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Sample records for kashmir pakistan earthquake

  1. In the aftermath of the Qa'yamat: the Kashmir earthquake disaster in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Sarah J; Hamilton, Jennifer Parker

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local impact of the catastrophic earthquake in northern Pakistan on 8 October 2005. Drawing on field research, including interviews with 40 earthquake survivors, the post-disaster analysis presented here focuses upon risk awareness and the reactions of respondents to the 7.6 magnitude earthquake that devastated areas of Azad Jammu and Kashmir State, and North-West Frontier Province. The analysis provides insights into local perceptions of seismic hazard and exposure as well as survivors' priorities with regard to rebuilding and reconstruction. The article suggests that the tragedy of the devastating earthquake is entangled in a deeper knot of causal factors that are social, economic and political in nature. Rapid population growth, urbanisation, changing building styles, environmental degradation and lack of preparedness and mitigation are associated with the circumstances that place the population at risk. Remarks concerning present and future risk reduction efforts are included. PMID:19796167

  2. Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Very High Resolution Optical Images for Detecting Co-seismic Surface Effects: the Cases of the 2005 Kashmir (Pakistan) and the 2003 Bam (Iran) Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, M.; Cinti, F. R.; Stramondo, S.

    2008-12-01

    Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite panchromatic image has revealed to be a reliable tool to detect surface effects of natural disasters. This is particularly true whereas the hit territory is a remote land and/or with logistic and security problems. Data from this kind of sensor have a potential for more exhaustive and accurate mapping of the environment with details of sub-meter ground resolution. We show two large earthquake case studies, the 2005 Mw 7.6 Kashmir and the 2003 Mw 6.6 Bam events, both producing significant surface effects as ruptures, landslides and building damages. In order to test the capability of VHR images to recognize and evaluate such features we used panchromatic QuickBird imagery (0.6 m spatial resolution) acquired before and after the events (kindly provided by DigitalGlobe). Concerning the Pakistan we focus on the Muzaffarabad and Balakot areas, both crossed by the earthquake fault and experiencing edifice collapses. Same sort of analysis is performed for the ancient town of Bam. We proceed with: 1. identification on the images of the main rupture trace and of major landslides; 2. generation of a detailed spatial distribution of damage and collapses through a single building automatic classification approach; 3. cross-comparison of the different surface effects. The QuickBird panchromatic images provide a view of the co-seismic features at large scale, revealing complex geometric pattern of the cracks and compressional deformation features. It is possible to detect the lateral sense of movement, and based on the sun shade projection in the images, we infer the facing of the scarp, thus the uplifted side. Regarding point two, if in one hand the use of QuickBird images leads to detect very small details, on the other hand buildings become rather complex structures. Furthermore they may be surrounded by scattering objects making less evident the contrast between the roofs and the ground, thus increasing the difficulties in the

  4. Landslide Hazards After the 2005 Kashmir Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony; Roshan, Masud; Akhtar, Sadar Saeed; Wahla, Sajjad Karamat

    2007-01-01

    The 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake killed 87,300 people and disrupted the lives of several million more. By current estimates, 30,000 still live in camps sited more in accordance with short term expedience than with freedom from risk of natural hazards. In December 2006, the international aid community expressed fears that 50,000 people in Northwest Frontier Province may leave their mountain homes this winter as landslides and avalanches block access roads. As the focus of humanitarian assistance shifts toward restoration of Kashmir's infrastructure, it is important that the persistent hazard of landslides within the earthquake affected region be understood and recognized.

  5. Major earthquake shakes northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    A magnitude 7.6 earthquake that shook the western Himalayas on 8 October killed at least 23,000 in Pakistan and 1,400 in India, injured more than 50,000 people, and left more 2.5 million people homeless across the Kashmir region. The official death toll could exceed 30,000, placing this among most deadly earthquakes to have ever occurred on the Indian subcontinent.Scientists warn that, given the lack of development and poor construction in the area, future earthquakes in more densely populated areas could be devastating. David Simpson, president of the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology, said the 8 October quake ‘was a terrible disaster, but not to the level of what could happen in the future. This is yet again another warning message of things to come.”

  6. Some more earthquakes from medieval Kashmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shafi, Muzamil

    2014-07-01

    Kashmir has the peculiarity of having written history of almost 5,000 years. However, the description of earthquakes in the archival contents is patchy prior to 1500 a.d. Moreover, recent search shows that there exist certain time gaps in the catalogs presently in use especially at medieval level (1128-1586 a.d.). The presence of different ruling elites in association with socioeconomic and political conditions has in many ways confused the historical context of the medieval sources. However, by a meticulous review of the Sanskrit sources (between the twelfth and sixteenth century), it has been possible to identify unspecified but fair number (eight seismic events) of earthquakes that do not exist in published catalogs of Kashmir or whose dates are very difficult to establish. Moreover, historical sources reveal that except for events which occurred during Sultan Skinder's rule (1389-1413) and during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470), all the rediscovered seismic events went into oblivion, due mainly to the fact that the sources available dedicated their interests to the military events, which often tended to overshadow/superimpose over and even concealed natural events like earthquakes, resulting in fragmentary accounts and rendering them of little value for macroseismic intensity evaluation necessary for more efficient seismic hazard assessment.

  7. A review of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake-induced landslides; from a remote sensing prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Muhammad; van der Meijde, Mark; Khan, M. Asif

    2016-03-01

    The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake, in northern Pakistan has triggered thousands of landslides, which was the second major factor in the destruction of the build-up environment, after earthquake-induced ground shaking. Subsequent to the earthquake, several researchers from home and abroad applied a variety of remote sensing techniques, supported with field observations, to develop inventories of the earthquake-triggered landslides, analyzed their spatial distribution and subsequently developed landslide-susceptibility maps. Earthquake causative fault rupture, geology, anthropogenic activities and remote sensing derived topographic attributes were observed to have major influence on the spatial distribution of landslides. These were subsequently used to develop a landslide susceptibility map, thereby demarcating the areas prone to landsliding. Temporal studies monitoring the earthquake-induced landslides shows that the earthquake-induced landslides are stabilized, contrary to earlier belief, directly after the earthquake. The biggest landslide induced dam, as a result of the massive Hattian Bala landslide, is still posing a threat to the surrounding communities. It is observed that remote sensing data is effectively and efficiently used to assess the landslides triggered by the Kashmir earthquake, however, there is still a need of more research to understand the mechanism of intensity and distribution of landslides; and their continuous monitoring using remote sensing data at a regional scale. This paper, provides an overview of remote sensing and GIS applications, for the Kashmir-earthquake triggered landslides, derived outputs and discusses the lessons learnt, advantages, limitations and recommendations for future research.

  8. Simulation of Strong Ground Motion for the 7.6Mw Kashmir Earthquake Occurred on 8 Oct 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, A.; Muhammad sohail, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw 7.6 Kashmir earthquake which struck the northern area of Pakistan , the Kashmir region on 8 October 2005.The epicenter was located 18km north-northeast of Muzaffarabad, with a focal depth of 26km and it occurred in the Hazara-kashmir syntaxial bend near Main Mantle Thrust (MMT). This is one of the most devastating earthquakes occurred along Himalayan Arc and brought more than 80,000 deaths and more than 5.2 billion USD economical loss. The earthquake had duration of 25s and 75km rupture length along the surface. In order to investigate the strong motion caused by this earthquake, we simulate the Kashmir earthquake by the Curved grid finite difference method (CG-FDM). The finite-fault rupture, real topography variations and modified crustal model are considered. Simulated results are compared with available records, showing good mutual agreement between the synthetic and observed ground motions. According to the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD), the intensity of four observed points had reached scale IX, whereas our simulated results show those points are located in the regions with our predicted intensity scale IX or VIII. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak ground velocity (PGV) are most important parameters for hazard analysis, and our results are sufficiently coincide with their observed values. Finally, we also discuss the significant effect of surface topography on ground motion resulting by the Earthquake.

  9. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives

  10. Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Muhammad; Saeed, Khalid; Kingdon, David; Naeem, Farooq

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of

  11. The M=7.6 Earthquake in the Pakistani-Administered Region of Kashmir on Oct. 8, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Q.; Nisar, A.; Mooney, W. D.; Loeffler, K.

    2006-12-01

    On October 8, 2005 a M=7.6 earthquake struck the northwestern portion of the Himalayan region. Damage was extensive in the Pakistani-administered region of Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The mainshock occurred at 03:50 (UTC/GMT), 8:50 AM local time with the epicenter located in the Kishenganga (Neelam) Valley, approximately 100 km north of Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad. The earthquake ruptured the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone, accompanied by rupture of the Balakot-Bagh fault that runs along the Jhelum River in the northwest direction and passes close to the city of Muzaffarabad (Capital of Pakistani-administered Kashmir), and Balakot. The tremors lasted for about 50 seconds. Approximately 200,000 houses collapsed and entire towns and villages were destroyed (Harp &Crone, 2006; Parsons et al., 2006). The northern regions of Mansehra and Muzaffarabad were the worst-affected areas, and the majority of deaths occurred in the town of Muzaffarabad where an estimated 80% of the buildings collapsed. The nearby town of Balakot was completely destroyed along with several mountain villages. It is estimated that approximately 87,000 people were killed, and 74,000 were injured (Parsons et al., 2006; Khattri, 1986, Rai & Murty, 2006). Within 24 hours of the mainshock, aftershocks were registered of which more than 20 were over M=5.0. Since Pakistan's formation in 1947, the population has increased from c. 32 Million to c. 165 Million today. The official average is 166 persons/km2, but the population-density varies significantly throughout the country. Islamabad, Karachi, and Lahore (up to 550 persons/km2) have some of the highest densities in the world. Because of the population increase in Pakistan, there are larger settlements and cities developing in earthquake-prone regions. This subjects more people to potential seismic hazards. As demonstrated during the recent earthquake, construction in the earthquake-prone areas is highly

  12. Seismically reactivated Hattian slide in Kashmir, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean F.

    2009-07-01

    The Pakistan 2005 earthquake, of magnitude 7.6, caused severe damage on landscape and infrastructure, in addition to numerous casualties. The event reactivated Hattian Slide, creating a rock avalanche in a location where earlier mass movements had happened already, as indicated by satellite imagery and ground investigation. The slide originated on Dana Hill, in the upper catchment area of Hattian on Karli Stream, a tributary of Jhelum River, Pakistan, and buried the hamlet Dandbeh and several farms nearby. A natural dam accumulated, impounding two lakes, the larger one threatening parts of downstream Hattian Village with flooding. An access road and artificial spillways needed to be constructed in very short time to minimize the flooding risk. As shown by this example, when pointing out the risk of large-scale damage to population and infrastructure by way of hazard indication maps of seismically active regions, and preparing for alleviation of that risk, it is advisable to consider the complete Holocene history of the slopes involved.

  13. Analysis of Landslides Triggered by October 2005, Kashmir Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Irfan; Qureshi, Shahid Nadeem; Tariq, Shahina; Atique, Luqman; Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The October 2005, Kashmir earthquake main event was triggered along the Balakot-Bagh Fault which runs from Bagh to Balakot, and caused more damages in and around these areas. Major landslides were activated during and after the earthquake inflicting large damages in the area, both in terms of infrastructure and casualties. These landslides were mainly attributed to the minimum threshold of the earthquake, geology of the area, climatologic and geomorphologic conditions, mudflows, widening of the roads without stability assessment, and heavy rainfall after the earthquake. These landslides were mainly rock and debris falls. Hattian Bala rock avalanche was largest landslide associated with the earthquake which completely destroyed a village and blocked the valley creating a lake. Discussion: The present study shows that the fault rupture and fault geometry have direct influence on the distribution of landslides and that along the rupture zone a high frequency band of landslides was triggered. There was an increase in number of landslides due to 2005 earthquake and its aftershocks and that most of earthquakes have occurred along faults, rivers and roads. It is observed that the stability of landslide mass is greatly influenced by amplitude, frequency and duration of earthquake induced ground motion. Most of the slope failures along the roads resulted from the alteration of these slopes during widening of the roads, and seepages during the rainy season immediately after the earthquake. Conclusion: Landslides occurred mostly along weakly cemented and indurated rocks, colluvial sand and cemented soils. It is also worth noting that fissures and ground crack which were induced by main and after shock are still present and they pose a major potential threat for future landslides in case of another earthquake activity or under extreme weather conditions. PMID:26366324

  14. Psychological Morbidity in Children 18 Months after Kashmir Earthquake of 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Muhammad; Poongan, Ishwari; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Ali, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed; Naeem, Farooq

    2012-01-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Kashmir in 2005. The epicentre was close to Muzzafarabad. We collected data on over 1,100 children 18 months after the earthquake to look at symptoms of PTSD and behavioural and emotional problems using well established questionnaires. We found that 64.8% of children had significant symptoms of PTSD. Girls were more…

  15. Determination of boron contents in water samples collected from the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Matiullah; Iqbal, Arshid; Husaini, S N; Malik, Fariha

    2011-03-01

    Intake of boron from food and drinking water may pose a risk to the public health above a certain concentration level. Therefore, knowledge of boron concentration in drinking water and food items is essential. In this context, samples of drinking water were collected from natural springs of the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, hit by devastating earthquake in 2005. In these samples, boron concentration was determined using neutron-induced radiography technique. To do so, unknown water samples, along with standard of known boron dried on CR-39 detectors, were irradiated with thermal neutrons. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6 M NaOH at 70°C. The tracks produced due to the alpha particles and (7)Li ions as a result of (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction were counted under an optical microscope. The tracks produced in theses samples were then related to the boron contents. The measured boron concentration in water samples was found to vary from 0.105 ± 0.005 to 0.247 ± 0.013 mg/l with an average value of 0.17 ± 0.04 mg/l, which are within the acceptable limits. PMID:20306233

  16. Rock magnetic properties and structural development in the core of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, NE Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossart, Paul; Ottiger, Robert; Heller, Friedrich

    1990-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and structural analyses have been conducted on three well-exposed sections through a 6-8 km thick pile of molassic red beds (Murree formation) in the lowermost tectonic unit of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis. Micropaleontological age determinations of the lowermost Murree sediments indicate Late Paleocene deposition (55 m.y.). From south to north, the sections are situated in the Jhelum, Neelum (both in Azad Kashmir), and Kaghan (northeastern Pakistan) valleys. Thermal demagnetization experiments suggest that haematite with high unblocking temperatures carries stable characteristic remanence directions. The relationship between finite strain and magnetic fabric was established by mapping deformed reduction spot strain markers and by measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). For the Jhelum valley the weakly tectonized Murree beds are characterized by flattened AMS ellipsoids resulting from diagenetic compaction. Inclination values suggest that the Murree foreland basin started to develop at about 8°N during the early suturing of India and the development of island arcs to the north. India has moved northward by at least 2600 km since collision with Eurasia in the Paleocene. Declination values suggest 45° of clockwise rotation of the block supporting the Murree formation relative to the Indian craton. For the Neelum and Kaghan valleys, quantitative strain mapping shows a progressive increase of deformation northward. NRM directions rotate passively toward the cleavage plane which parallels the foliation of the AMS ellipsoids. NRM directions and AMS ellipsoids are deformed because of superposition of tectonic strain on a primary compactional strain. The AMS pattern is interpreted in light of this superposition, and a regional deformation path from south to north is suggested. A tectonic rotation model is proposed which is consistent with the transport directions around the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis and the rotation of thrust sheets

  17. Source Parameters of the Deadly Mw 7.6 Kashmir Earthquake of 8 October, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Chadha, R. K.; Kumar, N.; Raju, I. P.; Satyamurty, C.

    2007-10-01

    During the last six years, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad has established a semi-permanent seismological network of 5 8 broadband seismographs and 10 20 accelerographs in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat with a prime objective to monitor the continued aftershock activity of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj mainshock. The reliable and accurate broadband data for the 8 October Mw 7.6 2005 Kashmir earthquake and its aftershocks from this network as well as Hyderabad Geoscope station enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the Peninsular India. Firstly, we measure Rayleigh-and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 8 to 35 sec and invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the western part of Peninsular India. Our best model suggests a two-layered crust: The upper crust is 13.8 km thick with a shear velocity (Vs) of 3.2 km/s; the corresponding values for the lower crust are 24.9 km and 3.7 km/sec. The shear velocity for the upper mantle is found to be 4.65 km/sec. Based on this structure, we perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of the bandpass (0.05 0.02 Hz) filtered seismograms of the Kashmir earthquake. The best fit is obtained for a source located at a depth of 30 km, with a seismic moment, Mo, of 1.6 × 1027 dyne-cm, and a focal mechanism with strike 19.5°, dip 42°, and rake 167°. The long-period magnitude (MA ~ Mw) of this earthquake is estimated to be 7.31. An analysis of well-developed sPn and sSn regional crustal phases from the bandpassed (0.02 0.25 Hz) seismograms of this earthquake at four stations in Kachchh suggests a focal depth of 30.8 km.

  18. Source Parameters of the 8 October, 2005 Mw7.6 Kashmir Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Chadha, R. K.; Kumar, N.; Raju, I. P.; Satyamurty, C.

    2007-12-01

    During the last six years, the National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad has established a semi-permanent seismological network of 5 broadband seismographs and 10 accelerographs in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, with the prime objective to monitor the continued aftershock activity of the 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj mainshock. The reliable and accurate broadband data for the Mw 7.6 (8 Oct., 2005) Kashmir earthquake and its aftershocks from this network, as well as from the Hyderabad Geoscope station, enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and the one-dimensional regional shear-velocity structure of peninsular India. Firstly, we measure Rayleigh- and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the range of 8 to 35 sec and invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the western part of peninsular India. Our best model suggests a two-layered crust: The upper crust is 13.8-km thick with a shear velocity (Vs) of 3.2 km/s; the corresponding values for the lower crust are 24.9 km and 3.7 km/sec. The shear velocity for the upper mantle is found to be 4.65 km/sec. Based on this structure, we perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of the bandpass (0.05 0.02 Hz) filtered seismograms of the Kashmir earthquake. The best fit is obtained for a source located at a depth of 30 km, with a seismic moment, Mo, of 1.6 × 1027 dyne-cm, and a focal mechanism with strike 19.5°, dip 42°, and rake 167°. The long-period magnitude (MA ~ Mw) of this earthquake is estimated to be 7.31. An analysis of well-developed sPn and sSn regional crustal phases from the bandpassed (0.02 0.25 Hz) seismograms of this earthquake at four stations in Kachchh suggests a focal depth of 30.8 km.

  19. Landslides triggered by the October 8, 2005, Pakistan earthquake and associated landslide-dammed reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Crone, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The October 8, 2005, Kashmir earthquake (M 7.6) triggered several thousand landslides, mainly rock falls and rock slides, in the epicentral area near the cities of Muzafarrabad and Balakot, Pakistan. Most of these were shallow, coalescing rock slides emanating from highly sheared and deformed limestone and dolomite of the Precambrian Muzafarrabad Formation. The largest landslide triggered by the earthquake is located approximately 32 kilometers southeast of Muzafarrabad in a tributary valley of the Jhelum River. This landslide is a debris avalanche of approximately 80 million cubic meters volume within the Miocene Murree Formation consisting of mixed sandstone, mudstone, shale, and limestone. The avalanche buried the village of Dandbeh and resulted in approximately 1,000 fatalities, according to local residents. The avalanche deposit traveled approximately 1.5 kilometers downslope and 300 meters or more up the opposite slope in the adjacent Karli stream drainage and also extended into the Tang stream drainage where the Tang stream joins the Karli drainage. The landslide mass has impounded two lakes within the blocked drainages. The lake in the Karli drainage was approximately 800 meters long and 20 meters deep as of December 19, 2005. The lake in the Tang drainage was approximately 400 meters long and 10 meters deep as of this same date. Downstream populations are at risk from possible flash flooding when these debris dams are overtopped by the reservoir water. The closest village, Hattian, is 2.8 kilometers downstream at the junction of the Jhelum River and the landslide-dammed Karli tributary. Other populations along the Jhelum River may also be at risk. Pakistan military engineers are preparing to construct a spillway within the landslide deposits to lessen the severity of the flood if the lake in the Karli stream drainage breaches the landslide dam catastrophically.

  20. Population survey and conservation assessment of the globally threatened cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichi) in Jhelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naeem Awan, Muhammad; Ali, Hassan; Charles Lee, David

    2014-07-01

    The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi is a globally threatened species that inhabits the western Himalayas. Though it is well established that the species is threatened and its numbers declining, updated definitive estimates are lacking, so in 2011, we conducted a survey to assess the density, population size, and threats to the species in Jhelum valley, Azad Kashmir, which holds the largest known population of cheer pheasants in Pakistan. We conducted dawn call count surveys at 17 points clustered in three survey zones of the valley, 11 of which had earlier been used for a 2002-2003 survey of the birds. Over the course of our survey, 113 birds were recorded. Mean density of cheer pheasant in the valley was estimated at 11.8 ± 6.47 pairs per km², with significant differences in terms of both counts and estimated density of cheer were significantly different across the three survey zones, with the highest in the Chinari region and the lowest, that is the area with no recorded sightings of the pheasants, in Gari Doppata. The total breeding population of cheer pheasants is estimated to be some 2 490 pairs, though this does not consider the actual area of occupancy in the study area. On the whole, more cheer pheasants were recorded in this survey than from the same points in 2002-2003, indicating some success in population growth. Unfortunately, increasing human settlement, fires, livestock grazing, hunting, and the collection of non-timber forest products continue to threaten the population of cheer in the Jhelum valley. To mitigate these potential impacts, some degree of site protection should be required for the conservation of cheer pheasants in Pakistan, and more effective monitoring of the species is clearly needed. PMID:25017755

  1. Fission track estimation of uranium concentrations in drinking water from Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Khattak, N U; Qureshi, A A; Iqbal, A; Tufail, M; Qureshi, I E

    2004-03-01

    The analysis of uranium in water samples can be very helpful for providing guidelines to the general public regarding necessary remedial measures. A fission-track technique has been applied for the estimation of the uranium concentration in drinking water collected from natural springs of Muzaffarabad and hilly areas of Reshian, Azad Kashmir. The technique involved simultaneous irradiation with thermal neutrons of a sample and a standard in contact with a track detector, and the counting of the fission tracks in the detector from the (n, f) nuclear reaction. Uranium concentrations of the samples were determined by comparing fission-track density with that of a standard of known uranium concentration. Uranium concentration in water samples from the Muzaffarabad and Reshian area varied from 0.03 +/- 0.01 microgL(-1) to 6.67 +/- 0.14 microgL(-1) with an average of 1.36 +/- 0.05 microgL(-1). The observed concentrations of uranium in drinking water were found to be less than the Maximum Acceptable Concentration levels of 9-30 microgL(-1). Thus, the observed values are within safe limits as far as uranium related health hazards are concerned. PMID:14982230

  2. Changes in gravitational parameters inferred from time variable GRACE data-A case study for October 2005 Kashmir earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Matloob; Eshagh, Mehdi; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Sadiq, M.; Fatolazadeh, Farzam

    2016-09-01

    The earth's gravity changes are attributed to the redistribution of masses within and/or on the surface of the earth, which are due to the frictional sliding, tensile cracking and/or cataclastic flow of rocks along the faults and detectable by earthquake events. Inversely, the gravity changes are useful to describe the earthquake seismicity over the active orogenic belts. The time variable gravimetric data are hardly available to the public domain. However, Gravity Recovery and Climatic Experiment (GRACE) is the only satellite mission dedicated to model the variation of the gravity field and an available source to the science community. Here, we have tried to envisage gravity changes in terms of gravity anomaly (Δg), geoid (N) and the gravity gradients over the Indo-Pak plate with emphasis upon Kashmir earthquake of October 2005. For this purpose, we engaged the spherical harmonic coefficients of monthly gravity solutions from the GRACE satellite mission, which have good coverage over the entire globe with unprecedented accuracy. We have analysed numerically the solutions after removing the hydrological signals, during August to November 2005, in terms of corresponding monthly differentials of gravity anomaly, geoid and the gradients. The regional structures like Main Mantle Thrust (MMT), Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT), Herat and Chaman faults are in closed association with topography and with gravity parameters from the GRACE gravimetry and EGM2008 model. The monthly differentials of these quantities indicate the stress accumulation in the northeast direction in the study area. Our numerical results show that the horizontal gravity gradients seem to be in good agreement with tectonic boundaries and differentials of the gravitational elements are subtle to the redistribution of rock masses and topography caused by 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Moreover, the gradients are rather more helpful for extracting the coseismic gravity signatures caused by seismicity over the area

  3. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Kashmir Basin Fault is located in the Jammu and Kashmir region of Kashmir Basin in NW Himalaya, India. It is a classic example of an out-of-sequence thrust faulting and is tectonically active as observed from multiple geological evidences. Its geomorphology, structure and lateral extent indicate significant accommodation of stress since long, which is further supported by the absence of a large earthquake in this region. It seems this fault is actively accommodating some portion of the total India-Eurasia convergence, apart from two well-recognised active structures the Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and the Main Frontal Thrust, which are referred in Vassallo et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 411:241-252, 2015). This requires its quantification and inclusion into slip distribution scheme of NW Himalaya. Therefore, it should be explored extensively because this internal out-of-sequence thrust could serve major seismic hazard in KB, repeating a situation similar to Muzaffarabad earthquake of Northern Pakistan in 2005.

  4. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems

  5. Spatio-temporal variations of b-value in and around north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Asghar; Ahmed, Sajjad; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Aamir; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2015-10-01

    The seismotectonic structure of north Pakistan has been formed by ongoing collision between the Eurasian and Indian plates. North Pakistan and the adjoining areas experienced many large earthquakes in the past, which resulted in considerable damages and loss of life. A magnitude-homogenous earthquake catalogue for north Pakistan and its surrounding areas for the instrumental period from 1964 to 2007 is used for analysis. We presented seismicity picture of the Hindukush-Pamir-Karakoram (HPK), Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) and Hazara-Kashmir-Himalayas (HKH) using various histograms and time series plots of the dataset. The b-value for each accreted domain is derived separately and investigated through a process of mutual correlation. Our computed temporal variation of b-value in Hazara region shows a significant decrease prior to 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

  6. Aid and stability in Pakistan: lessons from the 2005 earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    United States foreign assistance to Pakistan has always been driven by security considerations. By 2010, US counter-terrorism and stabilisation objectives resulted in Pakistan becoming the second largest recipient of US foreign aid globally. Given the policy impact of the assumption that aid promotes US security objectives in Pakistan, there is surprisingly little analysis or evidence of its effectiveness in this regard. This paper helps to address this gap by first reviewing the history and assumptions underpinning current US aid and stabilisation policies. It then uses field research on the 2005 earthquake relief efforts in northern Pakistan to assess the impact of the 'War on Terror' on the humanitarian response. In particular, it examines the assumption of influential US policymakers that humanitarian aid following the earthquake was an effective way to promote US security objectives by 'winning hearts and minds'-an assumption that has been used to justify all subsequent major US foreign aid commitments to Pakistan. PMID:20846352

  7. Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

  8. L'aspidolite fluorée : rôle des évaporites dans la genèse du rubis des marbres de Nangimali (Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Virginie; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Giuliani, Gaston

    2004-11-01

    Ruby-bearing marbles from Nangimali, in the Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan, contain, besides phengite, different mica intergrowths: paragonite, phlogopite and aspidolite (sodium phlogopite). Both phlogopites, intimately linked and coexisting with paragonite, are fluorine rich, contrary to phengite and paragonite. F-enriched aspidolite is described for the first time. Phengite is either associated with phlogopite or could be isolated. The presence of aspidolite in the ruby-bearing marbles, together with other arguments such as salt solid inclusions and presence of anhydrite, suggest the implication of evaporites in the genesis of gem corundums. To cite this article: V. Garnier et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  9. Intercomparison of environmental gamma doses measured with A NaI (Tl) survey meter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in the Poonch division of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Muhammad; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Ahmad, Khalil; Akhter, Jabeen; Khan, Abdul Razzaq; Saeed, Raja Azhar; Rahman, Saeed Ur; Matiullah; Rajput, Muhammad Usman

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the intercomparison of the outdoor environmental gamma dose rates measured using a NaI (Tl) based survey meter along with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and estimation of excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), for the inhabitants of Poonch division of the Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. CaF2: Dy (TLD-200) card dosimeters were installed at height of 1 m from ground at fifteen different locations covering the entire Poonch division comprising of three districts. During three distinct two month time periods within the six month study period, all the installed dosimeters were exposed to outdoor environmental gamma radiations, retrieved and read out at Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Health Physics Division, PINSTECH laboratory, Islamabad. The ambient outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were also taken with NaI (Tl) based portable radiometric instrument at 1 m above the ground. To estimate the annual gamma doses, NaI (Tl) based survey data were used for one complete year following the deployment of the dosimeters. The mean annual gamma dose rates measured by TLDs and survey meter were found as 1.47±0.10 and 0.862±0.003 mGy/y respectively. Taking into account a 29% outdoor occupancy factor, the annual average effective dose rate for individuals was estimated as 0.298±0.04 and 0.175±0.03 mSv/y by TLDs and survey meter, respectively. For outdoor exposure, the ELCR was calculated from the TLD and survey meter measurements. The environmental outdoor average annual effective dose obtained in present study are less than the estimated world average terrestrial and cosmic gamma ray dose rate of 0.9 mSv/y reported in UNSCEAR 2000. The possible origins of gamma doses in the area and incompatibilities of results obtained from the two different measurement techniques are also discussed. PMID:25484014

  10. Prevalence of HCV and HIV infections in 2005-Earthquake-affected areas of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saeed; Rai, Mohammad A; Khan, Adnan; Farooqui, Amber; Kazmi, Shahana U; Ali, Syed H

    2008-01-01

    Background On October 8, 2005, an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 hit the Northern parts of Pakistan. In the post-earthquake scenario, overcrowding, improper sewage disposal, contamination of food and drinking water, hasty surgical procedures, and unscreened blood transfusions to earthquake victims most likely promotes the spread of infections already prevalent in the area. Objective The objective of the study reported here was to determine the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency and Hepatitis C viruses (respectively, HIV and HCV) in the earthquake-affected communities of Pakistan. The samples were analyzed 2 months and then again 11 months after the earthquake to estimate the burden of HIV and HCV in these areas, and to determine any rise in the prevalence of these viral infections as a result of the earthquake. Methods Blood samples were initially collected during December, 2005 to March 2006, from 245 inhabitants of the earthquake-affected areas. These samples were screened for HCV and HIV, using immunochromatography and Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results Out of 245 samples tested, 8 (3.26%) were found positive for HCV, and 0 (0.0%) for HIV, indicating the existence of HCV infection in the earthquake-stricken areas. The same methods were used to analyze the samples collected in the second round of screening in the same area, in September, 2006 – 11 months after the earthquake. This time 290 blood samples were collected, out of which 16 (5.51%) samples were positive for HCV, and 0 for HIV. Conclusion A slightly higher prevalence of HCV was recorded 11 months after the earthquake; this increase, however, was not statistically significant. None of the study participants was found HIV-infected. PMID:18954443

  11. Focal mechanisms and depths of earthquakes in central Pakistan: A tectonic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quittmeyer, Richard C.; Kafka, Alan L.; Armbruster, John G.

    1984-04-01

    Focal mechanisms and depths for seven earthquakes in central Pakistan were determined from an analysis of Rayleigh waves of 20-to 50-s periods. In east-central Pakistan, the nodal planes for some solutions strike obliquely to the grain of surface structures. This observation supports the contention of other workers that a thin surficial unit, decoupled from the basement along a surface of decollement, characterizes this region. In west-central Pakistan, relative movement between the Indian and Eurasian plates is at least partially accommodated by seismic slip along the Chaman fault. Other faults, which are situated to the east of and lie subparallel to the Chaman fault, may also take up some of the relative plate motion. Observed activity within the zone of convergent-type structure in central Pakistan may be a result of the greater component of convergence across the Indian-Eurasian plate boundary north of Quetta, Pakistan. Appendix is available with entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Document B83-010; $2.50. Payment must accompany order.

  12. Inherited structures impact on co-seismic surface deformation pattern during the 2013 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, Amaury; Klinger, Yann; Grandin, Raphael; Delorme, Arthur; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of earthquake processes and the interaction of earthquake rupture with Earth's free surface relies on the resolution of the observations. Recent and detailed post-earthquake measurements bring new insights on shallow mechanical behavior of rupture processes as it becomes possible to measure and locate surficial deformation distribution. The 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, offers a nice opportunity to comprehend where and why surficial deformation might differs from at-depth localized slip. This earthquake ruptured the Hoshab fault over 200 km; the motion was mainly left lateral with a small and discontinuous vertical component in the southern part of the rupture. Using images with the finest resolution currently available, we measured the surface displacement amplitude and its orientation at the ground surface (including the numerous tensile cracks). We combined these measurements with the 1:500 scale ground rupture map to focus on the behavior of the frontal rupture in the area where deformation distributes. Comparison with orientations of inherited tectonic structures, visible in older rocks formation surrounding the actual 2013 rupture, shows the control exercised by such structures on co-seismic rupture distribution. Such observation raises the question on how pre-existing tectonic structures in a medium, mapped in several seismically active places around the globe; can control the co-seismic distribution of the deformation during earthquakes.

  13. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and

  14. Coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2007 M5.5 Ghazaband fault earthquake, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.; Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.

    2015-05-01

    Time series analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data reveals coseismic and postseismic surface displacements associated with the 2007 M5.5 earthquake along the southern Ghazaband fault, a major but little studied fault in Pakistan. Modeling indicates that the coseismic surface deformation was caused by ~9 cm of strike-slip displacement along a shallow subvertical fault. The earthquake was followed by at least 1 year of afterslip, releasing ~70% of the moment of the main event, equivalent to a M5.4 earthquake. This high aseismic relative to the seismic moment release is consistent with previous observations for moderate earthquakes (M < 6) and suggests that smaller earthquakes are associated with a higher aseismic relative to seismic moment release than larger earthquakes.

  15. Spinal cord injury management and rehabilitation: highlights and shortcomings from the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Farooq, Fareeha; Muzammil, Sohail; New, Peter W; Ahmad, Nadeem; Haig, Andrew J

    2008-03-01

    Recent natural disasters have highlighted the lack of planning for rehabilitation and disability management in emergencies. A review of our experience with spinal cord injury (SCI) after the Pakistan earthquake of 2005, plus a review of other literature about SCI after natural disasters, shows that large numbers of people will incur SCIs in such disasters. The epidemiology of SCI after earthquakes has not been well studied and may vary with location, severity of the disaster, available resources, the expertise of the health care providers, and cultural issues. A lack of preparedness means that evacuation protocols, clinician training, dedicated acute management and rehabilitation facilities, specialist equipment, and supplies are not in place. The dearth of rehabilitation medicine specialists in developing regions further complicates the issue, as does the lack of national spinal cord registries. In our 3 makeshift SCI units, however, which are staffed by specialists and residents in rehabilitation medicine, there were no deaths, few complications, and a successful discharge for most patients. Technical concerns include air evacuation, early spinal fixation, aggressive management to optimize bowel and bladder care, and provision of appropriate skin care. Discharge planning requires substantial external support because SCI victims must often return to devastated communities and face changed vocational and social possibilities. Successful rehabilitation of victims of the Pakistan earthquake has important implications. The experience suggests that dedicated SCI centers are essential after a natural disaster. Furthermore, government and aid agency disaster planners are advised to consult with rehabilitation specialists experienced in SCI medicine in planning for the inevitable large number of people who will have disabilities after a natural disaster. PMID:18295642

  16. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern. PMID:12177945

  17. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  18. Disasters, women's health, and conservative society: working in Pakistan with the Turkish Red Crescent following the South Asian Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew C; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, numerous catastrophic disasters caused by natural hazards directed worldwide attention to medical relief efforts. These events included the: (1) 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran; (2) 2004 earthquake and tsunami in Southeast Asia; (3) Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the southern United States in 2005; (4) 2005 south Asian earthquake; and (5) 2006 Indonesian volcanic eruption and earthquakes. Health disparities experienced by women during relief operations were a component of each of these events. This article focuses on the response of the Turkish Red Crescent Society's field hospital in northern Pakistan following the South Asian Earthquake of October 2005, and discusses how the international community has struggled to address women's health issues during international relief efforts. Furthermore, since many recent disasters occurred in culturally conservative South Asia and the local geologic activity indicates similar disaster-producing events are likely to continue, special emphasis is placed on response efforts. Lessons learned in Pakistan demonstrate how simple adjustments in community outreach, camp geography, staff distribution, and supplies can enhance the quality, delivery, and effectiveness of the care provided to women during international relief efforts. PMID:18019091

  19. Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir basin using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir basin fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir basin, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the basin. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.

  20. Spatial-Temporal Analyses of Lightning Activities over Pakistan using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, Saddam; Imran Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Lightning is a naturally occurring spectacular and powerful phenomenon often accompanied by thunder. Regardless, it's hazardous and responsible for thousands of deaths and property loss all over the globe.In Pakistan, this hazardous phenomenon mostly occurs in monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. To prevent or at least minimize the unforeseen property damages and human casuality, we need to identify the vulnerable locations to lightning in Pakistan, but yet there have not been done any detailed study regarding the lightning hazards yet for Pakistan. In the present study for the years 2001 - 2014 lightning density mapping has been done by means of satellite Remote Sensing techniques. Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) datasets of locations and Time of Occurrence (TOA) are used to identify the lightning prone locations all over Pakistan. Efforts have been made to develop a technique that is helpful in generating the hazard maps of lighting in Pakistan on temporal basis by using spatio-temporal satellite images. These maps show frequency distribution trends of lightning in many regions of Pakistan that enable us to locate high, moderate and low lightning-susceptible areas. Results demonstrate that thunderstorm frequency is comparatively higher over the mountain and sub-mountain regions in the Punjab, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa (KPK) provinces. Interestingly lightning data showed a strong correlation between the FlashesYear and the El Niño and La Niña years. It is observed that about 40.1 % of lightning activities occurred during the monsoon followed by pre-monsoon with 39.7 %, which can possibly create synergistic and devastating effects in combination with heavy seasonal rainfall. A severe lightning event with 4559 flashes in just 3.08 seconds is also recorded on 8-Oct-2005 in Pakistan-India border near Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) and Jammu Kashmir. However, it is to be noted that on the same date Pakistan was hit by a major Earthquake

  1. Rupture Propagation of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, Earthquake Affected by Poroelastic Stress Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Wang, W.; Xiao, J.

    2015-12-01

    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake occurred on the curved Hoshab fault. This fault connects with the north-south trending Chaman strike-slip fault to northeast, and with the west-east trending Makran thrust fault system to southwest. Teleseismic waveform inversion, incorporated with coseismic ground surface deformation data, show that the rupture of this earthquake nucleated around northeast segment of the fault, and then propagated southwestward along the northwest dipping Hoshab fault about 200 km, with the maximum coseismic displacement, featured mainly by purely left-lateral strike-slip motion, about 10 meters. In context of the India-Asia collision frame, associating with the fault geometry around this region, the rupture propagation of this earthquake seems to not follow an optimal path along the fault segment, because after nucleation of this event the Hoshab fault on the southwest of hypocenter of this earthquake is clamped by elastic stress change. Here, we build a three-dimensional finite-element model to explore the evolution of both stress and pore-pressure during the rupturing process of this earthquake. In the model, the crustal deformation is treated as undrained poroelastic media as described by Biot's theory, and the instantaneous rupture process is specified with split-node technique. By testing a reasonable range of parameters, including the coefficient of friction, the undrained Poisson's ratio, the permeability of the fault zone and the bulk crust, numerical results have shown that after the nucleation of rupture of this earthquake around the northeast of the Hoshab fault, the positive change of normal stress (clamping the fault) on the fault plane is greatly reduced by the instantaneous increase of pore pressure (unclamping the fault). This process could result in the change of Coulomb failure stress resolved on the Hoshab fault to be hastened, explaining the possible mechanism for southwestward propagation of rupture of the Mw7

  2. A palaeomagnetic reconnaissance of Kashmir, northwestern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, Chris T.; Shah, S. K.; Gergan, Jozef; Sharma, Madan Lal; Tirkey, Biras; Gupta, B. K.

    1983-05-01

    Thermal demagnetization studies of 800 Palaeozoic and Lower Mesozoic samples, mainly carbonates, from 14 localities in Kashmir, showed four magnetic components: (A)A recent field component of normal polarity and large intensity. (B)A Middle to Late Tertiary secondary component of large intensity and of reversed and normal polarity, which indicates clockwise rotation of central and eastern Kashmir over approximately 45° with respect to peninsular Indo-Pakistan. (C)Primary magnetic components of Triassic, Late Permian, Early Carboniferous, Siluro-Ordovician and Middle to Early Ordovician age. The Triassic and Late Permian components show a 20-30° cumulative counterclockwise offset with respect to the Indo-Pakistan apparent polar wander path (APWP). This indicates a post-Middle to -Late Triassic counterclockwise rotational movement of Kashmir over 65-75° with respect to peninsular Indo-Pakistan. (D)A component of low inclination and predominantly east-west declination, which is observed only in rocks of pre-Panjal Traps age. A secondary origin associated with extrusion of the Panjal Traps flows is surmised, but could not be established beyond doubt. Alternatively, this component may be related to the regional foliation. The Triassic and Late Permian primary component directions are predominantly of normal polarity. This suggests a pre-Punjabian (Late Permian) upper age limit for the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) reversed polarity interval, which is earlier than the Early to Late Tatarian limit observed in the U.S.S.R.

  3. Multifaulting in a tectonic syntaxis revealed by InSAR: The case of the Ziarat earthquake sequence (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel-Puysségur, B.; Grandin, R.; Bollinger, L.; Baudry, C.

    2014-07-01

    On 28-29 October 2008, within 12 h, two similar Mw = 6.4 strike-slip earthquakes struck Baluchistan (Pakistan), as part of a complex seismic sequence. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data reveal that the peak of surface displacement is near the Ziarat anticline, a large active fold affected by Quaternary strike-slip faulting. All coseismic interferograms integrate the deformation due to both earthquakes. As their causative faults ruptured close to each other, the individual signals cannot be separated. According to their focal mechanisms, each earthquake may have activated a NE-SW sinistral or a NW-SE dextral fault segment, which leads to four possible scenarios of fault orientations. A nonlinear inversion of the InSAR data set allows rejecting two scenarios. The best slip distributions on the two fault segments for the two remaining scenarios are determined by linear inversion. Stress-change modeling favors a scenario involving two abutting conjugate strike-slip faults. Two other fault segments accommodated left-lateral strike slip during the seismic sequence. The activated fault system includes multiple fault segments with different orientations and little surface expression. This may highlight, at a smaller scale, the distributed, possibly transient character of deformation within a broader right-lateral shear zone. It suggests that the activated faults delineate a small tectonic block extruding and subtly rotating within the shear zone. It occurs in the vicinity of the local tectonic syntaxis where orogenic structures sharply turn around a vertical axis. These mechanisms could participate in the long-term migration of active tectonic structures within this kinematically unstable tectonic syntaxis.

  4. Evidence for the recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes along the Makran coast of Iran and Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.D.; Alt, J.N.; Cluff, L.S.; Plafker, G.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of raised beaches and marine terraces along the Makran coast indicates episodic uplift of the continental margin resulting from large-magnitude earthquakes. The uplift occurs as incremental steps similar in height to the 1-3 m of measured uplift resulting from the November 28, 1945 (M 8.3) earthquake at Pasni and Ormara, Pakistan. The data support an E-W-trending, active subduction zone off the Makran coast. The raised beaches and wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast are extensive with some terraces 1-2 km wide, 10-15 m long and up to 500 m in elevation. The terraces are generally capped with shelly sandstones 0.5-5 m thick. Wave-cut cliffs, notches, and associated boulder breccia and swash troughs are locally preserved. Raised Holocene accretion beaches, lagoonal deposits, and tombolos are found up to 10 m in elevation. The number and elevation of raised wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast increase eastward from one at Jask, the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at a few meters elevation, to nine at Konarak, 250 km to the east. Multiple terraces are found on the prominent headlands as far east as Karachi. The wave-cut terraces are locally tilted and cut by faults with a few meters of displacement. Long-term, average rates of uplift were calculated from present elevation, estimated elevation at time of deposition, and 14C and U-Th dates obtained on shells. Uplift rates in centimeters per year at various locations from west to east are as follows: Jask, 0 (post-Sangamon); Konarak, 0.031-0.2 (Holocene), 0.01 (post-Sangamon); Ormara 0.2 (Holocene). ?? 1979.

  5. Survivor needs or logistical convenience? Factors shaping decisions to deliver relief to earthquake-affected communities, Pakistan 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Benini, Aldo; Conley, Charles; Dittemore, Brody; Waksman, Zachary

    2009-03-01

    In Bureaucratizing the Good Samaritan, Waters (2001) argues that bureaucratic rationality distracts humanitarian agencies from the needs of the people they are supposed to assist, in favour of other values that their institutional frameworks dictate. We test his claim by investigating the response to the Pakistan 2005 earthquake. One of us (Dittemore) worked with the United Nations Joint Logistics Centre in the theatre, managing a relief cargo shipment database. The response, known as 'Operation Winter Race', was hampered by extreme logistical challenges, but ultimately succeeded in averting a second disaster resulting from cold and starvation. We use statistical models to probe whether survivor needs significantly guided decisions to deliver relief to affected communities. Needs assessments remained incomplete and incoherent. We measure needs through proxy indicators and integrate them, on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, with logistics and relief delivery data. We find that, despite strong logistics effects, needs orientations were significant. However, the strength of decision factors varies between commodity types (food versus clothing and shelter versus reconstruction materials) as well as over the different phases of the response. This study confirms Thomas's observation that logistics databases are rich 'repositories of data that can be analyzed to provide post-event learning' (Thomas, 2003, p. 4). This article is an invitation for others to engage in creative humanitarian data management. PMID:18513312

  6. Anomalous variations of ionosphere associated with the strong earthquake at Pakistan-Iran border at a low latitude station Agra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundhir, Devbrat; Singh, Birbal; Singh, O. P.; Gupta, Saral K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the TEC data for April 2013 observed at Agra station, India (geogr. lat. 27.2° N, long. 78° E) to examine the effect of earthquake of magnitude M = 7.8 which occurred on 16 April 2013 at Pakistan-Iran border region. We process the TEC data using the σ statistical criterion to find out anomalous variation in TEC data. We also study the VLF propagation signal from NPM, Hawaii (21.42° N, 158° W), which is monitored at the same station (Agra station) in the light of this earthquake as well as solar flares. The nighttime fluctuation method is used to analyze the VLF data for the period of ±5 days from the day of earthquake (11-21 April 2013). The anomalous enhancements and depletions are found in TEC data on 1-9 days before the occurrence of event.

  7. Postseismic deformation in Pakistan after the 8 October 2005 earthquake: Evidence of afterslip along a flat north of the Balakot-Bagh thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Madji, A.; Pêcher, A.; Latif, M.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    The 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake ruptured an out-of-sequence Himalayan thrust known as the Balakot-Bagh thrust. The earthquake's hypocenter was located at a depth of 15 km on the ramp close to a possible ramp/flat transition. In the weeks following the earthquake a GPS network was installed to measure postseismic displacement. The initial measurements in November 2005 were followed by other campaigns in January and August 2006, in March and December 2007, and in August 2008 and 2009. Two hypotheses were tested: post-seismic displacements controlled by viscous relaxation of the lower crust or by afterslip along a flat north of the ramp affected by the main shock. A single Newtonian viscosity for the different periods cannot be determined by numerical simulations of viscous relaxation, which may indicate that the viscosity of the lower crust is non-Newtonian or that viscous relaxation does not control postseismic displacements. Numerical simulations using dislocations in a uniform elastic half-space indicate afterslip north of the ramp of the earthquake along a flat connected to the ramp. Slip along the northwestern portion of the flat accrued to about 285 mm between November 2005 and August 2006, while slip along the southeastern portion accrued to 130 mm over the same time period. Residual misfit of the observed and predicted displacements clearly indicated that afterslip is a better explanation for the observations than the hypothesis of viscous relaxation. The time evolution of the afterslip was found to be consistent with that predicted from rate-strengthening frictional sliding.

  8. Major Earthquakes of the Past Decade (2000-2010): A Comparative Review of Various Aspects of Management

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Sagafinia, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Ali; Shams, Ehsan; Kalantar Motamedi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article sought to review and compare data of major earthquakes of the past decade and their aftermath in order to compare the magnitude, death toll, type of injuries, management procedures, extent of destruction and effectiveness of relief efforts. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of the various aspects of management and aftermath of 5 major earthquakes of the past decade (2000–2010) was undertaken. This included earthquakes occurring in Bam Iran, Sichuan China, Port-au-Prince Haiti, Kashmir Pakistan and Ica Peru. A literature search was done via computer of published articles (indexed in Pubmed). The issues assessed included: 1)Local magnitude,2)Type of building structure 3)Time of the earthquake (day/time/season), 4)Time to rescue, 5)Triage, Transfer, and Treatment 6) Distribution of casualties (dead/ injured), 7)Degree of city damage, 8)Degree of damage to health facilities, 9)Field hospital availability, 10)International aid, 11)Air transfer, 12) Telecommunication systems availability, 13) PTSD prevalence, 14) Most common injury and 15) Most common disease outbreak. Results: The Bam earthquake had the lowest (6.6 Richter’s) and the Sichuan earthquake had the greatest magnitude (8.0 Richter’s). Mortality in Haiti was 212,000 and it was the deadliest earthquake of the past decade. Collapse of heavy clay roofing structures was a major cause of death in Iran and Pakistan. Earthquakes occurring at night and nonworking days carried a high death toll. The time to rescue and treat was the lengthiest in Haiti (possibly contributing to the death to injured ratio). However, the worst dead to injured ratios were in Bam (51%) and in Pakistan (47%); the best ratio was in China (15%). Iran and Pakistan suffered the highest percentage of damage to the health facilities (90%). Field hospital availability, international aid and air transfer were important issues. Telecommunication systems were best in China and worst in Pakistan. PTSD

  9. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1987-01-01

    A learning unit about earthquakes includes activities for primary grade students, including making inferences and defining operationally. Task cards are included for independent study on earthquake maps and earthquake measuring. (CB)

  10. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a ...

  11. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  12. A study of the behavior of the terminator time shifts using multiple VLF propagation paths during the Pakistan earthquake (M = 7.2) of 18 January 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    On 18 January 2011, at 20:23 UTC, an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred in southwestern Pakistan (latitude 28°44' N, longitude 63°56' E) at a depth of 68 km. We present the results of the analysis of very low frequency (VLF) radio signals, received at three stations located in India. We analyze the VLF signals around this earthquake day and look for possible precursory effects of this earthquake. For our analysis, we use four different VLF propagation paths. These propagation paths are DHO-IERC (Sitapur), VTX-Pune, VTX-ICSP (Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata) and NWC-IERC. We observed significant shifts of the "sunrise terminator time" (SRT) for DHO-IERC and VTX-Pune paths. For DHO-IERC path, the SRT of the VLF signals shifted towards nighttime three days before the earthquake day, and in the case of VTX-Pune path it shifted towards nighttime just one day before the earthquake day. For VTX-Kolkata path, the shift of SRT is four days before the earthquake day, but here the shift is not so strong, somewhere between 2σ and 3σ lines. For the other two paths, namely, DHO-IERC and VTX-Pune, the terminator time shifts crossed the 3σ line. We found no significant shifts of SRT for NWC-IERC propagation path. Higher deviation in the VTX-Pune path as compared to VTX-ICSP path could be due to the proximity of the former to the epicenter. Similarly, DHO-IERC path is over the epicenter while NWC-IERC path is totally away from the epicenter. This could be the reason why the effect in DHO-IERC path is stronger than that in NWC-IERC path.

  13. A study of the behavior of the terminator time shifts using multiple VLF propagation paths during the Pakistan earthquake (M = 7.2) of 18 January 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    On 18 January 2011, at 20:23 UTC, an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred in south-western Pakistan (latitude 28.73(°) N, longitude 63.93(°) E) at a depth of 68 km. We present the results of the analysis of very low frequency (VLF) radio signals, received at three stations located in India. We analyze the VLF signals around this earthquake day and look for possible precursory effects of this earthquake. For our analysis, we use four different VLF propagation paths. These propagation paths are DHO-IERC (Sitapur), VTX-Pune, VTX-ICSP (Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata) and NWC-IERC. We observed significant shifts of the “sunrise terminator time” (SRT) for DHO-IERC and VTX-Pune paths. For DHO-IERC path, the SRT of the VLF signals shifted towards night time three days before the earthquake day, and in the case of VTX-Pune path it shifted towards night time just one day before the earthquake day. For VTX-Kolkata path, the shift of SRT is four days before the earthquake day, but here the shift is not so strong, somewhere between 2sigma and 3sigma lines. For the other two paths, namely, DHO-IERC and VTX-Pune, the terminator time shifts crossed the 3sigma line. We found no significant shifts of SRT for NWC-IERC propagation path. Higher deviation in the VTX-Pune path as compared to VTX-ICSP path could be due to the proximity of the former to the epicenter. Similarly, DHO-IERC path is over the epicenter while NWC-IERC path is totally away from the epicenter. This could be the reason why the effect in DHO-IERC path is stronger than that in NWC-IERC path.

  14. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  15. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  16. Different styles of postseismic deformation after the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan earthquake in Pakistan and the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Yague-Martinez, N.; Motagh, M.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.; Huang, M. H.; Burgmann, R.; Freed, A. M.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    We study postseismic deformation after the Mw 7.7 earthquake in the Balochistan region of western Pakistan on 24 September 2013 and the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California of northern Mexico on 4 April 2010. Pakistan InSAR measurements from the German TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Canadian RADARSAT-2 (RS2) satellites include TSX narrow stripmap beams on a descending track, RS2 wide strip modes, and TSX wide-swath ScanSAR images on an ascending track, specially acquired with interferometric alignment of ScanSAR bursts. For the EMC earthquake, InSAR includes Envisat, ALOS, and RS2 satellites and NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne InSAR, with piece-wise time coverage. Plate Boundary Observatory acquires continuous GPS data and others collect campaign GPS. Interferograms show significant afterslip on both main ruptures in the first weeks and months, not masked by the atmospheric effects. Balochistan shallow afterslip reaches at least 10 cm in 2-4 months in the same area as the largest coseismic slip, but less near the aftershock activity. Rapid afterslip was observed primarily at the ends of the EMC mainshock rupture where the strike changes, with magnitudes up to 30 cm. Large variations of tropospheric water vapor complicate measurement of small long-wavelength deformation so we do time series analysis. We expect viscoelastic relaxation after these two strike-slip earthquakes to differ due to completely opposite tectonic settings: EMC earthquake in the Salton Trough rift and fast-moving strike-slip system, where crust and lithosphere are thin and hot with very shallow asthenosphere, and Balochistan earthquake in the shortening Makran accretional prism with much slower strike-slip deformation rates and cold and thick lithosphere of the subducting Arabian plate directly beneath it, so asthenosphere is much deeper. Studies have found rapid and large viscoelastic relaxation for the EMC quake, but we don't expect measurable relaxation in the Balochistan area in the

  17. Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

    1974-01-01

    Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

  18. Safe water supply in emergencies and the need for an exit strategy to sustain health gains: lessons learned from the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Magan, M; Bile, K M; Kazi, B M; Gardezi, Z

    2010-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of five major urban centres affected by the October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan were assessed in three phases: onset of emergency, during emergency response and post-emergency. A total of 1850 samples were randomly collected from the study area during each phase, and faecal coliforms were detected in 100%, 28% and 91% in Battagram, 81%, 22% and 77% in Mansehra, 100%, 27% and 92% in Rawalakot, 100%, 23% and 65% in Bagh and in 30%, 14% and 5% in Muzaffarabad respectively. Faecal contamination was high during the onset ofemergency and post-emergency phases in four out ofthe five surveyed towns. The organization of a timely emergency response intervention depends on the level of preparedness of local water-supply service providers as well as on their institutional capacities. Bacteriological water-quality improvements in emergencies may not be sustained unless complemented by a proper exit strategy. PMID:21495594

  19. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ford, Nathan; Kam, Saskia van de; Lokuge, Kamalini; Fromm, Silke; van Galen, Renate; Reilley, Brigg; Kleber, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages) of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months) and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. Results 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%), round up raids (82.7%), the witnessing of torture (66.9%), rape (13.3%), and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%), arrests/kidnapping (16.9%), torture (12.9%), and sexual violence (11.6%). Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7–5.7), violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9–6.8) and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4–8.7). Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1–15.5). Conclusion The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities. PMID:18854026

  20. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  1. Earthquakes and trauma: review of triage and injury-specific, immediate care.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Cadosch, Dieter; Rajan, Gunesh; Zellweger, René

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes present a major threat to mankind. Increasing knowledge about geophysical interactions, progressing architectural technology, and improved disaster management algorithms have rendered modern populations less susceptible to earthquakes. Nevertheless, the mass casualties resulting from earthquakes in Great Kanto (Japan), Ancash (Peru), Tangshan (China), Guatemala, Armenia, and Izmit (Turkey) or the recent earthquakes in Bhuj (India), Bam (Iran), Sumatra (Indonesia) and Kashmir (Pakistan) indicate the devastating effect earthquakes can have on both individual and population health. Appropriate preparation and implementation of crisis management algorithms are of utmost importance to ensure a large-scale medical-aid response is readily available following a devastating event. In particular, efficient triage is vital to optimize the use of limited medical resources and to effectively mobilize these resources so as to maximize patient salvage. However, the main priorities of disaster rescue teams are the rescue and provision of emergency care for physical trauma. Furthermore, the establishment of transport evacuation corridors, a feature often neglected, is essential in order to provide the casualties with a chance for survival. The optimal management of victims under such settings is discussed, addressing injuries of the body and psyche by means of simple diagnostic and therapeutic procedures globally applicable and available. PMID:18557301

  2. Mapping 3D fault geometry in earthquakes using high-resolution topography: Examples from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) and 2013 Balochistan (Pakistan) earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Walker, Richard T.; Elliott, John R.; Parsons, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Fault dips are usually measured from outcrops in the field or inferred through geodetic or seismological modeling. Here we apply the classic structural geology approach of calculating dip from a fault's 3-D surface trace using recent, high-resolution topography. A test study applied to the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows very good agreement between our results and those previously determined from field measurements. To obtain a reliable estimate, a fault segment ≥120 m long with a topographic variation ≥15 m is suggested. We then applied this method to the 2013 Balochistan earthquake, getting dips similar to previous estimates. Our dip estimates show a switch from north to south dipping at the southern end of the main trace, which appears to be a response to local extension within a stepover. We suggest that this previously unidentified geometrical complexity may act as the endpoint of earthquake ruptures for the southern end of the Hoshab fault.

  3. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  4. Complex faulting in the Quetta Syntaxis: fault source modeling of the October 28, 2008 earthquake sequence in Baluchistan, Pakistan, based on ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Furuya, Masato

    2015-09-01

    The Quetta Syntaxis in western Baluchistan, Pakistan, is the result of an oroclinal bend of the western mountain belt and serves as a junction for different faults. As this area also lies close to the left-lateral strike-slip Chaman fault, which marks the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, the resulting seismological behavior of this regime is very complex. In the region of the Quetta Syntaxis, close to the fold and thrust belt of the Sulaiman and Kirthar Ranges, an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 (Mw) occurred on October 28, 2008, which was followed by a doublet on the very next day. Six more shocks associated with these major events then occurred (one foreshock and five aftershocks), with moment magnitudes greater than 4. Numerous researchers have tried to explain the source of this sequence based on seismological, GPS, and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT)/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. Here, we used Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) InSAR data sets from both ascending and descending orbits that allow us to more completely detect the deformation signals around the epicentral region. The results indicated that the shock sequence can be explained by two right-lateral and two left-lateral strike-slip faults that also included reverse slip. The right-lateral faults have a curved geometry. Moreover, whereas previous studies have explained the aftershock crustal deformation with a different fault source, we found that the same left-lateral segment of the conjugate fault was responsible for the aftershocks. We thus confirmed the complex surface deformation signals from the moderate-sized earthquake. Intra-plate crustal bending and shortening often seem to be accommodated as conjugate faulting, without any single preferred fault orientation. We also detected two possible landslide areas along with the crustal deformation pattern.

  5. Backprojection analyses from four regional arrays for rupture over a curved dipping fault: The Mw 7.7 24 September 2013 Pakistan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dun; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Mori, Jim; Ali, Babar; Ren, Zhikun; Shen, Xuelin

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed the 24 September 2013 Pakistan earthquake (Mw 7.7) with backprojection analyses using data recorded on four different regional arrays in Europe, China, and Japan (Hi-net and F-net). The results from all the arrays show propagation of the rupture toward the southwest for duration of about 40-50 s. Among them, results for Hi-net and a subset of China array show a clear segment of fast rupture propagation, with a rupture speed probably faster than the local shear wave velocity. Resolutions of the results from the various arrays are investigated using bootstrap tests, backprojection of aftershocks, and numerical tests with synthetic source models. The results of those tests show differences in the quality of the results from the four arrays. The China array and the Hi-net in Japan show the best results for this case. F-net in Japan shows the poorest results because of the few number of stations. The locations of large amplitudes (equivalent to a M 6.8 event) have absolute uncertainties of about 20 to 30 km (ignoring the source dimension).

  6. Libraries' Services at Distance: A Survey of Allama Iqbal Open University Tutors in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…

  7. Pakistani options for resolution of the Kashmir dispute. Master's thesis, 7 Aug 1998--4 Jun 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hayat, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    The Kashmir problem is the oldest unresolved issue on the UN agenda. The present popular uprising in the Indian-held Kashmir has redeemed a forgotten cause; and the nuclear testing by both India and Pakistan sprung the issue back on the international scene, and without resolving this focal issue, a lasting peace in South Asia will remain elusive. This study deals with the issue from its origin to the present with an effort to analyze the problem impartially and dispassionately to provide an objective understanding of the dispute. However, the conclusions drawn and the options recommended are solely from a Pakistani perspective. The study explains the intricacies of this complex border dispute, which over the years has been elevated to an ideological tug of war between India and Pakistan. All of this in the melee of passion for the disputed land, legal claims, moral ascendancy, and a growing Kashmiri nationalism, not to mention the fast changing international backdrop. The paper promotes a fresh approach for Pakistan in order to engage India in a meaningful dialogue on the issue and to involve the international community to fulfill its obligation. The Kashmiri nationalism has emerged as a potent third party to the dispute and thus is addressed. A multipronged approach for Pakistan has been proposed on the covert unilateral and overt bilateral and multilateral planes in order to work on all possible facets of the problem.

  8. Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Denney, J P

    1994-04-01

    On January 25, 1 week after the most devastating earthquake in Los Angeles history, the Southern California Hospital Council released the following status report: 928 patients evacuated from damaged hospitals. 805 beds available (136 critical, 669 noncritical). 7,757 patients treated/released from EDs. 1,496 patients treated/admitted to hospitals. 61 dead. 9,309 casualties. Where do we go from here? We are still waiting for the "big one." We'll do our best to be ready when Mother Nature shakes, rattles and rolls. The efforts of Los Angeles City Fire Chief Donald O. Manning cannot be overstated. He maintained department command of this major disaster and is directly responsible for implementing the fire department's Disaster Preparedness Division in 1987. Through the chief's leadership and ability to forecast consequences, the city of Los Angeles was better prepared than ever to cope with this horrendous earthquake. We also pay tribute to the men and women who are out there each day, where "the rubber meets the road." PMID:10133439

  9. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Hamayun; Nazir, Jaweria; Firdous, Syeda Sadiqa; Khalid, Abd-Ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%), hair growth (11%), bad breath (12%), facial spots (9%), allergy, (9%), fairness (8%), wrinkles (8%), eye and lip care (9%). Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%), Leaves (25.2%), seeds (13.4%) and roots (8.9%). Women of older (>30 years) age group showed greater (67%) response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area. PMID:25068138

  10. Impact of Insurgency on Education in Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganie, Rayees Ahmad; Din, Towseef Mohi Ud

    2015-01-01

    Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India that has made education free to all its citizens at all levels. Nonetheless, literacy at 54% lags behind the all-India level of 65%. The discrepancy is slightly larger from women (42% compared to the national figure of 54%) and for men (66% compared with a national level of 76%). The census figures on…

  11. Seismology: Remote-controlled earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin

    2016-04-01

    Large earthquakes cause other quakes near and far. Analyses of quakes in Pakistan and Chile suggest that such triggering can occur almost instantaneously, making triggered events hard to detect, and potentially enhancing the associated hazards.

  12. Pakistan Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Flooding in Pakistan     View Larger Image In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, ... river is 23 kilometers (14 miles) wide or more in spots, and flooding in much of the surrounding region, particularly in the Larkana ...

  13. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  14. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Bhat, M. Sultan; Ahmad, Bashir

    2015-06-01

    Geomorphology has long been recognised as a key to evaluate the interplay between tectonics and landscape geometry in the regions of active deformation. We use geomorphic signatures at varied spatial scales interpreted from SRTM-DEM/Landsat-ETM data, supplemented with field observations to review the tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphic evidence is persuasive of a credible NNW-SSE trending dextral strike-slip structure (central Kashmir Fault - CKF), with the strike length of ~ 165 km, stretched centrally over the NNW-SSE length of the Kashmir basin. As a result of the strike-slip motion and subsequent erosion, significant deformation has taken place along the CKF. In addition, broad geomorphic architecture of the basin reveals typical pull-apart characteristics. Hence, we deduce that the Kashmir basin has evolved as a pull-apart Quaternary sediment depression owing to the deformation along the central Kashmir Fault. The spatial distribution pattern of seismic events (NEIC-catalogue, 1973-2013) and GPS measurements (published), collectively substantiate our geomorphic interpretations.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K

    2011-07-01

    Our objective was to carry out environmental impact assessment of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to assess the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an impact on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the impact on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied. PMID:23029939

  16. Delusions of Singularity: Aesthetics, Discomfort and Bewilderment in Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    In Kashmir, where the act of performing a script-based play on a proscenium stage is still seen by many as a controversial gesture, "Cages" involved the devised creation of a site responsive and immersive performance that placed two spectators, literally, in the shoes of an(Other). The potential of these forms of spectatorship, as…

  17. Women and Violence: A Study of Women's Empowerment and Its Challenges in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to highlight the violence against women's in Jammu and Kashmir. In Jammu and Kashmir Woman are the most vulnerable and worst hit section of the society especially under situations of violence caused by militancy and armed conflict. They don't only suffer from intense humiliation and harassment but also undergo traumatic…

  18. Modeling of Kashmir Aftershock Decay Based on Static Coulomb Stress Changes and Laboratory-Derived Rate-and-State Dependent Friction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, F.; Hainzl, S.; Aoudia, A.; Qaisar, M.

    2016-05-01

    We model the spatial and temporal evolution of October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake's aftershock activity using the rate-and-state dependent friction model incorporating uncertainties in computed coseismic stress perturbations. We estimated the best possible value for frictional resistance " Aσ n", background seismicity rate " r" and coefficient of stress variation "CV" using maximum log-likelihood method. For the whole Kashmir earthquake sequence, we measure a frictional resistance Aσ n ~ 0.0185 MPa, r ~ 20 M3.7+ events/year and CV = 0.94 ± 0.01. The spatial and temporal forecasted seismicity rate of modeled aftershocks fits well with the spatial and temporal distribution of observed aftershocks that occurred in the regions with positive static stress changes as well as in the apparent stress shadow region. To quantify the effect of secondary aftershock triggering, we have re-run the estimations for 100 stochastically declustered catalogs showing that the effect of aftershock-induced secondary stress changes is obviously minor compared to the overall uncertainties, and that the stress variability related to uncertain slip model inversions and receiver mechanisms remains the major factor to provide a reasonable data fit.

  19. Beyond Kargil: The technology of peace in India-Pakistan border relations

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir-Kheli, S.; Biringer, K.L.

    2000-01-12

    The potential for cooperation between India and Pakistan is substantial. Topics as widely varying as national security, the environment and trade hold the potential for improved bilateral relations. This paper looks at a few areas in which monitoring technology could contribute to enhancing cooperative border agreements between the two nations. The goal of the paper is not to provide prescriptive solutions to regional problems, but to expand the number of options being considered for improving Indian-Pakistan relations. Many of the impediments to bilateral progress are a result of a history of conflict and mistrust. By utilizing technical monitoring and inspections, each side can begin to replace suspicion and doubt with knowledge and information useful in making informed political, economic and military decisions. At the same time, technical monitoring and inspections can build confidence through common interactions. India and Pakistan have pledged to resolve their disputes, including Kashmir, through dialogue. Implementation of that pledge is influenced by a number of factors, including changes in the political systems and the fortunes of the leadership. Events of the past year and a half have severely tested these two governments' ability to move forward along a constructive and positive path. Testing of new missile systems both preceded and followed testing of nuclear weapons in May 1998. Both countries disregarded subsequent international displeasure as they proceeded to openly declare their respective nuclear capability. Their brief engagement with each other in February 1999 and movement toward a rapprochement diluted international condemnation of their nuclear activity. Within a recent period of nine months however, progress in the dialogue has been stalled first by the Pakistani move in Kashmir in May 1999, then by the Indian election in the summer of 1999 and most recently by the military coup in Pakistan.

  20. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  1. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  2. Archives in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the origins and development of archives in Pakistan. The focus is on the National Archives of Pakistan, but also includes a discussion of the archival collections at the provincial and district levels. This study further examines the state of training facilities available to Pakistani archivists. Archival development has been…

  3. Islamic Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, C. Christine

    2006-01-01

    On March 21, 2006 Christine Fair spoke about her recent trip to Pakistan. Fair's fieldwork was conducted with her Pakistan-based colleague Syed Rashad Bukhari and in collaboration with the National Bureau of Asian Research. Fair and Bukhari spent nearly three weeks visiting administrators at ten of the most prominent post-secondary madaris…

  4. Epidemiology of the neural tube defects in Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Laharwal, Masood Ahmed; Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Ramzan, Altaf Umer; Wani, Abrar Ahad; Malik, Nayil Khursheed; Arif, Sajad Hussain; Rizvi, Masooma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common congenital malformations affecting the brain and spinal cord and have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic and environmental factors have been found to cause these defects, both individually and in combination. Methods: A 2-year hospital-based prospective study was carried out from November 2013 to October 2015 to determine the incidence, types, demographics, risk factors, and other associated anamolies relevant to NTDs in Kashmir Valley. A detailed history of the mother was taken along with detailed clinical examination of neonate including measurement of head circumference and checking the status of fontanella, whether lax/full/bulging/or tense, type of NTD. Investigations that were done included were X-ray skull: Anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral, X-ray spine: AP and lateral, ultrasonography abdomen, magnetic resonance imaging: Spine and brain. Results: The total number of babies with NTD's was 125 with an overall incidence of 0.503. Kupwara district was having the highest incidence (1.047) and Srinagar district the lowest incidence of NTD's (0.197). Majority of NTD's (116 cases, 92.8%) were found in the rural areas. Among the different types of NTD's, spina bifida had an incidence of 0.342 (85 cases, 68%) and anencephaly had an incidence of 0.113 (28 cases, 22.4%). There was a slight preponderance of females over males with NTD's. There were 70 females (56%) and 55 males (44%), respectively, with a male: female ratio of 0.8:1 Conclusions: The incidence rates of NTDs is very high for Kashmir Valley. Geographical distribution of NTDs at this place confirms a relationship between the socioeconomic status, educational status, maternal too young or advanced age, and environmental factors for the development of a NTD. The results of this study point to the importance establishing a health policy to prevent NTD in Kashmir Valley. PMID:27127700

  5. Clinical study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Gh Mohiuddin; Ahmad, Sheikh Manzoor; Khursheed, Bilques

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious disease of tropical and semitropical areas of the world. The cold and harsh winter conditions of the Kashmir Valley do not favor the survival and growth of the Leishmania parasite or its vector, the sand fly, and the disease was until now practically unheard of in the Kashmir Valley. Aims: There has been a recent rise in the number of cases of CL in the Kashmir Valley. Against this background, the present study was taken up to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and management outcomes of CL in the Kashmir Valley, where it represents a new phenomenon. Materials and Methods: Patients with direct smear-confirmed CL were evaluated. For each patient, we noted age, gender, geographical origin, stays in endemic areas, clinical aspects, number, site and size of lesions, treatment, and outcome. All the infected patients were treated with sodium stibogluconate. The dose, route of administration, adverse effects, and the clinical response in each patient was noted down. Results: Eighteen patients, 11 males (61.12%) and 7 females (38.88%) were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 60 years (mean age 29.8). The majority of our patients (16, 88.9%) belonged to two hilly areas, Uri and Karnah. Duration of the disease ranged from a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 18 months (mean duration 4.6 months). Lesions in most of our patients (16, 88.9%) were located on the face including the lip and nose. The size of lesions varied from 4 to about 50 mm (average 2-3 cm). Most of our patients (13, 73.3%) had only a single lesion and a few (5, 26.7%) had two or three lesions. The clinical type of lesion in most of our patients (16, 88.9%) was noduloulcerative, only two (11.1%) had nodular (nonulcerative) lesions. Sixteen patients; all with facial lesions were treated with intravenous sodium stibogluconate. A complete response was seen in 14 (87%), without any major adverse effect. Two adult patients with

  6. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  7. Esophageal Cancer in Kashmir (India): An Enigma for Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Mir, M. Muzaffar; Dar, Nazir Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    About 90% of esophageal cancers worldwide are Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC), mostly occurring in defined high-incidence areas of low and middle-resource countries. Historically, the highest incidences are reported in regions of Central Asia. One such region is Kashmir Valley in Northern India. In this review, we summarize a large body of epidemiological, toxicological and observational information on occurrence, dietary patterns and lifestyles to discuss factors that may be involved in the etiology of SCC in Kashmir Valley. To date, no single factor can be identified as the main cause of the excess incidence of SCC as compared to other regions of India. Three main components emerge as important factors: a societal component with poor, rural lifestyle and general deprivation, status in particular in vitamins and oligoelements; a lifestyle component with the use of copper utensil in cooking, the consumption of spicy, deep fried foodstuffs, and the drinking of hot salty tea; and an environmental component with exposure to high levels of dietary nitrosamines from diverse sources. Overall, these three components are similar to the general pattern of factors that have been involved in causing SCC in other high-incidence area in the so-called “esophageal cancer belt”, namely in central China (Cixian, Lixian) and in Northern Iran (Golestan). Further comparative studies between these regions are needed to identify the contributions of these various components. PMID:21475514

  8. Pakistan's community health workers.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, B; Amarsi, Y; Carpio, B

    1997-05-01

    Pakistan's health characteristics are worse than those of other Asian countries at similar stages of development. Its mortality rate for children under five is 139 per 1,000, and its maternal mortality is 60 per 10,000. Malnutrition in women and children is widespread; 50 per cent of children under five are stunted. Pakistan's population growth rate of 3.1 per cent per year is among the highest in Asia. The high population growth rate and poor health status of many people call for extensive health care services, but, unfortunately, health services do not reach most of the people of Pakistan. Partly because the training of doctors and nurses is lengthy and expensive, there is an acute shortage of health care providers, especially women. Although female health professionals are preferred for caring for women, cultural constraints inhibit women from seeking education. Such is the multifaceted dilemma in the provision of primary health care in Pakistan. PMID:9223980

  9. Pediatric oncology in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Shamvil

    2012-03-01

    Pediatric oncology in Pakistan has developed over last decade with substantial increase in the facility for treatment and number of expertise. Though large numbers of children still do not reach treatment center more children have now access to quality cancer treatment. There has been gradual improvement in Pediatric oncology nursing and allied services. Pediatric Palliative care in Pakistan is in initial phase of development. Pediatric Oncology services are largely supported by philanthropists. Children Cancer Hospital a project of Children Cancer Foundation Pakistan Trust is not only providing quality treatment to every child regardless of paying ability but also playing a pivotal role in capacity building and creating awareness about childhood cancer in Pakistan. PMID:22357147

  10. Everyday Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Describes methods to access current earthquake information from the National Earthquake Information Center. Enables students to build genuine learning experiences using real data from earthquakes that have recently occurred. (JRH)

  11. Cooperative Development of the Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W.; McDonald, S.

    2005-12-01

    We propose to cooperate with the Pakistan Meteorological Department for the design and construction of the new Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) that has been funded by the government of Pakistan. The PSNS will consist of 12-15 broadband stations, 50 short-period stations, and 50 accelerometers. Our role will be to provide technical assistance in site selection, to prepare the Request for Proposals (RFP) from industry, and to evaluate performance. The relative importance of tsunami warnings, national earthquake and landslide hazards, and whether a largely urban or truly national network is envisioned will be determined early in the program. Final placement of stations will take many factors into consideration including proximity to faults and seismic activity, geographic accessibility, the consistency of bedrock, and various cultural or social effects. This cooperation has the potential to lead to the development of a desperately needed tsunami early warning network that could protect the Pakistani coastal population in the event of a natural disaster such as the Dec. 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. The seismic hazard off the coast of Pakistan is high due to the proximity of the Makran and Sumatra subduction zones, the former of which could trigger tsunamis in Pakistan with heights of 12m within minutes. In addition to monitoring earthquake activity, the PSNS will provide seismic data of interest to the world-wide scientific community for a region in which there is little understanding of the upper crust and mantle. It will furthermore address educational outreach and diplomacy issues by providing training to Pakistani scientists in routine network operation and data processing.

  12. Documenting historic and recent extreme floods in Kashmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Koul Tasaduq, Hussain; Alamgir Shabir, Hussain; Shah Mutayib, Bashir; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Kashmir has been frequently subjected to massive floods along its history. The recent extreme flood events which occurred during September 2014, March 2015 and September 2015 have revealed the high vulnerability of its population. Causes of recent extreme flood events have been attributed to the bowl shaped topography, intense land-use changes and unfavorable climatic change conditions at the onset of the monsoon as well as due to the occurrence of westerly disturbances. This reality implies new challenges to authorities and calls for the development of suitable adaptation strategies focusing on a minimization of the expected negative impacts on inhabitants during future extreme floods. In this context, long-term records can improve our understanding about the flood frequency as well as changes in climate - and land-use - linkages. In this communication, we present an extensive flood records from Kashmir by combining historical descriptions with tree-ring records from headwater catchments as well as with the existing flow gauge records. Historical sources include old records from archives of the Irrigation and Flood Control Department of flood events which have taken place at Jhelum River, but also old pictures and other documents about the river system, going back in time to the British period. At the headwater catchment, we additionally perform tree-ring analyses coupled with classical palaeohydraulic techniques to reconstruct the magnitude and occurrence of recent, yet ungauged extreme events. Both sources of data have been compared and merged with the existing flow records in order to provide a clearer picture about flood phenomena in this region. Historical archives corroborate the assumption that that Srinagar (the main city of Kashmir), as well as the surroundings crops land, have been frequently affected by floods. Although the oldest records are from the 19th century, dense annals including information about water levels are available after the 18th

  13. Barite in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, F.L.; Richards, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Before 1953 almost no barite deposits were known in Pakistan. Discovery of such deposits relatively close to oil fields in northern Pakistan in 1953 led to increased barite production from 1957 to 1961 and to doubling of production in 1962, firmly establishing new industry for the country. During 1962 and 1963, most of the known barite deposits in Pakistan were geologically mapped, and minimum reserves were estimated to be 1,423,000 short tons. The largest single deposit, Ehuzdar, is estimated to contain more than 1,100,000 short tons of barite. Barite has been found in Pakistan principally in the Hazara, Khuzdar, and Las Bela districts. Although several vein deposits contain good quality barite, 90 percent of estimated reserves are in replacement deposits concordant to bedding in sedimentary rocks. Host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Pleistocene, but the periods of barite deposition are probably Jurassic or younger. Some barite concentrated in sandstone may be of detrital origin. In late 1962, demand for barite in Pakistan was estimated at about 8,000 tons annually. Although domestic barite resources exceed this figure, less than 40 percent of demand was being supplied by domestic nines in 1963. Transportation costs and limited production facilities are partly responsible for output, but the lack of quality control is a major obstacle. Producers are not generally familiar with commercial specifications for barite and have net recognized that their products are too impure to be successfully marketed without installing the necessarycontrol procedures of sampling and beneficiation.

  14. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  15. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  16. Earthquake prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Z.; Fu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, D.

    1989-01-01

    Mainland China is situated at the eastern edge of the Eurasian seismic system and is the largest intra-continental region of shallow strong earthquakes in the world. Based on nine earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 7.0 and 7.9, the book provides observational data and discusses successes and failures of earthquake prediction. Derived from individual earthquakes, observations of various phenomena and seismic activities occurring before and after earthquakes, led to the establishment of some general characteristics valid for earthquake prediction.

  17. Life in conflict: Characteristics of Depression in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Syed; Khan, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mental, physical and social health, are vital strands of life that are closely interwoven and deeply interdependent. Mental disorders affect people of all countries and societies, individuals at all ages, women and men, the rich and the poor, from urban and rural environments. Depression is more likely following particular classes of experience – those involving conflict, disruption, losses and experiences of humiliation or entrapment. Many people living amidst the rages of conflict suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. Objective: To determine the characteristics of depression in the population in Kashmir where a low-intensity-conflict has been going on for the last seventeen years. Methods: The non-combatant civilian population was surveyed. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression in community populations. Results: Due to continuing conflict in Kashmir during the last 18 years there has been a phenomenal increase in psychiatric morbidity. The results reveal that the prevalence of depression is 55.72%. The prevalence is highest (66.67%) in the 15 to 25 years age group, followed by 65.33% in the 26 to 35 years age group. The difference in the prevalence of depression among males and females is significant. Depression is much higher in rural areas (84.73%) as compared to urban areas (15.26%). In rural areas the prevalence of depression among females is higher (93.10 %) as compared to males (6.8%). Conclusion: Mental health is an integral part of overall health and quality of life. Effective evidence-based programs and policies are available to promote mental health, enhance resilience, reduce risk factors, increase protective factors, and prevent mental and behavioural disorders. Innovative community-based health programmes which are culturally and gender appropriate and reaches out to all segments of the population need to be developed. Substantial and sustainable improvements can

  18. Special Education in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper briefly describes the current status of special education in Pakistan, noting its relatively brief history, the lack of incidence figures, the administrative organization and structure, personnel preparation, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the recognition of four categories of disability: mental retardation, physical…

  19. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  20. Pakistan boosts science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  1. Loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding in Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) of Dachigam National Park, Jammu & Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu), the eastern most subspecies of red deer, is now confined only to the mountains in the Kashmir region of Jammu & Kashmir State of India. It is of great conservation significance as this is the last and only hope for Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in India. Wild population of free ranging hangul deer inhabiting in and around Dachigam National Park was genetically assessed in order to account for constitutive genetic attributes of hangul population using microsatellite markers. Results In a pool of 36 multi-locus genotypes, 30 unique individuals were identified based on six microsatellite loci. The estimated cumulative probability of identity assuming all individuals were siblings (PID sibs) was 0.009 (9 in 1000). Altogether, 49 different alleles were observed with mean (± s.e.) allelic number of 8.17 ± 1.05, ranging from 5 to 11 per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.08 and 0.83, with mean 0.40 ± 0.11 and the inbreeding coefficient ranged between −0.04 and 0.87 with mean 0.38 ± 0.15. Majority of loci (5/6) were found to be informative (PIC value > 0.5). All loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except Ca-38 (P > 0.05) and none of the pairs of loci showed significant linkage disequilibrium except the single pair of Ca-30 and Ca-43 (P < 0.05). Conclusions The preliminary findings revealed that hangul population is significantly inbred and exhibited a low genetic diversity in comparison to other deer populations of the world. We suggest prioritizing the potential individuals retaining high heterozygosity for ex situ conservation and genetic monitoring of the hangul population should be initiated covering the entire distribution range to ensure the long term survival of hangul. We speculate further ignoring genetics attributes may lead to a detrimental effect which can negatively influence the reproductive fitness and survivorship of the hangul population in the

  2. Bacterial biota of Nigeen Lake waters (Kashmir Valley).

    PubMed

    Zaffar, Riasa M; Ganai, Bashir A

    2016-08-01

    One of the greatest apprehensions of water consumers all over the world with respect to the quality of drinking water is its contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This research work determined the potential bacterial contaminants of the waters of Nigeen Lake, a subsidiary of Dal Lake and is regarded as a separate lake in Kashmir. The study was carried out from May 2014 to November 2014 excluding August and September at four different sites. During the study the bacterial flora showed variation in relation to the conditions prevailing at different sites. The highest viable count of bacteria was observed at Site:2 (surrounded by residential hamlets) followed by Site:1 (inlet) and Site:4 (centre) followed by Site:3 (outlet). Based on the examination of morphological features of bacterial colonies on nutrient agar plates after 48 h of incubation period, 40 different strains were isolated. The isolates were identified with the help of Gram's staining and DNA sequencing, 55% of the strains were Gram negative and 45% of the strains were Gram positive. With the help of 16S rRNA sequencing, out of the 40 isolates of bacteria, 7 strains were different at the genetic level. The bacteria which were identified with the help of DNA sequencing are Pseudomonas synxantha, Delftia acidovorans, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophiria. PMID:27165539

  3. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant. PMID:26558164

  4. Profile of missile-induced cardiovascular injuries in Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Abdul Gani; Lone, Gh Nabi; Hakeem, Zubair Ashraf; Dar, Abdul Majeed; Lone, Reyaz Ahmad; Bhat, Mohd Akbar; Singh, Shyam; Irshad, Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Missile cardiovascular injuries have taken an epidemic proportion in Kashmir valley since the eruption of militancy in 1990. Present study was undertaken to analyse the pattern, presentation and management of missile cardiovascular injuries. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and eighty-six patients with missile cardiovascular injuries since Jan 1996 to Oct 2008 were studied retrospectively. All patients of cardiovascular injuries due to causes other than missiles were excluded from the study. Results: All patients of missile cardiac injuries were treated by primary cardiorrhaphy. Right ventricle was the most commonly affected chamber. Left anterior thoracotomy was most common approach used. Most of the patients of missile vascular group were treated by reverse saphenous vein graft or end-to-end anastomosis. Most common complication was wound infection (20.83%) followed by graft occlusion (1.94%) in missile vascular group. Amputation rate was 4.66%. Amputation rate was higher in patients with delay of >6 hours and associated fractures. Conclusion: Missile cardiac injuries should be operated early without wasting time for investigations. Clinical status at arrival, time interval till management, nature of injury and associated injuries, tell upon the mortality. Missile vascular injury needs prompt resuscitation and revascularization at the earliest. Time interval till revascularization and associated fractures has a bearing on mortality and morbidity. PMID:21769201

  5. Hidden Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ross S.; Yeats, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that large earthquakes can take place not only on faults that cut the earth's surface but also on blind faults under folded terrain. Describes four examples of fold earthquakes. Discusses the fold earthquakes using several diagrams and pictures. (YP)

  6. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  7. Gender Disparity at Elementary Education Level in Jammu and Kashmir: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a study to explore gender disparity at elementary education level in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender disparity in education refers to differences in outcomes observed between two sexes. Education disparities can be seen in different enrolment rates, dropout rates, and survival rates among the sexes. The central government and…

  8. Assessment and Understanding of Gender Equity in Education in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the assessment and understanding of the gender equity in education in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures should be available to compensate for women's historical and social disadvantaged. The central government, state…

  9. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeelani, G. H.; Shah, Rouf Ahmad; Hussain, Aadil

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater samples ( n = 163) were collected across Kashmir Valley in 2010 to assess the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater in shallow and deep aquifers and its suitability for domestic, agriculture, horticulture, and livestock purposes. The groundwater is generally alkaline in nature. The electrical conductivity (EC) which is an index to represent the total concentration of soluble salts in water was used to measure the salinity hazard to crops as it reflects the TDS in groundwater ranging from 97 to 1385 μS/cm, except one well in Sopore. The average concentration of major ions was higher in shallow aquifers than in deeper aquifers. In general, Ca2+ is the dominant cation and HCO the dominant anion. Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Na-HCO3 were the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. High concentration of HCO3 and pH less than 8.8 clearly indicated that intense chemical weathering processes have taken place in the study area. The groundwater flow pattern in the area follows the local surface topography which not only modifies the hydrogeochemical facies but also controls their distribution. The groundwater in valley flows into four directions, i.e., SW-NE, NE-W, SE-NW and SE-NE directions. The results suggest that carbonate dissolution is the dominant source of major ions followed by silicate weathering and ion-exchange processes. The concentrations of all the major ions determined in the present study are within the permissible limits of WHO and BIS standards. The results of Total Hardness, SAR, Na%, Kelly Index, USDA classification, Magnesium absorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, and PI suggested that groundwater is good for drinking, livestock, and irrigation purposes.

  10. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  11. Landslide Mapping and Modeling Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Statistical Analysis of District Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nimrah; Mushtaq, Saman

    2016-07-01

    Occurrence factors of Landslide hazard can be natural such as high slopes, geological conditions and lineaments, faults, rain, and river cutting. Man-made factors such as road cuttings, deforestation or development can also contribute to the landsliding. The focus of this study was to model those landslides susceptible prone to hazard areas which in turn can help for the development, urbanization and for setting up rules or regulations to save nature and environment of the area. The focal of the current research work was the Earthquake of October, 2005 also known as Kashmir Earthquake, the epicenter location of the earthquake 34°29'35″N 73°37'44″E at height of ~2000 from mean sea level and ~20 Km North-East from Muzaffarabad city, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, at the scale of 1:50000 Geological map of 43-F/11, tehsil Nauseri area. The techniques used in this research is based on theorem of Bayes's bivariat statistic (weight of evidence) which predicts the events geographically and on input layers and the relationship of event. A relationship between event of landslide and factors was studied and analyzed using this method. Subsequently a prediction of the occurrence of the spatial location of the landslide event was established successfully. The relationship of distribution of landslide and factors layers was calculated using the statistical methods which enabled to predict the landslides zones in different areas. The methodology applied proved that the success rate was 80% landslide occurred in 18% area and prediction rate was 70% of landslides occurred in 70% of area. The use satellite remote sensing data, and GIS with the integration of statistical method are definitely an effective tool for predicting the future landslide prone areas.

  12. Hidden earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

    1989-06-01

    Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

  13. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  14. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  15. Earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

  16. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  17. Confidence building measures at sea:opportunities for India and Pakistan.

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Ravi Bhushan Rear Admiral; Ansari, Hasan Masood Rear Admiral

    2003-12-01

    The sea presents unique possibilities for implementing confidence building measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan that are currently not available along the contentious land borders surrounding Jammu and Kashmir. This is due to the nature of maritime issues, the common military culture of naval forces, and a less contentious history of maritime interaction between the two nations. Maritime issues of mutual concern provide a strong foundation for more far-reaching future CBMs on land, while addressing pressing security, economic, and humanitarian needs at sea in the near-term. Although Indian and Pakistani maritime forces currently have stronger opportunities to cooperate with one another than their counterparts on land, reliable mechanisms to alleviate tension or promote operational coordination remain non-existent. Therefore, possible maritime CBMs, as well as pragmatic mechanisms to initiate and sustain cooperation, require serious examination. This report reflects the unique joint research undertaking of two retired Senior Naval Officers from both India and Pakistan, sponsored by the Cooperative Monitoring Center of the International Security Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Research focuses on technology as a valuable tool to facilitate confidence building between states having a low level of initial trust. Technical CBMs not only increase transparency, but also provide standardized, scientific means of interacting on politically difficult problems. Admirals Vohra and Ansari introduce technology as a mechanism to facilitate consistent forms of cooperation and initiate discussion in the maritime realm. They present technical CBMs capable of being acted upon as well as high-level political recommendations regarding the following issues: (1) Delimitation of the maritime boundary between India and Pakistan and its relationship to the Sir Creek dispute; (2) Restoration of full shipping links and the security of ports and cargos; (3) Fishing within

  18. Paleovegetational history in the Kashmir basin, India, derived from 13C/ 12C ratio in paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Bhattacharya, S. K.

    1989-11-01

    The presence of a series of humus-rich layers, identified as paleosols in the loess sediments in the Kashmir basin in northwestern India indicate phases of climatic amelioration in the past. Stable carbon isotope ratios of the organic fraction of paleosols from three locations show that almost all the paleosols supported significant C 4-type vegetation which is characteristic of water stressed and relatively hot, dry environments. Limited measurements of stable carbon isotope ratio in modern soils show an estimated C 4-type vegetation contribution of less than 25%, which is tenable given the temperate climate of the basin today. In the light of some recently published TL (thermoluminiscence) dates for loess sedimentation in Kashmir, these findings suggest significant ecological changes most likely related to water stress and temperature there during the past 300 kyr ( 1kyr= 1000years).

  19. Response of Kolahoi Glacier, Kashmir Himalaya to climate change: A preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeelani, G.; Hasnain, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    Kolahoi Glacier (340 07-340 12 N: 75016- 750 23 E), Liddar Valley, Kashmir Himalaya is one of the largest glacier in the Kashmir valley. The glacier is nourished by westerly system during winter and ablation takes place during summer period with no impact of SW monsoon system. Liddar Valley covers an area of 1282.55 km2 and sustain about 48 glaciers with total ice covered area of about 39 km2. The melt water feeds the west and east Liddar rivers and downstream in the valley they joined and forms River Jhelum which is the main source of water and livelihood to entire Kashmir valley. The major concern is that melting glaciers in the Kashmir valley will have ‘cascading effects’ across ecosystems, creating chain reactions on the food and water security of marginalised communities. An analysis of the available records is presented in this study. It appears that considerable recession of the snout has taken place since 1857. The glacier has receded about 1.6 km from 1857-1909 (52 years ?), 0.82 km from 1912-1961 (50 years), and 1.0 km from 1962-2008 (47 years). The area of the glacier is decreased by about 15% (0.04 Km2/year) from 1962 to 2008. The data indicate that there is significant increase in the rate of glacier recession for last few decades. It appears that global and regional warming, below normal precipitation occurred during the period of snow accumulation are perhaps the main reasons for accelerating the rate of melting during recent times. The stream (West Liddar) fed by the Kolahoi glacier also shows an increase in the discharge for last few decades as compared to the other streams fed dominantly by snow melt.

  20. Nonoccupational anthracofibrosis/anthracosilicosis from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Spalgais, Sonam; Gothi, Dipti; Jaiswal, Anand; Gupta, Kumud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonoccupational anthracosis and silicosis has been reported from various parts of the world including Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India; however, anthracosilicosis has only been reported in industrial workers till date. Materials and Methods: Six cases from the Ladakh region in Jammu and Kashmir, India with similar clinico-radiological-pathological features, i.e., anthracosilicosis/anthracofibrosis have been analyzed. Of these, four were analyzed retrospectively and two prospectively. Result: All the patients were homemakers and resided in Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India since birth with an age range of 42–62 years and an average age of 56 years. Their average duration of symptoms was 4 years. Spirometry showed small and/or large airway disease in 5/6 cases. On computed tomography (CT), 4/6 cases showed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) with calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. There were random or centrilobular nodules in all the six cases. Bronchoscopy in 5/6 cases showed multiple anthracotic pigments with narrowing and distortion of the bronchus (anthracofibrosis). Malignancy was suspected clinico-radiologically in four cases and pathologically in two cases. On histopathology, anthracosis was demonstrated in all and silicosis in three cases. Conclusion: Anthracosilicosis can occur due to environmental exposure. Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India is the only place across the globe with unique environmental features having the presence of both free silica and biomass fuel. The disease was observed predominantly in older women. Awareness would prevent unnecessary investigation for malignancy. Treatment with the bronchodilator is useful as it has evidence of airway disease. Finally, environmental measures and a proper study need to be undertaken for knowing the relative role of silica versus soot in causing the lung disease and preventing this irreversible condition. PMID:26957815

  1. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Children of Conflict Region of Kashmir (India): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs due to traumatic events. The last two decades have seen various traumatic events in Kashmiri population, which has led to psychological impact on all population, especially children. PTSD is one of the psychiatric disorders occurring after witnessing of traumatic events. A review of literature regarding PTSD in children of Kashmir (India) has been done to assess the prevalence, causes, neurobiology, risk factors and psychiatric co morbidity associated with it. PMID:26894159

  2. Studies of VLF radio waves for sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) in Kashmir region

    SciTech Connect

    Wani, M. R.; Iqbal, Naseer; Sasmal, Sudipta

    2010-10-20

    It is recognized that the ionosphere may be sensitive to seismic effects, and the detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with seismicity would be useful for short term prediction of seismic events. To observe this effect, Indian Centre for Space Physics has installed an antenna and receiver system at Kashmir University to monitor the variation of the VLF signal transmitted from VTX. We present the preliminary results from this station.

  3. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-01-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  4. Socioeconomic status and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nazir A; Shah, Idrees A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Makhdoomi, Muzamil A; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nisar, Iqra; Bhat, Arshid B; Nabi, Sumaiya; Masood, Akbar; Shah, Sajad A; Lone, Mohd M; Zargar, Showkat A; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk. PMID:23721087

  5. Splice site and Germline variations of the MGMT gene in Esophageal cancer from Kashmir Valley: India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mohd Amin; Shaffi, Sheikh M.; Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Jan, Syed Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of our investigation was to detect mutation or genetic polymorphisms in MGMT gene of esophageal cancer patients from Kashmir Valley (India) Methodology The genetic polymorphisms or mutations in the coding exons 2, 3, 4 and 5 of MGMT gene were searched for in DNA samples from the frozen tumor tissues of 30 esophageal cancer patients from Kashmir. The PCR products were sequenced with fluorescently labelled terminators and separated on automatic sequencer. We developed a new PCR based RFLP approach for genotyping c.459A>G (p.Gly153Gly) variation in 71 esophageal cancer patients and 60 healthy controls. Results Two somatic variations c.274 +4G>A and c.274 + 22G>A were identified in Exon3-intron 4 boundary. A novel germline variation c.459A>G (p.Gly153Gly) was found in the exon 5 of an esophageal cancer patient. This germline variation was not found in any of the studied esophageal cancer patients and healthy controls except the patient where it has been found by direct sequencing. Conclusion We identified novel sequence variants of the MGMT gene in esophageal cancer patients from Kashmir valley-India. PMID:24533020

  6. [Documentation of violence against civilians in a civil war. Examples from Kashmir].

    PubMed

    Petersen, H D; Larsen, M; Mannstaedt, M; Skytt, G L; Vedel, O M; Wandall, J H

    1998-07-13

    Physicians for Human Rights/Denmark visited Kashmir three times in 1993 and 1994. In Indian-held Kashmir we examined victims of torture and gunshots and we assessed similar evidence collected by local lawyers and doctors. In refugee camps for Indian Kashmiries we examined ten children, who were reported to have been tortured at the age of 5-14 years, and ten other children who allegedly had been ill-treated. Furthermore, 17 adults, who reported that they had been tortured, were examined. In nearly all cases there were physical findings in accordance with the histories of torture. In many cases, including those of the children, the findings were highly remarkable by their shape and localization. We interpret them as evidence of intentionally inflicted injuries. In the refugee camps we carried out a prevalence study of exposure to organized violence. Approximately 95% of all families had been exposed to violence; 35% reported that their children had been ill-treated. The physical findings indicate that intentional traumatization of civilians including children in Indian-held Kashmir takes place; the results of the prevalence study suggest that exposure to violence is widespread. PMID:9679433

  7. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  8. Earthquake Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the importance of the development of students' measurement and estimation skills. Analyzes earthquake data recorded at seismograph stations and explains how to read and modify the graphs. Presents an activity for student evaluation. (YDS)

  9. Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Kashmir, North India

    PubMed Central

    Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Khan, Asiya; Thokar, Manzoor Ahmad; Malik, Ajaz Ahmad; Fazili, Anjum; Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Sharma, Monika; Malla, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. There are numerous reports and hospital-based studies from Kashmir, North India, yet there has been no epidemiological study conducted in Kashmir, the apparently endemic area for human hydatidosis. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of hydatid infection in Kashmir Valley and to find out association of risk factors for acquisition of this infection. Methodology Fourteen hundred and twenty-nine samples were collected from different districts in the Kashmir region (North India) using systematic random sampling. The 130 control samples included were from apparently healthy blood donors (100), patients with other parasitic infections (20), surgically confirmed hydatidosis patients (5), and apparently healthy subjects excluded for hydatidosis and intestinal parasitic infections (5). Hydatid-specific IgG antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and seropositive samples were analysed further by Western blotting. Results Out of 1,429 samples, 72 (5.03%) were IgG positive by ELISA. The percentage occurrence of the highly immunoreactive antigenic fractions in IgG ELISA positive samples was 57 kDa (72.2%) followed by 70 kDa (66.7%) and 39kDa (58.3%) by immunoblotting. Samples with other parasitic infections were reactive with the cluster of 54-59 kDa antigenic fractions. Age <15 years, male gender, contact with dog, and rural residence were the most significant factors associated with the seropositivity. Conclusion The study revealed that 72 (5.03%) out of 1,429 subjects asymptomatic for hydatidosis were seropositve to E.granulosus antigen by ELISA. Western blot analysis of 72 ELISA seropositive samples showed that 66.7% and 58.3% of samples were immunoreactive with 70 and 39kDa specific antigenic fractions, respectively. The seropositivity was significantly higher (5.79%) in the younger age group (<15 years) as compared to the 16-55 years (4

  10. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  11. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 μg mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:25852667

  12. Earthquakes for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquakes for Kids Kid's Privacy Policy Earthquake Topics for Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters ...

  13. Pakistan: update on breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in Pakistan have shown a decline in breastfeeding since 1966, especially in urban areas. Overall, the National Nutrition Surveys have found, the proportion of babies being breastfed for more than 2 years has declined from 59% in 1966 to 9% in 1985. 4 basic reasons have been found for this deterioration: 1) hospitals are separating newborns from their mothers, and not instructing mothers on how to establish and sustain breastfeeding; 2) health practicioners are not informed about the importance of breastfeeding; 3) many women give their babies formula out of fear that they will not produce sufficient milk for their babies; and 4) at hospitals and clinics some infant formula companies continue to give out free samples and to distribute posters and calendars promoting their formulas. These problems must be remedied. At a hospital in Indonesia, when infants began to be roomed in with their mothers, hospital staff to be encouraged to breastfeed their own babies, mothers to be counseled on breastfeeding, and when formula promotion was stopped, infant mortality dropped from 51.6/1000 to 33.4/1000. Cases of diarrhea dropped from 40.2/1000 to 5.5/1000. Breastmilk has unique properties that no infant formula can match. PMID:12342141

  14. Business closure and relocation: a comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters. PMID:20722689

  15. WILD EDIBLE PLANTS OF JAMMU & KASHMIR STATE – AN ETHNO-BOTANICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    While conducting the Ethno-Botanical explorations of Jammu and Kashmir State, the authors gathered information from the primitive society, Gujar, Bakarwala and other inhabitants living in far-flung areas not exposed to civilization as well as the villages, on the importance of the plants, used by them in their way of life, as medicine, food, fodder and other religio-social customs and beliefs. The present paper deals with 109 species of the wild edible plants only being used by them for food in various ways. The botanical names of the wild edible plants, local names, places of collection, parts used and mode of use, are also discussed. PMID:22557615

  16. Response to the commentary by Shah, A. A. (2015) and further evidence supporting the dextral strike-slip pull-apart evolution of the Kashmir basin along the central Kashmir fault (CKF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Sultan Bhat, M.; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    This research article provides added evidence in support of the already presented tectonic evolution model of the Kashmir basin by Alam et al. (2015), which states that the local dextral strike-slip structure, embedded with the southern forefront thrust system (MBT/MCT), resulted in the development of the NNW-SSE-oriented elliptical pull-apart sedimentary trough (Kashmir basin). Simultaneously, we respond to the argument of Shah (2015), wherein the author expresses his concern about the tectonic evolution model proposed by Alam et al. (2015). The commentator (Shah, 2015)-merely based on assumptions (1: perfectly planar geometry of the central Kashmir fault-CKF; 2: pure strike-slip along the CKF) and misinterpretations of the data (tectonic, geologic, structural, seismic, geodetic, and geomorphic)-makes extraneous criticism throughout the length of his commentary by referring copied text/figures. However, Alam et al. (2015) projected the CKF as noticeably curvilinear major exhibiting complex strike-slip tectonics (dextral, lateral, and vertical motion). Moreover, contradictory to the claim of Shah (2015), the tectonic, geologic, structural, seismic, geodetic, and geomorphic data is in complete agreement with the model proposed by Alam et al. (2015). Hence, in addition to complimentary evidence for the dextral strike-slip, pull-apart evolution of the Kashmir basin, a detailed response is provided to the commentary of Shah (2015).

  17. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  18. Railway associated injuries in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Razzak, Junaid A

    2010-03-01

    Pakistan is ranked 12th worldwide for passenger kilometres (km) travelled by railway network. The objective of this study was to assess the railway network related morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Reported deaths and injuries due to this network were extracted from two secondary datasets: (1) an international disaster database and (2) ambulance log registers for the city of Karachi. Over the period from 1997 to 2006, a total of 11 railway disasters resulted in 449 deaths and 840 injuries. An estimated 2.05 passengers died and another 3.84 passengers were injured per billion km travelled in Pakistan, a rate six times higher than Western European countries. The ambulance log showed that one person died every two weeks in Karachi over a period from September 2007 to Jun 2008 (N = 26). The male-to-female ratio of all injury victims (N = 50) was 9:1 with a mean age of 35.6 years. Surveillance of these injuries is essential to implement prevention and control measures in Pakistan. PMID:19787521

  19. America's faulty earthquake plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J

    1989-10-01

    In this article, the author discusses the liklihood of major earthquakes in both the western and eastern United States as well as the level of preparedness of each region of the U.S. for a major earthquake. Current technology in both earthquake-resistance design and earthquake detection is described. Governmental programs for earthquake hazard reduction are outlined and critiqued.

  20. Prevalence of PTSD Symptoms and Depression and Level of Coping among the Victims of the Kashmir Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaswi, Arooj; Haque, Amber

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and coping mechanisms among the adult civilian population in Indian Kashmir. The Everstine Trauma Response Index-Adapted, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Resources Inventory were used to assess the three domains. Independent-sample t…

  1. Descriptions of Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. from Kashmir Valley, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. are described and illustrated from freshwater stream soil in Kashmir Valley, India. Kashmira gen. n. is characterized by having dimorphic tails: coinoid-spicate tail in female and subcylindroid with rounded, non-spicate tip wi...

  2. Darwin's earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard V

    2010-07-01

    Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

  3. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  4. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. PMID:27418504

  5. Structure of the Chamba nappe and position of the Main Central Thrust in Kashmir Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, V. C.

    1998-04-01

    The Chamba nappe, composed of an approximately 8 km thick sequence of Late Precambrian to Jurassic age rocks is located between the Higher Himalaya Crystallines (HHC) and the Lesser Himalayan (LH) formations of Panjal Imbricate Zone (PIZ) in the Kashmir Himalaya. To the south, the Panjal Thrust, demarcating the base, brings the Chamba nappe rocks over the Panjal Imbricate Zone. To the north, the Chamba nappe rocks lie over the metamorphic HHC along the south dipping Chenab Normal Fault (CNB). A pervasive stretching lineation defined by a mineral lineation, stretched pebbles and felspar phenocrysts plunges NE-NNE and occurs on the foliation/cleavage surface. This lineation is related to southward displacement of the Chamba nappe. The Chamba nappe is folded by regional scale fold, viz. the Chamba, Tandi and Bharmor synclines and the Tisa anticline. These NW-SE trending folds structures were developed synchronously with southward thrusting of the Chamba nappe. The Chamba nappe results from southwestward sliding of cover rocks from their basement (HHC) due to topographic uplift. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Kashmir Himalaya is different from that of the Kumaun and Nepal Himalaya. The MCT (Vaikrita Thrust) does not extend west of the Beas river, but it is exposed in the Rampur Window and the Kishtwar Window separating the HHC from the underlying LH rocks. Southward propagation of the MCT from the window zone, up-cutting the overlying HHC, is transferred to the Panjal Thrust which transports the Chamba nappe to the south over the Lesser Himalayan formations.

  6. Geomorphic evidence of unrecognized Balapur fault segment in the southwest Kashmir basin of northwest Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shabir; Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Bashir; Bhat, M. I.; Sultan Bhat, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Balapur fault (BF) is a high angle thrust fault (reverse), dipping ~ 60° NE, with an established length of ~ 40 km striking NW-SE of the Kashmir basin. However, geomorphic traces suggest that the strike of the BF propagates beyond what has been documented previously. The present investigation aims to identify the unrecognized segment of the BF in the SW of the Kashmir basin using hypsometric variability in longitudinal profiles (knickpoints/zones), followed by validation through stream gradient index (SL) calculations of the rivers draining the area. The longitudinal profiles of all the streams indicate prominent and consistent anomalies in the upper and mid-reaches even on the coarse resolution data (Survey of India topographic maps - 1:50,000/40 m, DEM-SRTM 90 m). The profile anomalies in the upper reaches (hard rock zone) of the streams may be attributed to lithological contacts, i.e., Panjal trap agglomeratic slate-shale-limestone. However, the river profile convex segments and course deflection specifically in the mid-reaches (soft rock zone) are most likely associated with recent tectonic activity. Geomorphic signatures suggest that these anomalies coincide with the strike of the recognized segment of the BF. Moreover, the SL values of each stream express a clear agreement with the anomalies shown by the long profiles of the rivers. Hence, we infer that the strike of the BF extends for a significant distance (~ 95 km) over the northeastern flank of the Pir Panjal range in the NW-SE direction.

  7. Clinicopathological Spectrum Of Gall Bladder Cancer In Kashmir - An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Makhdoomi, R; Bashir, N; Bhat, N; Bashir, S; Mustafa, F; Aiman, A; Charaki, A; Hussain, S; Shafi, S; Baht, S; Bashir, N; Zahir, Z; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy that usually presents at an advanced incurable stage. It is the fifth most common gastro-intestinal tumor and leads to approximately 2800 deaths in United States annually. This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a 650-bed super speciality hospital in Kashmir valley. We reviewed the histopathological records of all the patients who were diagnosed as carcinoma gallbladder from Dec 2009-Dec 2013. Gross findings and histopathological findings were noted from the departmental archival material and clinical records of the patients including the clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations, pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative findings, were retrieved from the hospital records. We analyzed 57 cases of carcinoma gallbladder for their clinicopathological features It included 19 males and 37 females. In our study, adenocarcinomas accounted for 87.5% of total carcinomas. Incidentally, all but one patient where gall stones were found, adenocarcinomas were seen. We have 4 patients of squamous cell carcinoma. In our series we have a single case of small cell carcinoma which was positive for neuroendocrine markers. In our study, gall stones were seen only in 8 cases (14%) of the total cases. PMID:27050183

  8. Limitations of rupture forecasting exposed by instantaneously triggered earthquake doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, E.; Elliott, J. R.; Sloan, R. A.; Craig, T. J.; Funning, G. J.; Hutko, A.; Parsons, B. E.; Wright, T. J.

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake hazard assessments and rupture forecasts are based on the potential length of seismic rupture and whether or not slip is arrested at fault segment boundaries. Such forecasts do not generally consider that one earthquake can trigger a second large event, near-instantaneously, at distances greater than a few kilometres. Here we present a geodetic and seismological analysis of a magnitude 7.1 intracontinental earthquake that occurred in Pakistan in 1997. We find that the earthquake, rather than a single event as hitherto assumed, was in fact an earthquake doublet: initial rupture on a shallow, blind reverse fault was followed just 19 s later by a second rupture on a separate reverse fault 50 km away. Slip on the second fault increased the total seismic moment by half, and doubled both the combined event duration and the area of maximum ground shaking. We infer that static Coulomb stresses at the initiation location of the second earthquake were probably reduced as a result of the first. Instead, we suggest that a dynamic triggering mechanism is likely, although the responsible seismic wave phase is unclear. Our results expose a flaw in earthquake rupture forecasts that disregard cascading, multiple-fault ruptures of this type.

  9. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Pêcher, A.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.; Van Melle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Episodic GPS measurements are used to quantify the present-day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the southern Pamir to the Himalayan foreland. We report large postseismic displacements following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and several mm/yr thrusting of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau over the foreland, westward thrusting of Nanga Parbat above the Kohistan Plateau, and ~12 mm/yr SSE velocities of the Karakorum Ranges and of the Deosai and Kohistan Plateaus relative to the Indian Plate. Numerical simulations allow to determine a first approximation of slip along active faults: (1) substantial creep of ~87 mm/yr between 2006 and 2012 along the flat northeast of the Balakot-Bagh Thrust affected by the 2005 earthquake; (2) ~5 mm/yr slip of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau, whereas their western boundaries are clearly inactive over the time span covered by our measurements; (3) 13 mm/yr ductile slip along the Main Himalayan Thrust modeled by a dislocation dipping 7° northward, locked at a depth of 15 km; and (4) ~20 mm/yr slip along the shear zone forming the western boundary of Nanga Parbat, between depths of 1.6 and 6.5 km. Residuals velocities suggest the existence of left-lateral strike slip along the Jhelum Fault.

  10. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  11. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  12. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  13. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  14. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  15. Earthquake occurrence and effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, R D

    1990-01-01

    Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

  16. Genetic polymorphisms for 17 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Jammu and Kashmir Saraswat Brahmin population.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhuvnesh; Raina, Anupuma; Dogra, Tirath Das

    2010-09-01

    In this study 17 Y-chromosomal STRs (including DYS19, DYS389I, DS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y GATA H4) were analysed using blood samples of 122 unrelated male individuals belonging to Saraswat Brahmin community from Jammu (ID YP000599) and Kashmir (ID YP000600) region of J&K state of India. The allelic frequency distribution and haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STR for both the populations were calculated. In the Kashmiri Saraswat group, a total of 109 haplotypes were identified in 122 individuals, of these haplotypes, 101 were found only once. The gene diversity values of STR loci ranged from 0.4813 (DYS391) to 0.8645 (DYS385a/b) for Jammu & Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins. PMID:20621539

  17. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region. PMID:26255278

  18. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  19. Micromorphological investigations of the Late Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences of the Kashmir Valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Chandra, Rakesh; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Kowser, Nazia

    2015-11-01

    The loess-paleosol sequences of the Karewa Group preserve a valuable repository of the Late Quaternary climatic changes and the landscape evolution history of the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley in their lithological and pedogenic records. Three representative loess-paleosol sections at Shankerpora (SP), Khan Sahib (KS) and Pattan (PT) localities were chosen for detailed lithostratigraphic fieldwork and micromorphological observations of thin sections. Lithostratigraphic analysis revealed lateral and vertical variation in thickness and number of paleosol profiles from south-west to north-west of the Karewa Basin suggesting the availability of land-surface for periodic loess deposition. The SP section is marked by 6 (SP-S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S12), KS section by 3 (KS-S2, S4, S5) and PT section by 2 (PT-S1, S3) thick mature paleosol profiles. Theses paleosols have well developed 'Ah' and 'Btk' horizons representing prolonged land-surface stability when pedogenic processes outpace loess deposition. On the other hand comparatively thin to thick paleosol profiles represent weak to moderate pedogenic maturity indicating short stratigraphic breaks with rapid loess deposition. Micromorphological observations of thin sections suggested that clay illuviation and CaCO3 accumulation have operated within the paleosol profiles. CaCO3 features are often associated with clay coatings suggesting decalcification of carbonates followed by clay illuviation. Pedogenic CaCO3 probably resulted from the precipitation of the soil solution near the average depth of wetting front. The pedogenic CaCO3, illuvial clay, mottles, iron manganese features, pedal microstructure and blocky aggregates reveal variation in the pedogenic maturity among and within the loess-paleosol sections. The morphological (both micro- and macro-morphological) attributes of loess-paleosols suggest variation of climatic conditions during the Late Quaternary period in the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley, India.

  20. Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality of Lidder River in Kashmir Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The pristine waters of Kashmir Himalaya are showing signs of deterioration due to multiple reasons. This study researches the causes of deteriorating water quality in the Lidder River, one of the main tributaries of Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya. The land use and land cover of the Lidder catchment were generated using multi-spectral, bi-seasonal IRS LISS III (October 2005 and May 2006) satellite data to identify the extent of agriculture and horticulture lands that are the main non-point sources of pollution at the catchment scale. A total of 12 water quality parameters were analyzed over a period of 1 year. Water sampling was done at eight different sampling sites, each with a varied topography and distinct land use/land cover, along the length of Lidder River. It was observed that water quality deteriorated during the months of June-August that coincides with the peak tourist flow and maximal agricultural/horticultural activity. Total phosphorus, orthophosphate phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniacal nitrogen showed higher concentration in the months of July and August, while the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased in the same period, resulting in deterioration in water quality. Moreover, tourism influx in the Lidder Valley shows a drastic increase through the years, and particularly, the number of tourists visiting the valley has increased in the summer months from June to September, which is also responsible for deteriorating the water quality of Lidder River. In addition to this, the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture and horticulture lands during the growing season (June-August) is also responsible for the deteriorating water quality of Lidder River. PMID:23001554

  1. Clinico-bacteriological profile of primary pyodermas in Kashmir: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Y J; Hassan, I; Bashir, S; Farhana, A; Maroof, P

    2016-03-01

    Pyodermas are a common group of infectious dermatological conditions on which few studies have been conducted. This study aimed to characterise the clinical and bacteriological profile of pyodermas, and to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in primary pyodermas in a dermatology outpatient department in Kashmir. Methods We conducted a hospital based cross-sectional study in the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy of Shri Maharaja Hari Singh Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Patients presenting with primary pyodermas were included in the study. A detailed history and complete physical and cutaneous examination was carried out along with microbiological testing to find aetiological microorganisms and their respectiveantimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including that for methicillin resistance, was carried out by standard methods as outlined in the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results In total, 110 patients were included; the age of the study population ranged from 3 to 65 years (mean age 28 years); 62% were male. Poor personal hygiene was noted in 76 (69%). Furunculosis (56; 51%) was the most common clinical presentation. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 89 (81%) of cases, and MRSA formed 54/89 (61%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. All MRSA strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA was high in this sample of communityacquired primary pyodermas. It is therefore important to monitor the changing trends in bacterial infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and to formulate a definite antibiotic policy which may be helpful in decreasing the incidence of MRSA infection. PMID:27092362

  2. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2) = 0.67, P = 0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle. PMID:25619695

  3. AN INDEX OF THE AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS, USED IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine and its distribution in Jammu and Kashmir has been categorized systematically here. The paper deals with 246 medicinal plants and has to off-set an index which is not there so far. Out of 246 medicinal plants 12 plants are considered to be controversial. Substitutes, Adulterants of these plants which are being used in various parts of India were also recorded separately in this study. PMID:22557549

  4. Response to "No major active backthrust bounds the Pir Panjal Range near Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya" by Shah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Chandra, Rakesh; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a rebuttal to the entirely ambiguous and unwanted commentary made by Shah (JAES-D-15-00980) on Dar et al. (2014). The original article was aimed to evaluate the tectono-geomorphic evolution of the Kashmir Valley using geomorphic indices obtained from satellite images and detailed fieldwork. However, Shah while deviating from the core of the article has attempted to build an inexplicable tale about the structural configuration of the region. The comment is primarily based on the misinterpretation regarding the dip direction of a thrust fault. Pertinently, no major ∼SW dipping frontal fault bounding the Pir Panjal Range near Kashmir Valley is shown in the paper by Dar et al. (2014). The commentator has just recycled already documented text pertaining to general tectonic character of a few ∼NE dipping thrusts i.e., the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) and Raisi Fault (RF). Moreover, some unknown structure named as Kashmir Basin Fault (KBF) by the commentator has been discussed, which does not even exist in the region. The commentary on the whole actually does not relate with the investigation reported by Dar et al. (2014), hence merits no consideration for publication.

  5. Seismological identification of the 1998 May 28 Pakistan nuclear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, D.; Douglas, A.; Selby, N. D.; Marshall, P. D.; Porter, D.; Wallis, N. J.

    2002-07-01

    On 1998 May 28 Pakistan announced that it had conducted an underground nuclear test. Here we assess whether seismological data, recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) being set up to help verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), can be used to identify the Pakistani test as a possible underground explosion. The prototype International Data Centre (pIDC) automatically determined the network-averaged body wave and surface wave magnitudes to be 4.9 and 3.6, respectively. One of the most reliable methods of identifying possible underground explosions is the mb : Ms criterion. However, mb : Ms is calibrated using conventional magnitudes from historical earthquakes and explosions. We calculate , in the conventional way, using P waves from the Pakistani test recorded by a simulated standard short-period seismograph and read by an experienced analyst. We also analyse the three components of the surface waves from the Pakistani test to confirm that these are correctly associated, and calculate . On mb : Ms the Pakistani test falls between the historical Eurasian underground explosion and earthquake populations. Thus, while the source may arouse suspicion on mb : Ms, its signature is typical of both explosions and deep-lithospheric Eurasian earthquakes. The vast majority of the seismic P signals from the Pakistani test, recorded at long range, are complex. However, simple P seismograms are recorded by at least three of the IMS stations. Analysis, using the relative amplitude method, of three of the simple P seismograms suggests that the source is shallow (less than 5 km). We conclude that the combination of the mb : Ms signature and shallow depth are sufficient to classify the Pakistani test as a possible explosion. Under the CTBT an on-site inspection would be required to determine whether the explosion was nuclear.

  6. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-02-10

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan.

  7. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  8. Earthquakes: Predicting the unpredictable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The earthquake prediction pendulum has swung from optimism in the 1970s to rather extreme pessimism in the 1990s. Earlier work revealed evidence of possible earthquake precursors: physical changes in the planet that signal that a large earthquake is on the way. Some respected earthquake scientists argued that earthquakes are likewise fundamentally unpredictable. The fate of the Parkfield prediction experiment appeared to support their arguments: A moderate earthquake had been predicted along a specified segment of the central San Andreas fault within five years of 1988, but had failed to materialize on schedule. At some point, however, the pendulum began to swing back. Reputable scientists began using the "P-word" in not only polite company, but also at meetings and even in print. If the optimism regarding earthquake prediction can be attributed to any single cause, it might be scientists' burgeoning understanding of the earthquake cycle.

  9. Estimating earthquake potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hazards to life and property from earthquakes can be minimized in three ways. First, structures can be designed and built to resist the effects of earthquakes. Second, the location of structures and human activities can be chosen to avoid or to limit the use of areas known to be subject to serious earthquake hazards. Third, preparations for an earthquake in response to a prediction or warning can reduce the loss of life and damage to property as well as promote a rapid recovery from the disaster. The success of the first two strategies, earthquake engineering and land use planning, depends on being able to reliably estimate the earthquake potential. The key considerations in defining the potential of a region are the location, size, and character of future earthquakes and frequency of their occurrence. Both historic seismicity of the region and the geologic record are considered in evaluating earthquake potential. 

  10. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  11. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  12. The burden of stroke in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khealani, Bhojo A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiologic literature on stroke burden, patterns of stroke is almost non existent from Pakistan. However, several hospital-based case series on the subject are available, mainly published in local medical journals. Despite the fact that true stroke incidence and prevalence of stroke in Pakistan is not known, the burden is assumed to be high because of highly prevalent stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia and smoking) in the community. High burden of these conventional stroke risk factors is further compounded by lack of awareness, poor compliance hence poor control, and inappropriate management/treatment practices. In addition certain risk factors like rheumatic valvular heart disease may be more prevalent in Pakistan. We reviewed the existing literature on stroke risk factors in community, the risk factor prevalence among stroke patients, patterns of stroke, out come of stroke, availability of diagnostic services/facilities related to stroke and resources for stroke care in Pakistan. PMID:18811747

  13. NASA's IMERG Measures Flooding Rainfall in Pakistan

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA used satellite data and added up heavy rainfall that has been occurring in northwestern Pakistan that caused flooding that killed more than 50 people. NASA's IMERG added up rainfall in northwe...

  14. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  15. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  16. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  17. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  18. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  19. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  20. Spatial biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Naseer Ahmed

    2001-07-01

    Mesozoic to Cenozoic biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan has been conducted in order to document the temporal and spatial relationship between different marine strata with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). These relationships were then used to help distinguish different tectonostratigraphic units in the Waziristan and the Kurram areas located at the northwestern margin of the Indo-Pakistani craton. Extensive biostratigraphic work in the Waziristan and Kurram areas enabled to distinguish five tectonostratigraphic units and two significant unconformities in the study area. Different foraminiferal zones from Early Jurassic to Middle Eocenewere developed, although due to random samples these zones are not continuous in the sedimentary record. However continuous biozonation from the Late Paleocene P4 to the Early Eocene P9 (Bolli, 1985) biozone was observed. It is observed that the Santonian stage is generally missing in the sedimentary sequence, and it is only found in the olistoliths. This implies that during the Campanian stage there was instability in the shelf due to ophiolite obduction, which caused the displacement of the Santonian strata. The absence of Early Paleocene (Zone P1--P3) microfauna is suggested by rapid subsidence of the NW Indian shelf beginning in the early Paleocene. Moreover, index fossils for the Palpha, P1a, b, c, d, P2 and P3 biozones are absent in the melange of the Thal area suggesting regional uplift during the Paleocene. The presence of Planorotalites pseudomenardii P4 zone microfauna above the unconformable Upper Cretaceous Kahi melange strata suggest the India-Asia collision age between 58 Ma--56 Ma. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of upper Cretaceous olistoliths was conducted from the Mughal Kot gorge, Baluchistan, Pakistan in order to reveal the depositional history of Late Santonian aged (Dicarinella asymmetrica zone) olistoliths and associated upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary Indo-Pakistani shelf strata

  1. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rajabali, Alefiyah; Khan, Saeed; Warraich, Haider J; Khanani, Mohammad R; Ali, Syed H

    2008-08-01

    In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men. PMID:18652997

  2. Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-01

    On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns. PMID:24240051

  3. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  4. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  5. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    SciTech Connect

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  6. Tectono-geomorphic study of the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Chandra, Rakesh; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2014-10-01

    The Karewa Basin nestled between the Pir Panjal Range and the Great Himalayan Range, in Northwest India, has been studied to understand its tectono-geomorphic evolution on the basis of geomorphic indices and morphotectonic parameters supported by the field evidences. Satellite data, topographic maps and digital elevation model (DEM) were used to extract various parameters at various spatial scales. Four watersheds, representative of the entire Karewa Basin, were chosen for detailed studies on the basis of the researchable evidence of the complete sequence of the stratigraphic record and the preservation of geomorphic landscapes. The integrated analysis of the geomorphic and morphometric data provides evidence of the relative variations in the tectonic activity among the watersheds. Geomorphic indices suggest a relatively high degree of tectonic activity along the Pir Panjal side of the Karewa Basin. This variation in the relative degree of tectonic activity is consistent with the field evidence, fault/lineament locations and the landscape geometry of the Karewa Basin. Based on the results from this study, it is suggested that Late Quaternary climate changes, tectonic uplift and erosion of the Pir Panjal Range and changing geometry of the Karewa Lake have played a key role in the evolution of the geomorphic landscape of the Kashmir Valley.

  7. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system. PMID:23906383

  8. Paddy crop yield estimation in Kashmir Himalayan rice bowl using remote sensing and simulation model.

    PubMed

    Muslim, Mohammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rather, A Q

    2015-06-01

    The Kashmir Himalayan region of India is expected to be highly prone to the change in agricultural land use because of its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à-vis the Himalayan landscape, its trans-boundary river basins, and inherent socio-economic instabilities. Food security and sustainability of the region are thus greatly challenged by these impacts. The effect of future climate change, increased competition for land and water, labor from non-agricultural sectors, and increasing population adds to this complex problem. In current study, paddy rice yield at regional level was estimated using GIS-based environment policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model. The general approach of current study involved combining regional level crop database, regional soil data base, farm management data, and climatic data outputs with GEPIC model. The simulated yield showed that estimated production to be 4305.55 kg/ha (43.05 q h(-1)). The crop varieties like Jhelum, K-39, Chenab, China 1039, China-1007, and Shalimar rice-1 grown in plains recorded average yield of 4783.3 kg/ha (47.83 q ha(-1)). Meanwhile, high altitude areas with varieties like Kohsaar, K-78 (Barkat), and K-332 recorded yield of 4102.2 kg/ha (41.02 q ha(-1)). The observed and simulated yield showed a good match with R (2) = 0.95, RMSE = 132.24 kg/ha, respectively. PMID:25937498

  9. Prevalence and Antibiogram study of Rhodococcus equi in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    MIR, Irfan Ahmad; KUMAR, Bablu; TAKU, Anil; BHARDWAJ, Rajinder Kumar; BHAT, Mohd Altaf; BADROO, Gulzar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India, and evaluate the zoonotic threat posed by this organism to equine owners and tourists. One hundred and forty-one samples (98 samples from adult animals ≥5 years old and 43 samples from foals less than 6 months old) were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of equines for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 12 isolates of R. equi were recovered, of which 9 were from foals and 3 from adult animals. Therefore, the present study recorded prevalence rates of 20.93% and 3.06% among foals and adult equines respectively. The prevalence rates were found to be 25.58% and 4.08% by 16S rRNA species-specific PCR among foals and adult animals respectively. Thus, the PCR-based assay was found to be more sensitive and helped in quick detection of R. equi than the culture based method which is time consuming and laborious. However, the culture-based method is still preferred due to some limitations of PCR. The antibiogram of the isolates revealed that erythromycin and rifampicin were the most effective antimicrobials with 100% sensitivity, followed by amoxicillin (66.67%), lincomycin (58.3%) and kanamycin (58.3%). The results also revealed that resistance was highest for penicillin G (50%), followed by kanamycin (25%) and streptomycin (25%). PMID:25829867

  10. Epidemiology of Cancers in Kashmir, India: An Analysis of Hospital Data

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S. M. Salim; Qurieshi, Uruj; Ain, Quratul; Jan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. The aim of the present study was to measure the pattern of different cancers in Kashmir, India, a cancer belt with peculiar cancer profile. A hospital based cancer registry was started by the Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, in January 2006, wherein information was collected from cancer patients who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital. Data has been analysed for a period extending from January 2006 to December 2012. Descriptive analysis has been done by using statistical software. A total of 1598 cancer patients were admitted during this period. Overall male to female ratio was 1.33 : 1. Stomach cancer was the most commonly reported cancer (25.2%), followed by colorectal cancer (16.4%) and lung cancer (13.2%) among males. For females, colorectal cancer (16.8%), breast cancer (16.1%), and stomach cancer (10.4%) were the most frequently reported cancers in order of frequency. Tobacco related cancers contributed to more than three-fourths of cancers among men and more than half of cancers for women. There is an urgent need to set up a population based cancer registration system to understand the profile of cancers specific to this geographic region. PMID:27478644

  11. Phytoremediation potential of Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland - a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed Shakeel; Reshi, Zafar A; Shah, Manzoor A; Rashid, Irfan; Ara, Roshan; Andrabi, Syed M A

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. Wetlands are cheap natural alternatives for removal of heavy metals from soils; however, wetland plants vary greatly in their degree of metal uptake. Hokersar wetland, a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya, India is a game reserve of international importance that provides suitable habitat for resident birds and an excellent stopover point for migratory birds visiting from Palaearctic breeding grounds in Central Asia, China, N-Europe and Siberia. The toxicity of chronic dietary metal exposure in birds may have adverse reproductive effects which include decreased egg production, decreased hatchability, and increased hatchling mortality. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the heavy metal sequestration capability of one of the most common wetland plant species Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland. The accumulation of the different elements was in order of Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mo > Co > Cr > Cd > Ni. Translocation factor, i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of P. australis, thus reducing the supply of metals to avifauna and preventing their bio-accumulation. PMID:24933910

  12. The profile of head injuries and traumatic brain injury deaths in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Yattoo, GH; Tabish, Amin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted on patients of head injury admitted through Accident & Emergency Department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences during the year 2004 to determine the number of head injury patients, nature of head injuries, condition at presentation, treatment given in hospital and the outcome of intervention. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) deaths were also studied retrospectively for a period of eight years (1996 to 2003). The traumatic brain injury deaths showed a steady increase in number from year 1996 to 2003 except for 1999 that showed decline in TBI deaths. TBI deaths were highest in age group of 21–30 years (18.8%), followed by 11–20 years age group (17.8%) and 31–40 years (14.3%). The TBI death was more common in males. Maximum number of traumatic brain injury deaths was from rural areas as compared to urban areas. To minimize the morbidity and mortality resulting from head injury there is a need for better maintenance of roads, improvement of road visibility and lighting, proper mechanical maintenance of automobile and other vehicles, rigid enforcement of traffic rules, compulsory wearing of crash helmets by motor cyclist and scooterists and shoulder belt in cars and imparting compulsory road safety education to school children from primary education level. Moreover, appropriate medical care facilities (including trauma centres) need to be established at district level, sub-divisional and block levels to provide prompt and quality care to head injury patients PMID:18570674

  13. Epidemiology of Cancers in Kashmir, India: An Analysis of Hospital Data.

    PubMed

    Qurieshi, Mariya A; Khan, S M Salim; Masoodi, Muneer A; Qurieshi, Uruj; Ain, Quratul; Jan, Yasmeen; Haq, Inaamul; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. The aim of the present study was to measure the pattern of different cancers in Kashmir, India, a cancer belt with peculiar cancer profile. A hospital based cancer registry was started by the Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, in January 2006, wherein information was collected from cancer patients who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital. Data has been analysed for a period extending from January 2006 to December 2012. Descriptive analysis has been done by using statistical software. A total of 1598 cancer patients were admitted during this period. Overall male to female ratio was 1.33 : 1. Stomach cancer was the most commonly reported cancer (25.2%), followed by colorectal cancer (16.4%) and lung cancer (13.2%) among males. For females, colorectal cancer (16.8%), breast cancer (16.1%), and stomach cancer (10.4%) were the most frequently reported cancers in order of frequency. Tobacco related cancers contributed to more than three-fourths of cancers among men and more than half of cancers for women. There is an urgent need to set up a population based cancer registration system to understand the profile of cancers specific to this geographic region. PMID:27478644

  14. A₁A₂BO and Rh gene frequencies among six populations of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Mohd; Hussain, Ruqaiya; Shah, Ahsana; Afzal, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    A study was undertaken to record gene frequencies of ABO blood groups, their subtypes and Rh antigen for six different endogamous groups including a tribal population. The ABO phenotypic frequency varies among six different populations showing significant difference (p<0.0005). Gujjar and Bakarwal (a tribal population) shows highest (42.29%) of B blood phenotypes. A1 is the highest among Syeds (39.31%), O blood group frequency highest among Mughals (43.23%) and A1B and A2B are rare phenotypes showing very low frequency among all populations. The pattern of allele frequencies (p<0.025) is in order of I(O)>I(B)>I(A1)>I(A2), except Syeds (I(O)>I(A1)>I(B)>I(A2)). The rhesus protein (Rh) phenotypic frequency (p<0.01) shows significant increase in Rh(D) positive (87.86% in Syed to 96.03% in Khan) among all populations. The Rh allele (p<0.05) and genotype (p<0.02) frequencies shows a significant difference. Heterozygosity for Rh protein is less than homozygosity among six populations. The result from this study provides information on the genetic variation in blood antigens and rhesus protein among human populations inhabiting Jammu and Kashmir. PMID:24485956

  15. Rapid Assessment of Earthquakes with Radar and Optical Geodetic Imaging and Finite Fault Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sladen, A.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Yun, S.; Li, Z.; Avouac, J.; Leprince, S.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake responders need to know where the earthquake has caused damage and what is the likely intensity of damage. The earliest information comes from global and regional seismic networks, which provide the magnitude and locations of the main earthquake hypocenter and moment tensor centroid and also the locations of aftershocks. Location accuracy depends on the availability of seismic data close to the earthquake source. Finite fault models of the earthquake slip can be derived from analysis of seismic waveforms alone, but the results can have large errors in the location of the fault ruptures and spatial distribution of slip, which are critical for estimating the distribution of shaking and damage. Geodetic measurements of ground displacements with GPS, LiDAR, or radar and optical imagery provide key spatial constraints on the location of the fault ruptures and distribution of slip. Here we describe the analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and sub-pixel correlation (or pixel offset tracking) of radar and optical imagery to measure ground coseismic displacements for recent large earthquakes, and lessons learned for rapid assessment of future events. These geodetic imaging techniques have been applied to the 2010 Leogane, Haiti; 2010 Maule, Chile; 2010 Baja California, Mexico; 2008 Wenchuan, China; 2007 Tocopilla, Chile; 2007 Pisco, Peru; 2005 Kashmir; and 2003 Bam, Iran earthquakes, using data from ESA Envisat ASAR, JAXA ALOS PALSAR, NASA Terra ASTER and CNES SPOT5 satellite instruments and the NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne system. For these events, the geodetic data provided unique information on the location of the fault or faults that ruptured and the distribution of slip that was not available from the seismic data and allowed the creation of accurate finite fault source models. In many of these cases, the fault ruptures were on previously unknown faults or faults not believed to be at high risk of earthquakes, so the area and degree of

  16. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

  17. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) Haplotypes are Associated with Increased Risk of Gastric Cancer in Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Manzoor A.; Srivastava, Priya; Zargar, Showkat A.; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim: Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and progression of several types of cancers. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2274223) in PLCE1 has been identified as a novel susceptibility locus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of three potentially functional SNPs (rs2274223A > G, rs3765524C > T, and rs7922612C > T) of PLCE1 in gastric cancer patients from Kashmir Valley. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in 108 GC cases and 195 healthy controls from Kashmir Valley. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Data were statistically analyzed using χ2 test and logistic regression models. A P value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The frequency of PLCE1 A2274223C3765524T7922612, G2274223C3765524T7922612, and G2274223T3765524C7922612 haplotypes were higher in patients compared with controls, conferred high risk for GC [odds ratio (OR) =6.29; P = 0.001; Pcorr = 0.003], (OR = 3.23; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033), and (OR = 5.14; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033), respectively. Smoking and salted tea are independent risk factors for GC, but we did not find any significant modulation of cancer risk by PLCE1 variants with smoking or excessive consumption of salted tea. Conclusion: These results suggest that variation in PLCE1 may be associated with GC risk in Kashmir Valley. PMID:25434319

  18. Pakistan (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Pakistan's crude birth rate at present is 40/1000. The Pakistan Fertility Survey (PFS) of 1974-75 showed a marital total fertility rate of 8 and marital gross reproduction rate of 3.9. The total fertility rate is estimated at around 6. Evaluation of past family planning activities indicates that the impact of the program on the birth rate has been minimal. Although a large majority of married women know about family planning methods, few fertile couples use a method. Of the 90% of respondents in the PFS who had never used a method, 57% indicated they intended to use a method at some point and 23% said they did not. The average age of all current users was 34 in 1975. Preliminary results of a contraceptive prevalence survey indicate that current use is 10%. The crude birth rate was 46 or 47/1000 in 1965 when an official population program was initiated. The gains from the reduction of the total fertility rate have been partly offset by change in the age structure. Pakistan's population policy was formulated in light of the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action. The program approach is multidisciplinary and due consideration is given to the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development stratgey. The program relies primarily on community participation and involvement of local leadership to promote acceptability. At the federal level, the major focus of the program is on development of national policy, planning and coordination, funding, training, procurement of contraceptives and equipment, research and evaluation, monitoring, and statistics. The population welfare departments at the provincial level are responsible for the administration and supervision of all field activities relating to service delivery, motivation, training, coordination, monitoring, evaluation, and feedback

  19. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  20. Astronomical tides and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Mao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2001-03-01

    A review on the studies of correlation between astronomical tides and earthquakes is given in three categories, including (1) earthquakes and the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth, (2) earthquakes and the periods and phases of tides and (3) earthquakes and the tidal stress. The first two categories mainly investigate whether or not there exist any dominant pattern of the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth during earthquakes, whether or not the occurrences of earthquakes are clustered in any special phase during a tidal period, whether or not there exists any tidal periodic phenomenon in seismic activities, By empasizing the tidal stress in seismic focus, the third category investigates the relationship between various seismic faults and the triggering effects of tidal stress, which reaches the crux of the issue. Possible reasons to various inconsistent investigation results by using various methods and samples are analyzed and further investigations are proposed.

  1. NCEER seminars on earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantelic, J.

    1987-01-01

    In May of 1986, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) in Buffalo, New York, held the first seminar in its new monthly forum called Seminars on Earthquakes. The Center's purpose in initiating the seminars was to educate the audience about earthquakes, to facilitate cooperation between the NCEER and visiting researchers, and to enable visiting speakers to learn more about the NCEER   

  2. Earthquake swarms in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

  3. Earthquake at 40 feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  4. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals. PMID:12341468

  5. Prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shera, A S; Jawad, F; Maqsood, A

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and the contributing risk factors were estimated by performing a cross-sectional survey conducted earlier in the rural and urban areas of all the four provinces of Pakistan. The statistical analysis was performed from the obtained results by using SPSS version 12.0. The total number of subjects examined were 5433 which included 1893 males (1208 in rural and 685 in urban areas) and 3540 females (2243 in rural and 1297 in urban areas). The prevalence of diabetes in the urban versus the rural areas was 6.0% in men and 3.5% in women against 6.9% in men and 2.5% in women, respectively. Newly diagnosed diabetes was 5.1% in men and 6.8% in women in urban areas and 5.0% in men and 4.8% in women in rural areas. IGT in the urban versus the rural areas was 6.3% in men and 14.2% in women against 6.9% in men and 10.9% in women, respectively. Overall glucose intolerance (DM+IGT) was 22.04% in urban and 17.15% in rural areas. The major risk factors identified were age, positive family history and obesity especially central obesity. PMID:17005289

  6. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  7. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  8. Production of crude oils in Pakistan: Outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pakistan`s sedimentary basins cover an area of 827,000 km{sub 2} that stretches from the Karakurum Mountains in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. The first exploration well in the region was drilled near Kundal in 1866, just seven years after the Drake well in Pennsylvania. To date, 384 exploration wells have been drilled in Pakistan resulting in 45 oil and 55 gas discoveries, thus generating a highly favourable success ratio of 1:4. The drilling density in Pakistan is one well/1000 square kilometers. Pakistan has proven oil reserves of around 500 million barrels of oil, whereas proven gas reserves are about 31 trillion cubic feet. However, Pakistan`s resource potential is estimated to be 40 billion barrels of oil and 200 TCF of gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (i) habitat and production of crude oil in Pakistan, (ii) Pakistan`s current energy needs and future outlook, and (iii) steps being taken by the Government of Pakistan to promote exploration for oil and gas.

  9. Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Contains the contents of the Student Investigation booklet of a Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional modules on earthquakes. Includes objectives, procedures, illustrations, worksheets, and summary questions. (MA)

  10. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  11. Missing Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ≥ 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw≥8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw≥8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough

  12. Prevalence of Myopia in Students of Srinagar City of Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ishfaq; Mian, Seema; Mudasir, Syed; Andrabi, K. I.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Myopia is a common ocular disorder. Prevalence data with regard to myopia is scarce in India and almost nonexistent in Kashmir. Objective: To determine the prevalence of myopia in Srinagar City and to evaluate risk factors associated with the disease. Methods: 38 schools in the Srinagar were selected randomly and students were examined by our optometrist team. Children with refractive error of −0.25 D to −5.9 D were considered myopic, while those with −6 D and above were considered high myopic. Statistical analysis used: χ2 Tests were used as appropriate to test whether potential risk factors were significantly associated with myopia. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for risk factors that were independently associated with myopia in this population. Results: A total of 4,360 students of mean age 12.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.99 – 12.22: range, 7–18) participated in the study. Myopia was found in 4.74% students. Increasing age was associated with the increased risk of having myopia. Girl students were more likely to have myopia than boys (OR = 1.52). The prevalence of myopia among girls was more than that of boys. Students from low socioeconomic conditions were having higher prevalence of myopia than their counterparts from higher socioeconomic counterparts. Conclusion: Reduced vision because of myopia is an important health problem in students in Srinagar City. Most of these students do not have the necessary correction spectacles. Effective strategies are needed to eliminate the cause of a significant visual problem. PMID:21475475

  13. Causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Ahangar, Andleeb; Sufi, Aalia Rasool; Nabi, Mushood; Rather, Muddasar Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Cataract surgery is aimed at restoring sight to near normal vision. This study, conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, is an attempt to determine the causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir. One hundred patients who underwent cataract surgery with an unaided visual acuity of <6/9 at 16 weeks postoperatively were included in the study. Postoperative follow-up examinations were conducted until the 16th week. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded to determine the cause of subnormal vision. Of 100 patients, 40 underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE), 30 underwent small incision cataract surgery (SICS) and 30 underwent phacoemulsification. Seventy-five percent of the patients who underwent ECCE had postoperative astigmatism with a mean astigmatism of 2.2 ± 0.81 diopters at 16 weeks, with the majority having with-the-rule astigmatism. In the SICS group, 17 (56.6 %) patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.75 ± 0.40 diopters, with the majority (82.3 %) having against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. In the phacoemulsification group, 13 (43.3 %) of the patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.48 ± 0.23 diopters with the majority having ATR astigmatism. Other causes of subnormal vision were pseudophakic ametropia, posterior capsular opacity and intraoperative complications like posterior capsular rent and vitreous loss. Postoperative astigmatism was the major cause of subnormal vision with greater astigmatism seen in the ECCE group. Therefore, procedures like smaller incision sutureless surgery and careful biometry are advocated to improve visual outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:24522881

  14. Sustainability of winter tourism in a changing climate over Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Marazi, Asif

    2014-04-01

    Mountain areas are sensitive to climate change. Implications of climate change can be seen in less snow, receding glaciers, increasing temperatures, and decreasing precipitation. Climate change is also a severe threat to snow-related winter sports such as skiing, snowboarding, and cross-country skiing. The change in climate will put further pressure on the sensitive environment of high mountains. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to know the impact of climate change on the snow precipitation, water resources, and winter tourism in the two famous tourist resorts of the Kashmir Valley. Our findings show that winters are getting prolonged with little snow falls on account of climate change. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are showing statistically significant increasing trends for winter months. The precipitation is showing decreasing trends in both the regions. A considerable area in these regions remains under the snow and glacier cover throughout the year especially during the winter and spring seasons. However, time series analysis of LandSat MODIS images using Normalized Difference Snow Index shows a decreasing trend in snow cover in both the regions from past few years. Similarly, the stream discharge, comprising predominantly of snow- and glacier-melt, is showing a statistically significant declining trend despite the melting of these glaciers. The predicted futuristic trends of temperature from Predicting Regional Climates for Impact Studies regional climate model are showing an increase which may enhance snow-melting in the near future posing a serious threat to the sustainability of winter tourism in the region. Hence, it becomes essential to monitor the changes in temperature and snow cover depletion in these basins in order to evaluate their effect on the winter tourism and water resources in the region. PMID:24318957

  15. Opportunistic fungi in lake water and fungal infections in associated human population in Dal Lake, Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Ganai, Bashir A; Lone, Bashir A

    2016-04-01

    Natural habitats of opportunistic fungal pathogens are outside of the host; therefore, it is critically important to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of human pathogenic opportunistic fungi in lake water and incidence of fungal infections in associated population in Kashmir, India. Six hundred forty water samples were taken on seasonal basis from a wide network of sampling stations of the lake for an extended period of two years for screening their occurrence. The samples were inoculated onto rose bengal agar, malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and other specified culture media supplemented with Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin followed by incubation at 37 °C. All the samples were positive for fungi, which were later identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region aided by classical morphological culture techniques and physiological profiling. The whole process led to the isolation of sixteen species of opportunistic fungal pathogens belonging to genus Aspergillus, Candida, Penicillium, Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Mucor in decreasing order of prevalence. Furthermore, 20% population (n = 384) of Dal inhabitants was examined for possible fungal infections and it was observed that only 8.07% individuals were positive for fungal infections with 4.68% skin infection cases, 2.34% onychomycosis cases and 1.04% candidiasis cases. Scrapings from onychomycosis and candidiasis patients showed the presence of Aversicolor and Calbicans respectively, resembling exactly the strains isolated from the lake water. However, the skin infection was because of a dermatophyte not isolated for the lake water. Higher prevalence of infection (6.77%) was seen in people using lake water followed by a positive prevalence of 1.30% using tap water. The results of present study suggest that the lake inhabitants are at a greater risk of getting life threatening fungal diseases which may lead to

  16. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  17. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  18. Can we control earthquakes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    In 1966, it was discovered that high pressure injection of industrial waste fluids into the subsurface near Denver, Colo., was triggering earthquakes. While this was disturbing at the time, it was also exciting because there was immediate speculation that here at last was a mechanism to control earthquakes.  

  19. Earthquake history of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen earthquakes, intensity V or greater, have centered in Texas since 1882, when the first shock was reported. The strongest earthquake, a maximum intensity VIII, was in western Texas in 1931 and was felt over 1 165 000 km 2. Three shocks in the Panhandle region in 1925, 1936, and 1943 were widely felt. 

  20. Earthquake research in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    The prediction of the Haicheng earthquake was an extraordinary achievement by the geophysical workers of the People's Republic of China, whose national program in earthquake reserach was less than 10 years old at the time. To study the background to this prediction, a delgation of 10 U.S scientists, which I led, visited China in June 1976. 

  1. Earthquakes and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  2. Modeling earthquake dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Arthur; Durand, Marilou

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate questions arising in Parsons and Geist (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1-11, 2012). Pseudo causal models connecting magnitudes and waiting times are considered, through generalized regression. We do use conditional model (magnitude given previous waiting time, and conversely) as an extension to joint distribution model described in Nikoloulopoulos and Karlis (Environmetrics 19: 251-269, 2008). On the one hand, we fit a Pareto distribution for earthquake magnitudes, where the tail index is a function of waiting time following previous earthquake; on the other hand, waiting times are modeled using a Gamma or a Weibull distribution, where parameters are functions of the magnitude of the previous earthquake. We use those two models, alternatively, to generate the dynamics of earthquake occurrence, and to estimate the probability of occurrence of several earthquakes within a year or a decade.

  3. BCG-vaccination programme in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, Erik; Christensen, Hans; Iversen, Erik

    1957-01-01

    The authors outline the development and organization of the BCG-vaccination campaign that was launched in August 1949 by the Government of Pakistan, with assistance from the International Tuberculosis Campaign. They present some statistical data on the work done up to the end of December 1954 and briefly discuss the pattern of tuberculin sensitivity found in various parts of the country. PMID:13489463

  4. SeaWiFS: Pakistan Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image collected on November 3, 2001 depicts a dust storm blowing southward over the northern end of the Arabian Sea from Pakistan and Iran. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. The population policy imperatives: the Pakistan experience.

    PubMed

    Jillani, M S

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan has a current population of 123 million which is projected to grow to 150 million by the year 2000. Concern for population policy, however, has existed in the context of development in Pakistan since the first 5-year Plan of 1955-1960. The family planning program in Pakistan was then included in the second 5-year plan of 1960-65 and has since been a large program. Family planning efforts and population policy are described for Pakistan from the first 5-year plan through 1993. Review reveals that political support and strategies have changed frequently and have adversely affected the family planning program. Funds allocated for the program increased from one plan period to another, but the program has failed to make an impact commensurate with its size and expenditure. Major factors have been the inadequate coverage of population and lack of a systematic approach. Suffering setbacks in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the program did, however, regain momentum through stronger leadership at the political and administrative levels. Efforts are currently being made to improve the coverage and implementation of the Population Welfare Program along with others in the social sector to get the desired annual population growth rate of 2.5% by the year 2000. PMID:12344807

  6. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  7. Administering and Preserving District Records in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moir, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a 1986-87 study of the value, storage conditions, use, and management of district records in Pakistan. Possible solutions to some of the problems identified are analyzed. Recommendations include relocation of records, microfilming, and development of records management and public access policies. Several immediate actions are also…

  8. Library Web OPACs in Pakistan: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse features and functions of indigenously developed web-based catalogues of academic, special and national libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of 16 OPACs is based on a 91-item checklist developed with the help of previous studies conducted in other countries. Findings: The paper…

  9. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  10. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  11. Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the correlation between educational policies and political conditions as an indicator of socialization in the nation and state building process in Pakistan. Because of the discrepancies between official statements and the level of ethnic conflict, this study seeks to analyze the standard national social studies curriculum for…

  12. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  13. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  14. The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna. PMID:24870331

  15. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  16. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth. PMID:12284521

  17. Indian Independence and the Question of Pakistan. [Student Text and] Teacher Resource Book. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    This document includes a student text and a teacher resource book. The student booklet provides an overview of the history of the Indian subcontinent, focuses on key events leading up to partition, and explores the origins of the conflict in Kashmir. It notes that to understand the conflict in Kashmir, people must examine the period of British…

  18. The mass balance of earthquakes and earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, O.; Hovius, N.; Meunier, P.

    2016-04-01

    Large, compressional earthquakes cause surface uplift as well as widespread mass wasting. Knowledge of their trade-off is fragmentary. Combining a seismologically consistent model of earthquake-triggered landsliding and an analytical solution of coseismic surface displacement, we assess how the mass balance of single earthquakes and earthquake sequences depends on fault size and other geophysical parameters. We find that intermediate size earthquakes (Mw 6-7.3) may cause more erosion than uplift, controlled primarily by seismic source depth and landscape steepness, and less so by fault dip and rake. Such earthquakes can limit topographic growth, but our model indicates that both smaller and larger earthquakes (Mw < 6, Mw > 7.3) systematically cause mountain building. Earthquake sequences with a Gutenberg-Richter distribution have a greater tendency to lead to predominant erosion, than repeating earthquakes of the same magnitude, unless a fault can produce earthquakes with Mw > 8 or more.

  19. The impact of the disease early warning system in responding to natural disasters and conflict crises in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahim, M; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Munir, M; Khan, A R

    2010-01-01

    The disease early warning system (DEWS) was introduced in the immediate aftermath of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, with the objective to undertake prompt investigation and mitigation of disease outbreaks. The DEWS network was replicated successfully during subsequent flood and earthquake disasters as well as during the 2008-09 internally displaced persons' crisis. DEWS-generated alerts, prompt investigations and timely responses had an effective contribution to the control of epidemics. Through DEWS, 1360 reported alerts during 2005-09 averted the risk of disease outbreaks through pre-emptive necessary measures, while the 187 confirmed outbreaks were effectively controlled. In the aftermath of the disasters, DEWS technology also facilitated the development of a disease-surveillance system that became an integral part of the district health system. This study aims to report the DEWS success and substantiate its lead role as a priority emergency health response intervention. PMID:21495597

  20. Spatio-temporal patterns and factors controlling the hydrogeochemistry of the river Jhelum basin, Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Mir, Riyaz Ahmad; Jeelani, Gh; Dar, Farooq Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    River Jhelum is a major source of water for growing population and irrigation in the Kashmir Himalaya. The region is trending towards water scarcity as well as quality deterioration stage due to its highly unregulated development. The existence of few literature on various aspects of the basin prompts us to study the spatio-temporal variability of its physicochemical parameters and thereby to understand the regulating hydrogeochemical mechanisms based on 50 samples collected during high flow (June 2008) and low flow (January 2009) periods. The water chemistry exhibited significant spatial variability reflecting the mixing processes in the basin. The seasonal effect does change the concentration of ions significantly with modest variability in the order of ionic abundance. The Ca(2+) ion among cations and HCO3 (-) ion among anions dominate the ionic budget and correlates significantly with the diverse lithology of the basin. Three major water types, i.e., Ca-Mg-HCO3 (72 %), Ca-HCO3 (12 %), and Mg-Ca-HCO3 (16 %), suggest that the chemical composition of water is dominantly controlled by carbonate lithology, besides a significant contribution from silicates. However, at certain sites, the biological processes and anthropogenic activities play a major role. Relatively, the lower ionic concentration during high flow period (summer season) suggested the significant influence of higher discharge via dilution effect. The higher discharge due to higher rainfall and snow melting in response to rising temperature in this period leads to strong flushing of human and agricultural wastes into the river. The factor analysis also reflected the dominant control of varied lithology and anthropogenic sources on the water quality based on the four significant factors explaining collectively about 70-81 % of the total data variance. A two-member chloride mixing model used to estimate the discharge contribution of tributaries to the main river channel showed reliable results. It may

  1. Kidney patient care in disasters: lessons from the hurricanes and earthquake of 2005.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Jeffrey B; Ball, Lynda K; Cohen, Andrew; Kenney, Robert J; Lempert, Kenneth D; Miller, Paul E; Muntner, Paul; Qureshi, Nauman; Yelton, Sarah A

    2007-07-01

    The active 2005 hurricane season alerted Americans to the pressing need for a more effective response to mass casualty incidents. The kidney patient community was particularly affected. Ninety-four dialysis facilities in the Gulf Coast states closed for at least 1 wk in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and additional units were affected by evacuation of dialysis patients. Dialysis units along the Gulf Coast were also affected by Hurricanes Rita and Wilma. Existing emergency response plans were inadequate in providing continuity of care for kidney patients. The Kashmir, South Asia, earthquake of October 2005 killed 97,000 individuals. Building collapse was associated with widespread crush injury, and many patients required temporary hemodialysis. Several regions of the United States have the potential for catastrophic earthquakes. The Kidney Community Emergency Response Coalition has recently issued recommendations for patients, dialysis facilities, and providers, with a goal to improve care of kidney patients in future domestic disasters. With suitable planning, the nephrology community can do much to ensure the continuity of medical care for kidney patients in the face of a wide range of possible natural and human-made disasters. PMID:17699499

  2. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-07-08

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

  3. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  4. Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    surface. Field investigations have found abundant evidence of mud volcanos, sand boils, and fissures from which salty ground water erupted over an area exceeding 10,000 square kilometers. Evidence of the expelled water can also be seen on the MISR images.

    Notice the delicate, dendritic pattern of stream channels throughout many of the salt-flats on the post-earthquake image, especially due north of the epicenter. These carried water brought to the surface by liquefaction during the earthquake. Areas where shallow surface water is present are much easier to see on the false-color multi-angle composite images. Wet areas are exhibiting a combination of enhanced forward-scattered light due to the reflection by the water, and enhanced backward scattering due to surface roughness or the presence of sediments. This combination results in blue to purple hues.

    The region of sand dunes in the upper right and the Indus River valley and delta in the upper left are inside Pakistan. Near the top of the images, there is an east-west trending linear feature separating the Thar desert of Pakistan from the Rann of Kachchh. This is the Nagar Parkar Fault. On both pre-earthquake images, this feature is evident only from the contrasting brown colors on either side of it. On the post-earthquake images, a narrow ribbon defines the boundary between the two geologic provinces. However, only in the multi-angle composite do we see evidence that this ribbon may be a water-filled channel. Because this area is politically sensitive and fairly inaccessible, no field teams have been able to verify liquefaction effects or the presence of water there.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  6. AGU develops earthquake curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Charles

    AGU, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), announces the production of a new curriculum package for grades 7-12 on the engineering and geophysical aspects of earthquakes.According to Frank Ireton, AGU's precollege education manager, “Both AGU and FEMA are working to promote the understanding of earthquake processes and their impact on the built environment. We are designing a program that involves students in learning how science, mathematics, and social studies concepts can be applied to reduce earthquake hazards.”

  7. Revisiting the November 27, 1945 Makran (Mw=8.2) interplate earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Z.; Raeesi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) in southern Iran and southwestern Pakistan is a zone of convergence, where the remnant oceanic crust of Arabian plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate with a rate of less than 30 mm/yr. The November 27, 1945 earthquake (Mw=8.2) in eastern section of Makran followed by a tsunami, at some points 15 meters high. More than 4000 victims and widespread devastation along the coastal area of Pakistan, Iran, Oman and India are reported for this earthquake. We have collected the old seismograms of the 1945 earthquake and its largest following earthquake (August 5, 1947, Mw=7.3) from a number of stations around the globe. Using ISS data, we relocated these two events. We used the teleseismic body-waveform inversion code of Kikuchi and Kanamori to determine the slip distribution of these two earthquakes for the first time. The results show that the extent of rupture of the 1945 earthquake is larger than what previously had been approximated in other studies. The slip distribution suggests two distinct sets of asperities with different behavior in the west close to Pasni and in the east close to Ormara. The highest slip was obtained for an area between these two cities which shows geological evidence of rapid uplift. To associate this behavior with the structure of slab interface we studied the TPGA (Trench Parallel Free-air Gravity Anomaly) and TPBA (Trench Parallel Bouguer Anomaly) in MSZ. The results of TPGA does not show the expected phenomenon, which is the correlation of asperities with the area of highly negative TPGA. However, TPBA can make correlation between the observed slip distribution and the structure of slab interface. Using the topography and gravity profiles perpendicular to trench and along the MSZ, we could observe the segmentation in the slab interface. This confirms that we barely expect that the whole interface releases energy in one single megathrust earthquake. Current seismicity in MSZ, although sparse, can fairly

  8. Seismic characterization of an active metamorphic massif, Nanga Parbat, Pakistan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, Anne; Sarker, Golam; Beaudoin, Bruce; Seeber, Leonardo; Armbruster, John

    2001-07-01

    Earthquakes recorded by a dense seismic array at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan, provide new insight into synorogenic metamorphism and mass flow during mountain building. Microseismicity beneath the massif drops off sharply with depth and defines a shallow transition between brittle failure and ductile flow. The base of seismicity bows upward, mapping a thermal boundary with 3 km of structural relief over a lateral distance of 12 km. Anomalously low seismic velocities are observed at the core of the massif and extend to depth through the crust. The main locus of seismicity and low velocities correlates with a region of high topography, rapid exhumation, high geothermal gradients, young metamorphic and igneous ages, and crustal fluid flow. We suggest a genetic link between these phenomena in which hot rocks, rapidly advected from depth, are pervasively modified at relatively shallow levels in the crust.

  9. Health issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan: preparation for disasters in future.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Mushtaq, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Army action against terrorism in Pakistan led to the largest human migration in this century. About 3.4 million people (internally displaced persons, IDPs) were displaced. The authors visited all major camps and some houses in Mardan area and interviewed IDPs and doctors at these camps and areas to identify medical needs and current state of provision of medical care. This disaster largely represented displacement of millions of people (IDPs) including women and children to a new weather and environment in overcrowded refugee camps and houses. Influx of large number of displaced people created excessive burden for already deprived local health services. The medical issues and requirements for these IDPs living in camps were totally different from a disaster like earthquake. Global response to this disaster was slow and less effective. The need for a WHO coordination center for creating quick and urgent response for such kind of disasters in future is emphasized in this article. PMID:20496645

  10. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  11. Efficiency Analysis of Basic Health Units: A Comparison of Developed and Deprived Regions in Azad Jammu and Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Razzaq, Sadia; Ali Chaudhary, Amjad; Razzaq Khan, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The current study aims to measure the efficiency of primary health care units completed in health sector of rural Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and to compare it across developed and deprived regions. Methods Operational efficiency and beneficiary efficiency of a total of 32 Basic Health Units (BHUs) were measured through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) by using different input and output variables. Independent sample T-test was applied to compare these efficiencies across developed and deprived regions. Results The study could find no significant difference of operational efficiency across developed and deprived regions, however a significant difference was found across regions from beneficiary perspective (P= 0.044). Conclusion The study concludes that BHUs of deprived region are more efficient from beneficiary perspective, however there is no significant difference of operational efficiency across the regions. PMID:26171334

  12. Nonlinear processes in earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Frohlich, C.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three-dimensional, elastic-wave-propagation calculations were performed to define the effects of near-source geologic structure on the degree to which seismic signals produced by earthquakes resemble {open_quotes}non-double-couple{close_quotes} sources. Signals from sources embedded in a subducting slab showed significant phase and amplitude differences compared with a {open_quotes}no-slab{close_quotes} case. Modifications to the LANL elastic-wave propagation code enabled improved simulations of path effects on earthquake and explosion signals. These simulations demonstrate that near-source, shallow, low-velocity basins can introduce earthquake-like features into explosion signatures through conversion of compressive (P-wave) energy to shear (S- and R-wave) modes. Earthquake sources simulated to date do not show significant modifications.

  13. Forecasting southern california earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, C B; Sieh, K; Sykes, L R; Anderson, D L

    1982-09-17

    Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major destructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence of such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity is associated with a marked deviation in the pattern of strain accumulation, a correlation that is physically plausible. Although great earthquakes (magnitude greater than 7.5) are too infrequent to have clear associations with any pattern of seismicity that is now observed, the San Andreas fault in southern California has accumulated sufficient potential displacement since the last rupture in 1857 to generate a great earthquake along part or all of its length. PMID:17740956

  14. To capture an earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, W.L. )

    1990-11-01

    An earthquake model based on the theory of plate tectonics is presented. It is assumed that the plates behave elastically in response to slow, steady motions and the strains concentrate within the boundary zone between the plates. When the accumulated stresses exceed the bearing capacity of the rocks, the rocks break, producing an earthquake and releasing the accumulated stresses. As the steady movement of the plates continues, strain begins to reaccumulate. The cycle of strain accumulation and release is modeled using the motion of a block, pulled across a rough surface by a spring. A model earthquake can be predicted by taking into account a precursory event or the peak spring force prior to slip as measured in previous cycles. The model can be applied to faults, e.g., the San Andreas fault, if the past earthquake history of the fault and the rate of strain accumulation are known.

  15. Conflict Bear Translocation: Investigating Population Genetics and Fate of Bear Translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth ‘conflict bears’ from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape. PMID:26267280

  16. Seasonal impact on the prevalence of coccidian infection in broiler chicks across poultry farms in the Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Shazia; Tanveer, Syed; Malik, Tauseef Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The information on the epidemiology and control of coccidian parasites of broilers in Kashmir valley is based on the reports available from other regions of the world. With this background, the present study was conducted to investigate the seasonal prevalence of the disease in the temperate agro-climatic conditions of Kashmir valley. A standard protocol for sampling was followed according to which five birds per 10,000 is sufficient to diagnose coccidiosis. Microscopic examination (under 10× and 40× objective lens) was used to reveal the presence of coccidial oocysts. Different species of genus Eimeria were identified on the basis of their predilection site, morphology and size. Coccidiosis was most prevalent in autumn 45.12 ± 2.55 (September 47.5 %, October 42.42 % and November 45.46 %) followed by summer 30.84 ± 6.86, spring 23.81 ± 2.81 and winter 20.29 ± 6.40. In summer, prevalence of disease was low but afterwards prevalence of disease rose up from August to October. In spite of high relative humidity in winter, disease showed low prevalence rate. Over all prevalence for the whole year was 29.87 %. Among species Eimeria tenella was the most dominant parasite showing highest prevalence of 18.13 %. Variation in incidence of coccidiosis with respect to seasons showed a strong correlation and data was found to be statistically significant with P < 0.05. The results obtained would be quite useful to devise appropriate and effective control strategies and prophylactic programs for coccidiosis in poultry unique to this climatic zone and other parts of the world with similar climatic and poultry production systems. PMID:26688644

  17. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape. PMID:26267280

  18. Evolution and Dynamics of a Fold-Thrust Belt: The Sulaiman Range of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, K.; Copley, A.; Hussain, E.

    2014-12-01

    Plan-view curvature of geological structures and range-front topography has long been a recognized and debated feature of both ancient and active fold-thrust belts. As part of the largest active mountain range on Earth, much of the body of work surrounding this topic has focused on the Tibetan Plateau. A lack of published data, extremely limited geodetic coverage and difficulty of access mean there have been relatively few studies of the western part of the India-Asia collision zone, where the Himalaya curve to the southwest into the lobate fold-thrust belts of Pakistan. The widest of these, the Sulaiman Range, forms a strongly curved lobe with ~300km across-strike width. We present observations and models of the Sulaiman Range of western Pakistan that shed new light on the evolution and deformation of fold-thrust belts. Earthquake source inversions show that the seismic deformation in the range is concentrated in the thick pile of sediments overlying the underthrusting lithosphere of the Indian subcontinent. The slip vectors of the earthquakes vary in strike around the margin of the range, in tandem with the shape of the topography, suggesting that gravitational driving forces arising from the topography play an important role in governing the deformation of the region. Numerical models suggest that the active deformation, and extreme plan-view curvature of the range, are governed by the presence of weak sediments in a pre-existing basin on the underthrusting Indian plate. These sediments affect the stress-state in the over-riding mountain range and allow for the rapid propagation of the nose of the range and the development of extreme curvature and laterally-varying surface gradients.

  19. Earthquake education in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  20. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

  1. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  2. Indus basin off Pakistan contains few wells

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1997-06-16

    The U.N. Conference on the Law of the Sea reaffirmed sovereignty of nations over 22 km of territorial sea, a 370 km Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and rights over the continental shelf to at least 370 km and out to 648 km or beyond under specified conditions. With a coast line of about 990 km, the EEZ for Pakistan extends over an area almost 240,000 sq km, or 40% of the land sedimentary area, in which two distinct geological provinces, and the Indus Offshore and the Makran offshore, have been defined. The paper discusses the tectonics, structure, exploration history, and play types offshore Pakistan. Data show a potential for both oil and gas.

  3. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  4. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  5. The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

    2009-04-01

    A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  6. Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, R

    1987-01-01

    Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots. PMID:12281001

  7. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  8. Variation of biomass and carbon pools with forest type in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-02-01

    An accurate characterization of tree, understory, deadwood, floor litter, and soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in temperate forest ecosystems is important to estimate their contribution to global carbon (C) stocks. However, this information on temperate forests of the Himalayas is lacking and fragmented. In this study, we measured C stocks of tree (aboveground and belowground biomass), understory (shrubs and herbaceous), deadwood (standing and fallen trees and stumps), floor litter, and soil from 111 plots of 50 m × 50 m each, in seven forest types: Populus deltoides (PD), Juglans regia (JR), Cedrus deodara (CD), Pinus wallichiana (PW), mixed coniferous (MC), Abies pindrow (AP), and Betula utilis (BU) in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India. The main objective of the present study is to quantify the ecosystem C pool in these seven forest types. The results showed that the tree biomass ranged from 100.8 Mg ha(-1) in BU forest to 294.8 Mg ha(-1) for the AP forest. The understory biomass ranged from 0.16 Mg ha(-1) in PD forest to 2.36 Mg ha(-1) in PW forest. Deadwood biomass ranged from 1.5 Mg ha(-1) in PD forest to 14.9 Mg ha(-1) for the AP forest, whereas forest floor litter ranged from 2.5 Mg ha(-1) in BU and JR forests to 3.1 Mg ha(-1) in MC forest. The total ecosystem carbon stocks varied from 112.5 to 205.7 Mg C ha(-1) across all the forest types. The C stocks of tree, understory, deadwood, litter, and soil ranged from 45.4 to 135.6, 0.08 to 1.18, 0.7 to 6.8, 1.1 to 1.4, and 39.1-91.4 Mg ha(-1), respectively, which accounted for 61.3, 0.2, 1.4, 0.8, and 36.3 % of the total carbon stock. BU forest accounted 65 % from soil C and 35 % from biomass, whereas PD forest contributed only 26 % from soil C and 74 % from biomass. Of the total C stock in the 0-30-cm soil, about 55 % was stored in the upper 0-10 cm. Soil C stocks in BU forest were significantly higher than those in other forests. The variability of C pools of different ecosystem components is

  9. Trends, Issues and Challenges in English Language Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamim, Fauzia

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and…

  10. 75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-21020 Filed 8-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13550 of August 18, 2010 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support... temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec. 2. Purpose...

  11. Evaluation Study of Early Childhood Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Umbreen

    2011-01-01

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) was globally and locally an innovation, particularly in third world. The objective of this study was to investigate an impact evaluation of ECE initiated recently in Pakistan. The data of impact evaluation were drawn from three ECE Centers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan. Total samples of 65…

  12. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  13. Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2010-01-01

    "Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

  14. Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Raana

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

  15. A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2007-01-01

    Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students'…

  16. Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

    2010-01-01

    The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time. PMID:20874597

  17. Empowerment of Women through Distance Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhsh, Qadir

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to highlight the gender disparities of Pakistan as well as at regional and international level. The study, measured the comparative outcome of formal and non-formal system of education in Pakistan. To achieve the desired goal, documentary analysis was considered appropriate. The number of schools and enrollment…

  18. Ethnic Nationalities, Education, and Problems of National Integration in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    1988-01-01

    This study analyzes the standard Pakistan social studies curriculum to investigate (1) the extent to which it represents ethnic nationalities of Pakistan, and (2) the extent to which it demonstrates its contribution to the process of national cohesion and integration. The findings presented are based on a content analysis (both trend and variable)…

  19. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

  20. Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended that the United States…

  1. Early Years Education in Pakistan: Trends, Issues and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the programme of provision of early childhood education and care (ECEC) which is currently urgently needed to support the development of children from birth to eight years in Pakistan. It begins by emphasizing the global recognition of the importance of such provision, before describing the recent history of ECEC in Pakistan,…

  2. Triggering of repeated earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.; Zakrzhevskaya, N. A.; Sobolev, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the world's earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.5 for 1960-2013, it is shown that they cause global-scale coherent seismic oscillations which most distinctly manifest themselves in the period interval of 4-6 min during 1-3 days after the event. After these earthquakes, a repeated shock has an increased probability to occur in different seismically active regions located as far away as a few thousand km from the previous event, i.e., a remote interaction of seismic events takes place. The number of the repeated shocks N( t) decreases with time, which characterizes the memory of the lithosphere about the impact that has occurred. The time decay N( t) can be approximated by the linear, exponential, and powerlaw dependences. No distinct correlation between the spatial locations of the initial and repeated earthquakes is revealed. The probable triggering mechanisms of the remote interaction between the earthquakes are discussed. Surface seismic waves traveling several times around the Earth's, coherent oscillations, and global source are the most preferable candidates. This may lead to the accumulation and coalescence of ruptures in the highly stressed or weakened domains of a seismically active region, which increases the probability of a repeated earthquake.

  3. Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

  4. Earthquakes: Megathrusts and mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Rich

    2016-05-01

    Coastlines above subduction zones slowly emerge from the sea despite repeated drowning by great, shallow earthquakes. Analysis of the Chilean coast suggests that moderate-to-large, deeper earthquakes may be responsible for the net uplift.

  5. Distribution of similar earthquakes in aftershocks of inland earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Aftershock Observations Of 2007 Noto Hanto, G.

    2010-12-01

    Frictional properties control the slip behavior on a fault surface such as seismic slip and aseismic slip. Asperity, as a seismic slip area, is characterized by a strong coupling in the interseismic period and large coseismic slip. On the other hand, steady slip or afterslip occurs in an aseismic slip area around the asperity. If an afterslip area includes small asperities, a repeating rupture of single asperity can generate similar earthquakes due to the stress accumulation caused by the afterslip. We here investigate a detail distribution of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (Mjma 6.9) and the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mjma 7.3), inland large earthquakes in Japan. We use the data obtained by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake. First, we select pairs of aftershocks whose cross correlation coefficients in 10 s time window of band-pass filtered waveforms of 1~4 Hz are greater than 0.95 at more than 5 stations and divide those into groups by a link of the cross correlation coefficients. Second, we reexamine the arrival times of P and S waves and the maximum amplitude for earthquakes of each group and apply the double-difference method (Waldhouser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate them. As a result of the analysis, we find 24 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and 86 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. Most of them are distributed around or outside the asperity of the main shock. Geodetic studies reported that postseismic deformation was detected for the both earthquakes (Sagiya et al., 2002; Hashimoto et al., 2008). The source area of similar earthquakes seems to correspond to the afterslip area. These features suggest that the similar earthquakes observed

  6. Testing earthquake predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luen, Brad; Stark, Philip B.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical tests of earthquake predictions require a null hypothesis to model occasional chance successes. To define and quantify 'chance success' is knotty. Some null hypotheses ascribe chance to the Earth: Seismicity is modeled as random. The null distribution of the number of successful predictions - or any other test statistic - is taken to be its distribution when the fixed set of predictions is applied to random seismicity. Such tests tacitly assume that the predictions do not depend on the observed seismicity. Conditioning on the predictions in this way sets a low hurdle for statistical significance. Consider this scheme: When an earthquake of magnitude 5.5 or greater occurs anywhere in the world, predict that an earthquake at least as large will occur within 21 days and within an epicentral distance of 50 km. We apply this rule to the Harvard centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) catalog for 2000-2004 to generate a set of predictions. The null hypothesis is that earthquake times are exchangeable conditional on their magnitudes and locations and on the predictions - a common "nonparametric" assumption in the literature. We generate random seismicity by permuting the times of events in the CMT catalog. We consider an event successfully predicted only if (i) it is predicted and (ii) there is no larger event within 50 km in the previous 21 days. The P-value for the observed success rate is <0.001: The method successfully predicts about 5% of earthquakes, far better than 'chance' because the predictor exploits the clustering of earthquakes - occasional foreshocks - which the null hypothesis lacks. Rather than condition on the predictions and use a stochastic model for seismicity, it is preferable to treat the observed seismicity as fixed, and to compare the success rate of the predictions to the success rate of simple-minded predictions like those just described. If the proffered predictions do no better than a simple scheme, they have little value.

  7. Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons.

    PubMed

    Liu, ChiChing; Linde, Alan T; Sacks, I Selwyn

    2009-06-11

    The first reports on a slow earthquake were for an event in the Izu peninsula, Japan, on an intraplate, seismically active fault. Since then, many slow earthquakes have been detected. It has been suggested that the slow events may trigger ordinary earthquakes (in a context supported by numerical modelling), but their broader significance in terms of earthquake occurrence remains unclear. Triggering of earthquakes has received much attention: strain diffusion from large regional earthquakes has been shown to influence large earthquake activity, and earthquakes may be triggered during the passage of teleseismic waves, a phenomenon now recognized as being common. Here we show that, in eastern Taiwan, slow earthquakes can be triggered by typhoons. We model the largest of these earthquakes as repeated episodes of slow slip on a reverse fault just under land and dipping to the west; the characteristics of all events are sufficiently similar that they can be modelled with minor variations of the model parameters. Lower pressure results in a very small unclamping of the fault that must be close to the failure condition for the typhoon to act as a trigger. This area experiences very high compressional deformation but has a paucity of large earthquakes; repeating slow events may be segmenting the stressed area and thus inhibiting large earthquakes, which require a long, continuous seismic rupture. PMID:19516339

  8. Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  9. Earthquakes and Children: The Role of Psychologists with Families and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Guran, Elyse L.

    2010-01-01

    The 2008 Sichuan Province earthquake and 2005 Pakistan earthquake are examples of natural disasters that took an unimaginable toll on children. In such disaster management contexts, family members as well as health care and school personnel are the first-line responders and are natural sources of continued social support as children recover. Although psychologists have increasingly sophisticated understandings of post-disaster reactions and strategies for helping children and adolescents cope with trauma, models for responding to mass catastrophes are limited, particularly in geographically remote communities and in regions where mental health services are stigmatizing. With children's well-being subsequent to earthquakes inextricably linked to family and community, psychologists can make important contributions in three spheres: (a) coordinating and activating collaborations within children's existing social contexts to develop post-earthquake interventions; (b) designing prevention and preparedness programs focused on the emotional needs of children in earthquake-prone communities; and (c) conducting research on interventions and recovery with particular attention to developmental stage, socio-cultural-economic contexts, and the similarities versus differences across various types of disasters. PMID:20428504

  10. Assessment of the Relative Largest Earthquake Hazard Level in the NW Himalaya and its Adjacent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapanos, Theodoros M.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Olasoglou, Efthalia M.; Singh, Mayshree

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the level of the largest earthquake hazard is assessed in 28 seismic zones of the NW Himalaya and its vicinity, which is a highly seismically active region of the world. Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (hereafter as GIII) is adopted for the evaluation of the largest earthquake magnitudes in these seismic zones. Instead of taking in account any type of Mmax, in the present study we consider the ω value which is the largest earthquake magnitude that a region can experience according to the GIII statistics. A function of the form Θ(ω, RP6.0) is providing in this way a relatively largest earthquake hazard scale defined by the letter K(K index). The return periods for the ω values (earthquake magnitudes) 6 or larger (RP6.0) are also calculated. According to this index, the investigated seismic zones are classified into five groups and it is shown that seismic zones 3 (Quetta of Pakistan), 11 (Hindukush), 15 (northern Pamirs), and 23 (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh of India) correspond to a "very high" K index which is 6.

  11. Earthquakes and Children: The Role of Psychologists with Families and Communities.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C; Guran, Elyse L

    2010-02-01

    The 2008 Sichuan Province earthquake and 2005 Pakistan earthquake are examples of natural disasters that took an unimaginable toll on children. In such disaster management contexts, family members as well as health care and school personnel are the first-line responders and are natural sources of continued social support as children recover. Although psychologists have increasingly sophisticated understandings of post-disaster reactions and strategies for helping children and adolescents cope with trauma, models for responding to mass catastrophes are limited, particularly in geographically remote communities and in regions where mental health services are stigmatizing. With children's well-being subsequent to earthquakes inextricably linked to family and community, psychologists can make important contributions in three spheres: (a) coordinating and activating collaborations within children's existing social contexts to develop post-earthquake interventions; (b) designing prevention and preparedness programs focused on the emotional needs of children in earthquake-prone communities; and (c) conducting research on interventions and recovery with particular attention to developmental stage, socio-cultural-economic contexts, and the similarities versus differences across various types of disasters. PMID:20428504

  12. Forecasters of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximova, Lyudmila

    1987-07-01

    For the first time Soviet scientists have set up a bioseismological proving ground which will stage a systematic extensive experiment of using birds, ants, mountain rodents including marmots, which can dig holes in the Earth's interior to a depth of 50 meters, for the purpose of earthquake forecasting. Biologists have accumulated extensive experimental data on the impact of various electromagnetic fields, including fields of weak intensity, on living organisms. As far as mammals are concerned, electromagnetic waves with frequencies close to the brain's biorhythms have the strongest effect. How these observations can be used to forecast earthquakes is discussed.

  13. Earthquakes in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fratto, E. S.; Ebel, J.E.; Kadinsky-Cade, K.

    1990-01-01

    New England has a long history of earthquakes. Some of the first explorers were startled when they experienced strong shaking and rumbling of the earth below their feet. they soon learned from the Indians that this was not an uncommon occurrence in the New World. the Plymouth Pilgrims felt their first earthquake in 1638. that first shock rattled dishes, doors, and buildings. The shaking so frightened those working in the fields that they threw down their tools and ran panic-stricken through the countryside. 

  14. California earthquake history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advancement in our knowledge of California's earthquake history since ??? 1800, and especially during the last 30 years. We first review the basic statewide research on earthquake occurrences that was published from 1928 through 2002, to show how the current catalogs and their levels of completeness have evolved with time. Then we review some of the significant new results in specific regions of California, and some of what remains to be done. Since 1850, 167 potentially damaging earthquakes of M ??? 6 or larger have been identified in California and its border regions, indicating an average rate of 1.1 such events per year. Table I lists the earthquakes of M ??? 6 to 6.5 that were also destructive since 1812 in California and its border regions, indicating an average rate of one such event every ??? 5 years. Many of these occurred before 1932 when epicenters and magnitudes started to be determined routinely using seismographs in California. The number of these early earthquakes is probably incomplete in sparsely populated remote parts of California before ??? 1870. For example, 6 of the 7 pre-1873 events in table I are of M ??? 7, suggesting that other earthquakes of M 6.5 to 6.9 occurred but were not properly identified, or were not destructive. The epicenters and magnitudes (M) of the pre-instrumental earthquakes were determined from isoseismal maps that were based on the Modified Mercalli Intensity of shaking (MMI) at the communities that reported feeling the earthquakes. The epicenters were estimated to be in the regions of most intense shaking, and values of M were estimated from the extent of the areas shaken at various MMI levels. MMI VII or greater shaking is the threshold of damage to weak buildings. Certain areas in the regions of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Eureka were each shaken repeatedly at MMI VII or greater at least six times since ??? 1812, as depicted by Toppozada and Branum (2002, fig. 19).

  15. Headaches prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.

    1988-06-01

    In two surveys of headaches it was noted that their incidence had increased significantly within 48 h prior to earthquakes from an incidence of 17% to 58% in the first survey using correlated samples and from 20.4% to 44% in the second survey using independent samples. It is suggested that an increase in positive air ions from rock compression may trigger head pain via a decrease in brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The findings are presented as preliminary, with the hope of generating further research efforts in areas more prone to earthquakes.

  16. Signal Processing for Indian and Pakistan Nuclear Tests Recorded at IMS Stations Located in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Pinsky, V.; Hofstetter, R.

    - In compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) the International Monitoring System (IMS) was designed for detection and location of the clandestine Nuclear Tests (NT). Two auxiliary IMS seismic stations MRNI and EIL, deployed recently, were subjected to detectability, travel-time calibration and discrimination analysis. The study is based on the three recent 1998 underground nuclear explosions: one of India and two of Pakistan, which provided a ground-truth test of the existing IMS. These events, attaining magnitudes of 5.2, 4.8 and 4.6 correspondingly, were registered by many IMS and other seismic stations.The MRNI and EIL broadband (BB) stations are located in Israel at teleseismic distances (from the explosions) of 3600, 2800 and 2700km, respectively, where the signals from the tests are already weak. The Indian and the second Pakistan NT were not detected by the short-period Israel Seismic Network (ISN), using standard STA/LTA triggering. Therefore, for the chosen IMS stations we compare the STA/LTA response to the results of the more sensitive Murdock-Hutt (MH) and the Adaptive Statistically Optimal Detector (OD) that showed triggering for these three events. The second Pakistan NT signal arrived at the ISN and the IMS stations in the coda of a strong Afghanistan earthquake and was further disturbed by a preceding signal from a local earthquake. However, the NT signal was successfully extracted at EIL and MRNI stations using MH and OD procedures. For comparison we provide the signal analysis of the cooperating BB station JER, with considerably worse noise conditions than EIL and MRNI, and show that OD can detect events when the other algorithms fail. Using the most quiet EIL station, the most sensitive OD and different bandpass filters we tried in addition to detect the small Kazakh chemical 100-ton calibration explosion of 1998, with magnitude 3.7 at a distance approaching 4000km. The detector response curve showed uprising in the

  17. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    PubMed

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution. PMID:12174483

  18. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N; Ringheim, K

    1996-01-01

    This study postulates that contraceptive use in Pakistan is affected by the usual demographic factors as well as husband-wife communication, female autonomy, son preference, religious beliefs, and family planning service supply. Analysis is based on data obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91. Findings indicate that 74% of women never talked in the past year with their husbands about family planning. Almost 60% believed that family size was "up to God." About 47% knew where to obtain contraception; only 20.4% had easy access to a source of supplies. Current use was 14% and ever use was 22.4%. Analysis is based on three basic models. Model 1 includes the control variables and son preference. Model 2 includes husband-wife communication, religious attitudes, and female autonomy. Model 3 includes the addition of family planning to model 2 variables. Urban residence increases the odds of contraceptive use considerably only in Model 1. The influence of urban residence in the other models is reduced. Husband's education is significant only in Models 1 and 2 and insignificant in Model 3 when the family planning variable is included. Increased women's age is also insignificant in Model 3. Of the supply factors in Model 3, knowledge of a source and easy access to a source were highly significant, while mass media exposure was not important. Knowledge of a source was the most important predictor. Model 3 explained 90% of use. Among urban women, lack of husband-wife communication and fatalistic beliefs reduce the log-odds of contraceptive use. For rural women, age and women's secondary education were key predictors. Findings confirm that demographic and socio-cultural factors affect contraceptive use in Pakistan. All the theorized variables exerted a strong influence on contraceptive use, which can be counteracted by improved supply and service strategies. PMID:12292564

  19. Late Cenozoic exhumation and timing of the deformation front of the Kashmir Himalayas from U-Th/(He) thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Malik, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages are used to quantify the recent exhumation pattern associated with fault activity across the Kashmir Himalayas. Here we present data from thirty samples, totaling of 74 individual single-grain apatite and zircon dated aliquots. Cooling age data were collected from (1) molasse sediments of the Murree and Siwalik Formations from structures in the Sub-Himalayan belt (deformed foreland) and from (2) metasediments and plutonic rocks exhumed in the 'hinterland'. Structures of the Sub-Himalayan belt include the Suruin-Mastgarh anticline (SMA) at the deformation front, equivalent to the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT), and emergent local faults to the north (e.g. the Riasi thrust (RT)). In the hinterland, the Main Boundary (MBT) and Main Central (MCT) thrust sheets bound the Sub-Himalayan belt to the north. Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) cooling ages for the molasses sediments are consistently younger than the sediment age indicating that Sub-Himalayan belt samples are reset. Mean cooling age data based on the single grain populations from each sample ranges from ~1-10 Ma. Single grain and mean age probability density plots reveal a period of rapid cooling and exhumation between 1.8-2.75 Ma throughout the Sub-Himalaya. Distributed deformation associated with northward underthrusting along the MHT, and the onset of folding related to the SMA explains the regional exhumation of the Sub-Himalaya after ~2.75 Ma. Four samples from the hinterland MBT and MCT thrust sheets yield AHe cooling ages between ~5-21 Ma. Three of the samples have cooling ages between 4.7-7.2 Ma, likely coeval with activity of the MBT. Zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) samples from the hinterland are younger than the ages of the metasedimentary or plutonic source rocks. Most sample ages from the Sub-Himalaya are older or the same to the depositional age and are therefore detrital. Probability density plots of hinterland ZHe data show a pronounced spike in cooling between 16-21 Ma

  20. Earthquake prediction comes of age

    SciTech Connect

    Lindth, A. . Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    In the last decade, scientists have begun to estimate the long-term probability of major earthquakes along the San Andreas fault. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) issued the first official U.S. government earthquake prediction, based on research along a heavily instrumented 25-kilometer section of the fault in sparsely populated central California. Known as the Parkfield segment, this section of the Sand Andreas had experienced its last big earthquake, a magnitude 6, in 1966. Estimated probabilities of major quakes along the entire San Andreas by a working group of California earthquake experts, using new geologic data and careful analysis of past earthquakes, are reported.

  1. The 2004 Parkfield, CA Earthquake: A Teachable Moment for Exploring Earthquake Processes, Probability, and Earthquake Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, A.; Barnett, M.; Ebel, J.; Bellegarde, H.; Campbell, L.

    2004-12-01

    The occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake provided a unique "teachable moment" for students in our science course for teacher education majors. The course uses seismology as a medium for teaching a wide variety of science topics appropriate for future teachers. The 2004 Parkfield earthquake occurred just 15 minutes after our students completed a lab on earthquake processes and earthquake prediction. That lab included a discussion of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment as a motivation for the exercises they were working on that day. Furthermore, this earthquake was recorded on an AS1 seismograph right in their lab, just minutes after the students left. About an hour after we recorded the earthquake, the students were able to see their own seismogram of the event in the lecture part of the course, which provided an excellent teachable moment for a lecture/discussion on how the occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake might affect seismologists' ideas about earthquake prediction. The specific lab exercise that the students were working on just before we recorded this earthquake was a "sliding block" experiment that simulates earthquakes in the classroom. The experimental apparatus includes a flat board on top of which are blocks of wood attached to a bungee cord and a string wrapped around a hand crank. Plate motion is modeled by slowly turning the crank, and earthquakes are modeled as events in which the block slips ("blockquakes"). We scaled the earthquake data and the blockquake data (using how much the string moved as a proxy for time) so that we could compare blockquakes and earthquakes. This provided an opportunity to use interevent-time histograms to teach about earthquake processes, probability, and earthquake prediction, and to compare earthquake sequences with blockquake sequences. We were able to show the students, using data obtained directly from their own lab, how global earthquake data fit a Poisson exponential distribution better

  2. Earthquake Prediction is Coming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes (1) several methods used in earthquake research, including P:S ratio velocity studies, dilatancy models; and (2) techniques for gathering base-line data for prediction using seismographs, tiltmeters, laser beams, magnetic field changes, folklore, animal behavior. The mysterious Palmdale (California) bulge is discussed. (CS)

  3. Fractal dynamics of earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, P.; Chen, K.

    1995-05-01

    Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D {approx} 1--1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function of time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earth`s crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).

  4. HOMOGENEOUS CATALOGS OF EARTHQUAKES*

    PubMed Central

    Knopoff, Leon; Gardner, J. K.

    1969-01-01

    The usual bias in earthquake catalogs against shocks of small magnitudes can be removed by testing the randomness of the magnitudes of successive shocks. The southern California catalog, 1933-1967, is found to be unbiased in the sense of the test at magnitude 4 or above; the cutoff is improved to M = 3 for the subcatalog 1953-1967. PMID:16578700

  5. Road Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of water-saturated sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and slit, which moved from right to left towards the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed lateral spreading, is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage caused by the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey

  6. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  7. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W. R.

    2003-04-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by applying the same methodology to a series of datasets that spans roughly 10 orders in seismic moment, M0. We will summarize recent results using a coda envelope methodology of Mayeda et al, (2003) which provide the most stable source spectral estimates to date. This methodology eliminates the complicating effects of lateral path heterogeneity, source radiation pattern, directivity, and site response (e.g., amplification, f-max and kappa). We find that in tectonically active continental crustal areas the total radiated energy scales as M00.25 whereas in regions of relatively younger oceanic crust, the stress drop is generally lower and exhibits a 1-to-1 scaling with moment. In addition to answering a fundamental question in earthquake source dynamics, this study addresses how one would scale small earthquakes in a particular region up to a future, more damaging earthquake. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  8. Uses and abuses of biostatistics in medical research in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Z

    1990-11-01

    Medical research in Pakistan has gained momentum over the past several years. However, the logical conclusions based on information and data are rarely witnessed. This could be due to the fact that medical researchers and doctors are unaware of Biostatistics, its logic, use and inferences to be obtained. Most researches are based on the pattern of works already done elsewhere. Following others blindly generates various snags. In the present study, research articles published during 1986 in the Journal of Pakistan Medical Association (JPMA) and Pakistan Journal of Medical Research (PJMR) are being reviewed with respect to use and abuse of Statistical Methods. PMID:2126809

  9. The 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance: A Case Study - Using an Earthquake Anniversary to Promote Earthquake Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Garcia, S.; Aagaard, B. T.; Boatwright, J. J.; Dawson, T.; Hellweg, M.; Knudsen, K. L.; Perkins, J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Stoffer, P. W.; Zoback, M.

    2008-12-01

    Last October 21st marked the 140th anniversary of the M6.8 1868 Hayward Earthquake, the last damaging earthquake on the southern Hayward Fault. This anniversary was used to help publicize the seismic hazards associated with the fault because: (1) the past five such earthquakes on the Hayward Fault occurred about 140 years apart on average, and (2) the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault system is the most likely (with a 31 percent probability) fault in the Bay Area to produce a M6.7 or greater earthquake in the next 30 years. To promote earthquake awareness and preparedness, over 140 public and private agencies and companies and many individual joined the public-private nonprofit 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance (1868alliance.org). The Alliance sponsored many activities including a public commemoration at Mission San Jose in Fremont, which survived the 1868 earthquake. This event was followed by an earthquake drill at Bay Area schools involving more than 70,000 students. The anniversary prompted the Silver Sentinel, an earthquake response exercise based on the scenario of an earthquake on the Hayward Fault conducted by Bay Area County Offices of Emergency Services. 60 other public and private agencies also participated in this exercise. The California Seismic Safety Commission and KPIX (CBS affiliate) produced professional videos designed forschool classrooms promoting Drop, Cover, and Hold On. Starting in October 2007, the Alliance and the U.S. Geological Survey held a sequence of press conferences to announce the release of new research on the Hayward Fault as well as new loss estimates for a Hayward Fault earthquake. These included: (1) a ShakeMap for the 1868 Hayward earthquake, (2) a report by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasting the number of employees, employers, and wages predicted to be within areas most strongly shaken by a Hayward Fault earthquake, (3) new estimates of the losses associated with a Hayward Fault earthquake, (4) new ground motion

  10. Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid

    2010-01-01

    In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly.-Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan. PMID:21836720

  11. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  12. Reefal petroleum prospects possible in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1996-03-25

    Carbonate buildups including reefs and banks have proven to be prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in the US, Canada, Mexico, North Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Seismic interpretation, particularly of high quality marine data, and geological analyses, including petrographic studies of selected formations, reveal a broad spectrum of possible reefal prospects in formations of different ages in Pakistan. However, the region with good seismic that provides good recognition of possible reefal buildups remains to date devoid of well confirmation. Oil and Gas Development Corp. of Pakistan formed the technical services department in 1976 for a systematic scientific review of all exploration data and basin analysis. In 1985 this department was renamed offshore department, with responsibility for all offshore exploration. This article is based on the department`s work in collaboration with geoscientists from Russia, the US, Norway, and Canada covering the area shown. Four major types of carbonate buildups, easily recognized from seismic interpretation, include: barrier buildups that are linear with relatively deep water on both sides during deposition; pinnacle buildups that are roughly equidimensional and were surrounded by deep water during deposition; shelf margin buildups that are linear with deep water on one side and shallow water on the other; and patch buildups that form in shallow water either in close proximity to shelf margins, or over broad shallow seas.

  13. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabiha-Javied; Tufail, M; Asghar, M

    2010-04-15

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550+/-156 (329-845), 206+/-72 (93-362), 511+/-189 (316-830) and 52+/-17 (23-81) Bq kg(-1), respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637+/-44 (596-687), 164+/-24 (113-215), 589+/-44 (521-671) and 29+/-6 (16-45) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276+/-94 (177-441) nGy h(-1) and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706+/-243 (455-1129) nGy h(-1). The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas. PMID:19963319

  14. Pakistan's pattern of development and prospects.

    PubMed

    Baqui, M

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes past and present development experiences in Pakistan, and gives indications of possible directions for future development. Since 1969 there has been an open dissatisfaction with economic management from the government, which has resulted in a drying up of private investment. However, this drawback was partly balanced by a rapid increase in income received by Pakistanis working abroad, particularly in the Middle East. There have been slight increases in growth in agriculture, industry, and in the service sector, such as banking, insurance, and shipping. The growth of per capita income, however, is constantly offset by the acceleration in population growth, which has reached 3% a year. Literacy rate is still 19% of the total population, and basic health facilities cover only 50% of the population, while potable water supply is available to 11.2% of the rural population. Possible development directions would include the denationalization of some industries, and the creation of competition between the private and public sectors, so to improve the climate for private investment. Water availability for land irrigation should be expanded, and mineral fields better surveyed and exploited. Pakistan should develop the possibility of growing trade offered by its geographical location, improve all kinds of social services, including family planning, education, and health services, and provide the means to produce energy for all the prospected programs. PMID:12261814

  15. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  16. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. PMID:24777397

  17. Induced Abortions and Unintended Pregnancies in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study’s underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the otherwise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. PMID:25469930

  18. Sociopolitical adjustment among Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Centlivres, P; Centlivres-demont, M

    1987-01-01

    Although international organizations and Pakistanis expect Afghans to act like true refugees--dependent, obedient, and grateful--Afghans consider themselves as temporary exiles who, in protest against an anti-Islamic government, found temporary refuge in Pakistan; or as soldiers in the holy wars who temporarily use their Islamic neighbor as a base before returning to fight in Afghanistan. Conforming to this concept and to these objectives, the refugees seek to preserve a certain autonomy and to lean towards forms of organization which are derived either from their traditional social structure, or as is more common now, from the ideology of the Islamic movements. One can understand that this situation may cause many misunderstandings, especially with international organizations which finance and supervise aid to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. As for anthropologists, it is necessary to go beyond known concepts, to relativize familiar models and to act on changes which have come about in the structures and ideology of the Afghan people. PMID:12315316

  19. Validation of Satellite AOD Data with the Ground PM10 Data over Islamabad Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran

    2016-07-01

    health. In this study, concentrations of PM10 will be monitored at different sites in H-12 sector and Kashmir Highway Islamabad using High volume air sampler and its chemical characterization will be done using Energy Dispersive XRF. The first application of satellite remote sensing for aerosol monitoring began in the mid-1970s to detect the desert particles above the ocean using data from Landsat, GOES, and AVHRR remote sensing satellites. Maps of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over the ocean were produced using the 0.63 µm channel of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) . Aerosols properties were retrieved using AVHRR. The useable range of wavelengths of spectrum (shorter wavelengths and the longer wavelengths) for the remote sensing of the aerosols particles is mostly restricted due to ozone and gaseous absorptions. The purpose of the study is to validate the satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for the regional and local scale for Pakistan Objectives • To quantify the concentration of PM10 • To investigate their elemental composition • To find out their possible sources • Validation with MODIS satellite AOD Methodology: PM10 concentration will be measured at different sites of NUST Islamabad, Pakistan using High volume air sampler an Air sampling equipment capable of sampling high volumes of air (typically 57,000 ft3 or 1,600 m3) at high flow rates (typically 1.13 m3/min or 40 ft3/min) over an extended sampling duration (typically 24 hrs). The sampling period will be of 24 hours. Particles in the PM10 size range are then collected on the filter(s) during the specified 24-h sampling period. Each sample filter will be weighed before and after sampling to determine the net weight (mass) gain of the collected PM10 sample (40 CFR Part 50, Appendix M, US EPA). Next step will be the chemical characterization. Element concentrations will be determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. The ED-XRF system uses an X-ray tube to

  20. Validation of Satellite AOD Data with the Ground PM10 Data over Islamabad Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran

    2016-07-01

    health. In this study, concentrations of PM10 will be monitored at different sites in H-12 sector and Kashmir Highway Islamabad using High volume air sampler and its chemical characterization will be done using Energy Dispersive XRF. The first application of satellite remote sensing for aerosol monitoring began in the mid-1970s to detect the desert particles above the ocean using data from Landsat, GOES, and AVHRR remote sensing satellites. Maps of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over the ocean were produced using the 0.63 µm channel of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) . Aerosols properties were retrieved using AVHRR. The useable range of wavelengths of spectrum (shorter wavelengths and the longer wavelengths) for the remote sensing of the aerosols particles is mostly restricted due to ozone and gaseous absorptions. The purpose of the study is to validate the satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for the regional and local scale for Pakistan Objectives • To quantify the concentration of PM10 • To investigate their elemental composition • To find out their possible sources • Validation with MODIS satellite AOD Methodology: PM10 concentration will be measured at different sites of NUST Islamabad, Pakistan using High volume air sampler an Air sampling equipment capable of sampling high volumes of air (typically 57,000 ft3 or 1,600 m3) at high flow rates (typically 1.13 m3/min or 40 ft3/min) over an extended sampling duration (typically 24 hrs). The sampling period will be of 24 hours. Particles in the PM10 size range are then collected on the filter(s) during the specified 24-h sampling period. Each sample filter will be weighed before and after sampling to determine the net weight (mass) gain of the collected PM10 sample (40 CFR Part 50, Appendix M, US EPA). Next step will be the chemical characterization. Element concentrations will be determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. The ED-XRF system uses an X-ray tube to

  1. Whole Exome Screening Identifies Novel and Recurrent WISP3 Mutations Causing Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Dysplasia in Jammu and Kashmir-India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ekta; Mahajan, Ankit; Kumar, Parvinder; Angural, Arshia; Dhar, Manoj K; Razdan, Sushil; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Wise, Carol A.; Ikegawa, Shiro; Pandita, Kamal Kishore; Sharma, Swarkar

    2016-01-01

    We report identification and genetic characterization of a rare skeletal disorder that remained unidentified for decades in a village of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The population residing in this region is highly consanguineous and a lack of understanding of the disorder has hindered clinical management and genetic counseling for the many affected individuals in the region. We collected familial information and identified two large extended multiplex pedigrees displaying apparent autosomal recessive inheritance of an uncharacterized skeletal dysplasia. Whole exome sequencing (WES) in members of one pedigree revealed a rare mutation in WISP3:c.156C > A (NP_003871.1:p.Cys52Ter), that perfectly segregated with the disease in the family. To our surprise, Sanger sequencing the WISP3 gene in the second family identified a distinct, novel splice site mutation c.643 + 1G > A, that perfectly segregated with the disease. Combining our next generation sequencing data with careful clinical documentation (familial histories, genetic data, clinical and radiological findings), we have diagnosed the families with Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Dysplasia (PPD). Our results underscore the utility of WES in arriving at definitive diagnoses for rare skeletal dysplasias. This genetic characterization will aid in genetic counseling and management, critically required to curb this rare disorder in the families. PMID:27291587

  2. Geochemical characterization of surface water and spring water in SE Kashmir Valley, western Himalaya: Implications to water-rock interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeelani, Gh; Bhat, Nadeem A.; Shivanna, K.; Bhat, M. Y.

    2011-10-01

    Water samples from precipitation, glacier melt, snow melt, glacial lake, streams and karst springs were collected across SE of Kashmir Valley, to understand the hydrogeochemical processes governing the evolution of the water in a natural and non-industrial area of western Himalayas. The time series data on solute chemistry suggest that the hydrochemical processes controlling the chemistry of spring waters is more complex than the surface water. This is attributed to more time available for infiltrating water to interact with the diverse host lithology. Total dissolved solids (TDS), in general, increases with decrease in altitude. However, high TDS of some streams at higher altitudes and low TDS of some springs at lower altitudes indicated contribution of high TDS waters from glacial lakes and low TDS waters from streams, respectively. The results show that some karst springs are recharged by surface water; Achabalnag by the Bringi stream and Andernag and Martandnag by the Liddar stream. Calcite dissolution, dedolomitization and silicate weathering were found to be the main processes controlling the chemistry of the spring waters and calcite dissolution as the dominant process in controlling the chemistry of the surface waters. The spring waters were undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite in most of the seasons except in November, which is attributed to the replenishment of the CO2 by recharging waters during most of the seasons.

  3. Municipal solid waste generation rates and its management at Yusmarg forest ecosystem, a tourist resort in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rouf Ahmad; Nazir, Rumisa; Ashraf, Samia; Ali, Mudasir; Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N

    2014-02-01

    The present study was carried out at Yusmarg, a forest ecosystem and tourist resort, in the Kashmir valley during 2012 with the objectives of determining the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates per capita and on a daily basis, and assessing the existing MSW system. It was estimated that daily generation of MSW at Yusmarg by tourists, as well as residents, was 107.74 kg; on average, the MSW generated at each site was about 36.48 kg/day. The per capita generation of MSW was highest (0.97 kg/person/day) at site 1 followed by 0.288 kg/person/day at site 2 and 0.201 kg/person/day at site 3, with an average per capita MSW generation rate of 0.484 kg/person/day. Manual segregation of the collected wastes showed that it comprised some recyclable, combustible, compostable and inert materials. Among the different waste categories, 56% of waste was recyclable materials, 29% was compostable wastes, 9% was combustible wastes and 6% was inert materials. The present study infers that MSW management in Yusmarg was inappropriate, and infrastructure, skilled manpower and a proper scientific disposal mechanism is lacking in the area. In order to conserve the forest wealth of the area there is a great need to focus on the solid waste problem of the tourist resort. PMID:24519231

  4. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  5. Cytomictic Anomalous Male Meiosis and 2n Pollen Grain Formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) from Kashmir Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Kumari, Santosh; Malik, Akhtar Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae) collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n = 2x = 24 (diploid). Interestingly we found 4.3–6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n = 4x = 48 (tetraploid) in addition to normal meiocytes (2n = 24) during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells) lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4–13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12–17% diploid (2x) meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1). Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species. PMID:25544950

  6. Whole Exome Screening Identifies Novel and Recurrent WISP3 Mutations Causing Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Dysplasia in Jammu and Kashmir-India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ekta; Mahajan, Ankit; Kumar, Parvinder; Angural, Arshia; Dhar, Manoj K; Razdan, Sushil; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Wise, Carol A; Ikegawa, Shiro; Pandita, Kamal Kishore; Sharma, Swarkar

    2016-01-01

    We report identification and genetic characterization of a rare skeletal disorder that remained unidentified for decades in a village of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The population residing in this region is highly consanguineous and a lack of understanding of the disorder has hindered clinical management and genetic counseling for the many affected individuals in the region. We collected familial information and identified two large extended multiplex pedigrees displaying apparent autosomal recessive inheritance of an uncharacterized skeletal dysplasia. Whole exome sequencing (WES) in members of one pedigree revealed a rare mutation in WISP3:c.156C > A (NP_003871.1:p.Cys52Ter), that perfectly segregated with the disease in the family. To our surprise, Sanger sequencing the WISP3 gene in the second family identified a distinct, novel splice site mutation c.643 + 1G > A, that perfectly segregated with the disease. Combining our next generation sequencing data with careful clinical documentation (familial histories, genetic data, clinical and radiological findings), we have diagnosed the families with Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Dysplasia (PPD). Our results underscore the utility of WES in arriving at definitive diagnoses for rare skeletal dysplasias. This genetic characterization will aid in genetic counseling and management, critically required to curb this rare disorder in the families. PMID:27291587

  7. Long- and short-term triggering and modulation of mud volcano eruptions by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Earthquakes can trigger the eruption of mud. We use eruptions in Azerbaijan, Italy, Romania, Japan, Andaman Islands, Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia, and California to probe the nature of stress changes that induce new eruptions and modulate ongoing eruptions. Dynamic stresses produced by earthquakes are usually inferred to be the dominant triggering mechanism; however static stress changes acting on the feeder systems of mud volcanoes may also play a role. In Azerbaijan, eruptions within 2-10 fault lengths from the epicenter are favored in the year following earthquakes where the static stress changes cause compression of the mud source and unclamp feeder dikes. In Romania, Taiwan, and some Italian sites, increased activity is also favored where the static stress changes act to unclamp feeder dikes, but responses occur within days. The eruption in the Andaman Islands, and those of the Niikappu mud volcanoes, Japan are better correlated with amplitude of dynamic stresses produced by seismic waves. Similarly, a new island that emerged off the coast of Pakistan in 2013 was likely triggered by dynamic stresses, enhanced by directivity. At the southern end of the Salton Sea, California earthquakes increase the gas flux at small mud volcanoes. Responses are best correlated with dynamic stresses. The comparison of responses in these nine settings indicates that dynamic stresses are most often correlated with triggering, although permanent stress changes as small as, and possibly smaller than, 0.1 bar may be sufficient to also influence eruptions. Unclamping stresses with magnitude similar to Earth tides (0.01 bar) persist over time and may play a role in triggering delayed responses. Unclamping stresses may be important contributors to short-term triggering only if they exceed 0.1-1 bar.

  8. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (TCIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, M.; Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.

    2009-04-01

    Through a World Bank project a government-sponsored Turkish Catastrophic Insurance Pool (TCIP) is created in 2000 with the essential aim of transferring the government's financial burden of replacing earthquake-damaged housing to international reinsurance and capital markets. Providing coverage to about 2.9 Million homeowners TCIP is the largest insurance program in the country with about 0.5 Billion USD in its own reserves and about 2.3 Billion USD in total claims paying capacity. The total payment for earthquake damage since 2000 (mostly small, 226 earthquakes) amounts to about 13 Million USD. The country-wide penetration rate is about 22%, highest in the Marmara region (30%) and lowest in the south-east Turkey (9%). TCIP is the sole-source provider of earthquake loss coverage up to 90,000 USD per house. The annual premium, categorized on the basis of earthquake zones type of structure, is about US90 for a 100 square meter reinforced concrete building in the most hazardous zone with 2% deductible. The earthquake engineering related shortcomings of the TCIP is exemplified by fact that the average rate of 0.13% (for reinforced concrete buildings) with only 2% deductible is rather low compared to countries with similar earthquake exposure. From an earthquake engineering point of view the risk underwriting (Typification of housing units to be insured, earthquake intensity zonation and the sum insured) of the TCIP needs to be overhauled. Especially for large cities, models can be developed where its expected earthquake performance (and consequently the insurance premium) can be can be assessed on the basis of the location of the unit (microzoned earthquake hazard) and basic structural attributes (earthquake vulnerability relationships). With such an approach, in the future the TCIP can contribute to the control of construction through differentiation of premia on the basis of earthquake vulnerability.

  9. 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Japan's Nuclear Disaster - Implications for Indian Ocean Rim countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Nuclear disaster in Japan after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 has elicited global response to have a relook at the safety aspects of the nuclear power plants from all angles including natural hazards like earthquakes and tsunami. Several countries have gone into safety audits of their nuclear programs in view of the experience in Japan. Tectonically speaking, countries located close to subduction zones or in direct line of impact of the subduction zones are the most vulnerable to earthquake or tsunami hazard, as these regions are the locale of great tsunamigenic earthquakes. The Japan disaster has also cautioned to the possibility of great impact to the critical structures along the coasts due to other ocean processes caused by ocean-atmosphere interactions and also due to global warming and sea level rise phenomena in future. This is particular true for island countries. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan will be remembered more because of its nuclear tragedy and tsunami rather than the earthquake itself. The disaster happened as a direct impact of a tsunami generated by the earthquake 130 km off the coast of Sendai in the Honshu region of Japan. The depth of the earthquake was about 25 km below the ocean floor and it occurred on a thrust fault causing a displacement of more than 20 meters. At few places, water is reported to have inundated areas up to 8-10 km inland. The height of the tsunami varied between 10 and 3 meters along the coast. Generally, during an earthquake damage to buildings or other structures occur due to strong shaking which is expressed in the form of ground accelerations 'g'. Although, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) consistently exceeded 2g at several places from Sendai down south, structures at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant did not collapse due to the earthquake. In the Indian Ocean Rim countries, Indian, Pakistan and South Africa are the three countries where Nuclear power plants are operational, few of them

  10. Pattern of fall injuries in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to analyse the frequency and patterns of fall-related injuries presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) across Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Departments surveillance system collected data from November 2010 to March 2011 on a 24/7 basis using a standardized tool in seven major EDs (five public and two private hospitals) in six major cities of Pakistan. For all patients presenting with fall-related injuries, we analysed data by intent with focus on unintentional falls. Simple frequencies were run for basic patient demographics, mechanism of falls, outcomes of fall injuries, mode of arrival to ED, investigations, and procedures with outcomes. Results There were 3335 fall-related injuries. In cases where intent was available, two-thirds (n = 1186, 65.3%) of fall injuries were unintentional. Among unintentional fall patients presenting to EDs, the majority (76.9%) were males and between 15-44 years of age (69%). The majority of the unintentional falls (n = 671, 56.6%) were due to slipping, followed by fall from height (n = 338, 28.5%). About two-thirds (n = 675, 66.6%) of fall injuries involved extremities, followed by head/neck (n = 257, 25.4%) and face (n = 99, 9.8%). Most of the patients were discharged from the hospital (n = 1059, 89.3%). There were 17 (1.3%) deaths among unintentional fall cases. Conclusion Falls are an important cause of injury-related visits to EDs in Pakistan. Most of the fall injury patients were men and in a productive age group. Fall injuries pose a burden on the healthcare system, especially emergency services, and future studies should therefore focus on safety measures at home and in workplaces to reduce this burden. PMID:26691821

  11. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  12. Improving diabetes care in developing countries: the example of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Riaz, Musarrat; Fawwad, Asher

    2015-02-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with limited recourses and diverse economic social patterns. Pakistan has high prevalence of diabetes and its complication, which is a huge challenge to the existing health care system. The major contributing risk factors are urbanization and change in lifestyle, maternal and fetal malnutrition and genetic factors. National action plans for control of diabetes have been made since 1995 but actions in this regard were not perfect. Training of primary care physicians and development of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams was initiated. Prioritization strategies were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guidance, mainly focusing on diabetic foot, diabetes education and children with diabetes. Researches for better understanding and management of diabetes in Pakistan were undertaken. Collaboration between various stakeholders was promoted at national and international level. In summary, public private relationships and development of multifaceted approaches is expected to improve the lives of millions of diabetics of Pakistan. PMID:25467615

  13. The Earthquake That Tweeted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, D.

    2011-12-01

    Advances in mobile technology and social networking are enabling new behaviors that were not possible even a few short years ago. When people experience a tiny earthquake, it's more likely they're going to reach for their phones and tell their friends about it than actually take cover under a desk. With 175 million Twitter accounts, 750 million Facebook users and more than five billion mobile phones in the world today, people are generating terrific amounts of data simply by going about their everyday lives. Given the right tools and guidance these connected individuals can act as the world's largest sensor network, doing everything from reporting on earthquakes to anticipating global crises. Drawing on the author's experience as a user researcher and experience designer, this presentation will discuss these trends in crowdsourcing the collection and analysis of data, and consider their implications for how the public encounters the earth sciences in their everyday lives.

  14. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  15. Pain after earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009). Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%). Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations. PMID:22747796

  16. United States earthquakes, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains information for eartthquakes in the 50 states and Puerto Rico and the area near their shorelines. The data consist of earthquake locations (date, time, geographic coordinates, depth, and magnitudes), intensities, macroseismic information, and isoseismal and seismicity maps. Also, included are sections detailing the activity of seismic networks operated by universities and other government agencies and a list of results form strong-motion seismograph records.

  17. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents’ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure. PMID:26392798

  18. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved. PMID:21430777

  19. Earthquakes and plate tectonics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquakes occur at the following three kinds of plate boundary: ocean ridges where the plates are pulled apart, margins where the plates scrape past one another, and margins where one plate is thrust under the other. Thus, we can predict the general regions on the earth's surface where we can expect large earthquakes in the future. We know that each year about 140 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater will occur within this area which is 10% of the earth's surface. But on a worldwide basis we cannot say with much accuracy when these events will occur. The reason is that the processes in plate tectonics have been going on for millions of years. Averaged over this interval, plate motions amount to several mm per year. But at any instant in geologic time, for example the year 1982, we do not know, exactly where we are in the worldwide cycle of strain build-up and strain release. Only by monitoring the stress and strain in small areas, for instance, the San Andreas fault, in great detail can we hope to predict when renewed activity in that part of the plate tectonics arena is likely to take place. -from Author

  20. Housing Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  2. Foreshocks of strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Sobisevich, L. E.; Sobisevich, A. L.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The specific enhancement of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic oscillations a few hours prior to the strong earthquakes, which was previously mentioned in the literature, motivated us to search for the distinctive features of the mechanical (foreshock) activity of the Earth's crust in the epicentral zones of the future earthquakes. Activation of the foreshocks three hours before the main shock is revealed, which is roughly similar to the enhancement of the specific electromagnetic ULF emission. It is hypothesized that the round-the-world seismic echo signals from the earthquakes, which form the peak of energy release 2 h 50 min before the main events, act as the triggers of the main shocks due to the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter. It is established that the frequency of the fluctuations in the foreshock activity decreases at the final stages of the preparation of the main shocks, which probably testifies to the so-called mode softening at the approach of the failure point according to the catastrophe theory.

  3. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan. PMID:26197482

  4. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  5. Pakistan: Frontline state again. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine Pakistan`s place in contemporary U.S. national security strategy. Today, U.S.-Pakistan relations are strained due to the Pressler Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act. The Pressler Amendment prohibits arms transfers from the United States to Pakistan in response to Pakistani efforts to develop a nuclear weapon capability. This thesis provides a historical background to the current impasse by examining Pakistani foreign policy since 1947. Next, the study examines the evolution of U.S. interests and security objectives in South and Southwest Asia. Current security objectives analyzed are the U.S. strategies to contain Iran and Iraq and to prevent nuclear proliferation in the region. In order to attain security objectives in the region, the author concludes that the U.S. needs a close cooperative relationship with Pakistan. Since the Pressler Amendment stands as the greatest obstacle to improved U.S.-Pakistan relations, the amendment should be repealed.

  6. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  7. Analysis of misoprostol and chlorhexidine policy gains in Pakistan: the advocacy experience of Mercy Corps Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Zahida; Cutherell, Andrea; Noor, Arif; Naureen, Farah; Norman, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    While Pakistan has made progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5 for maternal health, it is unlikely to achieve the target; further, it is also not on track for Millennium Development Goal 4 regarding child health. Two low-cost, temperature stable and life-saving drugs, misoprostol and chlorhexidine, can respectively avert maternal and newborn deaths, and are particularly pertinent for poor and marginalized areas which bear the brunt of maternal and newborn deaths in Pakistan. In response, Mercy Corps led focused advocacy efforts to promote changes in policies, protocols, and regulatory environments for misoprostol (2012-2014) and for chlorhexidine (2014). These short-duration advocacy projects facilitated significant policy gains, such as inclusion of misoprostol and chlorhexidine into province-specific essential drug lists, development and endorsement of clinical protocols for the two drugs by provincial health departments, inclusion of misoprostol into pre-service training curriculum for several health cadres, and application for registration of chlorhexidine (at the concentration required for newborn care) by two pharmaceutical companies. These results were achieved by a consultative and evidence-based process which generated feedback from community members, program implementers, and policymakers, and ultimately put the government in the driver's seat to facilitate change. Community Action Dialogue forums were linked with provincial-level Technical Working Groups and Provincial Steering Committees, who passed on endorsed recommendations to the Health Secretary. The key factors which facilitated change were the identification of champions within the provincial health departments, prioritization of relationship building and follow-up, focus on concrete advocacy aims rather than broad objectives, and the use of multi-stakeholder forums to secure an enabling environment for the policy changes to take root. While these advocacy initiatives resulted in

  8. EQInfo - earthquakes world-wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bernd; Herrnkind, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    EQInfo is a free Android app providing recent earthquake information from various earthquake monitoring centers as GFZ, EMSC, USGS and others. It allows filtering of agency, region and magnitude as well as controlling update interval, institute priority and alarm types. Used by more than 25k active users and beeing in the top ten list of Google Play, EQInfo is one of the most popular apps for earthquake information.

  9. Barcoding of fresh water fishes from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karim, Asma; Iqbal, Asad; Akhtar, Rehan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Amar, Ali; Qamar, Usman; Jahan, Shah

    2016-07-01

    DNA bar-coding is a taxonomic method that uses small genetic markers in organisms' mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) for identification of particular species. It uses sequence diversity in a 658-base pair fragment near the 5' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene as a tool for species identification. DNA barcoding is more accurate and reliable method as compared with the morphological identification. It is equally useful in juveniles as well as adult stages of fishes. The present study was conducted to identify three farm fish species of Pakistan (Cyprinus carpio, Cirrhinus mrigala, and Ctenopharyngodon idella) genetically. All of them belonged to family cyprinidae. CO1 gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatic software. Conspecific, congenric, and confamilial k2P nucleotide divergence was estimated. From these findings, it was concluded that the gene sequence, CO1, may serve as milestone for the identification of related species at molecular level. PMID:25980661

  10. Food poverty and its causes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S; Sheikh, K H; Mahmood, T

    1991-01-01

    Economists and a demographer analyzed data from the 1984-1985 Household and Income Expenditure Survey using the Foster and Thorbeke model to measure the poverty level in Pakistan. This model considers the minimum level of food expenditure/adult equivalent required to purchase the required daily allowance of energy intake. The analysts calculated the poverty lines to be Rs 246.00 for urban areas and Rs 149.00 for rural areas. They learned that the real poor and less poor households did not rank expenditures on food as a top priority despite deficient food intake. Thus traditional diet pattern did not differentiate the real poor from the less power, but rather lower purchasing power. They defined real poor households as those who had a negative or O relationship between income and food and less poor households as those who had a positive relationship even though the magnitude of the slope coefficient was extremely small (.024 for urban areas and .082 for rural areas). The larger the family size the more likely a household was poor and the members malnourished. This was especially true if the family size grew because of the addition of more dependents. On the other hand, the more education the head of the household and his wife the less likely the household was poor and the members malnourished. In fact, the negative effect of education on poverty and malnutrition was strongest for the wife. 2% of all urban households and 3% of all rural households ranked as real poor households. 59% and 35% respectively ranked as less poor households. Even though the difference in food poverty between extended and nuclear families was insignificant, extended families fared better than nuclear families. These findings showed that Pakistan should design its food policy to target the real poor by improving their nutritional status without forsaking that of the less poor. PMID:12285313

  11. Comments on "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Hakim, A

    1994-01-01

    Some critical comments are made on a paper entitled "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan." Most studies have considered early age at marriage, rural or extended family setup and low socioeconomic status when investigating the issue. The background demographic variables and behavioral aspects of consanguinity were studied only by a few, therefore a lack of data exists on pertinent social, cultural, and behavioral dynamics. In Pakistan over 60% of marriages are between first or second cousins. The highest rates of such marriages have been reported in rural areas, among individuals with low educational level, and among the poorest. However, cousin unions are also common among landowning families. In addition to socioeconomic reasons, these marriages are socially acceptable because they facilitate prenuptial negotiations and provide more compatibility between the husband and wife as well as the bride and the mother-in-law. The evidence on consanguinity and fertility is conflicting. The effect of inbreeding on fertility has been demonstrated by most studies. The effect of consanguinity on mortality is also wrought with ambiguities because of methodological flaws. Although the present authors used limited bivariate analysis, they could not account for increased fertility and mortality in consanguineous matings by examining socioeconomic differences and background demographic variables. There is a need to indicate clearly to what extent the genetic effect is responsible for the excess fertility and mortality after controlling for maternal, sociodemographic, and behavioral characteristics. The article made a contribution to elucidating the impact of cousin marriages, a well entrenched custom, on fertility, mortality, and the status of women. PMID:12346200

  12. Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Lutfi, N.

    1990-01-01

    A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water would provide suitable environment for growing some cash crops. This would change the cast useless desert land into green productive farms. In order to show the quantitative benefits of the proposed system, future trends of important energy and economical parameters have been studied with and without hydrogen introduction. The following parameters have been included: population, energy demand (fossil + hydrogen), energy production (fossil + hydrogen), gross national product, fossil energy imports, world energy prices, air pollution, quality of life, environmental savings due to hydrogen introduction, savings due to the higher utilization efficiency of hydrogen, by-product credit, agricultural income, income from hydrogen sale, photovoltaic cell area, total land area, water desalination plant capacity, capital investment, operating and maintenance cost, and total income from the system. The results indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would eliminate the import dependency of fossil fuels, increase gross product per capita, reduce pollution, improve quality of life and establish a permanent and clean energy system. The total annual expenditure on the proposed system is less than the total income from the proposed system. The availability of water, the cash crop production, electricity and hydrogen would result in rapid development of Baluchistan, the largest province of Pakistan.

  13. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  14. Regional Seismic Amplitude Modeling and Tomography for Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Sweeney, J.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Empirically explosions have been discriminated from natural earthquakes using regional amplitude ratio techniques such as P/S in a variety of frequency bands. We demonstrate that such ratios discriminate nuclear tests from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India, Pakistan, and North Korea). We are examining if there is any relationship between the observed P/S and the point source variability revealed by longer period full waveform modeling. For example, regional waveform modeling shows strong tectonic release from the May 1998 India test, in contrast with very little tectonic release in the October 2006 North Korea test, but the P/S discrimination behavior appears similar in both events using the limited regional data available. While regional amplitude ratios such as P/S can separate events in close proximity, it is also empirically well known that path effects can greatly distort observed amplitudes and make earthquakes appear very explosion-like. Previously we have shown that the MDAC (Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction, Walter and Taylor, 2001) technique can account for simple 1-D attenuation and geometrical spreading corrections, as well as magnitude and site effects. However in some regions 1-D path corrections are a poor approximation and we need to develop 2-D path corrections. Here we demonstrate a new 2-D attenuation tomography technique using the MDAC earthquake source model applied to a set of events and stations in both the Middle East and the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula regions. We believe this new 2-D MDAC tomography has the potential to greatly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination, particularly in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East.

  15. Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic information for prioritizing watersheds in a Kashmir Himalayan lake: a remote sensing and GIS approach.

    PubMed

    Badar, Bazigha; Romshoo, Shakil A; Khan, M A

    2013-08-01

    Dal Lake, a cradle of Kashmiri civilization has strong linkage with socioeconomics of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. During last few decades, anthropogenic pressures in Dal Lake Catchment have caused environmental deterioration impairing, inter-alia, sustained biotic communities and water quality. The present research was an integrated impact analysis of socioeconomic and biophysical processes at the watershed level on the current status of Dal Lake using multi-sensor and multi-temporal satellite data, simulation modelling together with field data verification. Thirteen watersheds (designated as 'W1-W13') were identified and investigated for land use/land cover change detection, quantification of erosion and sediment loads and socioeconomic analysis (total population, total households, literacy rate and economic development status). All the data for the respective watersheds was integrated into the GIS environment based upon multi-criteria analysis and knowledge-based weightage system was adopted for watershed prioritization based on its factors and after carefully observing the field situation. The land use/land cover change detection revealed significant changes with a uniform trend of decreased vegetation and increased impervious surface cover. Increased erosion and sediment loadings were recorded for the watersheds corresponding to their changing land systems, with bare and agriculture lands being the major contributors. The prioritization analysis revealed that W5 > W2 > W6 > W8 > W1 ranked highest in priority and W13 > W3 > W4 > W11 > W7 under medium priority. W12 > W9 > W10 belonged to low-priority category. The integration of the biophysical and the socioeconomic environment at the watershed level using modern geospatial tools would be of vital importance for the conservation and management strategies of Dal Lake ecosystem. PMID:23288596

  16. Geochemical characteristics of water and sediment from the Dal Lake, Kashmir Himalaya: constraints on weathering and anthropogenic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeelani, G.; Shah, A. Q.

    2006-05-01

    Two hundred and forty water samples (in four seasons) and seventeen sediment samples have been analyzed to monitor the natural and anthropogenic influences on the water and sediment chemistry of the Dal Lake, Kashmir Himalaya. The scatter diagrams [(Ca+Mg)/total cations (TZ+), (Ca+Mg)/HCO3, (Ca+Mg)/(HCO3+SO4), (Na+K)/TZ+; (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K)] and the geological map of the study area suggest predominance of carbonate and silicate weathering. Lower pH and high total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and {text{NO}}^{ - }_{{text{3}}} values in the Gagribal basin and in some patches of other basins reflect anthropogenic inputs in the form of sewage from surrounding population, houseboats, hotels, etc. The Dal Lake is characterized by high chemical index of alteration (CIA: 87-95), reflecting extreme weathering of the catchment area. Relative to the average carbonates, the lakebed sediments are enriched in Al, Ti, Zn, Cu and Co and depleted in Ni and Mn. Compared to the post-Archean Shale the sediments have higher Al, Zn and Cu contents and lower Ni and Co. There are distinct positive anomalies of Al, Mn, Zn and Cu and negative anomalies of Ni and Pb with respect to the upper continental crust. Geoaccumulation index ( I geo) and the US Environmental Protection Agency sediment quality standards indicate that the Gagribal basin and some patches of the Nagin basin are polluted with respect to Zn, Cu and Pb. These data suggest that the Dal Lake is characterized by differential natural and anthropogenic influences.

  17. Recent Trends in the Sociodemographic, Clinical Profile and Psychiatric Comorbidity Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Study from Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Jeelani, Snowber; Ahmad, Javid; Dar, Mohammad Maqbool; Shah, Tabindah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) among adults in field practise areas of Government Medical College, Srinagar, India. Methodology: The present study was cross-sectional in nature and was conducted in field practice areas of Government Medical College Srinagar. Three blocks of field practise areas of Government Medical College, Srinagar comprising of various villages were selected. Further 10 per cent of these villages were selected by the method of randomization sampling and then 10 per cent of household were taken again by systemic random sampling. In the selected household all adult population (18 years and above) were selected and screened by using General health questionnaires(GHQ). The patients who screened positive for PTSD (post-traumatic stress Disorders) were assessed and diagnosed. From the line listing the positive cases, the prevalence rates were calculated. Results: Of the total 3400 subjects (age≥18 years), the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorders among general population was found to be 3.76%. Prevalence was found to be more in females (Chi-square test=2.086, p>0.05 (Insignificant). Most of cases were found to be in the age group 0-40 years. Most of the cases were unmarried, illiterate and belong to lower socioeconomic class. Death of near one comprised the major traumatic event. Acute onset Posttraumatic stress disorder was the commonest type, previous history of psychiatric illness was found in 12 % of patients and drug abuse was present in 22.6%. Conclusion: Our findings clearly indicates that posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder in the developing world, especially in disaster prone regions and in areas of political unrest. Resilience to various traumatic events in Kashmir has developed over the years and this might explains the lower prevalence of Post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) in our study. PMID:24959502

  18. Secondhand Smoking and the Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High Incidence Region, Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Rumaisa; Shah, Idrees Ayoub; Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Lone, Mohd Maqbool; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; Dar, Nazir Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies have associated secondhand smoking (SHS) with cancers of the lung, larynx, and pharynx. Only a few studies have examined the association between SHS and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the findings are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between SHS and risk of ESCC in a case-control study in Kashmir, where the incidence of ESCC is high. We recruited 703 histopathologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 hospital-based controls individually matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Among never-tobacco users, the ORs for the association between SHS and ESCC risk were above unity with ever exposure to SHS (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.43–4.02) and exposure to SHS for >14 h/wk (median value) (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 0.75–20.65). In the analysis of data from all participants, the OR (95% CI) for the association between SHS and ESCC was (OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.53–1.93) for SHS ≤14 h/wk and (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 0.75–4.89) for SHS >14 h/wk in the models adjusted for tobacco use and several other potential confounding factors. We found an indication of increased risk of ESCC associated with exposure to SHS. Studies with larger numbers of SHS-exposed never tobacco users are required to further examine this association. PMID:26735535

  19. Effect of oral infection with Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Ivan; de Miranda, Joachim R; de Graaf, Dirk C; Wäckers, Felix; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) together with Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Kashmir bee virus (KBV) constitute a complex of closely related dicistroviruses. They are infamous for their high mortality after injection in honeybees. These viruses have also been reported in non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators such as bumblebees, which got infected with IAPV when placed in the same greenhouse with IAPV infected honeybee hives. Here we orally infected Bombus terrestris workers with different doses of either IAPV or KBV viral particles. The success of the infection was established by analysis of the bumblebees after the impact studies: 50days after infection. Doses of 0.5×10(7) and 1×10(7) virus particles per bee were infectious over this period, for IAPV and KBV respectively, while a dose of 0.5×10(6) IAPV particles per bee was not infectious. The impact of virus infection was studied in micro-colonies consisting of 5 bumblebees, one of which becomes a pseudo-queen which proceeds to lay unfertilized (drone) eggs. The impact parameters studied were: the establishment of a laying pseudo-queen, the timing of egg-laying, the number of drones produced, the weight of these drones and worker mortality. In this setup KBV infection resulted in a significant slower colony startup and offspring production, while only the latter can be reported for IAPV. Neither virus increased worker mortality, at the oral doses used. We recommend further studies on how these viruses transmit between different pollinator species. It is also vital to understand how viral prevalence can affect wild bee populations because disturbance of the natural host-virus association may deteriorate the already critically endangered status of many bumblebee species. PMID:25004171

  20. Likely Human Losses in Future Earthquakes in Central Myanmar, Beyond the Northern end of the M9.3 Sumatra Rupture of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, B. M.; Wyss, M.

    2007-12-01

    We estimate that the city of Rangoon and adjacent provinces (Rangoon, Rakhine, Ayeryarwady, Bago) represent an earthquake risk similar in severity to that of Istanbul and the Marmara Sea region. After the M9.3 Sumatra earthquake of December 2004 that ruptured to a point north of the Andaman Islands, the likelihood of additional ruptures in the direction of Myanmar and within Myanmar is increased. This assumption is especially plausible since M8.2 and M7.9 earthquakes in September 2007 extended the 2005 ruptures to the south. Given the dense population of the aforementioned provinces, and the fact that historically earthquakes of M7.5 class have occurred there (in 1858, 1895 and three in 1930), it would not be surprising, if similar sized earthquakes would occur in the coming decades. Considering that we predicted the extent of human losses in the M7.6 Kashmir earthquake of October 2005 approximately correctly six month before it occurred, it seems reasonable to attempt to estimate losses in future large to great earthquakes in central Myanmar and along its coast of the Bay of Bengal. We have calculated the expected number of fatalities for two classes of events: (1) M8 ruptures offshore (between the Andaman Islands and the Myanmar coast, and along Myanmar's coast of the Bay of Bengal. (2) M7.5 repeats of the historic earthquakes that occurred in the aforementioned years. These calculations are only order of magnitude estimates because all necessary input parameters are poorly known. The population numbers, the condition of the building stock, the regional attenuation law, the local site amplification and of course the parameters of future earthquakes can only be estimated within wide ranges. For this reason, we give minimum and maximum estimates, both within approximate error limits. We conclude that the M8 earthquakes located offshore are expected to be less harmful than the M7.5 events on land: For M8 events offshore, the minimum number of fatalities is estimated

  1. Self-Organized Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Klein, W.

    2011-12-01

    Self-Organized Criticality was proposed by the Per Bak et al. [1] as a means of explaining scaling laws observed in driven natural systems, usually in (slowly) driven threshold systems. The example used by Bak was a simple cellular automaton model of a sandpile, in which grains of sand were slowly dropped (randomly) onto a flat plate. After a period of time, during which the 'critical state' was approached, a series of self-similar avalanches would begin. Scaling exponents for the frequency-area statistics of the sandpile avalanches were found to be approximately 1, a value that characterizes 'flicker noise' in natural systems. SOC is associated with a critical point in the phase diagram of the system, and it was found that the usual 2-scaling field theory applies. A model related to SOC is the Self-Organized Spinodal (SOS), or intermittent criticality model. Here a slow but persistent driving force leads to quasi-periodic approach to, and retreat from, the classical limit of stability, or spinodal. Scaling exponents for this model can be related to Gutenberg-Richter and Omori exponents observed in earthquake systems. In contrast to SOC models, nucleation, both classical and non-classical types, is possible in SOS systems. Tunneling or nucleation rates can be computed from Langer-Klein-Landau-Ginzburg theories for comparison to observations. Nucleating droplets play a role similar to characteristic earthquake events. Simulations of these systems reveals much of the phenomenology associated with earthquakes and other types of "burst" dynamics. Whereas SOC is characterized by the full scaling spectrum of avalanches, SOS is characterized by both system-size events above the nominal frequency-size scaling curve, and scaling of small events. Applications to other systems including integrate-and-fire neural networks and financial crashes will be discussed. [1] P. Bak, C. Tang and K. Weisenfeld, Self-Organized Criticality, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381 (1987).

  2. Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2013-04-01

    The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity

  3. Earthquake Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    IAEMIS (Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System) is the principal tool of an earthquake preparedness program developed by Martin Marietta and the Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (MARC). It is a two-component set of software, data and procedures to provide information enabling management personnel to make informed decisions in disaster situations. The NASA-developed program ELAS, originally used to analyze Landsat data, provides MARC with a spatially-oriented information management system. Additional MARC projects include land resources management, and development of socioeconomic data.

  4. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  5. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  6. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  7. Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

  8. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  9. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  10. Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

  11. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Resulting from Flooding in Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Flooding in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by... to humanitarian needs resulting from recent devastating flooding in Pakistan. You are authorized...

  12. Earthquake hazards: a national threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most costly natural hazards faced by the Nation, posing a significant risk to 75 million Americans in 39 States. The risks that earthquakes pose to society, including death, injury, and economic loss, can be greatly reduced by (1) better planning, construction, and mitigation practices before earthquakes happen, and (2) providing critical and timely information to improve response after they occur. As part of the multi-agency National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the lead Federal responsibility to provide notification of earthquakes in order to enhance public safety and to reduce losses through effective forecasts based on the best possible scientific information.

  13. Exaggerated Claims About Earthquake Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Alan L.; Ebel, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The perennial promise of successful earthquake prediction captures the imagination of a public hungry for certainty in an uncertain world. Yet, given the lack of any reliable method of predicting earthquakes [e.g., Geller, 1997; Kagan and Jackson, 1996; Evans, 1997], seismologists regularly have to explain news stories of a supposedly successful earthquake prediction when it is far from clear just how successful that prediction actually was. When journalists and public relations offices report the latest `great discovery' regarding the prediction of earthquakes, seismologists are left with the much less glamorous task of explaining to the public the gap between the claimed success and the sober reality that there is no scientifically proven method of predicting earthquakes.

  14. Stresses of pipelines during earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyomiya, O.

    1983-05-01

    Construction of submarine pipelines plays an important role in offshore development. Japan is famous for earthquake country. It is very important to estimate the earthquake proof of the submarine pipelines. An oil leakage causes the contamination of ocean if the submarine pipelines are damaged by earthquakes. Pipe stresses during earthquakes are closely related to the relative displacement of the ground. Field observation has been carried out to know the ground deformation. Steel pipe is assumed to be buried along the observation line and pipe stresses are calculated from the ground deformation obtained by the field observation. The stresses calculated by seismic deformation method that has been used for earthquake resistant design in Japan and by dynamic response analysis are compared with those from the observation.

  15. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  16. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  17. Testing an earthquake prediction algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kossobokov, V.G.; Healy, J.H.; Dewey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    A test to evaluate earthquake prediction algorithms is being applied to a Russian algorithm known as M8. The M8 algorithm makes intermediate term predictions for earthquakes to occur in a large circle, based on integral counts of transient seismicity in the circle. In a retroactive prediction for the period January 1, 1985 to July 1, 1991 the algorithm as configured for the forward test would have predicted eight of ten strong earthquakes in the test area. A null hypothesis, based on random assignment of predictions, predicts eight earthquakes in 2.87% of the trials. The forward test began July 1, 1991 and will run through December 31, 1997. As of July 1, 1995, the algorithm had forward predicted five out of nine earthquakes in the test area, which success ratio would have been achieved in 53% of random trials with the null hypothesis.

  18. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  19. Gravity drives Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Gordon; Forster, Marnie

    2010-05-01

    The most violent of Great Earthquakes are driven by ruptures on giant megathrusts adjacent to actively forming mountain belts. Current theory suggests that the seismic rupture harvests (and thus releases) elastic energy that has been previously stored in locked segments of the megathrust. The general belief, however, is that this energy was accumulated as the result of relative motion of the adjacent stiff elastic tectonic plates. This mechanism fails to explain many first order aspects of large earthquakes, however. The energy source for strain accumulation must also include gravitational collapse of orogenic crust and/or in the foundering (or roll-back) of an adjacent subducting lithospheric slab. Therefore we have conducted an analysis of the geometry of aftershocks, and report that this allows distinction of two types of failure on giant megathrusts. Mode I failure involves horizontal shortening, and is consistent with the classic view that megathrusts fail in compression, with motion analogous to that expected if accretion takes place against a rigid (or elastic) backstop. Mode II failure involves horizontal extension, and requires the over-riding plate to stretch during an earthquake. This process is likely to continue during the subsequent period of afterslip, and therefore will again be evident in aftershock patterns. Mode I behaviour may well have applied to the southern segment of the Sumatran megathrust, from whence emanated the rupture that drove the 2004 Great Earthquake. Mode II behaviour appears to apply to the northern segment of the same rupture, however. The geometry of aftershocks beneath the Andaman Sea suggest that the crust above the initial rupture failed in an extensional mode. The edge of the Indian plate is foundering, with slab-hinge roll-back in a direction orthogonal to its motion vector. The only possible cause for this extension therefore is westward roll-back of the subducting Indian plate, and the consequent gravity-driven movement

  20. The physics of an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, John

    2008-03-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 (Boxing Day 2004) and its tsunami will endure in our memories as one of the worst natural disasters of our time. For geophysicists, the scale of the devastation and the likelihood of another equally destructive earthquake set out a series of challenges of how we might use science not only to understand the earthquake and its aftermath but also to help in planning for future earthquakes in the region. In this article a brief account of these efforts is presented. Earthquake prediction is probably impossible, but earth scientists are now able to identify particularly dangerous places for future events by developing an understanding of the physics of stress interaction. Having identified such a dangerous area, a series of numerical Monte Carlo simulations is described which allow us to get an idea of what the most likely consequences of a future earthquake are by modelling the tsunami generated by lots of possible, individually unpredictable, future events. As this article was being written, another earthquake occurred in the region, which had many expected characteristics but was enigmatic in other ways. This has spawned a series of further theories which will contribute to our understanding of this extremely complex problem.

  1. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

    2008-01-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO’s requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards. PMID:18600784

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

    2008-07-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO's requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards. PMID:18600784

  4. Satellite Monitoring of Pakistan's Rockslide-Dammed Lake Gojal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Leonard, Gregory; Crippen, Robert E.; Delaney, Keith B.; Evans, Stephen G.; Schneider, Jean

    2010-10-01

    On 4 January 2010, a rockslide 1200 meters long, 350 meters wide, and 125 meters high dammed the Hunza River in Attabad, northern Pakistan, and formed Lake Gojal. The initial mass movement of rock killed 20 people and submerged several villages and 22 kilometers of the strategic Karakoram Highway linking Pakistan and China. Tens of thousands of people were displaced or cut off from overland connection with the rest of the country. On 29 May, the lake overflow began to pour through a spillway excavated by Pakistani authorities. On approximately 20 July, the lake attained a maximum depth of 119 meters and a torrent at least 9 meters deep issued over the spillway, according to Pakistan's National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). To date, the natural dam is holding and eroding slowly. However, the threat of a catastrophic outburst flood remains.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not. PMID:27354000

  6. Beliefs about euthanasia among university students: perspectives from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Kamal, A

    2011-10-01

    Opinions of university students about euthanasia were studied in 4 cities in Pakistan using convenience sampling. A total of 836 students (316 males and 520 females) completed a questionnaire in which euthanasia was defined as deliberate administration of an overdose of a drug by a doctor to relieve pain and suffering of a dying patient at his/her explicit request to end his/her life. Only 25.6% of students agreed that euthanasia should be legalized in Pakistan. The most common reason cited for legalization of euthanasia was to relieve patient's suffering but only when a committee of physicians agreed to recommend it. Students who opposed legalization (74.4%) cited impediments to future medical research as the most common reason, followed by the risk of misuse by physicians or family members. Only 8.9% of students cited religious beliefs as a reason against legalization. There is a need in Pakistan for more debate about euthanasia. PMID:22256415

  7. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  8. A palaeomagnetic reconnaissance of northeastern Baluchistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, Chris T.; Nazirullah, Russel; de Jong, Kees A.; Ahmed, Habib

    1981-01-01

    A total of 560 samples from three areas in northeastern Baluchistan (the southern Sulaiman Range, the central Loralai Range, and the northern Kirthar Range) were analyzed using thermal demagnetization techniques. Thirteen formations of late Palaeozoic to early Tertiary age were studied palaeomagnetically. Inclinations of the obtained results show a general affinity with the Indian apparent polar wander path. Deviating declinations from the Loralai Range indicate a clockwise rotation over 50° with respect to the Indian shield. Secondary magnetization components probably of late Palaeocene to early Eocene age were consistently present in the samples from the Kirthar Range and the Sulaiman Range but were not observed in samples from the Loralai Range. Acquisition of these components is attributed to crustal upwarping during the Palaeocene, which is tentatively related to initial collision of continental Indo-Pakistan with an island arc off south central Asia. The Baluchistan data support recent palaeomagnetic results from the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh (NW Himalaya), which indicate that such an initial collision took place at very low northern palaeolatitudes.

  9. Thyroid dysfunction in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Attaullah, Shahnaz; Haq, Bibi Safia; Muska, Mairman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this research was to elucidate some of the major relation of thyroid dysfunctions, keeping in view the various selected demographic details of included patients. Methods: This study was approved by the ethical committee of Post Graduate Medical Institute (PGMI) Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, and was conducted in the Institute of Radioactive Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM) Peshawar. The blood samples were collected, followed by their analysis for triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: The results obtained regarding the demographical aspects of the patients revealed that female gender has categorically significantly high percentage of occurrence of thyroid abnormality as compared to male gender (75.8% vs. 24.2%). Results regarding locality distribution of the patients depicted that majority of those belonged to the local population of Peshawar and Charsadda region. Conclusion: In Pakistan especially Khyber Pakhtunkwa (KPK), thyroid diseases are more common in females as compared to males. The most probable causes could be lactation and pregnancy. PMID:27022356

  10. Foraminiferal stratigraphy of Ranikot (Paleocene) of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kureshy, A.A.

    1983-03-01

    The sedimentary deposits of Pakistan are divided into three distinct basins: the Lower Indus basin, the Upper Indus basin, and the Baluchistan basin. The Lower Indus basin is further divided into two parts; the northern part is the Sulaiman Province, and the southern part is known as Kirthar Province. The tertiary stratigraphy of Kirthar Province is conspicuous for its characteristic lithostratigraphic units. The Paleocene deposits of Kirthar Province are designated as Ranikot Group. The Ranikot Group was divided by Cheema et al in 1977 into three distinct lithostratigraphic units: the Khadro formation (Cardita beaumonti beds), Bara formation (Lower Ranikot), and Lakhra formation (Upper Ranikot). The Khadro and Lakhra formations are marine, characterized by foraminiferal assemblages. The characteristic planktonic forms are: Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer, Globorotalia pseudobulloids (Plummer), G. compressa (Plummer), G. valascoensis (Cushman), and G. pseudomenardii Bolli. The diagnostic forms of larger foraminifera are: Nummulites nuttalli Davies, Miscellanea (d'Archiac and Haime), Kathina major Smout, and Lockartia conditii (Nuttall). The planktonic foraminifera were assigned to Globorotali trinidadensis, G. pseudomenardii, and G. velasoensis zones of Kureshy in 1977, and larger foraminifera were assigned to Nummulities nuttalli zones of Kureshy in 1978.

  11. Forecasting California’s earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    For the first time, researchers have reached to a consensus on the threat of large earthquakes to California, things look no worse for Los Angles than before. It still has about a 60 percent chance of being shaken by a large earthquake sometime during the next 30 years. But other heavily populated areas of California, such as San Bernardino and the East Bay area of San Francisco, are now getting their fair share of attention. The new consensus also points up the considerable uncertainties invloved in earthquake forecasting. 

  12. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-01

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar. PMID:16208360

  13. Earthquake damage to transportation systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents and disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis.

  14. The threat of silent earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cervelli, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Not all earthquakes shake the ground. The so-called silent types are forcing scientists to rethink their understanding of the way quake-prone faults behave. In rare instances, silent earthquakes that occur along the flakes of seaside volcanoes may cascade into monstrous landslides that crash into the sea and trigger towering tsunamis. Silent earthquakes that take place within fault zones created by one tectonic plate diving under another may increase the chance of ground-shaking shocks. In other locations, however, silent slip may decrease the likelihood of destructive quakes, because they release stress along faults that might otherwise seem ready to snap.

  15. Computer simulation of earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    In a computer simulation study of earthquakes a seismically active strike slip fault is represented by coupled mechanical blocks which are driven by a moving plate and which slide on a friction surface. Elastic forces and time independent friction are used to generate main shock events, while viscoelastic forces and time dependent friction add aftershock features. The study reveals that the size, length, and time and place of event occurrence are strongly influenced by the magnitude and degree of homogeneity in the elastic, viscous, and friction parameters of the fault region. For example, periodically reoccurring similar events are observed in simulations with near-homogeneous parameters along the fault, whereas seismic gaps are a common feature of simulations employing large variations in the fault parameters. The study also reveals correlations between strain energy release and fault length and average displacement and between main shock and aftershock displacements.

  16. Nonextensive models for earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R.; França, G. S.; Vilar, C. S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2006-02-01

    We have revisited the fragment-asperity interaction model recently introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas [Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 048501 (2004)] by considering a different definition for mean values in the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistics and introducing a scale between the earthquake energy and the size of fragment γ∝r3 . The energy-distribution function (EDF) deduced in our approach is considerably different from the one obtained in the above reference. We have also tested the viability of this EDF with data from two different catalogs (in three different areas), namely, the NEIC and the Bulletin Seismic of the Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. Although both approaches provide very similar values for the nonextensive parameter q , other physical quantities, e.g., energy density, differ considerably by several orders of magnitude.

  17. Reconsidering earthquake scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J.; Wech, A.; Creager, K.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D.

    2016-06-01

    The relationship (scaling) between scalar moment, M0, and duration, T, potentially provides key constraints on the physics governing fault slip. The prevailing interpretation of M0-T observations proposes different scaling for fast (earthquakes) and slow (mostly aseismic) slip populations and thus fundamentally different driving mechanisms. We show that a single model of slip events within bounded slip zones may explain nearly all fast and slow slip M0-T observations, and both slip populations have a change in scaling, where the slip area growth changes from 2-D when too small to sense the boundaries to 1-D when large enough to be bounded. We present new fast and slow slip M0-T observations that sample the change in scaling in each population, which are consistent with our interpretation. We suggest that a continuous but bimodal distribution of slip modes exists and M0-T observations alone may not imply a fundamental difference between fast and slow slip.

  18. Earthquake Breccias (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. D.; Melosh, B. L.; Lamothe, K.; Schnitzer, V.; Bate, C.

    2013-12-01

    Fault breccias are one of the fundamental classes of fault rocks and are observed in many exhumed faults. Some breccias have long been assumed to form co-seismically, but textural or mechanistic evidence for the association with earthquakes has never been documented. For example, at dilational jogs in brittle faults, it is common to find small bodies of chaotic breccia in lenticular or rhombohedral voids bounded by main slip surfaces and linking segments. Sibson interpreted these 'implosion breccias' as evidence of wall rock fracturing during sudden unloading when the dilational jogs open during earthquake slip (Sibson 1985, PAGEOPH v. 124, n. 1, 159-175). However, the role of dynamic fracturing in forming these breccias has not been tested. Moreover, the criteria for identifying implosion breccia have not been defined - do all breccias in dilational jogs or step-overs represent earthquake slip? We are building a database of breccia and microbreccia textures to develop a strictly observational set of criteria for distinction of breccia texture classes. Here, we present observations from the right-lateral Pofadder Shear Zone, South Africa, and use our textural criteria to identify the relative roles of dynamic and quasi-static fracture patterns, comminution/grinding and attrition, hydrothermal alteration, dissolution, and cementation. Nearly 100% exposure in the hyper-arid region south of the Orange River allowed very detailed mapping of frictional fault traces associated with rupture events, containing one or more right-steps in each rupture trace. Fracture patterns characteristic of on- and off-fault damage associated with propagation of dynamic rupture are observed along straight segments of the faults. The wall rock fractures are regularly spaced, begin at the fault trace and propagate at a high angle to the fault, and locally branch into subsidiary fractures before terminating a few cm away. This pattern of fractures has been previously linked to dynamic

  19. Earthquake funding restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Funding levels for the U.S. Geological Survey's part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program for FY92 have been restored by the House and a Senate subcommittee. The president's budget request for FY92 was only $37.3 million, lower than the $54.5 million authorized by Congress for FY91. Earlier this year the House agreed on restoring $10 million to the program. Some AGU members have been trying to see the full $17.2 million difference restored. It is reported that the Senate will agree to give $15 million to the program.When Congress reconvenes in September the full Senate will vote on the Department of Interior and Related Agencies appropriations bill (HR2686). After that, the bill will go to a joint conference committee, where differences between the House and Senate will be resolved before the bill is passed along to the president.

  20. Nonextensive models for earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; França, G S; Vilar, C S; Alcaniz, J S

    2006-02-01

    We have revisited the fragment-asperity interaction model recently introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas [Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 048501 (2004)] by considering a different definition for mean values in the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistics and introducing a scale between the earthquake energy and the size of fragment epsilon proportional to r3. The energy-distribution function (EDF) deduced in our approach is considerably different from the one obtained in the above reference. We have also tested the viability of this EDF with data from two different catalogs (in three different areas), namely, the NEIC and the Bulletin Seismic of the Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. Although both approaches provide very similar values for the nonextensive parameter , other physical quantities, e.g., energy density, differ considerably by several orders of magnitude. PMID:16605393

  1. Regression in polio eradication in Pakistan: A national tragedy.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia

    2016-03-01

    Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World. PMID:26968287

  2. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

    This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  3. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Mayeda, K.; Ruppert, S.

    2002-12-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by analyzing aftershock sequences in the Western U.S. and Turkey using two different techniques. First we examine the observed regional S-wave spectra by fitting with a parametric model (Walter and Taylor, 2002) with and without variable stress drop scaling. Because the aftershock sequences have common stations and paths we can examine the S-wave spectra of events by size to determine what type of apparent stress scaling, if any, is most consistent with the data. Second we use regional coda envelope techniques (e.g. Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al, 2002) on the same events to directly measure energy and moment. The coda techniques corrects for path and site effects using an empirical Green function technique and independent calibration with surface wave derived moments. Our hope is that by carefully analyzing a very large number of events in a consistent manner using two different techniques we can start to resolve this apparent stress scaling issue. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  4. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  5. Pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal injuries in Kashmir valley, a retrospective single-center study of 1467 patients.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Dar, Tahir; Beigh, Asif Qayoom; Dhar, Shabir; Ahad, Humayun; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Ahmad, Sharief

    2015-05-01

    This work aimed to study the pattern and epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal trauma and consequent morbidity in Kashmir Valley and compare the results with other studies and to formulate preventive measures and devise management strategies. This was a retrospective study of 1467 pediatric orthopedic trauma patients who presented to our hospital over a 3-year period between September 2005 and August 2008. Information was recorded in a prescribed proforma including the following: age, sex, mode of trauma, type of fracture/injury, radiological study, final diagnosis, intervention performed, and complications. The information was collected from the Medical Records Department of the hospital. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 16 years; there were 996 males and 471 females, with males outnumbering females in every age group (the overall male-to-female ratio was 2.12:1). Most fractures occurred in children aged 7-12 years [n=816 (53.96%)] and decreased in younger and older children beyond this age group. The left side was involved in 762 cases, 612 injuries involved the right side, 24 were bilateral, and 69 patients presented with multiple injuries. In children aged 0-6 years, the most common site of injury was the elbow, whereas in children aged 7-16 years, it was the forearm. In descending order, most injuries were sustained because of fall while playing (34.76%), fall from height (33.74%), road traffic accidents (14.92%), and fall from standing height (7.97%). The majority of injuries were caused by unintentional trauma (94.48 vs. 5.52%). The places where injury occurred were the home [603 (41.10%)], play field and orchards near the home [450 (30.67%)], roads [219 (14.92%)], school [183 (12.47%)], and unknown [12 (0.81%)]. The pattern and epidemiology of pediatric trauma differs from those in adults. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are because of unintentional trauma in this young age group and hence preventable. Enhanced supervision at home and

  6. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries to Anterior Teeth of 12-Year-Old School Children in Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Ain, Tasneem S.; Lingesha Telgi, Ravishankar; Sultan, Saima; Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar Telgi, Chaitra; Tirth, Amit; Kumar Pal, Sumit; Gowhar, Owais; Tandon, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth are a significant public health problem, not only because their prevalence is relatively high, but also because they have considerable impact on children’s daily lives. Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) cause physical and psychological discomfort, pain and other negative impacts, such as tendency to avoid laughing or smiling, which can affect social relationships. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth among 12-year-old school children in Kashmir, India. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in private and government schools of India among 1600 schoolchildren aged 12 years. In addition to recording of the type of trauma (using Ellis and Davey classification of fractures, 1970), over jet, Angle’s molar relation and lip competence were also recorded. The socioeconomic status and academic performance of the study subjects were registered. The data obtained were compiled systematically and then statistically analyzed. The statistical significance for the association between the traumatic injury and the variables was analyzed using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to identify potential risk predictors of TDIs. Results The overall prevalence of TDI to anterior teeth was found to be 9.3%. The TDI to anterior teeth in male was more than female, but the difference was statistically nonsignificant (P < 0.01). Falls and sports were the most common causes of trauma in the present study. The highest potential risk factor for the occurrence of trauma was over jet. Academic performance was found to be significantly associated to TDI to anterior teeth, when analyzed in a multiple regression model. Conclusions It was concluded that the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 9.3%. Traumatic dental injuries among children exhibit complex interaction between the victims’ oral conditions and their behavior. Therefore

  7. Pathways of Women Prisoners to Jail in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Adeela; Khan, Nashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to examine pathways to imprisonment for women in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that early life victimization in women, problematic family relationship and economical deprivation would be significantly associated with criminal activities of women prisoners. Method: To identify the pathways to prison, structured interview was devised by the researchers. Sample comprised of 114 women prisoners enlisted from KotLakhpat jail, Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Poverty, revenge, anger and lack of empowerment were significantly associated with criminal activities of women of fender. Conclusion: The umbrella of rehabilitation should also cover social and legal matters of women offenders along with tackling their psychological issues. PMID:24688950

  8. The Tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) From Sindh Province, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-01-01

    Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480

  9. The tribe Scymnini (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-01-01

    Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480

  10. Mitigation of Bias in Inversion of Complex Earthquake without Prior Information of Detailed Fault Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, A.; Yagi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Rupture process of earthquake derived from geophysical observations is important information to understand nature of earthquake and assess seismic hazard. Finite fault inversion is a commonly applied method to construct seismic source model. In conventional inversion, fault is approximated by a simple fault surface even if rupture of real earthquake should propagate along non-planar complex fault. In the conventional inversion, complex rupture kinematics is approximated by limited model parameters that only represent slip on a simple fault surface. This over simplification may cause biased and hence misleading solution. MW 7.7 left-lateral strike-slip earthquake occurred in southwestern Pakistan on 2013-09-24 might be one of exemplar event to demonstrate the bias. For this earthquake, northeastward rupture propagation was suggested by a finite fault inversion of teleseismic body and long period surface waves with a single planer fault (USGS). However, surface displacement field measured from cross-correlation of optical satellite images and back-projection imaging revealed that rupture was unilaterally propagated toward southwest on a non-planer fault (Avouac et.al., 2014). To mitigate the bias, more flexible source parameterization should be employed. We extended multi-time window finite fault method to represent rupture kinematics on a complex fault. Each spatio-temporal knot has five degrees of freedom and is able to represent arbitrary strike, dip, rake, moment release rate and CLVD component. Detailed fault geometry for a source fault is not required in our method. The method considers data covariance matrix with uncertainty of Green's function (Yagi and Fukahata, 2011) to obtain stable solution. Preliminary results show southwestward rupture propagation and focal mechanism change that is consistent with fault trace. The result suggests usefulness of the flexible source parameterization for inversion of complex events.

  11. Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Arch C.; Kanter, Lisa R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are some of the reasons for earthquakes which occur in stable crust away from familiar zones at the ends of tectonic plates. Crust stability and the reactivation of old faults are described using examples from India and Australia. (CW)

  12. The next new Madrid earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Scientists who specialize in the study of Mississippi Valley earthquakes say that the region is overdue for a powerful tremor that will cause major damage and undoubtedly some casualties. The inevitability of a future quake and the lack of preparation by both individuals and communities provided the impetus for this book. It brings together applicable information from many disciplines: history, geology and seismology, engineering, zoology, politics and community planning, economics, environmental science, sociology, and psychology and mental health to provide a perspective of the myriad impacts of a major earthquake on the Mississippi Valley. The author addresses such basic questions as What, actually, are earthquakes How do they occur Can they be predicted, perhaps even prevented He also addresses those steps that individuals can take to improve their chances for survival both during and after an earthquake.

  13. Electrostatics in sandstorms and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Thyagu, Nirmal; Paehtz, Thomas; Herrmann, Hans

    2010-11-01

    We present new data demonstrating (1) that electrostatic charging in sandstorms is a necessary outcome in a class of rapid collisional flows, and (2) that electrostatic precursors to slip events - long reported in earthquakes - can be reproduced in the laboratory.

  14. Geochemical challenge to earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, H

    1996-01-01

    The current status of geochemical and groundwater observations for earthquake prediction in Japan is described. The development of the observations is discussed in relation to the progress of the earthquake prediction program in Japan. Three major findings obtained from our recent studies are outlined. (i) Long-term radon observation data over 18 years at the SKE (Suikoen) well indicate that the anomalous radon change before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake can with high probability be attributed to precursory changes. (ii) It is proposed that certain sensitive wells exist which have the potential to detect precursory changes. (iii) The appearance and nonappearance of coseismic radon drops at the KSM (Kashima) well reflect changes in the regional stress state of an observation area. In addition, some preliminary results of chemical changes of groundwater prior to the 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken nanbu) earthquake are presented. PMID:11607665

  15. Earthquakes and relative sealevel changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melini, D.; Piersanti, A.; Spada, G.; Soldati, G.; Casarotti, E.; Boschi, E.

    2004-05-01

    Using a spherical model of postseismic deformation, for the first time we have computed the global contribution of large earthquakes to the relative sealevel variations in the twentieth century. We have found that great earthquakes have the overall tendency to produce a sealevel rise, and that they affect the measurements taken at those tide-gauge sites that are commonly employed to obtain global estimates of sealevel rise. Though on a global scale most of the signal is associated with thrust events, on a regional scale the effects of great transcurrent earthquakes cannot be neglected. Depending on the viscosity of the asthenosphere, the contribution of earthquakes to the long-term sealevel changes amounts to at least 0.1 mm/yr. Thus, the climate-driven long-term sealevel changes deduced by tide-gauge observations may be slightly, but not negligibly, overestimated.

  16. Earthquake Alert System feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.

    1991-12-01

    An Earthquake Alert System (EAS) could give several seconds to several tens of seconds warning before the strong motion from a large earthquake arrives. Such a system would include a large network of sensors distributed within an earthquake-prone region. The sensors closest to the epicenter of a particular earthquake would transmit data at the speed of light to a central processing center, which would broadcast an area-wide alarm in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy from the earthquake. This is possible because seismic energy travels slowly (3--6 km/s) compared to the speed of light. Utilities, public and private institutions, businesses, and the general public would benefit from an EAS. Although many earthquake protection systems exist that automatically shut down power, gas mains, etc. when ground motion at a facility reaches damaging levels, not EAS -- that is, a system that can provide warning in advance of elastic wave energy arriving at a facility -- has ever been developed in the United States. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 1991) concludes that an EAS is technically feasible and strongly recommends installing a prototype system that makes use of existing microseismic stations as much as possible. The EAS concept discussed here consists of a distributed network of remote seismic stations that measure weak and strong earth motion and transmit the data in real time to central facility. This facility processes the data and issues warning broadcasts in the form of information packets containing estimates of earthquake location, zero time (the time the earthquake began), magnitude, and reliability of the predictions. User of the warning broadcasts have a dedicated receiver that monitors the warning broadcast frequency. The user also has preprogrammed responses that are automatically executed when the warning information packets contain location and magnitude estimates above a facility`s tolerance.

  17. Earthquake Alert System feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.

    1991-12-01

    An Earthquake Alert System (EAS) could give several seconds to several tens of seconds warning before the strong motion from a large earthquake arrives. Such a system would include a large network of sensors distributed within an earthquake-prone region. The sensors closest to the epicenter of a particular earthquake would transmit data at the speed of light to a central processing center, which would broadcast an area-wide alarm in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy from the earthquake. This is possible because seismic energy travels slowly (3--6 km/s) compared to the speed of light. Utilities, public and private institutions, businesses, and the general public would benefit from an EAS. Although many earthquake protection systems exist that automatically shut down power, gas mains, etc. when ground motion at a facility reaches damaging levels, not EAS -- that is, a system that can provide warning in advance of elastic wave energy arriving at a facility -- has ever been developed in the United States. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 1991) concludes that an EAS is technically feasible and strongly recommends installing a prototype system that makes use of existing microseismic stations as much as possible. The EAS concept discussed here consists of a distributed network of remote seismic stations that measure weak and strong earth motion and transmit the data in real time to central facility. This facility processes the data and issues warning broadcasts in the form of information packets containing estimates of earthquake location, zero time (the time the earthquake began), magnitude, and reliability of the predictions. User of the warning broadcasts have a dedicated receiver that monitors the warning broadcast frequency. The user also has preprogrammed responses that are automatically executed when the warning information packets contain location and magnitude estimates above a facility's tolerance.

  18. Mitigating earthquakes; the federal role

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Press, F.

    1977-01-01

    With rapid approach of a capability to make reliable earthquake forecasts, it essential that the Federal Government play a strong, positive role in formulating and implementing plans to reduce earthquake hazards. Many steps are being taken in this direction, with the President looking to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in his Executive Office to provide leadership in establishing and coordinating Federal activities. 

  19. Ambulance use in Pakistan: an analysis of surveillance data from emergency departments in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. Results Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value < 0.001). The most common presenting complaint in the ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value < 0.001) adjusted for gender, cities, hospital type, presenting complaint group and disposition. The adjusted odds ratio of utilizing ambulances for those with injuries was 3.5 times higher than those with non-injury complaints (p-value < 0.001). Patients brought to the ED by ambulance were 7.2 times more likely to die in the ED than non-ambulance patients after adjustment for other variables in the model. Conclusion Utilization of ambulances is very low in Pakistan. Ambulance use was found to be more among the elderly and those presenting with injuries. Patients presenting via ambulances were more likely to die in the ED. PMID:26689242

  20. Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain

    SciTech Connect

    Muir-Wood, R.; King, G.C.P. |

    1993-12-01

    The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months. In contrast, hydrological changes accompanying pure reverse fault earthquakes are either undetected or indicate lowering of well levels and spring flows. Strike-slip and oblique-slip fault movements are associated with a mixture of responses but appear to release no more than 10% of the water volume of the same sized normal fault event. For two major normal fault earthquakes in the western United States (those of Hebgen Lake on August 17, 1959, and Borah Peak on October 28, 1983), there is sufficient river flow information to allow the magnitude and extent of the postseismic discharge to be quantified. The discharge has been converted to a rainfall equivalent, which is found to exceed 100 mm close to the fault and to remain above 10 mm at distances greater than 50 km. Results suggest that water-filled craks are ubiquitous throughout the brittle continental crust and that these cracks open and close throughout the earthquake cycle. The existence of tectonically induced fluid flows on the scale that we demonstrate has major implications for our understanding of the mechanical and chemical behavior of crustal rocks.

  1. Building with Earthquakes in Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangieri, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes are some of the most elusive and destructive disasters humans interact with on this planet. Engineering structures to withstand earthquake shaking is critical to ensure minimal loss of life and property. However, the majority of buildings today in non-traditional earthquake prone areas are not built to withstand this devastating force. Understanding basic earthquake engineering principles and the effect of limited resources helps students grasp the challenge that lies ahead. The solution can be found in retrofitting existing buildings with proper reinforcements and designs to deal with this deadly disaster. The students were challenged in this project to construct a basic structure, using limited resources, that could withstand a simulated tremor through the use of an earthquake shake table. Groups of students had to work together to creatively manage their resources and ideas to design the most feasible and realistic type of building. This activity provided a wealth of opportunities for the students to learn more about a type of disaster they do not experience in this part of the country. Due to the fact that most buildings in New York City were not designed to withstand earthquake shaking, the students were able to gain an appreciation for how difficult it would be to prepare every structure in the city for this type of event.

  2. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  3. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  4. Two models for earthquake forerunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mjachkin, V.I.; Brace, W.F.; Sobolev, G.A.; Dieterich, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Similar precursory phenomena have been observed before earthquakes in the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. Two quite different physical models are used to explain these phenomena. According to a model developed by US seismologists, the so-called dilatancy diffusion model, the earthquake occurs near maximum stress, following a period of dilatant crack expansion. Diffusion of water in and out of the dilatant volume is required to explain the recovery of seismic velocity before the earthquake. According to a model developed by Soviet scientists growth of cracks is also involved but diffusion of water in and out of the focal region is not required. With this model, the earthquake is assumed to occur during a period of falling stress and recovery of velocity here is due to crack closure as stress relaxes. In general, the dilatancy diffusion model gives a peaked precursor form, whereas the dry model gives a bay form, in which recovery is well under way before the earthquake. A number of field observations should help to distinguish between the two models: study of post-earthquake recovery, time variation of stress and pore pressure in the focal region, the occurrence of pre-existing faults, and any changes in direction of precursory phenomena during the anomalous period. ?? 1975 Birkha??user Verlag.

  5. Comments on "Towards Balanced Development in Pakistan".

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, E V

    1992-01-01

    Critical comment on the proposal of Professor Pyatt for balanced development in Pakistan focused on broad methodological issues. Professor Pyatt's approach proposes to balance efficiency criteria with longterm objectives of sustainable economic and human development: changing asset distribution through new investment and shifting investment returns in the social sector to households. I is a systematic attempt to compensate for deficits in human development. Policies would include "tariffisation of quota allocation of goods such as water, differential pricing to protect the poor; national conservation and polluter penalties; foreign aid shift to human maintenance expenditure; and reform of fiscal policy on income and expenditure to allow for support of social objectives." Patterns of property and institutional privilege can be effectively altered through market practices, such that wage goods could be subsidized in order to increase productivity. Constructive rethinking of assumptions underlying the balanced development argument is suggested, because of Pyatt model is contrary to the Dornbusch assumptions behind structural adjustment of the standard World Bank model. The assumption in question is that nontraditional expenditure on health, education, and the environment reduces unit labor costs. Concern is also raised about the approach to "efficiency wages" and the inputs of health and education, and food and housing, which are required to supply labor. Real wages might be conceptualized as affecting labor productivity in a more dynamic way than Professor Pyatt recognized. Use of human capital would be maximized and would be equivalent to the formation of new human capital. Wages may be construed to act like internal trade, where prices and markets are effectively interchanged so that farmers receive not only agricultural products, but also essential and nonessential consumer goods. Professor Pyatt's article is relevant to any country's development planning and

  6. The Kangding earthquake swarm of November, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xuemei

    2015-06-01

    There was an earthquake swarm of two major events of M S6.3 and M S5.8 on the Xianshuihe fault in November, 2014. The two major earthquakes are both strike-slip events with aftershock zone along NW direction. We have analyzed the characteristics of this earthquake sequence. The b value and the h value show the significant variations in different periods before and after the M S5.8 earthquake. Based on the data of historical earthquakes, we also illustrated the moderate-strong seismic activity on the Xianshuihe fault. The Kangding earthquake swarm manifests the seismic activity on Xianshuihe fault may be in the late seismic active period. The occurrence of the Kangding earthquake may be an adjustment of the strong earthquakes on the Xianshuihe fault. The Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the historical earthquakes were also given in this article. The results indicate that the earthquake swarm was encouraged by the historical earthquakes since 1893, especially by the M S7.5 Kangding earthquake in 1955. The Coulomb failure stress changes also shows the subsequent M S5.8 earthquake was triggered by the M S6.3 earthquake.

  7. Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

  8. Effective Use of Action-Oriented Studies in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes results from action-oriented studies carried out at the Mental Heath Centre in Peshawar, Pakistan, dealing with such topics as attitudes toward disability, casual integration, and trends in polio paralysis. The article also considers problems associated with the dissemination of special education and rehabilitation research…

  9. Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

  10. Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

  11. Instructional Leadership Potential among School Principals in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niqab, Muhammad; Sharma, Sailesh; Wei, Leong Mei; Maulod, Shafinaz Bt A.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the pivotal role of the school principal in relation to organizational commitment and expected student outcomes in schools in Pakistan. By critically examining the available literature, and by evaluating relevant data, this study will draw attention to how successful principals manage their schools, by providing an…

  12. School Inspection and Supervision in Pakistan: Approaches and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffer, Kulsoom

    2010-01-01

    This article traces how the concept of educational inspection has evolved in Pakistan, especially in the province of Sindh, and discusses whether the existing inspection system helps to improve quality and establish accountability. The inspection system that originated in colonial days has evolved to incorporate the notion of using supervision to…

  13. Home Economics Curricula in Pakistan: Time for Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Fouzia; McClelland, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Most home economics in Pakistan focuses on women's homemaking skills (food preparation, clothing, interior design), not career orientation; it caters to upper/middle class needs and traditional roles. Rural/lower class women's needs (agricultural production, nutrition, hygiene, family planning) are not generally served. (SK)

  14. Technology and Distance Education: Sharing Experience in Sindh, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Female literacy in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world. In 1981, the literacy rate was 16 percent for females, and 7.3 percent for rural women. Distance education can effect many social changes. Females would be the main beneficiaries because it is not socially acceptable for girls to leave home for education; parents do not like…

  15. Improving Public School Teachers in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Rana; Ali, Sajid

    2010-01-01

    This article tries to respond to a basic question: "can in-service teachers of public sectors in Pakistan be reformed?" The authors' response to this question is: "yes, public teachers can be reformed, if contextual possibilities are exploited efficiently". Although a straightforward and simplistic response to the question, this was felt necessary…

  16. Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zada, Khan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

  17. Schools for Change: A Perspective on School Improvement in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riaz, Ismat

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the deeply unsatisfactory state of public and private schooling in a developing country, Pakistan, and the half-hearted measures employed at improving these schools. In the process, the author explores the negative aspects of the ways in which change has been effected in the country's education system and why these reasons…

  18. Conflict, Development and Community Participation in Education: Pakistan and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2005-01-01

    In development policy, community participation has increasingly come to be seen as a way to encourage community interest, involvement, ownership and ultimately, sustainability of projects. Education has also been affected by this discourse. The following paper examines two countries affected by conflict (Pakistan and Yemen), asking what type of…

  19. A Portrayal of Women Educational Leadership in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina

    2011-01-01

    The researcher is stimulated to work on the growing trends of women leadership. The problem has been designed to investigate the factors influencing the emergence of women leadership at higher education level in Pakistan. On the basis of the studies conducted by Oplatka (2006) and Cubillo, Brown, 2003, it was assumed that specific factors…

  20. Qualitative Inquiry into Local Education Administration in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2009-01-01

    The level of educational development in Pakistan is low. A decentralisation reform was introduced in 2000 to improve the delivery of basic education by designating the local government body with primary responsibility for administering it. A qualitative field study on local education administration at the North West Frontier Province found…

  1. Strategic Framework for Teacher Education and Professional Development: Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is common to find well-crafted and coherent policy designs failing to attain desired results in developing counties. Pakistan is no exception. Despite having taken a significant number of initiatives in a quest to further its Teacher Professional Development (TPD) objectives, progress remains less than satisfactory. While a number of studies…

  2. Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

    This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

  3. Education Policies in Pakistan--Process & FOCI of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Taqadus Bashir; Shami, Pervez A.

    2007-01-01

    To achieve the highest pedestal of civilization knowledge is the key driver toward the product of education. All the independent states like Pakistan are under obligation to recognize education as a right of citizens. To embark on a path of progress and realize the potentials of a nation every state invests in education to address the needs and…

  4. Attitudes to School Science Held by Primary Children in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future…

  5. A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

    2006-01-01

    Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

  6. Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinji, Tajima

    2009-01-01

    In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

  7. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pakistan: National Trends and Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez Bhatti, Abu Bakar; Dar, Faisal Saud; Waheed, Anum; Shafique, Kashif; Sultan, Faisal; Shah, Najmul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3%) in the world. In the absence of a national cancer registry and screening programs, prevalence of hepatitis and HCC only represents estimates of the real magnitude of this problem. In this review, we present various aspects of HCC in Pakistan, comparing and contrasting it with the global trends in cancer care. There is a general lack of awareness regarding risk factors of HCC in Pakistani population and prevalence of hepatitis C has increased. In addition, less common risk factors are also on a rise. Majority of patients present with advanced HCC and are not eligible for definitive treatment. We have attempted to highlight issues that have a significant bearing on HCC outcome in Pakistan. A set of strategies have been put forth that can potentially help reduce incidence and improve HCC outcome on national level. PMID:26955390

  8. Satellite-Based Study of Glaciers Retreat in Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Siraj

    Glaciers serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of glaciers is covered by Pakistan. These glaciers are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. Glacier depletion, especially recent melting can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from glacier melt. Melting of seasonal snowfall and permanent glaciers has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of glaciers, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of glacier melting has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura glacier for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura glaciers. Although accurate changes in glacier extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.

  9. Perspectives of Aacademic Activities in Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    The article explores perspectives on academic activities in public sector universities in Pakistan. Seven Pakistani universities yielded 290 teachers and 568 students in the sample. Factor analysis indicated five main factors in both teacher and student data sets. Both teachers and students were dissatisfied with the performance of the…

  10. The Changing Perspective of Art Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Sher Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development of art education in Pakistan over the last five decades is explored through three major phases: Arts as traditional crafts together with proficiency in painting and calligraphy. Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that…

  11. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  12. Temperament Styles of Children from Pakistan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…

  13. A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Ali, Bux; Mazhar, Farida; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years, Pakistan has emerged as one of the largest centres for commerce and tourism in renal transplantation. Kidney vendors belong to Punjab in eastern Pakistan, the agricultural heartland, where 34% people live below poverty line. We report results of a socioeconomic and health survey of 239 kidney vendors. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 7.2 years (M:F 3.5:1). Mean nephrectomy period was 4.8 +/- 2.3 years. Ninety per cent of the vendors were illiterate. Sixty-nine per cent were bonded labourers who were virtual slaves to landlords, labourers 12%, housewives 8.5% and unemployed 11%. Monthly income was $US15.4 +/- 8.9 with 2-11 dependents per family. Majority (93%), vended for debt repayment with mean debt of $1311.4 +/- 819. The mean agreed sale price was $1737 +/- 262. However, they received $1377 +/- 196 after deduction for hospital and travel expenses. Postvending 88% had no economic improvement in their lives and 98% reported deterioration in general health status. Future vending was encouraged by 35% to pay off debts and freedom from bondage. This study gives a snapshot of kidney vendors from Pakistan. These impoverished people, many in bondage, are examples of modern day slavery. They will remain exploited until law against bondage is implemented and new laws are introduced to ban commerce and transplant tourism in Pakistan. PMID:17645418

  14. Annual Report 1969-70. Pakistan Girl Guides Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakistan Girl Guides Association, Lahore.

    Activities of the Pakistan Girl Guides Association during the 1969-70 period are discussed in this annual report. The National Commissioner's Thinking Day Message, Membership Figures, Annual Report, and Statement of Audited Accounts for the year ended 30th June 1969 are provided. One activity of the Association is in the field of adult literacy,…

  15. Household Schooling Decisions in Rural Pakistan. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Yasuyuki; Lokshin, Michael

    A study of household schooling decisions in rural Pakistan found serious supply-side constraints on female primary education in the villages studied. Field surveys of 25 Pakistani villages were integrated with economic theory and econometric analysis to investigate the sequential nature of educational decisions. The full-information maximum…

  16. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will

  17. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide. PMID:22410538

  18. Computer simulation of earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    Two computer simulation models of earthquakes were studied for the dependence of the pattern of events on the model assumptions and input parameters. Both models represent the seismically active region by mechanical blocks which are connected to one another and to a driving plate. The blocks slide on a friction surface. In the first model elastic forces were employed and time independent friction to simulate main shock events. The size, length, and time and place of event occurrence were influenced strongly by the magnitude and degree of homogeniety in the elastic and friction parameters of the fault region. Periodically reoccurring similar events were frequently observed in simulations with near homogeneous parameters along the fault, whereas, seismic gaps were a common feature of simulations employing large variations in the fault parameters. The second model incorporated viscoelastic forces and time-dependent friction to account for aftershock sequences. The periods between aftershock events increased with time and the aftershock region was confined to that which moved in the main event.

  19. Earthquakes with non--double-couple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, C

    1994-05-01

    Seismological observations confirm that the pattern of seismic waves from some earthquakes cannot be produced by slip along a planar fault surface. More than one physical mechanism is required to explain the observed varieties of these non-double-couple earthquakes. The simplest explanation is that some earthquakes are complex, with stress released on two or more suitably oriented, nonparallel fault surfaces. However, some shallow earthquakes in volcanic and geothermal areas require other explanations. Current research focuses on whether fault complexity explains most observed non-double-couple earthquakes and to what extent ordinary earthquakes have non-double-couple components. PMID:17794721

  20. Morphological characterization of nematodes of the genera Capillaria, Acuaria, Amidostomum, Streptocara, Heterakis, and Ascaridia isolated from intestine and gizzard of domestic birds from different regions of the temperate Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Syed; Ahad, Shazia; Chishti, Mohammad Zahoor

    2015-12-01

    During a random survey of parasitisation of poultry birds of Kashmir, conducted for 3 years more than 300 poultry birds were randomly collected from different parts of the Kashmir valley and were examined for the helminth parasites. The most dominant group of parasites which was parasitizing the poultry birds was found to be the Cestode, whose prevalence in the infected birds was 76.9 %. Nematodes were found to be the second dominant group of parasites after cestodes with the prevalence of 70 %. Among the different species of nematodes Heterakis gallinae were found infecting almost all the birds autopsied. The highest intensity of H. gallinae might be because of the fact that it requires cockroaches, beetles and grasshoppers as intermediate hosts in addition of having a direct life cycle. Nematodes which were recovered from the intestine and gizzard of the birds belong to the genera Capillaria, Acuaria, Amidostomum, Streptocara, Heterakis, and Ascaridia. PMID:26688646

  1. Comment on: Alam Akhtar, Ahmad Shabir, Sultan Bhat, M., Ahmad Bashir, 2015. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphology doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.03.025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Alam et al. (2015) have challenged the classic piggyback tectonic model for the development of Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya. However, all the evidence shown is completely contrary to the geologic, tectonic, structural, seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic data of previous works. A perfectly planar major (~ 165 km) dextral strike-slip fault has been mapped; however, with such planar geometry, any strike-slip fault cannot produce a pull-apart basin because such basins are characteristic features of step-overs and linkage fault geometries. And the Horsetail structures are impossible for a major planar strike-slip fault geometry that is proposed by the authors. The recent geodetic data of the Kashmir basin strongly refutes the pure strike-slip model. Therefore, the structures, geomorphology, geology, and kinematics associated with typical dextral strike-slip fault geometry completely contradict to what has been proposed by Alam et al. (2015).

  2. Laboratory Generated M -6 Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2014-10-01

    We consider whether mm-scale earthquake-like seismic events generated in laboratory experiments are consistent with our understanding of the physics of larger earthquakes. This work focuses on a population of 48 very small shocks that are foreshocks and aftershocks of stick-slip events occurring on a 2.0 m by 0.4 m simulated strike-slip fault cut through a large granite sample. Unlike the larger stick-slip events that rupture the entirety of the simulated fault, the small foreshocks and aftershocks are contained events whose properties are controlled by the rigidity of the surrounding granite blocks rather than characteristics of the experimental apparatus. The large size of the experimental apparatus, high fidelity sensors, rigorous treatment of wave propagation effects, and in situ system calibration separates this study from traditional acoustic emission analyses and allows these sources to be studied with as much rigor as larger natural earthquakes. The tiny events have short (3-6 μs) rise times and are well modeled by simple double couple focal mechanisms that are consistent with left-lateral slip occurring on a mm-scale patch of the precut fault surface. The repeatability of the experiments indicates that they are the result of frictional processes on the simulated fault surface rather than grain crushing or fracture of fresh rock. Our waveform analysis shows no significant differences (other than size) between the M -7 to M -5.5 earthquakes reported here and larger natural earthquakes. Their source characteristics such as stress drop (1-10 MPa) appear to be entirely consistent with earthquake scaling laws derived for larger earthquakes.

  3. Earthquake clusters in Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesimeri, Maria; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Karakostas, Vasilios; Tsaklidis, George

    2013-04-01

    Clusters commonly occur as main shock-aftershock (MS-AS) sequences but also as earthquake swarms, which are empirically defined as an increase in seismicity rate above the background rate without a clear triggering main shock earthquake. Earthquake swarms occur in a variety of different environments and might have a diversity of origins, characterized by a high b-value in their magnitude distribution. The Corinth Rift, which was selected as our target area, appears to be the most recent extensional structure, with a likely rate of fault slip of about 1cm/yr and opening of 7mm/yr. High seismic activity accommodates the active deformation with frequent strong (M≥6.0) events and several seismic excitations without a main shock with clearly discriminative magnitude. Identification of earthquake clusters that occurred in this area in last years and investigation of their spatio-temporal distribution is attempted, with the application of known declustering algorithms, aiming to associate their occurrence with certain patterns in seismicity behavior. The earthquake catalog of the National Hellenic Seismological Network is used, and a certain number of clusters were extracted from the dataset, with the MS-AS sequences being distinguished from earthquake swarms. Spatio-temporal properties of each subset were analyzed in detail, after determining the respective completeness magnitude. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non-extensive statistical physics - Application to the geodynamic system of the Hellenic Arc, SEISMO FEAR HELLARC".

  4. Evolution of Doctoral Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Successes of Doctoral Students of Education in a Public Sector University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a part of the findings from a larger study undertaken to explore the experience of graduate students in education in Pakistan. Analysis of a smaller slice of data collected from students who were enrolled in the PhD and MPhil programmes of the Department of Education in a large public sector university in Northern Pakistan was…

  5. Governance and Higher Education in Pakistan: What Roles Do Boards of Governors Play in Ensuring the Academic Quality Maintenance in Public Universities versus Private Universities in Pakistan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Sidra

    2014-01-01

    There are major structural issues in the higher education system in Pakistan leading to poor governance of institutions and questionable quality of education. This paper looks at the differences in the role of boards of governors in maintaining quality of education in both the public and the private sector universities in Pakistan. After having…

  6. Literacy, Income Generation, and Poverty Alleviation in Sindh Pakistan and Its Impact on Economic Development, Human Resource Development in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Rural poverty in Sindh, Pakistan, has been artificially created by low prices of wheat, fixed by the federal government's price control board. Agriculture and agro-based industries account for 80 percent of the country's labor force. Among the consequences of this price control are low margins of profit to the farming community; low capacity to…

  7. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (<24 months between births); unwanted pregnancy (any ever); pregnancy termination (any stillbirth, miscarriage or abortion ever)] by early (<18) versus adult (≥18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with low social equity indicators (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of

  8. The music of earthquakes and Earthquake Quartet #1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquake Quartet #1, my composition for voice, trombone, cello, and seismograms, is the intersection of listening to earthquakes as a seismologist and performing music as a trombonist. Along the way, I realized there is a close relationship between what I do as a scientist and what I do as a musician. A musician controls the source of the sound and the path it travels through their instrument in order to make sound waves that we hear as music. An earthquake is the source of waves that travel along a path through the earth until reaching us as shaking. It is almost as if the earth is a musician and people, including seismologists, are metaphorically listening and trying to understand what the music means.

  9. Traditional perceptions of marasmus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mull, D S

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and fifty mothers of under-5 children clinically identified as malnourished were interviewed in their homes in katchi abadis (squatter settlements) of Karachi. A variety of ethnic and religious groups were represented. Mothers were shown a photograph of a child with third-degree malnutrition (marasmus) and were asked what might be wrong with the child. Virtually of the mothers said that they had seen the condition, typically identifying it as sukhay ki bimari (Urdu: 'the disease of dryness and thinness'). The majority said that diarrhea predisposed to sukhay ki bimari, and vice versa, but only 3 of the 150 mothers said that diarrhea and/or lack of food could, in themselves, cause the condition. Instead, most said that the usual cause was contact with a woman who had a marasmic child or was otherwise in a state of ritual impurity. The mediating factor was said to be a saya ('shadow, influence') emanating from such a person and ultimately linked with the spirit world. Although the condition was judged to have a very poor prognosis, mothers described various magico-religious therapies that could be tried. Treatment by physicians or by giving more food was considered ineffective or even detrimental, and hiding of such children was reportedly common because of social stigma. Subsequent inquiries carried out by the author in Chitral in northwestern Pakistan produced similar findings except that there, the condition was known as moordasip and was more overtly associated with fright and spirit possession. In Karachi, 45 of the 150 mothers interviewed had children with third-degree malnutrition according to weight-for-age criteria, 15 of whom died in the course of the study. In these 45 families especially, early bottlefeeding had occurred, sometimes reportedly because of fear that the mother was a carrier of a saya and could pass it on through her milk. Most mothers had only sketchy knowledge of suitable weaning foods and an appropriate timetable for

  10. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  11. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  12. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  13. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  14. Tectonic earthquakes of anthropogenic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The enhancement of seismicity induced by industrial activity in Russia in the conditions of present-day anthropization is noted. In particular, the growth in the intensity and number of strong tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 3 (seismic energy 109 J) due to human activity is revealed. These man-made tectonic earthquakes have started to occur in the regions of the East European Platform which were previously aseismic. The development of such seismicity is noted in the areas of intense long-term mineral extraction due to the increasing production depth and extended mining and production. The mechanisms and generation conditions of man-made tectonic earthquakes in the anthropogenically disturbed medium with the changed geodynamical and fluid regime is discussed. The source zones of these shallow-focus tectonic earthquakes of anthropogenic origin are formed in the setting of stress state rearrangement under anthropogenic loading both near these zones and at a significant distance from them. This distance is determined by the tectonic structure of the rock mass and the character of its energy saturation, in particular, by the level of the formation pressure or pore pressure. These earthquakes occur at any time of the day, have a triggered character, and are frequently accompanied by catastrophic phenomena in the underground mines and on the surface due to the closeness to the source zones.

  15. Ball-and-socket tectonic rotation during the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Briggs, Richard W.; Gold, Ryan D.; Bilham, R.

    2014-01-01

    The September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake ruptured a ∼200-km-long segment of the curved Hoshab fault in southern Pakistan with 10±0.2 m of peak sinistral and ∼1.7±0.8 m of dip slip. This rupture is unusual because the fault dips 60±15° towards the focus of a small circle centered in northwest Pakistan, and, despite a 30° increase in obliquity along strike, the ratios of strike and dip slip remain relatively uniform. Surface displacements and geodetic and teleseismic source inversions quantify a bilateral rupture that propagated rapidly at shallow depths from a transtensional jog near the northern end of the rupture. Static friction prior to rupture was unusually weak (μ<0.05), and friction may have approached zero during dynamic rupture. Here we show that the inward-dipping Hoshab fault defines the northern rim of a structural unit in southeast Makran that rotates – akin to a 2-D ball-and-socket joint – counter-clockwise in response to India's penetration into the Eurasian plate. This rotation accounts for complexity in the Chaman fault system and, in principle, reduces seismic potential near Karachi; nonetheless, these findings highlight deficiencies in strong ground motion equations and tectonic models that invoke Anderson–Byerlee faulting predictions.

  16. Landslides in everyday life: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding vulnerability in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudmeier-Rieux, K.; Breguet, A.; Dubois, J.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2009-04-01

    Several thousand landslides were triggered by the Kashmir earthquake, scarring the hillside with cracks. Monsoon rains continue to trigger landslides, which have increased the exposure of populations because of lost agricultural lands, blocked roads and annual fatalities due to landslides. The great majority of these landslides are shallow and relatively small but greatly impacting the population. In this region, landslides were a factor before the earthquake, mainly due to road construction and gravel excavation, but the several thousand landslides triggered by the earthquake have completely overwhelmed the local population and authorities. In Eastern Nepal, the last large earthquake to hit this region occurred in 1988, also triggering numerous landslides and cracks. Here, landslides can be considered a more common phenomenon, yet coping capacities amount to local observations of landslide movement, subsequent abandonment of houses and land as they become too dangerous. We present a comparative case study from Kashmir, Pakistan and Eastern Nepal, highlighting an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex interactions between land use, landslides and vulnerability. Our approach sets out to understand underlying causes of the massive landslides triggered by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, Pakistan, and also the increasing number of landslides in Nepal. By approaching the issue of landslides from multiple angles (risk perceptions, land use, local coping capacities, geological assessment, risk mapping) and multiple research techniques (remote sensing, GIS, geological assessment, participatory mapping, focus groups) we are better able to create a more complete picture of the "hazardscape". We find that by combining participatory social science research with hazard mapping, we obtain a more complete understanding of underlying causes, coping strategies and possible mitigation options, placing natural hazards in the context of everyday life. This method is

  17. REGIONAL SEISMIC AMPLITUDE MODELING AND TOMOGRAPHY FOR EARTHQUAKE-EXPLOSION DISCRIMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E; Gok, R; Sweeney, J; Ford, S R; Rodgers, A J

    2008-07-08

    We continue exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination using regional amplitude ratios such as P/S in a variety of frequency bands. Empirically we demonstrate that such ratios separate explosions from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India, Pakistan, and North Korea). We are also examining if there is any relationship between the observed P/S and the point source variability revealed by longer period full waveform modeling (e. g. Ford et al 2008). For example, regional waveform modeling shows strong tectonic release from the May 1998 India test, in contrast with very little tectonic release in the October 2006 North Korea test, but the P/S discrimination behavior appears similar in both events using the limited regional data available. While regional amplitude ratios such as P/S can separate events in close proximity, it is also empirically well known that path effects can greatly distort observed amplitudes and make earthquakes appear very explosion-like. Previously we have shown that the MDAC (Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction, Walter and Taylor, 2001) technique can account for simple 1-D attenuation and geometrical spreading corrections, as well as magnitude and site effects. However in some regions 1-D path corrections are a poor approximation and we need to develop 2-D path corrections. Here we demonstrate a new 2-D attenuation tomography technique using the MDAC earthquake source model applied to a set of events and stations in both the Middle East and the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula regions. We believe this new 2-D MDAC tomography has the potential to greatly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination, particularly in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East. Monitoring the world for potential nuclear explosions requires characterizing seismic

  18. Earthquakes and the urban environment. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the complex nature of earthquake effects, current investigations encompass many disciplines, including those of both the physical and social sciences. Research activities center on such diversified topics as earthquake mechanics, earthquake prediction and control, the prompt and accurate detection of tsunamis (seismic sea waves), earthquake-resistant construction, seismic building code improvements, land use zoning, earthquake risk and hazard perception, disaster preparedness, plus the study of the concerns and fears of people who have experienced the effects of an earthquake. This monograph attempts to amalgamate recent research input comprising the vivifying components of urban seismology at a level useful to those having an interest in the earthquake and its effects upon an urban environment. Volume 1 contains chapters on earthquake parameters and hazards.

  19. Earthquakes and the urban environment. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the complex nature of earthquake effects, current investigations encompass many disciplines, including those of both the physical and social sciences. Research activities center on such diversified topics as earthquake mechanics, earthquake prediction and control, the prompt and accurate detection of tsunamis (seismic sea waves), earthquake-resistant construction, seismic building code improvements, land use zoning, earthquake risk and hazard perception, disaster preparedness, plus the study of the concerns and fears of people who have experienced the effects of an earthquake. This monograph attempts to amalgamate recent research input comprising the vivifying components of urban seismology at a level useful to those having an interest in the earthquake and its effects upon an urban environment. Volume 2 contains chapters on earthquake prediction, control, building design and building response.

  20. The October 12, 1992, Dahshur, Egypt, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Celebi, M.; Sharp, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    We were part of an international reconnaissance team that investigated the Dahsur earthquake. This article summarizes our findings and points out how even a relatively moderate sized earthquake can cause widespread damage and a large number of casualities. 

  1. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 23, Number 6, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Gordon, David W., (Edited By)

    1993-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers.

  2. Increase in malaria cases imported from Pakistan to Germany in 2012.

    PubMed

    Stark, K; Schöneberg, I

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase of malaria cases imported to Germany from Pakistan was observed in 2012. As of 14 November, Pakistan was the country of infection in 32 out of 434 malaria cases in 2012, compared to zero to eight annual malaria cases (out of over 500 cases) in previous years. Physicians and public health authorities should consider malaria in febrile patients returning or migrating from Pakistan. PMID:23231855

  3. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2013-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  4. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1) Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2) Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3) The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  5. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  6. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  7. Earthquake-dammed lakes in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.

    1981-05-01

    Eleven small lakes were formed by landslides caused by the 1929 Buller earthquake; four others were formed by other historic earthquakes in New Zealand. At least nine other New Zealand lakes are also dammed by landslides and were probably formed by prehistoric earthquakes. When recognized by morphology, synchronous age, and areal distribution, earthquake-dammed lakes could provide an estimate of paleoseismicity for the past few hundred or thousand years.

  8. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  9. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  10. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.; Borcherdt, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake (ML = 6.7, ?? = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake (ML = 5.5, ?? = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake (ML = 6.1, ?? = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake (ML = 5.8, ?? = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake (ML = 7.0, ?? = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10-8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10-10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10-9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure. ?? 1987.

  11. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2014-04-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future shallow (depth 0-70 km) earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress, and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5° spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75° to +75°, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalogue. In the new forecasts we have improved the spatial resolution to 0.1° and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each gridpoint. Simultaneously, we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method of Kagan & Jackson proposed in 1994. This average angle reveals the level of tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The procedure becomes problematical where longitude lines are not approximately parallel, and where shallow earthquakes are so sparse that an adequate sample spans very large distances. North or south of 75°, the azimuths of points 1000 km away may vary by about 35°. We solved this problem by calculating focal mechanisms on a plane tangent to the Earth's surface at each forecast point, correcting for the rotation of the longitude lines at the locations of earthquakes included in the averaging. The corrections are negligible between -30° and +30° latitude, but outside that band uncorrected rotations can be significantly off. Improved forecasts at 0.5° and 0.1° resolution are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

  12. Understanding and responding to earthquake hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Lundgren, P. R.; Madsen, S. N.; Rundle, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Advances in understanding of the earthquake cycle and in assessing earthquake hazards is a topic of great importance. Dynamic earthquake hazard assessments resolved for a range of spatial scales and time scales will allow a more systematic approach to prioritizing the retrofitting of vulnerable structures, relocating populations at risk, protecting lifelines, preparing for disasters, and educating the public.

  13. Earthquakes in the New Zealand Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Cleland

    1995-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…

  14. Earthquakes: A Teacher's Package for K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    Like rain, an earthquake is a natural occurrence which may be mild or catastrophic. Although an earthquake may last only a few seconds, the processes that cause it have operated within the earth for millions of years. Until recently, the cause of earthquakes was a mystery and the subject of fanciful folklore to people all around the world. This…

  15. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  16. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  17. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  18. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  19. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  20. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...