 Alfred Scharff Goldhaber; 24. Chien Shiung Wu 1912-1997 Noemie Bencze-Koller; 25. Margaret E. Burbidge 1919 Virginia Trimble; 26. Phyllis Freier 1921-1992 Cecil J. Waddington; 27. Rosalyn S. Yalow 1921 M. S. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 28. Esther Conwell 1922 Lewis Rothberg; 29. Cecile Dewitt-Morette 1922 Bryce DeWitt; 30. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat 1923 James W. York Jr.; 31. Vera Rubin 1928 Robert J. Rubin; 32. Mildred S. Dresselhaus 1930 G. Dresselhaus and F. A. Stahl; 33. Myriam Sarachik 1933 Jonathan R. Friedman; 34. Juliet Lee-Franzini 1933 Paolo Franzini; 35. Helen T. Edwards 1936 John Peoples; 36. Mary K. Gaillard 1939 Andreszej Buras; 37. Renata Kallosh 1943 Andrei Linde and Michael Gutperle; 38. Jocelyn Bell Burnell 1943 Ferdinand V. Coroniti and Gary A

  10. PREFACE: E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, Symposium M: More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Christian; Fompeyrine, Jean; Vallée, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    material systems piezoelectric films and nanostructures Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of oxides and nitrides characterization and metrology of very thin oxide layers We would like to take this opportunity to thank the Scientific Committee and Local Committee for bringing together a coherent and high quality Symposium at E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting. Christian Wenger, Jean Fompeyrine, Christophe Vallée and Jean-Pierre Locquet Organizing Committee of Symposium M September 2012

  11. Paleoclimate records at high latitude in Arctic during the Paleogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salpin, Marie; Schnyder, Johann; Baudin, François; Suan, Guillaume; Labrousse, Loïc; Popescu, Speranta; Suc, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Paleoclimate records at high latitude in Arctic during the Paleogene SALPIN Marie1,2, SCHNYDER Johann1,2, BAUDIN François1,2, SUAN Guillaume3, LABROUSSE Loïc1,2, POPESCU Speranta4, SUC Jean-Pierre1,4 1: Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7193, Institut des Sciences de la Terre Paris (iSTeP), F 75005, Paris, France 2: CNRS, UMR 7193, Institut des Sciences de la Terre Paris (iSTeP), F 75005 Paris, France 3: UCB Lyon 1, UMR 5276, LGLTPE, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France 4: GEOBIOSTRATDATA.CONSULTING, 385 Route du Mas Rillier 69140 Rillieux la Pape, France The Paleogene is a period of important variations of the Earth climate system either in warming or cooling. The climatic optima of the Paleogene have been recognized both in continental and marine environment. This study focus on high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, in the Arctic Basin. The basin has had an influence on the Cenozoic global climate change according to its polar position. Is there a specific behaviour of the Arctic Basin with respect to global climatic stimuli? Are there possible mechanisms of coupling/decoupling of its dynamics with respect to the global ocean? To answer these questions a unique collection of sedimentary series of Paleogene age interval has been assembled from the Laurentian margin in Northern Yukon (Canada) and from the Siberian margin (New Siberian Islands). Selected continental successions of Paleocene-Eocene age were used to study the response of the Arctic system to known global events, e.g. the climatic optima of the Paleogene (the so-called PETM, ETM2 or the Azolla events). Two sections of Paleocene-Eocene age were sampled near the Mackenzie delta, the so-called Coal Mine (CoMi) and Caribou Hills (CaH) sections. The aim of the study is to precise the climatic fluctuations and to characterise the source rock potential of the basin, eventually linked to the warming events. This study is based on data of multi-proxy analyses: mineralogy on bulk and clay

  12. Cassini-Huygens swings by Earth and accelerates towards Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    Engineers at ESA's control centre ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, California, confirmed that the spacecraft came within about 1171 kilometres of Earth, as planned, passing over the eastern South Pacific. Cassini-Huygens may have been visible from small islands in that area, such as Pitcairn or Easter Island. The closest approach point is located at 23.5° South and 128.5° West. "Everything worked just perfectly and we're very happy," said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA project scientist for Huygens. "Now we're looking forward to an exciting mission of discovery inside the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn." The spacecraft remains in excellent condition as it continues its seven-year flight to Saturn. Having completed its cruise among the inner planets, Cassini-Huygens' future now lies in the cold, dark realm of the outer planets. It will pass by Jupiter on 30 December 2000; the giant planet's gravity will bend the spacecraft's trajectory, which will put it on course for arrival in orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004. During the Earth flyby, nine of the twelve scientific instruments on Cassini were turned on to gather data on the Earth/Moon system. The Huygens Probe and its six scientific instruments remained dormant during the Earth flyby. The next bi-annual in-flight Probe checkout activities will take place in mid-September. The Cassini-Huygens mission is to study Saturn, its magnetic and radiation environment, moons and rings for four years. The European Space Agency's Huygens probe will separate from Cassini and parachute to the surface of Titan. Titan is especially interesting, not least because of its many Earth-like characteristics, including an atmosphere made up mostly of nitrogen and the presence of organic molecules in its atmosphere and surface. Lakes or seas of ethane and methane may be found on its surface. Notes for editors: Cassini-Huygens is a joint programme of NASA, ESA

  13. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission in the W 28 (G6.4-0.1) Region and Multiwavelength Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Rowell, G.; Brion, E.; Reimer, O.; Moriguchi, Y.; Fukui, Yasuo; Djannati-Atai, A.; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-10-29

    H.E.S.S. observations of the old-age (>10{sup 4} yr; {approx} 0.5 degree diameter) composite supernova remnant (SNR)W28 reveal very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray emission situated at its northeastern and southern boundaries. The northeastern VHE source (HESS J1801-233) is in an area where W 28 is interacting with a dense molecular cloud, containing OH masers, local radio and X-ray peaks. The southern VHE sources (HESS J1800-240 with components labeled A, B and C) are found in a region occupied by several HII regions, including the ultracompact HII region W 28A2. Our analysis of NANTEN CO data reveals a dense molecular cloud enveloping this southern region, and our reanalysis of EGRET data reveals MeV/GeV emission centered on HESS J1801-233 and the northeastern interaction region.

  14. 78 FR 44577 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    .... Hardiman, Tara Havranek, John F. Hazuda, Mark Heller, Susan J. Hess, David Hewitt, Ronald Heyman, David..., Maria Okada, Ted T. Olavarria, Esther Oliver, Clifford E. Onieal, Denis G. Orner, Jeffrey O'Toole,...

  15. 77 FR 62231 - Excelerate Liquefaction Solutions I, LLC, Nutreco Canada Inc., JM & RAL Energy Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ...., Constellation Energy Gas Choice, Inc., St. Clair Power L.P., Hess Corporation, Tenaska Gas Storage, LLC... granting blanket Inc.. authority to export natural gas to Mexico. 3131 08/14/12 12-79-NG...

  16. Werner Kolhörster (1887-1945): The German pioneer of cosmic ray physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fick, Dieter; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Werner Kolhörster belonged to the outstanding German scholars in cosmic ray and particle astrophysics, prior to World War II. But the wide fame of Victor F. Hess overshadows largely his merits nowadays.

  17. The Moon and the U-47 in Scapa Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. E.

    2005-12-01

    The skies above affect historical events here on Earth more than is generally realized. Events during wars are often tied to the Moon through operational requirements for illumination (or dark), high tides (or low), and even links to events in lunar calendars. World War II has many famous battles, commando operations, and naval sorties dictated in date by the Moon. Famous examples are D-Day (needing low tides and Full Moon illumination), the amphibious landing on Tarawa (needing but not getting high tides), El Alamein (requiring Full Moon light for the mine-clearers), the Great Escape from Stalag Luft III (chosen for the stealth possible with a New Moon), Mussolini's invasion of Albania (on Good Friday), and even Rudolf Hess' flight to Scotland (timed by a six-planet conjunction and aided in navigation by the Full Moon). This paper will concentrate on one event for which the Moon provided the primary trick for a major Nazi naval victory, while an aurora saved the British from an even worse disaster. The story is set in Scapa Flow, the huge anchorage in the Orkney Islands that was used as a primary base for the British Navy in blockading the North Sea. During World War I, German submarines had twice tried to slip into Scapa Flow but were sunk both times, and the anchorage later became the last resting place of the scuttled German High Seas Fleet. At the outbreak of World War II, then Commodore Karl Doenitz suggested that his ace U-boat captain consider sneaking into Scapa Flow to loose salvos of torpedoes at all the anchored ships. Captain Gunther Prien of the U-47 took up the challenge after realizing that the British had not completely blocked a narrow inlet. His plan was to surface the submarine and go in over the sunken block ships at the highest of spring tides. Spring tides require a syzygy (New or Full Moon), during which the high tides occur near noon or midnight. To be unobserved by onshore guards, the Moon should not be in the sky illuminating the waters

  18. A novel multimode hybrid energy storage system and its energy management strategy for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Zhou, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel topology of multimode hybrid energy storage system (HESS) and its energy management strategy for electric vehicles (EVs). Compared to the conventional HESS, the proposed multimode HESS has more operating modes and thus it could in further enhance the efficiency of the system. The rule-based control strategy and the power-balancing strategy are developed for the energy management strategy to realize mode selection and power distribution. Generally, the DC-DC converter will operate at peak efficiency to convey the energy from the batteries to the UCs. Otherwise, the pure battery mode or the pure ultracapacitors (UCs) mode will be utilized without the DC-DC converter. To extend the battery life, the UCs have the highest priority to recycle the energy and the batteries are isolated from being recharged directly during regenerative braking. Simulations and experiments are established to validate the proposed multimode HESS and its energy management strategy. The results reveal that the energy losses in the DC-DC converter, the total energy consumption and the overall system efficiency of the proposed multimode HESS are improved compared to the conventional HESS.

  19. On Time-II: Newton's Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    A study of time in Newtonian physics is presented. Newton's laws of motion, falsifiability and physical theories, laws of motion and law of gravitation, and Laplace's demon are discussed. Short bibliographic sketches of Laplace and Karl Popper are included. (KR)

  20. Martin Schwarzschild (1912 - 1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfau, Werner

    The Chairman of the Astronomische Gesellschaft honored Martin Schwarzschild, who was the first to be presented with the Karl Schwarzschild Medal of the Astronomische Gesellschaft in 1957. An account of his life and work is given.

  1. 76 FR 35946 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... exemption from these provisions is necessary to permit LACMTA to extend light rail passenger service over..., 395 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20423-0001; and (2) Karl Morell, Of Counsel, Ball Janik LLP,...

  2. 76 FR 790 - Arizona; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ..., under Executive Order 12148, as amended, Michael L. Karl, of FEMA is appointed to act as the Federal... Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster...

  3. Alienation Incident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Louis

    1979-01-01

    Critiques Marxian "cures" for alienation as discussed in Karl Marx's "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts." Also traces the activity of a former student who joined the revolution in Cuba. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York, 14226. (KC)

  4. L'Ordine Nuovo: The Legacy of Antonio Gramsci and the Education of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Paul F.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a biography of Antonio Gramsci and discusses the influence of Karl Marx on Gramsci's key ideas concerning mode of production, superstructure, hegemony, consciousness, praxis, and intellectuals. Gramsci's emphasis on adult education for socialism is discussed. (CH)

  5. 76 FR 16475 - Northern Lines Railway, LLC-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Stearns County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Register on February 18, 2011 (76 FR 9,634), instituting a proceeding in which BNSF is seeking an...) Karl Morell, Ball Janik LLP, 1455 F Street, NW., Suite 225, Washington, DC 20005. Replies to...

  6. A young supernova remnant illuminating nearby molecular clouds with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Pühlhofer, G.; Santangelo, A.

    2016-06-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 displays strong nonthermal TeV γ-ray and X-ray emission, thus the object is presently accelerating particles to very high energies. A distinctive feature of this young SNR is the nearby (~30 pc in projection) extended source HESS J1729-345, which is currently unidentified but is in spatial projection coinciding with known molecular clouds (MC). We model the SNR evolution to explore whether the TeV emission from HESS J1729-345 can be explained as emission from runaway hadronic cosmic rays (CRs) that are illuminating these MCs. The observational data of HESS J1729-345 and HESS J1731-347 can be reproduced using core-collapse SN models for HESS J1731-347. Starting with different progenitor stars and their presupernova environment, we model potential SNR evolution histories along with the CR acceleration in the SNR and the diffusion of the CRs. A simplified three-dimensional structure of the MCs is introduced based on data of that region, adopting a distance of 3.2 kpc to the source. A Monte Carlo based diffusion model for the escaping CRs is developed to deal with the inhomogeneous environment. The fast SNR forward shock speed, as implied from the X-ray data, can easily be explained when employing scenarios with progenitor star masses between 20 M⊙ and 25 M⊙, where the SNR shock is still expanding inside the main-sequence (MS) bubble at present time. The TeV spectrum of HESS J1729-345 is satisfactorily fitted by the emission from the highest energy CRs that have escaped the SNR, using a standard Galactic CR diffusion coefficient in the interclump medium. The TeV image of HESS J1729-345 can be explained with a reasonable three-dimensional structure of MCs. The TeV emission from the SNR itself is dominated by leptonic emission in this model. We also explore scenarios where the shock is starting to encounter the dense MS progenitor wind bubble shell. The escaping hadronic CR hypothesis for the γ-ray emission of HESS J1729

  7. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, J. F.; Dufty, J. W.; Murillo, M. S.

    2003-06-01

    conference, including 34 invited speakers. Unfortunately, some international speakers could not attend due to problems with obtaining visas, and we deeply regret the difficulties and lost opportunities. These individuals and all others giving presentations at the conference, including invited plenary and topical talks and posters, were asked to contribute to this special issue and most have done so. We trust that this special issue will accurately record the contents of the conference, and provide a valuable resource for researchers in this rapidly evolving field. We would like to thank all members of the International Advisory Board for their contributions to the conference. In particular, we thank Chairman Jean-Pierre Hansen for his diligent work at coordinating the International Advisory Board, the Programme Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. Of course, nothing would have been possible without the dedicated efforts of the Local Organizing Committee. We wish to thank the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Theoretical, Physics, Applied Physics, Materials Science and Technology divisions) and Sandia National Laboratory (Pulsed Power Sciences) for sponsoring this conference. We also gratefully acknowledge the administrative support we received from Marianna Martinez, Marion Hutton and Ellie Vigil of Los Alamos National Laboratory, all of whom were major contributors to the success of the conference. John F Benage, James W Dufty and Michael S Murillo Guest Editors Please see PDF for photograph of conference participants. Local Organizing Committee J F Benage Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA M Desjarlais Sandia National Laboratory, USA G J Kalman Boston College, USA J Kress Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA M S Murillo Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA G Ortiz Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA J Weisheit Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA SCCS International Advisory Board A Alastuey Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France D Andelman Tel Aviv University

  8. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.

    2006-04-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within

  9. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  10. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Zakrzewski, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    the meeting was that all plenary talks presented the state-of-the-art and were at the same time educational and exciting, promoting the multidisciplinary aspects of the research, and thus were inspirational for young scientists considering work in these fields. The plenary talks, each lasting 1 hour, were given by distinguished world experts and some young 'rising stars': Richard Ward, Ulf Leonhardt, Jens Eisert, Michael Berry, Shahn Majid, Arndt von Haeseler, Michio Jimbo, Katrin Wendland, Raymond Goldstein, Mark Trodden, Maria Vozmediano and Giulio Chiribella. The public lecture was given by Francesco Iachello and was open to participants and other people from the Newcastle-Durham region. In addition, talks of 30 minutes duration each and including more technical content, were given in four parallel sessions. Each parallel session had a designated time for informal interaction with the speakers, discussions of new directions of research and for forming new collaborations. The poster session, in a room where posters were exhibited for the duration of the conference, was easily accessible, and had a friendly and relaxed atmosphere, encouraging discussions of work and exchanges of new ideas. To secure a high quality scientific programme, all contributions were reviewed. Another interesting feature of the conference was the Open Forum on the Friday afternoon, which was lively and well attended. It took the form of a question and answer session with a panel chaired by Allan Solomon, with the following members: Gerald Goldin, Jean-Pierre Gazeau, Mark Trodden and Giulio Chiribella. The focus was on new directions of research, novel applications and the further development of group theory, education, training and career opportunities for young researchers. The participants were asked to submit questions in advance; examples are: "What is the role of symmetries and conservation principles in deducing underlying physics from experimental data?" and "What are the most

  11. Europe reaches new frontier - Huygens lands on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    is a fascinating world and we are now eagerly awaiting the scientific results,” says Professor David Southwood, Director of ESA’s scientific programmme. “The Huygens scientists are all delighted. This was worth the long wait,” says Dr Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Mission Manager. Huygens is expected to provide the first direct and detailed sampling of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry and the first photographs of its hidden surface, and will supply a detailed ‘weather report’. One of the main reasons for sending Huygens to Titan is that its nitrogen atmosphere, rich in methane, and its surface may contain many chemicals of the kind that existed on the young Earth. Combined with the Cassini observations, Huygens will afford an unprecedented view of Saturn’s mysterious moon. “Descending through Titan was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity and today’s achievement proves that our partnership with ESA was an excellent one,” says Alphonso Diaz, NASA Associate Administrator of Science. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperation between NASA, the European Space Agency and ASI, the Italian space agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, is managing the mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. “The teamwork in Europe and the USA, between scientists, industry and agencies has been extraordinary and has set the foundations for today’s enormous success,” concludes Jean-Jacques Dordain.

  12. PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-11-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains the Proceedings of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2-6 July 2005. The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The most recent meeting was held in 2003 in Konstanz. The aim of the Liquid Matter Conferences is to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. This rapidly growing field includes the physics, chemistry, biology and chemical engineering of liquid matter as well as various applied research areas. In fact, the Utrecht meeting had, for the first time, a special session devoted to Fundamental Challenges in Applied Liquid Physics and Microfluidics. The Utrecht meeting had 760 registered participants from four continents. An important event at this meeting was the award of the First Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS, of Cambridge University. In addition to a plenary speech by the recipient of the Liquid Matter Prize, the scientific programme consisted of 10 plenary lectures, 117 symposia talks, 25 of which were keynote lectures and some 650 poster contributions. The meeting also hosted a one-day symposium of the Division of Liquids and Interfaces of the Chemical Sciences division of NWO. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains 61 of the oral communications. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many fields of research. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and find in the Liquid Matter Conference a forum to meet experts from other areas of research. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new

  13. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch Jean-Marie Hameury, Christian

    , galactic chemical evolution, and high energy astrophysics. More that 30 participants attended this school and benefited from week-long high quality courses that covered present and future high energy observatories, supernovae and supernova remnants, the physics of compact objects, physical processes at high energies, and accretion- ejection processes. We hope that the reader of these proceedings will find the same interest as the audience had in interacting with the speakers. We thank them for the high quality of their courses; we also thank the participants for the friendly atmosphere, the Formation Permanente du CNRS, the Centre National d'Études Spatiales, the Programme National de Physique Stellaire, the Groupement de Recherche Phénomènes Cosmiques de Haute Énergie for funding. We are particularly indebted to Sandrine Langenbacher, Thomas Keller and Jean-Pierre Zahn for taking care of all administrative and organisational aspects. We wish to thank warmly the Director and employees of the Centre Paul Langevin for their competence and hospitality.

  14. Ptolemy operations as part of the Rosetta Mission from Hibernation to the Surface of Comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Daniel; Morse, Andrew; Barber, Simeon; Morgan, Geraint; Sheridan, Simon; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    , having rebounded back into near-comet space. The non-nominal landing resulted in the cancellation of the default FSS including the removal of the Ptolemy solid sample stepped pyrolysis/combustion step. There then followed a heroic effort by the Lander and Orbiter ground segments and various instrument teams to recover science, part of which resulted in the opportunity for Ptolemy to conduct a further 6 'Sniff Mode' measurements at Philae's final landing site and, during the final moments prior to Philae losing power, the opportunity to conduct a much-modified CASE measurement. Initial results from these various operations including the detection of water and organic species and their temporal and spatial variations will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgements: Ptolemy was developed in a collaborative venture between The Open University and RAL Space, with funding provided by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the UK Space Agency (UKSA). We acknowledge the efforts and patience of our colleagues at the Lander Control Centre (LCC), and the Science Operation and Navigation Centre (SONC), as well as the lander Principal Scientists Jean-Pierre Bibring and Hermann Boehnhardt.

  15. Seeing, touching and smelling the extraordinarily Earth-like world of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    , these are rock-like solid at Titan's temperatures. Titan's soil appears to consist at least in part of precipitated deposits of the organic haze that shrouds the planet. This dark material settles out of the atmosphere. When washed off high elevations by methane rain, it concentrates at the bottom of the drainage channels and riverbeds contributing to the dark areas seen in DISR images. New, stunning evidence based on finding atmospheric argon 40 indicates that Titan has experienced volcanic activity generating not lava, as on Earth, but water ice and ammonia. Thus, while many of Earth's familiar geophysical processes occur on Titan, the chemistry involved is quite different. Instead of liquid water, Titan has liquid methane. Instead of silicate rocks, Titan has frozen water ice. Instead of dirt, Titan has hydrocarbon particles settling out of the atmosphere, and instead of lava, Titanian volcanoes spew very cold ice. Titan is an extraordinary world having Earth-like geophysical processes operating on exotic materials in very alien conditions. "We are really extremely excited about these results. The scientists have worked tirelessly for the whole week because the data they have received from Huygens are so thrilling. This is only the beginning, these data will live for many years to come and they will keep the scientists very very busy", said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA's Huygens Project Scientist and Mission manager. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperation between NASA, ESA and ASI, the Italian space agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, is managing the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter while ESA operated the Huygens atmospheric probe.

  16. Introduction and Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Zakrzewski, Wojciech; Hussin, Véronique; Piette, Bernard

    2011-03-01

    This volume contains contributions to the XXVIIIth International Colloquium on Group-Theoretical Methods in Physics, the GROUP 28 conference, which took place in Newcastle upon Tyne from 26-30 July 2010. All plenary and contributed papers have undergone an independent review; as a result of this review and the decisions of the Editorial Board most but not all of the contributions were accepted. The volume is organised as follows: it starts with notes in memory of Marcos Moshinsky, followed by contributions related to the Wigner Medal and Hermann Weyl prize. Then the invited talks at the plenary sessions and the public lecture are published followed by contributions in the parallel and poster sessions in alphabetical order. The Editors:Maia Angelova, Wojciech Zakrzewski, Véronique Hussin and Bernard Piette International Advisory Committee Michael BaakeUniversity of Bielefeld, Germany Gerald DunneUniversity of Connecticut, USA J F (Frank) GomesUNESP, Sao Paolo, Brazil Peter HanggiUniversity of Augsburg, Germany Jeffrey C LagariasUniversity of Michigan, USA Michael MackeyMcGill University, Canada Nicholas MantonCambridge University, UK Alexei MorozovITEP, Moscow, Russia Valery RubakovINR, Moscow, Russia Barry SandersUniversity of Calgary, Canada Allan SolomonOpen University, Milton Keynes, UK Christoph SchweigertUniversity of Hamburg, Germany Standing Committee Twareque AliConcordia University, Canada Luis BoyaSalamanca University, Spain Enrico CeleghiniFirenze University, Italy Vladimir DobrevBulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria Heinz-Dietrich DoebnerHonorary Member, Clausthal University, Germany Jean-Pierre GazeauChairman, Paris Diderot University, France Mo-Lin GeNankai University. China Gerald GoldinRutgers University, USA Francesco IachelloYale University, USA Joris Van der JeugtGhent University, Belgium Richard KernerPierre et Marie Curie University, France Piotr KielanowskiCINVESTAV, Mexico Alan KosteleckyIndiana University, USA Mariano del Olmo

  17. Upgrading and testing the 3D reconstruction of gamma-ray air showers as observed with an array of Cherenkov telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Naumann-Godo, Melitta; Degrange, Bernard

    2008-12-24

    Stereoscopic arrays of Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes allow to reconstruct gamma-ray-induced showers in 3 dimensions. An analysis method based on a simple 3D-model of electromagnetic showers and implemented in the framework of the H.E.S.S. experiment was recently improved by an additional quality criterion which reduces the background contamination by a factor of about 2 in the case of extended sources, while hardly affecting gamma-ray selection efficiency. Moreover, the dramatic flares of PKS 2155-304 in July 2006, which provided H.E.S.S. data with an almost pure gamma-ray sample, offered the unique opportunity of a precision test of the 3D-reconstruction method as well as of the H.E.S.S. simulations used in its calibration. An agreement at a few percent level is found between data and simulations for the distributions of all 3D shower parameters.

  18. TIME-DEPENDENT MODELING OF PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Vorster, M. J.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Tibolla, O.; Kaufmann, S. E-mail: omar.tibolla@gmail.com

    2013-08-20

    A spatially independent model that calculates the time evolution of the electron spectrum in a spherically expanding pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is presented, allowing one to make broadband predictions for the PWN's non-thermal radiation. The source spectrum of electrons injected at the termination shock of the PWN is chosen to be a broken power law. In contrast to previous PWN models of a similar nature, the source spectrum has a discontinuity in intensity at the transition between the low- and high-energy components. To test the model, it is applied to the young PWN G21.5-0.9, where it is found that a discontinuous source spectrum can model the emission at all wavelengths better than a continuous one. The model is also applied to the unidentified sources HESS J1427-608 and HESS J1507-622. Parameters are derived for these two candidate nebulae that are consistent with the values predicted for other PWNe. For HESS J1427-608, a present day magnetic field of B{sub age} = 0.4 {mu}G is derived. As a result of the small present day magnetic field, this source has a low synchrotron luminosity, while remaining bright at GeV/TeV energies. It is therefore possible to interpret HESS J1427-608 within the ancient PWN scenario. For the second candidate PWN HESS J1507-622, a present day magnetic field of B{sub age} = 1.7 {mu}G is derived. Furthermore, for this candidate PWN a scenario is favored in the present paper in which HESS J1507-622 has been compressed by the reverse shock of the supernova remnant.

  19. Time-dependent Modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorster, M. J.; Tibolla, O.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Kaufmann, S.

    2013-08-01

    A spatially independent model that calculates the time evolution of the electron spectrum in a spherically expanding pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is presented, allowing one to make broadband predictions for the PWN's non-thermal radiation. The source spectrum of electrons injected at the termination shock of the PWN is chosen to be a broken power law. In contrast to previous PWN models of a similar nature, the source spectrum has a discontinuity in intensity at the transition between the low- and high-energy components. To test the model, it is applied to the young PWN G21.5-0.9, where it is found that a discontinuous source spectrum can model the emission at all wavelengths better than a continuous one. The model is also applied to the unidentified sources HESS J1427-608 and HESS J1507-622. Parameters are derived for these two candidate nebulae that are consistent with the values predicted for other PWNe. For HESS J1427-608, a present day magnetic field of B age = 0.4 μG is derived. As a result of the small present day magnetic field, this source has a low synchrotron luminosity, while remaining bright at GeV/TeV energies. It is therefore possible to interpret HESS J1427-608 within the ancient PWN scenario. For the second candidate PWN HESS J1507-622, a present day magnetic field of B age = 1.7 μG is derived. Furthermore, for this candidate PWN a scenario is favored in the present paper in which HESS J1507-622 has been compressed by the reverse shock of the supernova remnant.

  20. Hanau licenses voided by German state court

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    On July 21, the Higher Administrative Court in the German state of Hesse declared illegal three of the first four partial construction licenses for the plutonium section of the Siemens fuel fabrication complex at Hanau. The licenses were issued in the late 1980s by the former Christian Democrat administration of Hesse, but final licensing of the plant - now 90 percent complete - has been held up by the Social Democrat/Green Party coalition government that is now in power. The court ruling came as a result of four cases, and a so-called urgent application, initiated by antinuclear groups in the area.