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Sample records for kashmir pakistan earthquake

  1. In the aftermath of the Qa'yamat: the Kashmir earthquake disaster in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Sarah J; Hamilton, Jennifer Parker

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local impact of the catastrophic earthquake in northern Pakistan on 8 October 2005. Drawing on field research, including interviews with 40 earthquake survivors, the post-disaster analysis presented here focuses upon risk awareness and the reactions of respondents to the 7.6 magnitude earthquake that devastated areas of Azad Jammu and Kashmir State, and North-West Frontier Province. The analysis provides insights into local perceptions of seismic hazard and exposure as well as survivors' priorities with regard to rebuilding and reconstruction. The article suggests that the tragedy of the devastating earthquake is entangled in a deeper knot of causal factors that are social, economic and political in nature. Rapid population growth, urbanisation, changing building styles, environmental degradation and lack of preparedness and mitigation are associated with the circumstances that place the population at risk. Remarks concerning present and future risk reduction efforts are included. PMID:19796167

  2. Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Very High Resolution Optical Images for Detecting Co-seismic Surface Effects: the Cases of the 2005 Kashmir (Pakistan) and the 2003 Bam (Iran) Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, M.; Cinti, F. R.; Stramondo, S.

    2008-12-01

    Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite panchromatic image has revealed to be a reliable tool to detect surface effects of natural disasters. This is particularly true whereas the hit territory is a remote land and/or with logistic and security problems. Data from this kind of sensor have a potential for more exhaustive and accurate mapping of the environment with details of sub-meter ground resolution. We show two large earthquake case studies, the 2005 Mw 7.6 Kashmir and the 2003 Mw 6.6 Bam events, both producing significant surface effects as ruptures, landslides and building damages. In order to test the capability of VHR images to recognize and evaluate such features we used panchromatic QuickBird imagery (0.6 m spatial resolution) acquired before and after the events (kindly provided by DigitalGlobe). Concerning the Pakistan we focus on the Muzaffarabad and Balakot areas, both crossed by the earthquake fault and experiencing edifice collapses. Same sort of analysis is performed for the ancient town of Bam. We proceed with: 1. identification on the images of the main rupture trace and of major landslides; 2. generation of a detailed spatial distribution of damage and collapses through a single building automatic classification approach; 3. cross-comparison of the different surface effects. The QuickBird panchromatic images provide a view of the co-seismic features at large scale, revealing complex geometric pattern of the cracks and compressional deformation features. It is possible to detect the lateral sense of movement, and based on the sun shade projection in the images, we infer the facing of the scarp, thus the uplifted side. Regarding point two, if in one hand the use of QuickBird images leads to detect very small details, on the other hand buildings become rather complex structures. Furthermore they may be surrounded by scattering objects making less evident the contrast between the roofs and the ground, thus increasing the difficulties in the

  4. Landslide Hazards After the 2005 Kashmir Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony; Roshan, Masud; Akhtar, Sadar Saeed; Wahla, Sajjad Karamat

    2007-01-01

    The 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake killed 87,300 people and disrupted the lives of several million more. By current estimates, 30,000 still live in camps sited more in accordance with short term expedience than with freedom from risk of natural hazards. In December 2006, the international aid community expressed fears that 50,000 people in Northwest Frontier Province may leave their mountain homes this winter as landslides and avalanches block access roads. As the focus of humanitarian assistance shifts toward restoration of Kashmir's infrastructure, it is important that the persistent hazard of landslides within the earthquake affected region be understood and recognized.

  5. Major earthquake shakes northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    A magnitude 7.6 earthquake that shook the western Himalayas on 8 October killed at least 23,000 in Pakistan and 1,400 in India, injured more than 50,000 people, and left more 2.5 million people homeless across the Kashmir region. The official death toll could exceed 30,000, placing this among most deadly earthquakes to have ever occurred on the Indian subcontinent.Scientists warn that, given the lack of development and poor construction in the area, future earthquakes in more densely populated areas could be devastating. David Simpson, president of the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology, said the 8 October quake ‘was a terrible disaster, but not to the level of what could happen in the future. This is yet again another warning message of things to come.”

  6. Some more earthquakes from medieval Kashmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shafi, Muzamil

    2014-07-01

    Kashmir has the peculiarity of having written history of almost 5,000 years. However, the description of earthquakes in the archival contents is patchy prior to 1500 a.d. Moreover, recent search shows that there exist certain time gaps in the catalogs presently in use especially at medieval level (1128-1586 a.d.). The presence of different ruling elites in association with socioeconomic and political conditions has in many ways confused the historical context of the medieval sources. However, by a meticulous review of the Sanskrit sources (between the twelfth and sixteenth century), it has been possible to identify unspecified but fair number (eight seismic events) of earthquakes that do not exist in published catalogs of Kashmir or whose dates are very difficult to establish. Moreover, historical sources reveal that except for events which occurred during Sultan Skinder's rule (1389-1413) and during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470), all the rediscovered seismic events went into oblivion, due mainly to the fact that the sources available dedicated their interests to the military events, which often tended to overshadow/superimpose over and even concealed natural events like earthquakes, resulting in fragmentary accounts and rendering them of little value for macroseismic intensity evaluation necessary for more efficient seismic hazard assessment.

  7. A review of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake-induced landslides; from a remote sensing prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Muhammad; van der Meijde, Mark; Khan, M. Asif

    2016-03-01

    The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake, in northern Pakistan has triggered thousands of landslides, which was the second major factor in the destruction of the build-up environment, after earthquake-induced ground shaking. Subsequent to the earthquake, several researchers from home and abroad applied a variety of remote sensing techniques, supported with field observations, to develop inventories of the earthquake-triggered landslides, analyzed their spatial distribution and subsequently developed landslide-susceptibility maps. Earthquake causative fault rupture, geology, anthropogenic activities and remote sensing derived topographic attributes were observed to have major influence on the spatial distribution of landslides. These were subsequently used to develop a landslide susceptibility map, thereby demarcating the areas prone to landsliding. Temporal studies monitoring the earthquake-induced landslides shows that the earthquake-induced landslides are stabilized, contrary to earlier belief, directly after the earthquake. The biggest landslide induced dam, as a result of the massive Hattian Bala landslide, is still posing a threat to the surrounding communities. It is observed that remote sensing data is effectively and efficiently used to assess the landslides triggered by the Kashmir earthquake, however, there is still a need of more research to understand the mechanism of intensity and distribution of landslides; and their continuous monitoring using remote sensing data at a regional scale. This paper, provides an overview of remote sensing and GIS applications, for the Kashmir-earthquake triggered landslides, derived outputs and discusses the lessons learnt, advantages, limitations and recommendations for future research.

  8. Simulation of Strong Ground Motion for the 7.6Mw Kashmir Earthquake Occurred on 8 Oct 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, A.; Muhammad sohail, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw 7.6 Kashmir earthquake which struck the northern area of Pakistan , the Kashmir region on 8 October 2005.The epicenter was located 18km north-northeast of Muzaffarabad, with a focal depth of 26km and it occurred in the Hazara-kashmir syntaxial bend near Main Mantle Thrust (MMT). This is one of the most devastating earthquakes occurred along Himalayan Arc and brought more than 80,000 deaths and more than 5.2 billion USD economical loss. The earthquake had duration of 25s and 75km rupture length along the surface. In order to investigate the strong motion caused by this earthquake, we simulate the Kashmir earthquake by the Curved grid finite difference method (CG-FDM). The finite-fault rupture, real topography variations and modified crustal model are considered. Simulated results are compared with available records, showing good mutual agreement between the synthetic and observed ground motions. According to the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD), the intensity of four observed points had reached scale IX, whereas our simulated results show those points are located in the regions with our predicted intensity scale IX or VIII. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak ground velocity (PGV) are most important parameters for hazard analysis, and our results are sufficiently coincide with their observed values. Finally, we also discuss the significant effect of surface topography on ground motion resulting by the Earthquake.

  9. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives

  10. Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Muhammad; Saeed, Khalid; Kingdon, David; Naeem, Farooq

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of

  11. The M=7.6 Earthquake in the Pakistani-Administered Region of Kashmir on Oct. 8, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Q.; Nisar, A.; Mooney, W. D.; Loeffler, K.

    2006-12-01

    On October 8, 2005 a M=7.6 earthquake struck the northwestern portion of the Himalayan region. Damage was extensive in the Pakistani-administered region of Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The mainshock occurred at 03:50 (UTC/GMT), 8:50 AM local time with the epicenter located in the Kishenganga (Neelam) Valley, approximately 100 km north of Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad. The earthquake ruptured the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone, accompanied by rupture of the Balakot-Bagh fault that runs along the Jhelum River in the northwest direction and passes close to the city of Muzaffarabad (Capital of Pakistani-administered Kashmir), and Balakot. The tremors lasted for about 50 seconds. Approximately 200,000 houses collapsed and entire towns and villages were destroyed (Harp &Crone, 2006; Parsons et al., 2006). The northern regions of Mansehra and Muzaffarabad were the worst-affected areas, and the majority of deaths occurred in the town of Muzaffarabad where an estimated 80% of the buildings collapsed. The nearby town of Balakot was completely destroyed along with several mountain villages. It is estimated that approximately 87,000 people were killed, and 74,000 were injured (Parsons et al., 2006; Khattri, 1986, Rai & Murty, 2006). Within 24 hours of the mainshock, aftershocks were registered of which more than 20 were over M=5.0. Since Pakistan's formation in 1947, the population has increased from c. 32 Million to c. 165 Million today. The official average is 166 persons/km2, but the population-density varies significantly throughout the country. Islamabad, Karachi, and Lahore (up to 550 persons/km2) have some of the highest densities in the world. Because of the population increase in Pakistan, there are larger settlements and cities developing in earthquake-prone regions. This subjects more people to potential seismic hazards. As demonstrated during the recent earthquake, construction in the earthquake-prone areas is highly

  12. Seismically reactivated Hattian slide in Kashmir, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean F.

    2009-07-01

    The Pakistan 2005 earthquake, of magnitude 7.6, caused severe damage on landscape and infrastructure, in addition to numerous casualties. The event reactivated Hattian Slide, creating a rock avalanche in a location where earlier mass movements had happened already, as indicated by satellite imagery and ground investigation. The slide originated on Dana Hill, in the upper catchment area of Hattian on Karli Stream, a tributary of Jhelum River, Pakistan, and buried the hamlet Dandbeh and several farms nearby. A natural dam accumulated, impounding two lakes, the larger one threatening parts of downstream Hattian Village with flooding. An access road and artificial spillways needed to be constructed in very short time to minimize the flooding risk. As shown by this example, when pointing out the risk of large-scale damage to population and infrastructure by way of hazard indication maps of seismically active regions, and preparing for alleviation of that risk, it is advisable to consider the complete Holocene history of the slopes involved.

  13. Analysis of Landslides Triggered by October 2005, Kashmir Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Irfan; Qureshi, Shahid Nadeem; Tariq, Shahina; Atique, Luqman; Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The October 2005, Kashmir earthquake main event was triggered along the Balakot-Bagh Fault which runs from Bagh to Balakot, and caused more damages in and around these areas. Major landslides were activated during and after the earthquake inflicting large damages in the area, both in terms of infrastructure and casualties. These landslides were mainly attributed to the minimum threshold of the earthquake, geology of the area, climatologic and geomorphologic conditions, mudflows, widening of the roads without stability assessment, and heavy rainfall after the earthquake. These landslides were mainly rock and debris falls. Hattian Bala rock avalanche was largest landslide associated with the earthquake which completely destroyed a village and blocked the valley creating a lake. Discussion: The present study shows that the fault rupture and fault geometry have direct influence on the distribution of landslides and that along the rupture zone a high frequency band of landslides was triggered. There was an increase in number of landslides due to 2005 earthquake and its aftershocks and that most of earthquakes have occurred along faults, rivers and roads. It is observed that the stability of landslide mass is greatly influenced by amplitude, frequency and duration of earthquake induced ground motion. Most of the slope failures along the roads resulted from the alteration of these slopes during widening of the roads, and seepages during the rainy season immediately after the earthquake. Conclusion: Landslides occurred mostly along weakly cemented and indurated rocks, colluvial sand and cemented soils. It is also worth noting that fissures and ground crack which were induced by main and after shock are still present and they pose a major potential threat for future landslides in case of another earthquake activity or under extreme weather conditions. PMID:26366324

  14. Psychological Morbidity in Children 18 Months after Kashmir Earthquake of 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Muhammad; Poongan, Ishwari; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Ali, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed; Naeem, Farooq

    2012-01-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Kashmir in 2005. The epicentre was close to Muzzafarabad. We collected data on over 1,100 children 18 months after the earthquake to look at symptoms of PTSD and behavioural and emotional problems using well established questionnaires. We found that 64.8% of children had significant symptoms of PTSD. Girls were more…

  15. Determination of boron contents in water samples collected from the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Matiullah; Iqbal, Arshid; Husaini, S N; Malik, Fariha

    2011-03-01

    Intake of boron from food and drinking water may pose a risk to the public health above a certain concentration level. Therefore, knowledge of boron concentration in drinking water and food items is essential. In this context, samples of drinking water were collected from natural springs of the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, hit by devastating earthquake in 2005. In these samples, boron concentration was determined using neutron-induced radiography technique. To do so, unknown water samples, along with standard of known boron dried on CR-39 detectors, were irradiated with thermal neutrons. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6 M NaOH at 70°C. The tracks produced due to the alpha particles and (7)Li ions as a result of (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction were counted under an optical microscope. The tracks produced in theses samples were then related to the boron contents. The measured boron concentration in water samples was found to vary from 0.105 ± 0.005 to 0.247 ± 0.013 mg/l with an average value of 0.17 ± 0.04 mg/l, which are within the acceptable limits. PMID:20306233

  16. Rock magnetic properties and structural development in the core of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, NE Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossart, Paul; Ottiger, Robert; Heller, Friedrich

    1990-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and structural analyses have been conducted on three well-exposed sections through a 6-8 km thick pile of molassic red beds (Murree formation) in the lowermost tectonic unit of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis. Micropaleontological age determinations of the lowermost Murree sediments indicate Late Paleocene deposition (55 m.y.). From south to north, the sections are situated in the Jhelum, Neelum (both in Azad Kashmir), and Kaghan (northeastern Pakistan) valleys. Thermal demagnetization experiments suggest that haematite with high unblocking temperatures carries stable characteristic remanence directions. The relationship between finite strain and magnetic fabric was established by mapping deformed reduction spot strain markers and by measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). For the Jhelum valley the weakly tectonized Murree beds are characterized by flattened AMS ellipsoids resulting from diagenetic compaction. Inclination values suggest that the Murree foreland basin started to develop at about 8°N during the early suturing of India and the development of island arcs to the north. India has moved northward by at least 2600 km since collision with Eurasia in the Paleocene. Declination values suggest 45° of clockwise rotation of the block supporting the Murree formation relative to the Indian craton. For the Neelum and Kaghan valleys, quantitative strain mapping shows a progressive increase of deformation northward. NRM directions rotate passively toward the cleavage plane which parallels the foliation of the AMS ellipsoids. NRM directions and AMS ellipsoids are deformed because of superposition of tectonic strain on a primary compactional strain. The AMS pattern is interpreted in light of this superposition, and a regional deformation path from south to north is suggested. A tectonic rotation model is proposed which is consistent with the transport directions around the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis and the rotation of thrust sheets

  17. Source Parameters of the Deadly Mw 7.6 Kashmir Earthquake of 8 October, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Chadha, R. K.; Kumar, N.; Raju, I. P.; Satyamurty, C.

    2007-10-01

    During the last six years, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad has established a semi-permanent seismological network of 5 8 broadband seismographs and 10 20 accelerographs in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat with a prime objective to monitor the continued aftershock activity of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj mainshock. The reliable and accurate broadband data for the 8 October Mw 7.6 2005 Kashmir earthquake and its aftershocks from this network as well as Hyderabad Geoscope station enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the Peninsular India. Firstly, we measure Rayleigh-and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 8 to 35 sec and invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the western part of Peninsular India. Our best model suggests a two-layered crust: The upper crust is 13.8 km thick with a shear velocity (Vs) of 3.2 km/s; the corresponding values for the lower crust are 24.9 km and 3.7 km/sec. The shear velocity for the upper mantle is found to be 4.65 km/sec. Based on this structure, we perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of the bandpass (0.05 0.02 Hz) filtered seismograms of the Kashmir earthquake. The best fit is obtained for a source located at a depth of 30 km, with a seismic moment, Mo, of 1.6 × 1027 dyne-cm, and a focal mechanism with strike 19.5°, dip 42°, and rake 167°. The long-period magnitude (MA ~ Mw) of this earthquake is estimated to be 7.31. An analysis of well-developed sPn and sSn regional crustal phases from the bandpassed (0.02 0.25 Hz) seismograms of this earthquake at four stations in Kachchh suggests a focal depth of 30.8 km.

  18. Source Parameters of the 8 October, 2005 Mw7.6 Kashmir Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Chadha, R. K.; Kumar, N.; Raju, I. P.; Satyamurty, C.

    2007-12-01

    During the last six years, the National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad has established a semi-permanent seismological network of 5 broadband seismographs and 10 accelerographs in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, with the prime objective to monitor the continued aftershock activity of the 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj mainshock. The reliable and accurate broadband data for the Mw 7.6 (8 Oct., 2005) Kashmir earthquake and its aftershocks from this network, as well as from the Hyderabad Geoscope station, enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and the one-dimensional regional shear-velocity structure of peninsular India. Firstly, we measure Rayleigh- and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the range of 8 to 35 sec and invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the western part of peninsular India. Our best model suggests a two-layered crust: The upper crust is 13.8-km thick with a shear velocity (Vs) of 3.2 km/s; the corresponding values for the lower crust are 24.9 km and 3.7 km/sec. The shear velocity for the upper mantle is found to be 4.65 km/sec. Based on this structure, we perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of the bandpass (0.05 0.02 Hz) filtered seismograms of the Kashmir earthquake. The best fit is obtained for a source located at a depth of 30 km, with a seismic moment, Mo, of 1.6 × 1027 dyne-cm, and a focal mechanism with strike 19.5°, dip 42°, and rake 167°. The long-period magnitude (MA ~ Mw) of this earthquake is estimated to be 7.31. An analysis of well-developed sPn and sSn regional crustal phases from the bandpassed (0.02 0.25 Hz) seismograms of this earthquake at four stations in Kachchh suggests a focal depth of 30.8 km.

  19. Landslides triggered by the October 8, 2005, Pakistan earthquake and associated landslide-dammed reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Crone, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The October 8, 2005, Kashmir earthquake (M 7.6) triggered several thousand landslides, mainly rock falls and rock slides, in the epicentral area near the cities of Muzafarrabad and Balakot, Pakistan. Most of these were shallow, coalescing rock slides emanating from highly sheared and deformed limestone and dolomite of the Precambrian Muzafarrabad Formation. The largest landslide triggered by the earthquake is located approximately 32 kilometers southeast of Muzafarrabad in a tributary valley of the Jhelum River. This landslide is a debris avalanche of approximately 80 million cubic meters volume within the Miocene Murree Formation consisting of mixed sandstone, mudstone, shale, and limestone. The avalanche buried the village of Dandbeh and resulted in approximately 1,000 fatalities, according to local residents. The avalanche deposit traveled approximately 1.5 kilometers downslope and 300 meters or more up the opposite slope in the adjacent Karli stream drainage and also extended into the Tang stream drainage where the Tang stream joins the Karli drainage. The landslide mass has impounded two lakes within the blocked drainages. The lake in the Karli drainage was approximately 800 meters long and 20 meters deep as of December 19, 2005. The lake in the Tang drainage was approximately 400 meters long and 10 meters deep as of this same date. Downstream populations are at risk from possible flash flooding when these debris dams are overtopped by the reservoir water. The closest village, Hattian, is 2.8 kilometers downstream at the junction of the Jhelum River and the landslide-dammed Karli tributary. Other populations along the Jhelum River may also be at risk. Pakistan military engineers are preparing to construct a spillway within the landslide deposits to lessen the severity of the flood if the lake in the Karli stream drainage breaches the landslide dam catastrophically.

  20. Population survey and conservation assessment of the globally threatened cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichi) in Jhelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naeem Awan, Muhammad; Ali, Hassan; Charles Lee, David

    2014-07-01

    The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi is a globally threatened species that inhabits the western Himalayas. Though it is well established that the species is threatened and its numbers declining, updated definitive estimates are lacking, so in 2011, we conducted a survey to assess the density, population size, and threats to the species in Jhelum valley, Azad Kashmir, which holds the largest known population of cheer pheasants in Pakistan. We conducted dawn call count surveys at 17 points clustered in three survey zones of the valley, 11 of which had earlier been used for a 2002-2003 survey of the birds. Over the course of our survey, 113 birds were recorded. Mean density of cheer pheasant in the valley was estimated at 11.8 ± 6.47 pairs per km², with significant differences in terms of both counts and estimated density of cheer were significantly different across the three survey zones, with the highest in the Chinari region and the lowest, that is the area with no recorded sightings of the pheasants, in Gari Doppata. The total breeding population of cheer pheasants is estimated to be some 2 490 pairs, though this does not consider the actual area of occupancy in the study area. On the whole, more cheer pheasants were recorded in this survey than from the same points in 2002-2003, indicating some success in population growth. Unfortunately, increasing human settlement, fires, livestock grazing, hunting, and the collection of non-timber forest products continue to threaten the population of cheer in the Jhelum valley. To mitigate these potential impacts, some degree of site protection should be required for the conservation of cheer pheasants in Pakistan, and more effective monitoring of the species is clearly needed. PMID:25017755

  1. Fission track estimation of uranium concentrations in drinking water from Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Khattak, N U; Qureshi, A A; Iqbal, A; Tufail, M; Qureshi, I E

    2004-03-01

    The analysis of uranium in water samples can be very helpful for providing guidelines to the general public regarding necessary remedial measures. A fission-track technique has been applied for the estimation of the uranium concentration in drinking water collected from natural springs of Muzaffarabad and hilly areas of Reshian, Azad Kashmir. The technique involved simultaneous irradiation with thermal neutrons of a sample and a standard in contact with a track detector, and the counting of the fission tracks in the detector from the (n, f) nuclear reaction. Uranium concentrations of the samples were determined by comparing fission-track density with that of a standard of known uranium concentration. Uranium concentration in water samples from the Muzaffarabad and Reshian area varied from 0.03 +/- 0.01 microgL(-1) to 6.67 +/- 0.14 microgL(-1) with an average of 1.36 +/- 0.05 microgL(-1). The observed concentrations of uranium in drinking water were found to be less than the Maximum Acceptable Concentration levels of 9-30 microgL(-1). Thus, the observed values are within safe limits as far as uranium related health hazards are concerned. PMID:14982230

  2. Changes in gravitational parameters inferred from time variable GRACE data-A case study for October 2005 Kashmir earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Matloob; Eshagh, Mehdi; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Sadiq, M.; Fatolazadeh, Farzam

    2016-09-01

    The earth's gravity changes are attributed to the redistribution of masses within and/or on the surface of the earth, which are due to the frictional sliding, tensile cracking and/or cataclastic flow of rocks along the faults and detectable by earthquake events. Inversely, the gravity changes are useful to describe the earthquake seismicity over the active orogenic belts. The time variable gravimetric data are hardly available to the public domain. However, Gravity Recovery and Climatic Experiment (GRACE) is the only satellite mission dedicated to model the variation of the gravity field and an available source to the science community. Here, we have tried to envisage gravity changes in terms of gravity anomaly (Δg), geoid (N) and the gravity gradients over the Indo-Pak plate with emphasis upon Kashmir earthquake of October 2005. For this purpose, we engaged the spherical harmonic coefficients of monthly gravity solutions from the GRACE satellite mission, which have good coverage over the entire globe with unprecedented accuracy. We have analysed numerically the solutions after removing the hydrological signals, during August to November 2005, in terms of corresponding monthly differentials of gravity anomaly, geoid and the gradients. The regional structures like Main Mantle Thrust (MMT), Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT), Herat and Chaman faults are in closed association with topography and with gravity parameters from the GRACE gravimetry and EGM2008 model. The monthly differentials of these quantities indicate the stress accumulation in the northeast direction in the study area. Our numerical results show that the horizontal gravity gradients seem to be in good agreement with tectonic boundaries and differentials of the gravitational elements are subtle to the redistribution of rock masses and topography caused by 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Moreover, the gradients are rather more helpful for extracting the coseismic gravity signatures caused by seismicity over the area

  3. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Kashmir Basin Fault is located in the Jammu and Kashmir region of Kashmir Basin in NW Himalaya, India. It is a classic example of an out-of-sequence thrust faulting and is tectonically active as observed from multiple geological evidences. Its geomorphology, structure and lateral extent indicate significant accommodation of stress since long, which is further supported by the absence of a large earthquake in this region. It seems this fault is actively accommodating some portion of the total India-Eurasia convergence, apart from two well-recognised active structures the Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and the Main Frontal Thrust, which are referred in Vassallo et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 411:241-252, 2015). This requires its quantification and inclusion into slip distribution scheme of NW Himalaya. Therefore, it should be explored extensively because this internal out-of-sequence thrust could serve major seismic hazard in KB, repeating a situation similar to Muzaffarabad earthquake of Northern Pakistan in 2005.

  4. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems

  5. Spatio-temporal variations of b-value in and around north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Asghar; Ahmed, Sajjad; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Aamir; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2015-10-01

    The seismotectonic structure of north Pakistan has been formed by ongoing collision between the Eurasian and Indian plates. North Pakistan and the adjoining areas experienced many large earthquakes in the past, which resulted in considerable damages and loss of life. A magnitude-homogenous earthquake catalogue for north Pakistan and its surrounding areas for the instrumental period from 1964 to 2007 is used for analysis. We presented seismicity picture of the Hindukush-Pamir-Karakoram (HPK), Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) and Hazara-Kashmir-Himalayas (HKH) using various histograms and time series plots of the dataset. The b-value for each accreted domain is derived separately and investigated through a process of mutual correlation. Our computed temporal variation of b-value in Hazara region shows a significant decrease prior to 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

  6. Aid and stability in Pakistan: lessons from the 2005 earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    United States foreign assistance to Pakistan has always been driven by security considerations. By 2010, US counter-terrorism and stabilisation objectives resulted in Pakistan becoming the second largest recipient of US foreign aid globally. Given the policy impact of the assumption that aid promotes US security objectives in Pakistan, there is surprisingly little analysis or evidence of its effectiveness in this regard. This paper helps to address this gap by first reviewing the history and assumptions underpinning current US aid and stabilisation policies. It then uses field research on the 2005 earthquake relief efforts in northern Pakistan to assess the impact of the 'War on Terror' on the humanitarian response. In particular, it examines the assumption of influential US policymakers that humanitarian aid following the earthquake was an effective way to promote US security objectives by 'winning hearts and minds'-an assumption that has been used to justify all subsequent major US foreign aid commitments to Pakistan. PMID:20846352

  7. Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

  8. L'aspidolite fluorée : rôle des évaporites dans la genèse du rubis des marbres de Nangimali (Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Virginie; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Giuliani, Gaston

    2004-11-01

    Ruby-bearing marbles from Nangimali, in the Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan, contain, besides phengite, different mica intergrowths: paragonite, phlogopite and aspidolite (sodium phlogopite). Both phlogopites, intimately linked and coexisting with paragonite, are fluorine rich, contrary to phengite and paragonite. F-enriched aspidolite is described for the first time. Phengite is either associated with phlogopite or could be isolated. The presence of aspidolite in the ruby-bearing marbles, together with other arguments such as salt solid inclusions and presence of anhydrite, suggest the implication of evaporites in the genesis of gem corundums. To cite this article: V. Garnier et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  9. Intercomparison of environmental gamma doses measured with A NaI (Tl) survey meter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in the Poonch division of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Muhammad; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Ahmad, Khalil; Akhter, Jabeen; Khan, Abdul Razzaq; Saeed, Raja Azhar; Rahman, Saeed Ur; Matiullah; Rajput, Muhammad Usman

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the intercomparison of the outdoor environmental gamma dose rates measured using a NaI (Tl) based survey meter along with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and estimation of excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), for the inhabitants of Poonch division of the Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. CaF2: Dy (TLD-200) card dosimeters were installed at height of 1 m from ground at fifteen different locations covering the entire Poonch division comprising of three districts. During three distinct two month time periods within the six month study period, all the installed dosimeters were exposed to outdoor environmental gamma radiations, retrieved and read out at Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Health Physics Division, PINSTECH laboratory, Islamabad. The ambient outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were also taken with NaI (Tl) based portable radiometric instrument at 1 m above the ground. To estimate the annual gamma doses, NaI (Tl) based survey data were used for one complete year following the deployment of the dosimeters. The mean annual gamma dose rates measured by TLDs and survey meter were found as 1.47±0.10 and 0.862±0.003 mGy/y respectively. Taking into account a 29% outdoor occupancy factor, the annual average effective dose rate for individuals was estimated as 0.298±0.04 and 0.175±0.03 mSv/y by TLDs and survey meter, respectively. For outdoor exposure, the ELCR was calculated from the TLD and survey meter measurements. The environmental outdoor average annual effective dose obtained in present study are less than the estimated world average terrestrial and cosmic gamma ray dose rate of 0.9 mSv/y reported in UNSCEAR 2000. The possible origins of gamma doses in the area and incompatibilities of results obtained from the two different measurement techniques are also discussed. PMID:25484014

  10. Prevalence of HCV and HIV infections in 2005-Earthquake-affected areas of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saeed; Rai, Mohammad A; Khan, Adnan; Farooqui, Amber; Kazmi, Shahana U; Ali, Syed H

    2008-01-01

    Background On October 8, 2005, an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 hit the Northern parts of Pakistan. In the post-earthquake scenario, overcrowding, improper sewage disposal, contamination of food and drinking water, hasty surgical procedures, and unscreened blood transfusions to earthquake victims most likely promotes the spread of infections already prevalent in the area. Objective The objective of the study reported here was to determine the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency and Hepatitis C viruses (respectively, HIV and HCV) in the earthquake-affected communities of Pakistan. The samples were analyzed 2 months and then again 11 months after the earthquake to estimate the burden of HIV and HCV in these areas, and to determine any rise in the prevalence of these viral infections as a result of the earthquake. Methods Blood samples were initially collected during December, 2005 to March 2006, from 245 inhabitants of the earthquake-affected areas. These samples were screened for HCV and HIV, using immunochromatography and Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results Out of 245 samples tested, 8 (3.26%) were found positive for HCV, and 0 (0.0%) for HIV, indicating the existence of HCV infection in the earthquake-stricken areas. The same methods were used to analyze the samples collected in the second round of screening in the same area, in September, 2006 – 11 months after the earthquake. This time 290 blood samples were collected, out of which 16 (5.51%) samples were positive for HCV, and 0 for HIV. Conclusion A slightly higher prevalence of HCV was recorded 11 months after the earthquake; this increase, however, was not statistically significant. None of the study participants was found HIV-infected. PMID:18954443

  11. Focal mechanisms and depths of earthquakes in central Pakistan: A tectonic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quittmeyer, Richard C.; Kafka, Alan L.; Armbruster, John G.

    1984-04-01

    Focal mechanisms and depths for seven earthquakes in central Pakistan were determined from an analysis of Rayleigh waves of 20-to 50-s periods. In east-central Pakistan, the nodal planes for some solutions strike obliquely to the grain of surface structures. This observation supports the contention of other workers that a thin surficial unit, decoupled from the basement along a surface of decollement, characterizes this region. In west-central Pakistan, relative movement between the Indian and Eurasian plates is at least partially accommodated by seismic slip along the Chaman fault. Other faults, which are situated to the east of and lie subparallel to the Chaman fault, may also take up some of the relative plate motion. Observed activity within the zone of convergent-type structure in central Pakistan may be a result of the greater component of convergence across the Indian-Eurasian plate boundary north of Quetta, Pakistan. Appendix is available with entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Document B83-010; $2.50. Payment must accompany order.

  12. Inherited structures impact on co-seismic surface deformation pattern during the 2013 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, Amaury; Klinger, Yann; Grandin, Raphael; Delorme, Arthur; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of earthquake processes and the interaction of earthquake rupture with Earth's free surface relies on the resolution of the observations. Recent and detailed post-earthquake measurements bring new insights on shallow mechanical behavior of rupture processes as it becomes possible to measure and locate surficial deformation distribution. The 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, offers a nice opportunity to comprehend where and why surficial deformation might differs from at-depth localized slip. This earthquake ruptured the Hoshab fault over 200 km; the motion was mainly left lateral with a small and discontinuous vertical component in the southern part of the rupture. Using images with the finest resolution currently available, we measured the surface displacement amplitude and its orientation at the ground surface (including the numerous tensile cracks). We combined these measurements with the 1:500 scale ground rupture map to focus on the behavior of the frontal rupture in the area where deformation distributes. Comparison with orientations of inherited tectonic structures, visible in older rocks formation surrounding the actual 2013 rupture, shows the control exercised by such structures on co-seismic rupture distribution. Such observation raises the question on how pre-existing tectonic structures in a medium, mapped in several seismically active places around the globe; can control the co-seismic distribution of the deformation during earthquakes.

  13. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and

  14. Coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2007 M5.5 Ghazaband fault earthquake, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.; Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.

    2015-05-01

    Time series analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data reveals coseismic and postseismic surface displacements associated with the 2007 M5.5 earthquake along the southern Ghazaband fault, a major but little studied fault in Pakistan. Modeling indicates that the coseismic surface deformation was caused by ~9 cm of strike-slip displacement along a shallow subvertical fault. The earthquake was followed by at least 1 year of afterslip, releasing ~70% of the moment of the main event, equivalent to a M5.4 earthquake. This high aseismic relative to the seismic moment release is consistent with previous observations for moderate earthquakes (M < 6) and suggests that smaller earthquakes are associated with a higher aseismic relative to seismic moment release than larger earthquakes.

  15. Spinal cord injury management and rehabilitation: highlights and shortcomings from the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Farooq, Fareeha; Muzammil, Sohail; New, Peter W; Ahmad, Nadeem; Haig, Andrew J

    2008-03-01

    Recent natural disasters have highlighted the lack of planning for rehabilitation and disability management in emergencies. A review of our experience with spinal cord injury (SCI) after the Pakistan earthquake of 2005, plus a review of other literature about SCI after natural disasters, shows that large numbers of people will incur SCIs in such disasters. The epidemiology of SCI after earthquakes has not been well studied and may vary with location, severity of the disaster, available resources, the expertise of the health care providers, and cultural issues. A lack of preparedness means that evacuation protocols, clinician training, dedicated acute management and rehabilitation facilities, specialist equipment, and supplies are not in place. The dearth of rehabilitation medicine specialists in developing regions further complicates the issue, as does the lack of national spinal cord registries. In our 3 makeshift SCI units, however, which are staffed by specialists and residents in rehabilitation medicine, there were no deaths, few complications, and a successful discharge for most patients. Technical concerns include air evacuation, early spinal fixation, aggressive management to optimize bowel and bladder care, and provision of appropriate skin care. Discharge planning requires substantial external support because SCI victims must often return to devastated communities and face changed vocational and social possibilities. Successful rehabilitation of victims of the Pakistan earthquake has important implications. The experience suggests that dedicated SCI centers are essential after a natural disaster. Furthermore, government and aid agency disaster planners are advised to consult with rehabilitation specialists experienced in SCI medicine in planning for the inevitable large number of people who will have disabilities after a natural disaster. PMID:18295642

  16. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern. PMID:12177945

  17. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  18. Disasters, women's health, and conservative society: working in Pakistan with the Turkish Red Crescent following the South Asian Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew C; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, numerous catastrophic disasters caused by natural hazards directed worldwide attention to medical relief efforts. These events included the: (1) 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran; (2) 2004 earthquake and tsunami in Southeast Asia; (3) Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the southern United States in 2005; (4) 2005 south Asian earthquake; and (5) 2006 Indonesian volcanic eruption and earthquakes. Health disparities experienced by women during relief operations were a component of each of these events. This article focuses on the response of the Turkish Red Crescent Society's field hospital in northern Pakistan following the South Asian Earthquake of October 2005, and discusses how the international community has struggled to address women's health issues during international relief efforts. Furthermore, since many recent disasters occurred in culturally conservative South Asia and the local geologic activity indicates similar disaster-producing events are likely to continue, special emphasis is placed on response efforts. Lessons learned in Pakistan demonstrate how simple adjustments in community outreach, camp geography, staff distribution, and supplies can enhance the quality, delivery, and effectiveness of the care provided to women during international relief efforts. PMID:18019091

  19. Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir basin using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir basin fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir basin, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the basin. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.

  20. Spatial-Temporal Analyses of Lightning Activities over Pakistan using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, Saddam; Imran Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Lightning is a naturally occurring spectacular and powerful phenomenon often accompanied by thunder. Regardless, it's hazardous and responsible for thousands of deaths and property loss all over the globe.In Pakistan, this hazardous phenomenon mostly occurs in monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. To prevent or at least minimize the unforeseen property damages and human casuality, we need to identify the vulnerable locations to lightning in Pakistan, but yet there have not been done any detailed study regarding the lightning hazards yet for Pakistan. In the present study for the years 2001 - 2014 lightning density mapping has been done by means of satellite Remote Sensing techniques. Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) datasets of locations and Time of Occurrence (TOA) are used to identify the lightning prone locations all over Pakistan. Efforts have been made to develop a technique that is helpful in generating the hazard maps of lighting in Pakistan on temporal basis by using spatio-temporal satellite images. These maps show frequency distribution trends of lightning in many regions of Pakistan that enable us to locate high, moderate and low lightning-susceptible areas. Results demonstrate that thunderstorm frequency is comparatively higher over the mountain and sub-mountain regions in the Punjab, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa (KPK) provinces. Interestingly lightning data showed a strong correlation between the FlashesYear and the El Niño and La Niña years. It is observed that about 40.1 % of lightning activities occurred during the monsoon followed by pre-monsoon with 39.7 %, which can possibly create synergistic and devastating effects in combination with heavy seasonal rainfall. A severe lightning event with 4559 flashes in just 3.08 seconds is also recorded on 8-Oct-2005 in Pakistan-India border near Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) and Jammu Kashmir. However, it is to be noted that on the same date Pakistan was hit by a major Earthquake

  1. Rupture Propagation of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, Earthquake Affected by Poroelastic Stress Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Wang, W.; Xiao, J.

    2015-12-01

    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake occurred on the curved Hoshab fault. This fault connects with the north-south trending Chaman strike-slip fault to northeast, and with the west-east trending Makran thrust fault system to southwest. Teleseismic waveform inversion, incorporated with coseismic ground surface deformation data, show that the rupture of this earthquake nucleated around northeast segment of the fault, and then propagated southwestward along the northwest dipping Hoshab fault about 200 km, with the maximum coseismic displacement, featured mainly by purely left-lateral strike-slip motion, about 10 meters. In context of the India-Asia collision frame, associating with the fault geometry around this region, the rupture propagation of this earthquake seems to not follow an optimal path along the fault segment, because after nucleation of this event the Hoshab fault on the southwest of hypocenter of this earthquake is clamped by elastic stress change. Here, we build a three-dimensional finite-element model to explore the evolution of both stress and pore-pressure during the rupturing process of this earthquake. In the model, the crustal deformation is treated as undrained poroelastic media as described by Biot's theory, and the instantaneous rupture process is specified with split-node technique. By testing a reasonable range of parameters, including the coefficient of friction, the undrained Poisson's ratio, the permeability of the fault zone and the bulk crust, numerical results have shown that after the nucleation of rupture of this earthquake around the northeast of the Hoshab fault, the positive change of normal stress (clamping the fault) on the fault plane is greatly reduced by the instantaneous increase of pore pressure (unclamping the fault). This process could result in the change of Coulomb failure stress resolved on the Hoshab fault to be hastened, explaining the possible mechanism for southwestward propagation of rupture of the Mw7

  2. A palaeomagnetic reconnaissance of Kashmir, northwestern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, Chris T.; Shah, S. K.; Gergan, Jozef; Sharma, Madan Lal; Tirkey, Biras; Gupta, B. K.

    1983-05-01

    Thermal demagnetization studies of 800 Palaeozoic and Lower Mesozoic samples, mainly carbonates, from 14 localities in Kashmir, showed four magnetic components: (A)A recent field component of normal polarity and large intensity. (B)A Middle to Late Tertiary secondary component of large intensity and of reversed and normal polarity, which indicates clockwise rotation of central and eastern Kashmir over approximately 45° with respect to peninsular Indo-Pakistan. (C)Primary magnetic components of Triassic, Late Permian, Early Carboniferous, Siluro-Ordovician and Middle to Early Ordovician age. The Triassic and Late Permian components show a 20-30° cumulative counterclockwise offset with respect to the Indo-Pakistan apparent polar wander path (APWP). This indicates a post-Middle to -Late Triassic counterclockwise rotational movement of Kashmir over 65-75° with respect to peninsular Indo-Pakistan. (D)A component of low inclination and predominantly east-west declination, which is observed only in rocks of pre-Panjal Traps age. A secondary origin associated with extrusion of the Panjal Traps flows is surmised, but could not be established beyond doubt. Alternatively, this component may be related to the regional foliation. The Triassic and Late Permian primary component directions are predominantly of normal polarity. This suggests a pre-Punjabian (Late Permian) upper age limit for the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) reversed polarity interval, which is earlier than the Early to Late Tatarian limit observed in the U.S.S.R.

  3. Multifaulting in a tectonic syntaxis revealed by InSAR: The case of the Ziarat earthquake sequence (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel-Puysségur, B.; Grandin, R.; Bollinger, L.; Baudry, C.

    2014-07-01

    On 28-29 October 2008, within 12 h, two similar Mw = 6.4 strike-slip earthquakes struck Baluchistan (Pakistan), as part of a complex seismic sequence. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data reveal that the peak of surface displacement is near the Ziarat anticline, a large active fold affected by Quaternary strike-slip faulting. All coseismic interferograms integrate the deformation due to both earthquakes. As their causative faults ruptured close to each other, the individual signals cannot be separated. According to their focal mechanisms, each earthquake may have activated a NE-SW sinistral or a NW-SE dextral fault segment, which leads to four possible scenarios of fault orientations. A nonlinear inversion of the InSAR data set allows rejecting two scenarios. The best slip distributions on the two fault segments for the two remaining scenarios are determined by linear inversion. Stress-change modeling favors a scenario involving two abutting conjugate strike-slip faults. Two other fault segments accommodated left-lateral strike slip during the seismic sequence. The activated fault system includes multiple fault segments with different orientations and little surface expression. This may highlight, at a smaller scale, the distributed, possibly transient character of deformation within a broader right-lateral shear zone. It suggests that the activated faults delineate a small tectonic block extruding and subtly rotating within the shear zone. It occurs in the vicinity of the local tectonic syntaxis where orogenic structures sharply turn around a vertical axis. These mechanisms could participate in the long-term migration of active tectonic structures within this kinematically unstable tectonic syntaxis.

  4. Evidence for the recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes along the Makran coast of Iran and Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.D.; Alt, J.N.; Cluff, L.S.; Plafker, G.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of raised beaches and marine terraces along the Makran coast indicates episodic uplift of the continental margin resulting from large-magnitude earthquakes. The uplift occurs as incremental steps similar in height to the 1-3 m of measured uplift resulting from the November 28, 1945 (M 8.3) earthquake at Pasni and Ormara, Pakistan. The data support an E-W-trending, active subduction zone off the Makran coast. The raised beaches and wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast are extensive with some terraces 1-2 km wide, 10-15 m long and up to 500 m in elevation. The terraces are generally capped with shelly sandstones 0.5-5 m thick. Wave-cut cliffs, notches, and associated boulder breccia and swash troughs are locally preserved. Raised Holocene accretion beaches, lagoonal deposits, and tombolos are found up to 10 m in elevation. The number and elevation of raised wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast increase eastward from one at Jask, the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at a few meters elevation, to nine at Konarak, 250 km to the east. Multiple terraces are found on the prominent headlands as far east as Karachi. The wave-cut terraces are locally tilted and cut by faults with a few meters of displacement. Long-term, average rates of uplift were calculated from present elevation, estimated elevation at time of deposition, and 14C and U-Th dates obtained on shells. Uplift rates in centimeters per year at various locations from west to east are as follows: Jask, 0 (post-Sangamon); Konarak, 0.031-0.2 (Holocene), 0.01 (post-Sangamon); Ormara 0.2 (Holocene). ?? 1979.

  5. Survivor needs or logistical convenience? Factors shaping decisions to deliver relief to earthquake-affected communities, Pakistan 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Benini, Aldo; Conley, Charles; Dittemore, Brody; Waksman, Zachary

    2009-03-01

    In Bureaucratizing the Good Samaritan, Waters (2001) argues that bureaucratic rationality distracts humanitarian agencies from the needs of the people they are supposed to assist, in favour of other values that their institutional frameworks dictate. We test his claim by investigating the response to the Pakistan 2005 earthquake. One of us (Dittemore) worked with the United Nations Joint Logistics Centre in the theatre, managing a relief cargo shipment database. The response, known as 'Operation Winter Race', was hampered by extreme logistical challenges, but ultimately succeeded in averting a second disaster resulting from cold and starvation. We use statistical models to probe whether survivor needs significantly guided decisions to deliver relief to affected communities. Needs assessments remained incomplete and incoherent. We measure needs through proxy indicators and integrate them, on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, with logistics and relief delivery data. We find that, despite strong logistics effects, needs orientations were significant. However, the strength of decision factors varies between commodity types (food versus clothing and shelter versus reconstruction materials) as well as over the different phases of the response. This study confirms Thomas's observation that logistics databases are rich 'repositories of data that can be analyzed to provide post-event learning' (Thomas, 2003, p. 4). This article is an invitation for others to engage in creative humanitarian data management. PMID:18513312

  6. Anomalous variations of ionosphere associated with the strong earthquake at Pakistan-Iran border at a low latitude station Agra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundhir, Devbrat; Singh, Birbal; Singh, O. P.; Gupta, Saral K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the TEC data for April 2013 observed at Agra station, India (geogr. lat. 27.2° N, long. 78° E) to examine the effect of earthquake of magnitude M = 7.8 which occurred on 16 April 2013 at Pakistan-Iran border region. We process the TEC data using the σ statistical criterion to find out anomalous variation in TEC data. We also study the VLF propagation signal from NPM, Hawaii (21.42° N, 158° W), which is monitored at the same station (Agra station) in the light of this earthquake as well as solar flares. The nighttime fluctuation method is used to analyze the VLF data for the period of ±5 days from the day of earthquake (11-21 April 2013). The anomalous enhancements and depletions are found in TEC data on 1-9 days before the occurrence of event.

  7. Postseismic deformation in Pakistan after the 8 October 2005 earthquake: Evidence of afterslip along a flat north of the Balakot-Bagh thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Madji, A.; Pêcher, A.; Latif, M.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    The 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake ruptured an out-of-sequence Himalayan thrust known as the Balakot-Bagh thrust. The earthquake's hypocenter was located at a depth of 15 km on the ramp close to a possible ramp/flat transition. In the weeks following the earthquake a GPS network was installed to measure postseismic displacement. The initial measurements in November 2005 were followed by other campaigns in January and August 2006, in March and December 2007, and in August 2008 and 2009. Two hypotheses were tested: post-seismic displacements controlled by viscous relaxation of the lower crust or by afterslip along a flat north of the ramp affected by the main shock. A single Newtonian viscosity for the different periods cannot be determined by numerical simulations of viscous relaxation, which may indicate that the viscosity of the lower crust is non-Newtonian or that viscous relaxation does not control postseismic displacements. Numerical simulations using dislocations in a uniform elastic half-space indicate afterslip north of the ramp of the earthquake along a flat connected to the ramp. Slip along the northwestern portion of the flat accrued to about 285 mm between November 2005 and August 2006, while slip along the southeastern portion accrued to 130 mm over the same time period. Residual misfit of the observed and predicted displacements clearly indicated that afterslip is a better explanation for the observations than the hypothesis of viscous relaxation. The time evolution of the afterslip was found to be consistent with that predicted from rate-strengthening frictional sliding.

  8. Major Earthquakes of the Past Decade (2000-2010): A Comparative Review of Various Aspects of Management

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Sagafinia, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Ali; Shams, Ehsan; Kalantar Motamedi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article sought to review and compare data of major earthquakes of the past decade and their aftermath in order to compare the magnitude, death toll, type of injuries, management procedures, extent of destruction and effectiveness of relief efforts. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of the various aspects of management and aftermath of 5 major earthquakes of the past decade (2000–2010) was undertaken. This included earthquakes occurring in Bam Iran, Sichuan China, Port-au-Prince Haiti, Kashmir Pakistan and Ica Peru. A literature search was done via computer of published articles (indexed in Pubmed). The issues assessed included: 1)Local magnitude,2)Type of building structure 3)Time of the earthquake (day/time/season), 4)Time to rescue, 5)Triage, Transfer, and Treatment 6) Distribution of casualties (dead/ injured), 7)Degree of city damage, 8)Degree of damage to health facilities, 9)Field hospital availability, 10)International aid, 11)Air transfer, 12) Telecommunication systems availability, 13) PTSD prevalence, 14) Most common injury and 15) Most common disease outbreak. Results: The Bam earthquake had the lowest (6.6 Richter’s) and the Sichuan earthquake had the greatest magnitude (8.0 Richter’s). Mortality in Haiti was 212,000 and it was the deadliest earthquake of the past decade. Collapse of heavy clay roofing structures was a major cause of death in Iran and Pakistan. Earthquakes occurring at night and nonworking days carried a high death toll. The time to rescue and treat was the lengthiest in Haiti (possibly contributing to the death to injured ratio). However, the worst dead to injured ratios were in Bam (51%) and in Pakistan (47%); the best ratio was in China (15%). Iran and Pakistan suffered the highest percentage of damage to the health facilities (90%). Field hospital availability, international aid and air transfer were important issues. Telecommunication systems were best in China and worst in Pakistan. PTSD

  9. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1987-01-01

    A learning unit about earthquakes includes activities for primary grade students, including making inferences and defining operationally. Task cards are included for independent study on earthquake maps and earthquake measuring. (CB)

  10. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a ...

  11. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  12. A study of the behavior of the terminator time shifts using multiple VLF propagation paths during the Pakistan earthquake (M = 7.2) of 18 January 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    On 18 January 2011, at 20:23 UTC, an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred in southwestern Pakistan (latitude 28°44' N, longitude 63°56' E) at a depth of 68 km. We present the results of the analysis of very low frequency (VLF) radio signals, received at three stations located in India. We analyze the VLF signals around this earthquake day and look for possible precursory effects of this earthquake. For our analysis, we use four different VLF propagation paths. These propagation paths are DHO-IERC (Sitapur), VTX-Pune, VTX-ICSP (Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata) and NWC-IERC. We observed significant shifts of the "sunrise terminator time" (SRT) for DHO-IERC and VTX-Pune paths. For DHO-IERC path, the SRT of the VLF signals shifted towards nighttime three days before the earthquake day, and in the case of VTX-Pune path it shifted towards nighttime just one day before the earthquake day. For VTX-Kolkata path, the shift of SRT is four days before the earthquake day, but here the shift is not so strong, somewhere between 2σ and 3σ lines. For the other two paths, namely, DHO-IERC and VTX-Pune, the terminator time shifts crossed the 3σ line. We found no significant shifts of SRT for NWC-IERC propagation path. Higher deviation in the VTX-Pune path as compared to VTX-ICSP path could be due to the proximity of the former to the epicenter. Similarly, DHO-IERC path is over the epicenter while NWC-IERC path is totally away from the epicenter. This could be the reason why the effect in DHO-IERC path is stronger than that in NWC-IERC path.

  13. A study of the behavior of the terminator time shifts using multiple VLF propagation paths during the Pakistan earthquake (M = 7.2) of 18 January 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    On 18 January 2011, at 20:23 UTC, an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred in south-western Pakistan (latitude 28.73(°) N, longitude 63.93(°) E) at a depth of 68 km. We present the results of the analysis of very low frequency (VLF) radio signals, received at three stations located in India. We analyze the VLF signals around this earthquake day and look for possible precursory effects of this earthquake. For our analysis, we use four different VLF propagation paths. These propagation paths are DHO-IERC (Sitapur), VTX-Pune, VTX-ICSP (Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata) and NWC-IERC. We observed significant shifts of the “sunrise terminator time” (SRT) for DHO-IERC and VTX-Pune paths. For DHO-IERC path, the SRT of the VLF signals shifted towards night time three days before the earthquake day, and in the case of VTX-Pune path it shifted towards night time just one day before the earthquake day. For VTX-Kolkata path, the shift of SRT is four days before the earthquake day, but here the shift is not so strong, somewhere between 2sigma and 3sigma lines. For the other two paths, namely, DHO-IERC and VTX-Pune, the terminator time shifts crossed the 3sigma line. We found no significant shifts of SRT for NWC-IERC propagation path. Higher deviation in the VTX-Pune path as compared to VTX-ICSP path could be due to the proximity of the former to the epicenter. Similarly, DHO-IERC path is over the epicenter while NWC-IERC path is totally away from the epicenter. This could be the reason why the effect in DHO-IERC path is stronger than that in NWC-IERC path.

  14. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  15. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  16. Different styles of postseismic deformation after the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan earthquake in Pakistan and the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Yague-Martinez, N.; Motagh, M.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.; Huang, M. H.; Burgmann, R.; Freed, A. M.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    We study postseismic deformation after the Mw 7.7 earthquake in the Balochistan region of western Pakistan on 24 September 2013 and the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California of northern Mexico on 4 April 2010. Pakistan InSAR measurements from the German TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Canadian RADARSAT-2 (RS2) satellites include TSX narrow stripmap beams on a descending track, RS2 wide strip modes, and TSX wide-swath ScanSAR images on an ascending track, specially acquired with interferometric alignment of ScanSAR bursts. For the EMC earthquake, InSAR includes Envisat, ALOS, and RS2 satellites and NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne InSAR, with piece-wise time coverage. Plate Boundary Observatory acquires continuous GPS data and others collect campaign GPS. Interferograms show significant afterslip on both main ruptures in the first weeks and months, not masked by the atmospheric effects. Balochistan shallow afterslip reaches at least 10 cm in 2-4 months in the same area as the largest coseismic slip, but less near the aftershock activity. Rapid afterslip was observed primarily at the ends of the EMC mainshock rupture where the strike changes, with magnitudes up to 30 cm. Large variations of tropospheric water vapor complicate measurement of small long-wavelength deformation so we do time series analysis. We expect viscoelastic relaxation after these two strike-slip earthquakes to differ due to completely opposite tectonic settings: EMC earthquake in the Salton Trough rift and fast-moving strike-slip system, where crust and lithosphere are thin and hot with very shallow asthenosphere, and Balochistan earthquake in the shortening Makran accretional prism with much slower strike-slip deformation rates and cold and thick lithosphere of the subducting Arabian plate directly beneath it, so asthenosphere is much deeper. Studies have found rapid and large viscoelastic relaxation for the EMC quake, but we don't expect measurable relaxation in the Balochistan area in the

  17. Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

    1974-01-01

    Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

  18. Safe water supply in emergencies and the need for an exit strategy to sustain health gains: lessons learned from the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Magan, M; Bile, K M; Kazi, B M; Gardezi, Z

    2010-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of five major urban centres affected by the October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan were assessed in three phases: onset of emergency, during emergency response and post-emergency. A total of 1850 samples were randomly collected from the study area during each phase, and faecal coliforms were detected in 100%, 28% and 91% in Battagram, 81%, 22% and 77% in Mansehra, 100%, 27% and 92% in Rawalakot, 100%, 23% and 65% in Bagh and in 30%, 14% and 5% in Muzaffarabad respectively. Faecal contamination was high during the onset ofemergency and post-emergency phases in four out ofthe five surveyed towns. The organization of a timely emergency response intervention depends on the level of preparedness of local water-supply service providers as well as on their institutional capacities. Bacteriological water-quality improvements in emergencies may not be sustained unless complemented by a proper exit strategy. PMID:21495594

  19. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ford, Nathan; Kam, Saskia van de; Lokuge, Kamalini; Fromm, Silke; van Galen, Renate; Reilley, Brigg; Kleber, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages) of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months) and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. Results 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%), round up raids (82.7%), the witnessing of torture (66.9%), rape (13.3%), and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%), arrests/kidnapping (16.9%), torture (12.9%), and sexual violence (11.6%). Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7–5.7), violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9–6.8) and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4–8.7). Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1–15.5). Conclusion The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities. PMID:18854026

  20. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  1. Earthquakes and trauma: review of triage and injury-specific, immediate care.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Cadosch, Dieter; Rajan, Gunesh; Zellweger, René

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes present a major threat to mankind. Increasing knowledge about geophysical interactions, progressing architectural technology, and improved disaster management algorithms have rendered modern populations less susceptible to earthquakes. Nevertheless, the mass casualties resulting from earthquakes in Great Kanto (Japan), Ancash (Peru), Tangshan (China), Guatemala, Armenia, and Izmit (Turkey) or the recent earthquakes in Bhuj (India), Bam (Iran), Sumatra (Indonesia) and Kashmir (Pakistan) indicate the devastating effect earthquakes can have on both individual and population health. Appropriate preparation and implementation of crisis management algorithms are of utmost importance to ensure a large-scale medical-aid response is readily available following a devastating event. In particular, efficient triage is vital to optimize the use of limited medical resources and to effectively mobilize these resources so as to maximize patient salvage. However, the main priorities of disaster rescue teams are the rescue and provision of emergency care for physical trauma. Furthermore, the establishment of transport evacuation corridors, a feature often neglected, is essential in order to provide the casualties with a chance for survival. The optimal management of victims under such settings is discussed, addressing injuries of the body and psyche by means of simple diagnostic and therapeutic procedures globally applicable and available. PMID:18557301

  2. Mapping 3D fault geometry in earthquakes using high-resolution topography: Examples from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) and 2013 Balochistan (Pakistan) earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Walker, Richard T.; Elliott, John R.; Parsons, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Fault dips are usually measured from outcrops in the field or inferred through geodetic or seismological modeling. Here we apply the classic structural geology approach of calculating dip from a fault's 3-D surface trace using recent, high-resolution topography. A test study applied to the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows very good agreement between our results and those previously determined from field measurements. To obtain a reliable estimate, a fault segment ≥120 m long with a topographic variation ≥15 m is suggested. We then applied this method to the 2013 Balochistan earthquake, getting dips similar to previous estimates. Our dip estimates show a switch from north to south dipping at the southern end of the main trace, which appears to be a response to local extension within a stepover. We suggest that this previously unidentified geometrical complexity may act as the endpoint of earthquake ruptures for the southern end of the Hoshab fault.

  3. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  4. Complex faulting in the Quetta Syntaxis: fault source modeling of the October 28, 2008 earthquake sequence in Baluchistan, Pakistan, based on ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Furuya, Masato

    2015-09-01

    The Quetta Syntaxis in western Baluchistan, Pakistan, is the result of an oroclinal bend of the western mountain belt and serves as a junction for different faults. As this area also lies close to the left-lateral strike-slip Chaman fault, which marks the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, the resulting seismological behavior of this regime is very complex. In the region of the Quetta Syntaxis, close to the fold and thrust belt of the Sulaiman and Kirthar Ranges, an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 (Mw) occurred on October 28, 2008, which was followed by a doublet on the very next day. Six more shocks associated with these major events then occurred (one foreshock and five aftershocks), with moment magnitudes greater than 4. Numerous researchers have tried to explain the source of this sequence based on seismological, GPS, and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT)/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. Here, we used Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) InSAR data sets from both ascending and descending orbits that allow us to more completely detect the deformation signals around the epicentral region. The results indicated that the shock sequence can be explained by two right-lateral and two left-lateral strike-slip faults that also included reverse slip. The right-lateral faults have a curved geometry. Moreover, whereas previous studies have explained the aftershock crustal deformation with a different fault source, we found that the same left-lateral segment of the conjugate fault was responsible for the aftershocks. We thus confirmed the complex surface deformation signals from the moderate-sized earthquake. Intra-plate crustal bending and shortening often seem to be accommodated as conjugate faulting, without any single preferred fault orientation. We also detected two possible landslide areas along with the crustal deformation pattern.

  5. Backprojection analyses from four regional arrays for rupture over a curved dipping fault: The Mw 7.7 24 September 2013 Pakistan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dun; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Mori, Jim; Ali, Babar; Ren, Zhikun; Shen, Xuelin

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed the 24 September 2013 Pakistan earthquake (Mw 7.7) with backprojection analyses using data recorded on four different regional arrays in Europe, China, and Japan (Hi-net and F-net). The results from all the arrays show propagation of the rupture toward the southwest for duration of about 40-50 s. Among them, results for Hi-net and a subset of China array show a clear segment of fast rupture propagation, with a rupture speed probably faster than the local shear wave velocity. Resolutions of the results from the various arrays are investigated using bootstrap tests, backprojection of aftershocks, and numerical tests with synthetic source models. The results of those tests show differences in the quality of the results from the four arrays. The China array and the Hi-net in Japan show the best results for this case. F-net in Japan shows the poorest results because of the few number of stations. The locations of large amplitudes (equivalent to a M 6.8 event) have absolute uncertainties of about 20 to 30 km (ignoring the source dimension).

  6. Libraries' Services at Distance: A Survey of Allama Iqbal Open University Tutors in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…

  7. Pakistani options for resolution of the Kashmir dispute. Master's thesis, 7 Aug 1998--4 Jun 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hayat, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    The Kashmir problem is the oldest unresolved issue on the UN agenda. The present popular uprising in the Indian-held Kashmir has redeemed a forgotten cause; and the nuclear testing by both India and Pakistan sprung the issue back on the international scene, and without resolving this focal issue, a lasting peace in South Asia will remain elusive. This study deals with the issue from its origin to the present with an effort to analyze the problem impartially and dispassionately to provide an objective understanding of the dispute. However, the conclusions drawn and the options recommended are solely from a Pakistani perspective. The study explains the intricacies of this complex border dispute, which over the years has been elevated to an ideological tug of war between India and Pakistan. All of this in the melee of passion for the disputed land, legal claims, moral ascendancy, and a growing Kashmiri nationalism, not to mention the fast changing international backdrop. The paper promotes a fresh approach for Pakistan in order to engage India in a meaningful dialogue on the issue and to involve the international community to fulfill its obligation. The Kashmiri nationalism has emerged as a potent third party to the dispute and thus is addressed. A multipronged approach for Pakistan has been proposed on the covert unilateral and overt bilateral and multilateral planes in order to work on all possible facets of the problem.

  8. Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Denney, J P

    1994-04-01

    On January 25, 1 week after the most devastating earthquake in Los Angeles history, the Southern California Hospital Council released the following status report: 928 patients evacuated from damaged hospitals. 805 beds available (136 critical, 669 noncritical). 7,757 patients treated/released from EDs. 1,496 patients treated/admitted to hospitals. 61 dead. 9,309 casualties. Where do we go from here? We are still waiting for the "big one." We'll do our best to be ready when Mother Nature shakes, rattles and rolls. The efforts of Los Angeles City Fire Chief Donald O. Manning cannot be overstated. He maintained department command of this major disaster and is directly responsible for implementing the fire department's Disaster Preparedness Division in 1987. Through the chief's leadership and ability to forecast consequences, the city of Los Angeles was better prepared than ever to cope with this horrendous earthquake. We also pay tribute to the men and women who are out there each day, where "the rubber meets the road." PMID:10133439

  9. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Hamayun; Nazir, Jaweria; Firdous, Syeda Sadiqa; Khalid, Abd-Ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%), hair growth (11%), bad breath (12%), facial spots (9%), allergy, (9%), fairness (8%), wrinkles (8%), eye and lip care (9%). Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%), Leaves (25.2%), seeds (13.4%) and roots (8.9%). Women of older (>30 years) age group showed greater (67%) response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area. PMID:25068138

  10. Impact of Insurgency on Education in Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganie, Rayees Ahmad; Din, Towseef Mohi Ud

    2015-01-01

    Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India that has made education free to all its citizens at all levels. Nonetheless, literacy at 54% lags behind the all-India level of 65%. The discrepancy is slightly larger from women (42% compared to the national figure of 54%) and for men (66% compared with a national level of 76%). The census figures on…

  11. Seismology: Remote-controlled earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin

    2016-04-01

    Large earthquakes cause other quakes near and far. Analyses of quakes in Pakistan and Chile suggest that such triggering can occur almost instantaneously, making triggered events hard to detect, and potentially enhancing the associated hazards.

  12. Pakistan Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Flooding in Pakistan     View Larger Image In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, ... river is 23 kilometers (14 miles) wide or more in spots, and flooding in much of the surrounding region, particularly in the Larkana ...

  13. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  14. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Bhat, M. Sultan; Ahmad, Bashir

    2015-06-01

    Geomorphology has long been recognised as a key to evaluate the interplay between tectonics and landscape geometry in the regions of active deformation. We use geomorphic signatures at varied spatial scales interpreted from SRTM-DEM/Landsat-ETM data, supplemented with field observations to review the tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphic evidence is persuasive of a credible NNW-SSE trending dextral strike-slip structure (central Kashmir Fault - CKF), with the strike length of ~ 165 km, stretched centrally over the NNW-SSE length of the Kashmir basin. As a result of the strike-slip motion and subsequent erosion, significant deformation has taken place along the CKF. In addition, broad geomorphic architecture of the basin reveals typical pull-apart characteristics. Hence, we deduce that the Kashmir basin has evolved as a pull-apart Quaternary sediment depression owing to the deformation along the central Kashmir Fault. The spatial distribution pattern of seismic events (NEIC-catalogue, 1973-2013) and GPS measurements (published), collectively substantiate our geomorphic interpretations.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K

    2011-07-01

    Our objective was to carry out environmental impact assessment of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to assess the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an impact on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the impact on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied. PMID:23029939

  16. Delusions of Singularity: Aesthetics, Discomfort and Bewilderment in Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    In Kashmir, where the act of performing a script-based play on a proscenium stage is still seen by many as a controversial gesture, "Cages" involved the devised creation of a site responsive and immersive performance that placed two spectators, literally, in the shoes of an(Other). The potential of these forms of spectatorship, as…

  17. Women and Violence: A Study of Women's Empowerment and Its Challenges in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to highlight the violence against women's in Jammu and Kashmir. In Jammu and Kashmir Woman are the most vulnerable and worst hit section of the society especially under situations of violence caused by militancy and armed conflict. They don't only suffer from intense humiliation and harassment but also undergo traumatic…

  18. Modeling of Kashmir Aftershock Decay Based on Static Coulomb Stress Changes and Laboratory-Derived Rate-and-State Dependent Friction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, F.; Hainzl, S.; Aoudia, A.; Qaisar, M.

    2016-05-01

    We model the spatial and temporal evolution of October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake's aftershock activity using the rate-and-state dependent friction model incorporating uncertainties in computed coseismic stress perturbations. We estimated the best possible value for frictional resistance " Aσ n", background seismicity rate " r" and coefficient of stress variation "CV" using maximum log-likelihood method. For the whole Kashmir earthquake sequence, we measure a frictional resistance Aσ n ~ 0.0185 MPa, r ~ 20 M3.7+ events/year and CV = 0.94 ± 0.01. The spatial and temporal forecasted seismicity rate of modeled aftershocks fits well with the spatial and temporal distribution of observed aftershocks that occurred in the regions with positive static stress changes as well as in the apparent stress shadow region. To quantify the effect of secondary aftershock triggering, we have re-run the estimations for 100 stochastically declustered catalogs showing that the effect of aftershock-induced secondary stress changes is obviously minor compared to the overall uncertainties, and that the stress variability related to uncertain slip model inversions and receiver mechanisms remains the major factor to provide a reasonable data fit.

  19. Beyond Kargil: The technology of peace in India-Pakistan border relations

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir-Kheli, S.; Biringer, K.L.

    2000-01-12

    The potential for cooperation between India and Pakistan is substantial. Topics as widely varying as national security, the environment and trade hold the potential for improved bilateral relations. This paper looks at a few areas in which monitoring technology could contribute to enhancing cooperative border agreements between the two nations. The goal of the paper is not to provide prescriptive solutions to regional problems, but to expand the number of options being considered for improving Indian-Pakistan relations. Many of the impediments to bilateral progress are a result of a history of conflict and mistrust. By utilizing technical monitoring and inspections, each side can begin to replace suspicion and doubt with knowledge and information useful in making informed political, economic and military decisions. At the same time, technical monitoring and inspections can build confidence through common interactions. India and Pakistan have pledged to resolve their disputes, including Kashmir, through dialogue. Implementation of that pledge is influenced by a number of factors, including changes in the political systems and the fortunes of the leadership. Events of the past year and a half have severely tested these two governments' ability to move forward along a constructive and positive path. Testing of new missile systems both preceded and followed testing of nuclear weapons in May 1998. Both countries disregarded subsequent international displeasure as they proceeded to openly declare their respective nuclear capability. Their brief engagement with each other in February 1999 and movement toward a rapprochement diluted international condemnation of their nuclear activity. Within a recent period of nine months however, progress in the dialogue has been stalled first by the Pakistani move in Kashmir in May 1999, then by the Indian election in the summer of 1999 and most recently by the military coup in Pakistan.

  20. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  1. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  2. Archives in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the origins and development of archives in Pakistan. The focus is on the National Archives of Pakistan, but also includes a discussion of the archival collections at the provincial and district levels. This study further examines the state of training facilities available to Pakistani archivists. Archival development has been…

  3. Islamic Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, C. Christine

    2006-01-01

    On March 21, 2006 Christine Fair spoke about her recent trip to Pakistan. Fair's fieldwork was conducted with her Pakistan-based colleague Syed Rashad Bukhari and in collaboration with the National Bureau of Asian Research. Fair and Bukhari spent nearly three weeks visiting administrators at ten of the most prominent post-secondary madaris…

  4. Epidemiology of the neural tube defects in Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Laharwal, Masood Ahmed; Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Ramzan, Altaf Umer; Wani, Abrar Ahad; Malik, Nayil Khursheed; Arif, Sajad Hussain; Rizvi, Masooma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common congenital malformations affecting the brain and spinal cord and have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic and environmental factors have been found to cause these defects, both individually and in combination. Methods: A 2-year hospital-based prospective study was carried out from November 2013 to October 2015 to determine the incidence, types, demographics, risk factors, and other associated anamolies relevant to NTDs in Kashmir Valley. A detailed history of the mother was taken along with detailed clinical examination of neonate including measurement of head circumference and checking the status of fontanella, whether lax/full/bulging/or tense, type of NTD. Investigations that were done included were X-ray skull: Anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral, X-ray spine: AP and lateral, ultrasonography abdomen, magnetic resonance imaging: Spine and brain. Results: The total number of babies with NTD's was 125 with an overall incidence of 0.503. Kupwara district was having the highest incidence (1.047) and Srinagar district the lowest incidence of NTD's (0.197). Majority of NTD's (116 cases, 92.8%) were found in the rural areas. Among the different types of NTD's, spina bifida had an incidence of 0.342 (85 cases, 68%) and anencephaly had an incidence of 0.113 (28 cases, 22.4%). There was a slight preponderance of females over males with NTD's. There were 70 females (56%) and 55 males (44%), respectively, with a male: female ratio of 0.8:1 Conclusions: The incidence rates of NTDs is very high for Kashmir Valley. Geographical distribution of NTDs at this place confirms a relationship between the socioeconomic status, educational status, maternal too young or advanced age, and environmental factors for the development of a NTD. The results of this study point to the importance establishing a health policy to prevent NTD in Kashmir Valley. PMID:27127700

  5. Clinical study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Gh Mohiuddin; Ahmad, Sheikh Manzoor; Khursheed, Bilques

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious disease of tropical and semitropical areas of the world. The cold and harsh winter conditions of the Kashmir Valley do not favor the survival and growth of the Leishmania parasite or its vector, the sand fly, and the disease was until now practically unheard of in the Kashmir Valley. Aims: There has been a recent rise in the number of cases of CL in the Kashmir Valley. Against this background, the present study was taken up to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and management outcomes of CL in the Kashmir Valley, where it represents a new phenomenon. Materials and Methods: Patients with direct smear-confirmed CL were evaluated. For each patient, we noted age, gender, geographical origin, stays in endemic areas, clinical aspects, number, site and size of lesions, treatment, and outcome. All the infected patients were treated with sodium stibogluconate. The dose, route of administration, adverse effects, and the clinical response in each patient was noted down. Results: Eighteen patients, 11 males (61.12%) and 7 females (38.88%) were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 60 years (mean age 29.8). The majority of our patients (16, 88.9%) belonged to two hilly areas, Uri and Karnah. Duration of the disease ranged from a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 18 months (mean duration 4.6 months). Lesions in most of our patients (16, 88.9%) were located on the face including the lip and nose. The size of lesions varied from 4 to about 50 mm (average 2-3 cm). Most of our patients (13, 73.3%) had only a single lesion and a few (5, 26.7%) had two or three lesions. The clinical type of lesion in most of our patients (16, 88.9%) was noduloulcerative, only two (11.1%) had nodular (nonulcerative) lesions. Sixteen patients; all with facial lesions were treated with intravenous sodium stibogluconate. A complete response was seen in 14 (87%), without any major adverse effect. Two adult patients with

  6. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  7. Esophageal Cancer in Kashmir (India): An Enigma for Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Mir, M. Muzaffar; Dar, Nazir Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    About 90% of esophageal cancers worldwide are Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC), mostly occurring in defined high-incidence areas of low and middle-resource countries. Historically, the highest incidences are reported in regions of Central Asia. One such region is Kashmir Valley in Northern India. In this review, we summarize a large body of epidemiological, toxicological and observational information on occurrence, dietary patterns and lifestyles to discuss factors that may be involved in the etiology of SCC in Kashmir Valley. To date, no single factor can be identified as the main cause of the excess incidence of SCC as compared to other regions of India. Three main components emerge as important factors: a societal component with poor, rural lifestyle and general deprivation, status in particular in vitamins and oligoelements; a lifestyle component with the use of copper utensil in cooking, the consumption of spicy, deep fried foodstuffs, and the drinking of hot salty tea; and an environmental component with exposure to high levels of dietary nitrosamines from diverse sources. Overall, these three components are similar to the general pattern of factors that have been involved in causing SCC in other high-incidence area in the so-called “esophageal cancer belt”, namely in central China (Cixian, Lixian) and in Northern Iran (Golestan). Further comparative studies between these regions are needed to identify the contributions of these various components. PMID:21475514

  8. Pediatric oncology in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Shamvil

    2012-03-01

    Pediatric oncology in Pakistan has developed over last decade with substantial increase in the facility for treatment and number of expertise. Though large numbers of children still do not reach treatment center more children have now access to quality cancer treatment. There has been gradual improvement in Pediatric oncology nursing and allied services. Pediatric Palliative care in Pakistan is in initial phase of development. Pediatric Oncology services are largely supported by philanthropists. Children Cancer Hospital a project of Children Cancer Foundation Pakistan Trust is not only providing quality treatment to every child regardless of paying ability but also playing a pivotal role in capacity building and creating awareness about childhood cancer in Pakistan. PMID:22357147

  9. Pakistan's community health workers.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, B; Amarsi, Y; Carpio, B

    1997-05-01

    Pakistan's health characteristics are worse than those of other Asian countries at similar stages of development. Its mortality rate for children under five is 139 per 1,000, and its maternal mortality is 60 per 10,000. Malnutrition in women and children is widespread; 50 per cent of children under five are stunted. Pakistan's population growth rate of 3.1 per cent per year is among the highest in Asia. The high population growth rate and poor health status of many people call for extensive health care services, but, unfortunately, health services do not reach most of the people of Pakistan. Partly because the training of doctors and nurses is lengthy and expensive, there is an acute shortage of health care providers, especially women. Although female health professionals are preferred for caring for women, cultural constraints inhibit women from seeking education. Such is the multifaceted dilemma in the provision of primary health care in Pakistan. PMID:9223980

  10. Everyday Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Describes methods to access current earthquake information from the National Earthquake Information Center. Enables students to build genuine learning experiences using real data from earthquakes that have recently occurred. (JRH)

  11. Cooperative Development of the Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W.; McDonald, S.

    2005-12-01

    We propose to cooperate with the Pakistan Meteorological Department for the design and construction of the new Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) that has been funded by the government of Pakistan. The PSNS will consist of 12-15 broadband stations, 50 short-period stations, and 50 accelerometers. Our role will be to provide technical assistance in site selection, to prepare the Request for Proposals (RFP) from industry, and to evaluate performance. The relative importance of tsunami warnings, national earthquake and landslide hazards, and whether a largely urban or truly national network is envisioned will be determined early in the program. Final placement of stations will take many factors into consideration including proximity to faults and seismic activity, geographic accessibility, the consistency of bedrock, and various cultural or social effects. This cooperation has the potential to lead to the development of a desperately needed tsunami early warning network that could protect the Pakistani coastal population in the event of a natural disaster such as the Dec. 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. The seismic hazard off the coast of Pakistan is high due to the proximity of the Makran and Sumatra subduction zones, the former of which could trigger tsunamis in Pakistan with heights of 12m within minutes. In addition to monitoring earthquake activity, the PSNS will provide seismic data of interest to the world-wide scientific community for a region in which there is little understanding of the upper crust and mantle. It will furthermore address educational outreach and diplomacy issues by providing training to Pakistani scientists in routine network operation and data processing.

  12. Documenting historic and recent extreme floods in Kashmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Koul Tasaduq, Hussain; Alamgir Shabir, Hussain; Shah Mutayib, Bashir; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Kashmir has been frequently subjected to massive floods along its history. The recent extreme flood events which occurred during September 2014, March 2015 and September 2015 have revealed the high vulnerability of its population. Causes of recent extreme flood events have been attributed to the bowl shaped topography, intense land-use changes and unfavorable climatic change conditions at the onset of the monsoon as well as due to the occurrence of westerly disturbances. This reality implies new challenges to authorities and calls for the development of suitable adaptation strategies focusing on a minimization of the expected negative impacts on inhabitants during future extreme floods. In this context, long-term records can improve our understanding about the flood frequency as well as changes in climate - and land-use - linkages. In this communication, we present an extensive flood records from Kashmir by combining historical descriptions with tree-ring records from headwater catchments as well as with the existing flow gauge records. Historical sources include old records from archives of the Irrigation and Flood Control Department of flood events which have taken place at Jhelum River, but also old pictures and other documents about the river system, going back in time to the British period. At the headwater catchment, we additionally perform tree-ring analyses coupled with classical palaeohydraulic techniques to reconstruct the magnitude and occurrence of recent, yet ungauged extreme events. Both sources of data have been compared and merged with the existing flow records in order to provide a clearer picture about flood phenomena in this region. Historical archives corroborate the assumption that that Srinagar (the main city of Kashmir), as well as the surroundings crops land, have been frequently affected by floods. Although the oldest records are from the 19th century, dense annals including information about water levels are available after the 18th

  13. Barite in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, F.L.; Richards, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Before 1953 almost no barite deposits were known in Pakistan. Discovery of such deposits relatively close to oil fields in northern Pakistan in 1953 led to increased barite production from 1957 to 1961 and to doubling of production in 1962, firmly establishing new industry for the country. During 1962 and 1963, most of the known barite deposits in Pakistan were geologically mapped, and minimum reserves were estimated to be 1,423,000 short tons. The largest single deposit, Ehuzdar, is estimated to contain more than 1,100,000 short tons of barite. Barite has been found in Pakistan principally in the Hazara, Khuzdar, and Las Bela districts. Although several vein deposits contain good quality barite, 90 percent of estimated reserves are in replacement deposits concordant to bedding in sedimentary rocks. Host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Pleistocene, but the periods of barite deposition are probably Jurassic or younger. Some barite concentrated in sandstone may be of detrital origin. In late 1962, demand for barite in Pakistan was estimated at about 8,000 tons annually. Although domestic barite resources exceed this figure, less than 40 percent of demand was being supplied by domestic nines in 1963. Transportation costs and limited production facilities are partly responsible for output, but the lack of quality control is a major obstacle. Producers are not generally familiar with commercial specifications for barite and have net recognized that their products are too impure to be successfully marketed without installing the necessarycontrol procedures of sampling and beneficiation.

  14. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  15. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  16. Earthquake prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Z.; Fu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, D.

    1989-01-01

    Mainland China is situated at the eastern edge of the Eurasian seismic system and is the largest intra-continental region of shallow strong earthquakes in the world. Based on nine earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 7.0 and 7.9, the book provides observational data and discusses successes and failures of earthquake prediction. Derived from individual earthquakes, observations of various phenomena and seismic activities occurring before and after earthquakes, led to the establishment of some general characteristics valid for earthquake prediction.

  17. Life in conflict: Characteristics of Depression in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Syed; Khan, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mental, physical and social health, are vital strands of life that are closely interwoven and deeply interdependent. Mental disorders affect people of all countries and societies, individuals at all ages, women and men, the rich and the poor, from urban and rural environments. Depression is more likely following particular classes of experience – those involving conflict, disruption, losses and experiences of humiliation or entrapment. Many people living amidst the rages of conflict suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. Objective: To determine the characteristics of depression in the population in Kashmir where a low-intensity-conflict has been going on for the last seventeen years. Methods: The non-combatant civilian population was surveyed. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression in community populations. Results: Due to continuing conflict in Kashmir during the last 18 years there has been a phenomenal increase in psychiatric morbidity. The results reveal that the prevalence of depression is 55.72%. The prevalence is highest (66.67%) in the 15 to 25 years age group, followed by 65.33% in the 26 to 35 years age group. The difference in the prevalence of depression among males and females is significant. Depression is much higher in rural areas (84.73%) as compared to urban areas (15.26%). In rural areas the prevalence of depression among females is higher (93.10 %) as compared to males (6.8%). Conclusion: Mental health is an integral part of overall health and quality of life. Effective evidence-based programs and policies are available to promote mental health, enhance resilience, reduce risk factors, increase protective factors, and prevent mental and behavioural disorders. Innovative community-based health programmes which are culturally and gender appropriate and reaches out to all segments of the population need to be developed. Substantial and sustainable improvements can

  18. Special Education in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper briefly describes the current status of special education in Pakistan, noting its relatively brief history, the lack of incidence figures, the administrative organization and structure, personnel preparation, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the recognition of four categories of disability: mental retardation, physical…

  19. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  20. Pakistan boosts science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  1. Loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding in Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) of Dachigam National Park, Jammu & Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu), the eastern most subspecies of red deer, is now confined only to the mountains in the Kashmir region of Jammu & Kashmir State of India. It is of great conservation significance as this is the last and only hope for Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in India. Wild population of free ranging hangul deer inhabiting in and around Dachigam National Park was genetically assessed in order to account for constitutive genetic attributes of hangul population using microsatellite markers. Results In a pool of 36 multi-locus genotypes, 30 unique individuals were identified based on six microsatellite loci. The estimated cumulative probability of identity assuming all individuals were siblings (PID sibs) was 0.009 (9 in 1000). Altogether, 49 different alleles were observed with mean (± s.e.) allelic number of 8.17 ± 1.05, ranging from 5 to 11 per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.08 and 0.83, with mean 0.40 ± 0.11 and the inbreeding coefficient ranged between −0.04 and 0.87 with mean 0.38 ± 0.15. Majority of loci (5/6) were found to be informative (PIC value > 0.5). All loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except Ca-38 (P > 0.05) and none of the pairs of loci showed significant linkage disequilibrium except the single pair of Ca-30 and Ca-43 (P < 0.05). Conclusions The preliminary findings revealed that hangul population is significantly inbred and exhibited a low genetic diversity in comparison to other deer populations of the world. We suggest prioritizing the potential individuals retaining high heterozygosity for ex situ conservation and genetic monitoring of the hangul population should be initiated covering the entire distribution range to ensure the long term survival of hangul. We speculate further ignoring genetics attributes may lead to a detrimental effect which can negatively influence the reproductive fitness and survivorship of the hangul population in the

  2. Hidden Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ross S.; Yeats, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that large earthquakes can take place not only on faults that cut the earth's surface but also on blind faults under folded terrain. Describes four examples of fold earthquakes. Discusses the fold earthquakes using several diagrams and pictures. (YP)

  3. Bacterial biota of Nigeen Lake waters (Kashmir Valley).

    PubMed

    Zaffar, Riasa M; Ganai, Bashir A

    2016-08-01

    One of the greatest apprehensions of water consumers all over the world with respect to the quality of drinking water is its contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This research work determined the potential bacterial contaminants of the waters of Nigeen Lake, a subsidiary of Dal Lake and is regarded as a separate lake in Kashmir. The study was carried out from May 2014 to November 2014 excluding August and September at four different sites. During the study the bacterial flora showed variation in relation to the conditions prevailing at different sites. The highest viable count of bacteria was observed at Site:2 (surrounded by residential hamlets) followed by Site:1 (inlet) and Site:4 (centre) followed by Site:3 (outlet). Based on the examination of morphological features of bacterial colonies on nutrient agar plates after 48 h of incubation period, 40 different strains were isolated. The isolates were identified with the help of Gram's staining and DNA sequencing, 55% of the strains were Gram negative and 45% of the strains were Gram positive. With the help of 16S rRNA sequencing, out of the 40 isolates of bacteria, 7 strains were different at the genetic level. The bacteria which were identified with the help of DNA sequencing are Pseudomonas synxantha, Delftia acidovorans, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophiria. PMID:27165539

  4. Profile of missile-induced cardiovascular injuries in Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Abdul Gani; Lone, Gh Nabi; Hakeem, Zubair Ashraf; Dar, Abdul Majeed; Lone, Reyaz Ahmad; Bhat, Mohd Akbar; Singh, Shyam; Irshad, Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Missile cardiovascular injuries have taken an epidemic proportion in Kashmir valley since the eruption of militancy in 1990. Present study was undertaken to analyse the pattern, presentation and management of missile cardiovascular injuries. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and eighty-six patients with missile cardiovascular injuries since Jan 1996 to Oct 2008 were studied retrospectively. All patients of cardiovascular injuries due to causes other than missiles were excluded from the study. Results: All patients of missile cardiac injuries were treated by primary cardiorrhaphy. Right ventricle was the most commonly affected chamber. Left anterior thoracotomy was most common approach used. Most of the patients of missile vascular group were treated by reverse saphenous vein graft or end-to-end anastomosis. Most common complication was wound infection (20.83%) followed by graft occlusion (1.94%) in missile vascular group. Amputation rate was 4.66%. Amputation rate was higher in patients with delay of >6 hours and associated fractures. Conclusion: Missile cardiac injuries should be operated early without wasting time for investigations. Clinical status at arrival, time interval till management, nature of injury and associated injuries, tell upon the mortality. Missile vascular injury needs prompt resuscitation and revascularization at the earliest. Time interval till revascularization and associated fractures has a bearing on mortality and morbidity. PMID:21769201

  5. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant. PMID:26558164

  6. Gender Disparity at Elementary Education Level in Jammu and Kashmir: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a study to explore gender disparity at elementary education level in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender disparity in education refers to differences in outcomes observed between two sexes. Education disparities can be seen in different enrolment rates, dropout rates, and survival rates among the sexes. The central government and…

  7. Assessment and Understanding of Gender Equity in Education in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the assessment and understanding of the gender equity in education in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures should be available to compensate for women's historical and social disadvantaged. The central government, state…

  8. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  9. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeelani, G. H.; Shah, Rouf Ahmad; Hussain, Aadil

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater samples ( n = 163) were collected across Kashmir Valley in 2010 to assess the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater in shallow and deep aquifers and its suitability for domestic, agriculture, horticulture, and livestock purposes. The groundwater is generally alkaline in nature. The electrical conductivity (EC) which is an index to represent the total concentration of soluble salts in water was used to measure the salinity hazard to crops as it reflects the TDS in groundwater ranging from 97 to 1385 μS/cm, except one well in Sopore. The average concentration of major ions was higher in shallow aquifers than in deeper aquifers. In general, Ca2+ is the dominant cation and HCO the dominant anion. Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Na-HCO3 were the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. High concentration of HCO3 and pH less than 8.8 clearly indicated that intense chemical weathering processes have taken place in the study area. The groundwater flow pattern in the area follows the local surface topography which not only modifies the hydrogeochemical facies but also controls their distribution. The groundwater in valley flows into four directions, i.e., SW-NE, NE-W, SE-NW and SE-NE directions. The results suggest that carbonate dissolution is the dominant source of major ions followed by silicate weathering and ion-exchange processes. The concentrations of all the major ions determined in the present study are within the permissible limits of WHO and BIS standards. The results of Total Hardness, SAR, Na%, Kelly Index, USDA classification, Magnesium absorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, and PI suggested that groundwater is good for drinking, livestock, and irrigation purposes.

  10. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  11. Landslide Mapping and Modeling Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Statistical Analysis of District Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nimrah; Mushtaq, Saman

    2016-07-01

    Occurrence factors of Landslide hazard can be natural such as high slopes, geological conditions and lineaments, faults, rain, and river cutting. Man-made factors such as road cuttings, deforestation or development can also contribute to the landsliding. The focus of this study was to model those landslides susceptible prone to hazard areas which in turn can help for the development, urbanization and for setting up rules or regulations to save nature and environment of the area. The focal of the current research work was the Earthquake of October, 2005 also known as Kashmir Earthquake, the epicenter location of the earthquake 34°29'35″N 73°37'44″E at height of ~2000 from mean sea level and ~20 Km North-East from Muzaffarabad city, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, at the scale of 1:50000 Geological map of 43-F/11, tehsil Nauseri area. The techniques used in this research is based on theorem of Bayes's bivariat statistic (weight of evidence) which predicts the events geographically and on input layers and the relationship of event. A relationship between event of landslide and factors was studied and analyzed using this method. Subsequently a prediction of the occurrence of the spatial location of the landslide event was established successfully. The relationship of distribution of landslide and factors layers was calculated using the statistical methods which enabled to predict the landslides zones in different areas. The methodology applied proved that the success rate was 80% landslide occurred in 18% area and prediction rate was 70% of landslides occurred in 70% of area. The use satellite remote sensing data, and GIS with the integration of statistical method are definitely an effective tool for predicting the future landslide prone areas.

  12. Hidden earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

    1989-06-01

    Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

  13. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  14. Earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

  15. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  16. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  17. Confidence building measures at sea:opportunities for India and Pakistan.

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Ravi Bhushan Rear Admiral; Ansari, Hasan Masood Rear Admiral

    2003-12-01

    The sea presents unique possibilities for implementing confidence building measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan that are currently not available along the contentious land borders surrounding Jammu and Kashmir. This is due to the nature of maritime issues, the common military culture of naval forces, and a less contentious history of maritime interaction between the two nations. Maritime issues of mutual concern provide a strong foundation for more far-reaching future CBMs on land, while addressing pressing security, economic, and humanitarian needs at sea in the near-term. Although Indian and Pakistani maritime forces currently have stronger opportunities to cooperate with one another than their counterparts on land, reliable mechanisms to alleviate tension or promote operational coordination remain non-existent. Therefore, possible maritime CBMs, as well as pragmatic mechanisms to initiate and sustain cooperation, require serious examination. This report reflects the unique joint research undertaking of two retired Senior Naval Officers from both India and Pakistan, sponsored by the Cooperative Monitoring Center of the International Security Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Research focuses on technology as a valuable tool to facilitate confidence building between states having a low level of initial trust. Technical CBMs not only increase transparency, but also provide standardized, scientific means of interacting on politically difficult problems. Admirals Vohra and Ansari introduce technology as a mechanism to facilitate consistent forms of cooperation and initiate discussion in the maritime realm. They present technical CBMs capable of being acted upon as well as high-level political recommendations regarding the following issues: (1) Delimitation of the maritime boundary between India and Pakistan and its relationship to the Sir Creek dispute; (2) Restoration of full shipping links and the security of ports and cargos; (3) Fishing within

  18. Paleovegetational history in the Kashmir basin, India, derived from 13C/ 12C ratio in paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Bhattacharya, S. K.

    1989-11-01

    The presence of a series of humus-rich layers, identified as paleosols in the loess sediments in the Kashmir basin in northwestern India indicate phases of climatic amelioration in the past. Stable carbon isotope ratios of the organic fraction of paleosols from three locations show that almost all the paleosols supported significant C 4-type vegetation which is characteristic of water stressed and relatively hot, dry environments. Limited measurements of stable carbon isotope ratio in modern soils show an estimated C 4-type vegetation contribution of less than 25%, which is tenable given the temperate climate of the basin today. In the light of some recently published TL (thermoluminiscence) dates for loess sedimentation in Kashmir, these findings suggest significant ecological changes most likely related to water stress and temperature there during the past 300 kyr ( 1kyr= 1000years).

  19. Studies of VLF radio waves for sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) in Kashmir region

    SciTech Connect

    Wani, M. R.; Iqbal, Naseer; Sasmal, Sudipta

    2010-10-20

    It is recognized that the ionosphere may be sensitive to seismic effects, and the detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with seismicity would be useful for short term prediction of seismic events. To observe this effect, Indian Centre for Space Physics has installed an antenna and receiver system at Kashmir University to monitor the variation of the VLF signal transmitted from VTX. We present the preliminary results from this station.

  20. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-01-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  1. Nonoccupational anthracofibrosis/anthracosilicosis from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Spalgais, Sonam; Gothi, Dipti; Jaiswal, Anand; Gupta, Kumud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonoccupational anthracosis and silicosis has been reported from various parts of the world including Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India; however, anthracosilicosis has only been reported in industrial workers till date. Materials and Methods: Six cases from the Ladakh region in Jammu and Kashmir, India with similar clinico-radiological-pathological features, i.e., anthracosilicosis/anthracofibrosis have been analyzed. Of these, four were analyzed retrospectively and two prospectively. Result: All the patients were homemakers and resided in Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India since birth with an age range of 42–62 years and an average age of 56 years. Their average duration of symptoms was 4 years. Spirometry showed small and/or large airway disease in 5/6 cases. On computed tomography (CT), 4/6 cases showed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) with calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. There were random or centrilobular nodules in all the six cases. Bronchoscopy in 5/6 cases showed multiple anthracotic pigments with narrowing and distortion of the bronchus (anthracofibrosis). Malignancy was suspected clinico-radiologically in four cases and pathologically in two cases. On histopathology, anthracosis was demonstrated in all and silicosis in three cases. Conclusion: Anthracosilicosis can occur due to environmental exposure. Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India is the only place across the globe with unique environmental features having the presence of both free silica and biomass fuel. The disease was observed predominantly in older women. Awareness would prevent unnecessary investigation for malignancy. Treatment with the bronchodilator is useful as it has evidence of airway disease. Finally, environmental measures and a proper study need to be undertaken for knowing the relative role of silica versus soot in causing the lung disease and preventing this irreversible condition. PMID:26957815

  2. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Children of Conflict Region of Kashmir (India): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs due to traumatic events. The last two decades have seen various traumatic events in Kashmiri population, which has led to psychological impact on all population, especially children. PTSD is one of the psychiatric disorders occurring after witnessing of traumatic events. A review of literature regarding PTSD in children of Kashmir (India) has been done to assess the prevalence, causes, neurobiology, risk factors and psychiatric co morbidity associated with it. PMID:26894159

  3. Response of Kolahoi Glacier, Kashmir Himalaya to climate change: A preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeelani, G.; Hasnain, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    Kolahoi Glacier (340 07-340 12 N: 75016- 750 23 E), Liddar Valley, Kashmir Himalaya is one of the largest glacier in the Kashmir valley. The glacier is nourished by westerly system during winter and ablation takes place during summer period with no impact of SW monsoon system. Liddar Valley covers an area of 1282.55 km2 and sustain about 48 glaciers with total ice covered area of about 39 km2. The melt water feeds the west and east Liddar rivers and downstream in the valley they joined and forms River Jhelum which is the main source of water and livelihood to entire Kashmir valley. The major concern is that melting glaciers in the Kashmir valley will have ‘cascading effects’ across ecosystems, creating chain reactions on the food and water security of marginalised communities. An analysis of the available records is presented in this study. It appears that considerable recession of the snout has taken place since 1857. The glacier has receded about 1.6 km from 1857-1909 (52 years ?), 0.82 km from 1912-1961 (50 years), and 1.0 km from 1962-2008 (47 years). The area of the glacier is decreased by about 15% (0.04 Km2/year) from 1962 to 2008. The data indicate that there is significant increase in the rate of glacier recession for last few decades. It appears that global and regional warming, below normal precipitation occurred during the period of snow accumulation are perhaps the main reasons for accelerating the rate of melting during recent times. The stream (West Liddar) fed by the Kolahoi glacier also shows an increase in the discharge for last few decades as compared to the other streams fed dominantly by snow melt.

  4. Splice site and Germline variations of the MGMT gene in Esophageal cancer from Kashmir Valley: India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mohd Amin; Shaffi, Sheikh M.; Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Jan, Syed Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of our investigation was to detect mutation or genetic polymorphisms in MGMT gene of esophageal cancer patients from Kashmir Valley (India) Methodology The genetic polymorphisms or mutations in the coding exons 2, 3, 4 and 5 of MGMT gene were searched for in DNA samples from the frozen tumor tissues of 30 esophageal cancer patients from Kashmir. The PCR products were sequenced with fluorescently labelled terminators and separated on automatic sequencer. We developed a new PCR based RFLP approach for genotyping c.459A>G (p.Gly153Gly) variation in 71 esophageal cancer patients and 60 healthy controls. Results Two somatic variations c.274 +4G>A and c.274 + 22G>A were identified in Exon3-intron 4 boundary. A novel germline variation c.459A>G (p.Gly153Gly) was found in the exon 5 of an esophageal cancer patient. This germline variation was not found in any of the studied esophageal cancer patients and healthy controls except the patient where it has been found by direct sequencing. Conclusion We identified novel sequence variants of the MGMT gene in esophageal cancer patients from Kashmir valley-India. PMID:24533020

  5. Socioeconomic status and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nazir A; Shah, Idrees A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Makhdoomi, Muzamil A; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nisar, Iqra; Bhat, Arshid B; Nabi, Sumaiya; Masood, Akbar; Shah, Sajad A; Lone, Mohd M; Zargar, Showkat A; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk. PMID:23721087

  6. [Documentation of violence against civilians in a civil war. Examples from Kashmir].

    PubMed

    Petersen, H D; Larsen, M; Mannstaedt, M; Skytt, G L; Vedel, O M; Wandall, J H

    1998-07-13

    Physicians for Human Rights/Denmark visited Kashmir three times in 1993 and 1994. In Indian-held Kashmir we examined victims of torture and gunshots and we assessed similar evidence collected by local lawyers and doctors. In refugee camps for Indian Kashmiries we examined ten children, who were reported to have been tortured at the age of 5-14 years, and ten other children who allegedly had been ill-treated. Furthermore, 17 adults, who reported that they had been tortured, were examined. In nearly all cases there were physical findings in accordance with the histories of torture. In many cases, including those of the children, the findings were highly remarkable by their shape and localization. We interpret them as evidence of intentionally inflicted injuries. In the refugee camps we carried out a prevalence study of exposure to organized violence. Approximately 95% of all families had been exposed to violence; 35% reported that their children had been ill-treated. The physical findings indicate that intentional traumatization of civilians including children in Indian-held Kashmir takes place; the results of the prevalence study suggest that exposure to violence is widespread. PMID:9679433

  7. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  8. Earthquake Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the importance of the development of students' measurement and estimation skills. Analyzes earthquake data recorded at seismograph stations and explains how to read and modify the graphs. Presents an activity for student evaluation. (YDS)

  9. Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Kashmir, North India

    PubMed Central

    Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Khan, Asiya; Thokar, Manzoor Ahmad; Malik, Ajaz Ahmad; Fazili, Anjum; Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Sharma, Monika; Malla, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. There are numerous reports and hospital-based studies from Kashmir, North India, yet there has been no epidemiological study conducted in Kashmir, the apparently endemic area for human hydatidosis. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of hydatid infection in Kashmir Valley and to find out association of risk factors for acquisition of this infection. Methodology Fourteen hundred and twenty-nine samples were collected from different districts in the Kashmir region (North India) using systematic random sampling. The 130 control samples included were from apparently healthy blood donors (100), patients with other parasitic infections (20), surgically confirmed hydatidosis patients (5), and apparently healthy subjects excluded for hydatidosis and intestinal parasitic infections (5). Hydatid-specific IgG antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and seropositive samples were analysed further by Western blotting. Results Out of 1,429 samples, 72 (5.03%) were IgG positive by ELISA. The percentage occurrence of the highly immunoreactive antigenic fractions in IgG ELISA positive samples was 57 kDa (72.2%) followed by 70 kDa (66.7%) and 39kDa (58.3%) by immunoblotting. Samples with other parasitic infections were reactive with the cluster of 54-59 kDa antigenic fractions. Age <15 years, male gender, contact with dog, and rural residence were the most significant factors associated with the seropositivity. Conclusion The study revealed that 72 (5.03%) out of 1,429 subjects asymptomatic for hydatidosis were seropositve to E.granulosus antigen by ELISA. Western blot analysis of 72 ELISA seropositive samples showed that 66.7% and 58.3% of samples were immunoreactive with 70 and 39kDa specific antigenic fractions, respectively. The seropositivity was significantly higher (5.79%) in the younger age group (<15 years) as compared to the 16-55 years (4

  10. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  11. Earthquakes for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquakes for Kids Kid's Privacy Policy Earthquake Topics for Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters ...

  12. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 μg mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:25852667

  13. Pakistan: update on breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in Pakistan have shown a decline in breastfeeding since 1966, especially in urban areas. Overall, the National Nutrition Surveys have found, the proportion of babies being breastfed for more than 2 years has declined from 59% in 1966 to 9% in 1985. 4 basic reasons have been found for this deterioration: 1) hospitals are separating newborns from their mothers, and not instructing mothers on how to establish and sustain breastfeeding; 2) health practicioners are not informed about the importance of breastfeeding; 3) many women give their babies formula out of fear that they will not produce sufficient milk for their babies; and 4) at hospitals and clinics some infant formula companies continue to give out free samples and to distribute posters and calendars promoting their formulas. These problems must be remedied. At a hospital in Indonesia, when infants began to be roomed in with their mothers, hospital staff to be encouraged to breastfeed their own babies, mothers to be counseled on breastfeeding, and when formula promotion was stopped, infant mortality dropped from 51.6/1000 to 33.4/1000. Cases of diarrhea dropped from 40.2/1000 to 5.5/1000. Breastmilk has unique properties that no infant formula can match. PMID:12342141

  14. Business closure and relocation: a comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters. PMID:20722689

  15. WILD EDIBLE PLANTS OF JAMMU & KASHMIR STATE – AN ETHNO-BOTANICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    While conducting the Ethno-Botanical explorations of Jammu and Kashmir State, the authors gathered information from the primitive society, Gujar, Bakarwala and other inhabitants living in far-flung areas not exposed to civilization as well as the villages, on the importance of the plants, used by them in their way of life, as medicine, food, fodder and other religio-social customs and beliefs. The present paper deals with 109 species of the wild edible plants only being used by them for food in various ways. The botanical names of the wild edible plants, local names, places of collection, parts used and mode of use, are also discussed. PMID:22557615

  16. Response to the commentary by Shah, A. A. (2015) and further evidence supporting the dextral strike-slip pull-apart evolution of the Kashmir basin along the central Kashmir fault (CKF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Sultan Bhat, M.; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    This research article provides added evidence in support of the already presented tectonic evolution model of the Kashmir basin by Alam et al. (2015), which states that the local dextral strike-slip structure, embedded with the southern forefront thrust system (MBT/MCT), resulted in the development of the NNW-SSE-oriented elliptical pull-apart sedimentary trough (Kashmir basin). Simultaneously, we respond to the argument of Shah (2015), wherein the author expresses his concern about the tectonic evolution model proposed by Alam et al. (2015). The commentator (Shah, 2015)-merely based on assumptions (1: perfectly planar geometry of the central Kashmir fault-CKF; 2: pure strike-slip along the CKF) and misinterpretations of the data (tectonic, geologic, structural, seismic, geodetic, and geomorphic)-makes extraneous criticism throughout the length of his commentary by referring copied text/figures. However, Alam et al. (2015) projected the CKF as noticeably curvilinear major exhibiting complex strike-slip tectonics (dextral, lateral, and vertical motion). Moreover, contradictory to the claim of Shah (2015), the tectonic, geologic, structural, seismic, geodetic, and geomorphic data is in complete agreement with the model proposed by Alam et al. (2015). Hence, in addition to complimentary evidence for the dextral strike-slip, pull-apart evolution of the Kashmir basin, a detailed response is provided to the commentary of Shah (2015).

  17. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  18. Railway associated injuries in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Razzak, Junaid A

    2010-03-01

    Pakistan is ranked 12th worldwide for passenger kilometres (km) travelled by railway network. The objective of this study was to assess the railway network related morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Reported deaths and injuries due to this network were extracted from two secondary datasets: (1) an international disaster database and (2) ambulance log registers for the city of Karachi. Over the period from 1997 to 2006, a total of 11 railway disasters resulted in 449 deaths and 840 injuries. An estimated 2.05 passengers died and another 3.84 passengers were injured per billion km travelled in Pakistan, a rate six times higher than Western European countries. The ambulance log showed that one person died every two weeks in Karachi over a period from September 2007 to Jun 2008 (N = 26). The male-to-female ratio of all injury victims (N = 50) was 9:1 with a mean age of 35.6 years. Surveillance of these injuries is essential to implement prevention and control measures in Pakistan. PMID:19787521

  19. America's faulty earthquake plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J

    1989-10-01

    In this article, the author discusses the liklihood of major earthquakes in both the western and eastern United States as well as the level of preparedness of each region of the U.S. for a major earthquake. Current technology in both earthquake-resistance design and earthquake detection is described. Governmental programs for earthquake hazard reduction are outlined and critiqued.

  20. Darwin's earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard V

    2010-07-01

    Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

  1. Prevalence of PTSD Symptoms and Depression and Level of Coping among the Victims of the Kashmir Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaswi, Arooj; Haque, Amber

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and coping mechanisms among the adult civilian population in Indian Kashmir. The Everstine Trauma Response Index-Adapted, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Resources Inventory were used to assess the three domains. Independent-sample t…

  2. Descriptions of Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. from Kashmir Valley, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. are described and illustrated from freshwater stream soil in Kashmir Valley, India. Kashmira gen. n. is characterized by having dimorphic tails: coinoid-spicate tail in female and subcylindroid with rounded, non-spicate tip wi...

  3. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  4. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. PMID:27418504

  5. Structure of the Chamba nappe and position of the Main Central Thrust in Kashmir Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, V. C.

    1998-04-01

    The Chamba nappe, composed of an approximately 8 km thick sequence of Late Precambrian to Jurassic age rocks is located between the Higher Himalaya Crystallines (HHC) and the Lesser Himalayan (LH) formations of Panjal Imbricate Zone (PIZ) in the Kashmir Himalaya. To the south, the Panjal Thrust, demarcating the base, brings the Chamba nappe rocks over the Panjal Imbricate Zone. To the north, the Chamba nappe rocks lie over the metamorphic HHC along the south dipping Chenab Normal Fault (CNB). A pervasive stretching lineation defined by a mineral lineation, stretched pebbles and felspar phenocrysts plunges NE-NNE and occurs on the foliation/cleavage surface. This lineation is related to southward displacement of the Chamba nappe. The Chamba nappe is folded by regional scale fold, viz. the Chamba, Tandi and Bharmor synclines and the Tisa anticline. These NW-SE trending folds structures were developed synchronously with southward thrusting of the Chamba nappe. The Chamba nappe results from southwestward sliding of cover rocks from their basement (HHC) due to topographic uplift. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Kashmir Himalaya is different from that of the Kumaun and Nepal Himalaya. The MCT (Vaikrita Thrust) does not extend west of the Beas river, but it is exposed in the Rampur Window and the Kishtwar Window separating the HHC from the underlying LH rocks. Southward propagation of the MCT from the window zone, up-cutting the overlying HHC, is transferred to the Panjal Thrust which transports the Chamba nappe to the south over the Lesser Himalayan formations.

  6. Geomorphic evidence of unrecognized Balapur fault segment in the southwest Kashmir basin of northwest Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shabir; Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Bashir; Bhat, M. I.; Sultan Bhat, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Balapur fault (BF) is a high angle thrust fault (reverse), dipping ~ 60° NE, with an established length of ~ 40 km striking NW-SE of the Kashmir basin. However, geomorphic traces suggest that the strike of the BF propagates beyond what has been documented previously. The present investigation aims to identify the unrecognized segment of the BF in the SW of the Kashmir basin using hypsometric variability in longitudinal profiles (knickpoints/zones), followed by validation through stream gradient index (SL) calculations of the rivers draining the area. The longitudinal profiles of all the streams indicate prominent and consistent anomalies in the upper and mid-reaches even on the coarse resolution data (Survey of India topographic maps - 1:50,000/40 m, DEM-SRTM 90 m). The profile anomalies in the upper reaches (hard rock zone) of the streams may be attributed to lithological contacts, i.e., Panjal trap agglomeratic slate-shale-limestone. However, the river profile convex segments and course deflection specifically in the mid-reaches (soft rock zone) are most likely associated with recent tectonic activity. Geomorphic signatures suggest that these anomalies coincide with the strike of the recognized segment of the BF. Moreover, the SL values of each stream express a clear agreement with the anomalies shown by the long profiles of the rivers. Hence, we infer that the strike of the BF extends for a significant distance (~ 95 km) over the northeastern flank of the Pir Panjal range in the NW-SE direction.

  7. Clinicopathological Spectrum Of Gall Bladder Cancer In Kashmir - An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Makhdoomi, R; Bashir, N; Bhat, N; Bashir, S; Mustafa, F; Aiman, A; Charaki, A; Hussain, S; Shafi, S; Baht, S; Bashir, N; Zahir, Z; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy that usually presents at an advanced incurable stage. It is the fifth most common gastro-intestinal tumor and leads to approximately 2800 deaths in United States annually. This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a 650-bed super speciality hospital in Kashmir valley. We reviewed the histopathological records of all the patients who were diagnosed as carcinoma gallbladder from Dec 2009-Dec 2013. Gross findings and histopathological findings were noted from the departmental archival material and clinical records of the patients including the clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations, pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative findings, were retrieved from the hospital records. We analyzed 57 cases of carcinoma gallbladder for their clinicopathological features It included 19 males and 37 females. In our study, adenocarcinomas accounted for 87.5% of total carcinomas. Incidentally, all but one patient where gall stones were found, adenocarcinomas were seen. We have 4 patients of squamous cell carcinoma. In our series we have a single case of small cell carcinoma which was positive for neuroendocrine markers. In our study, gall stones were seen only in 8 cases (14%) of the total cases. PMID:27050183

  8. Limitations of rupture forecasting exposed by instantaneously triggered earthquake doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, E.; Elliott, J. R.; Sloan, R. A.; Craig, T. J.; Funning, G. J.; Hutko, A.; Parsons, B. E.; Wright, T. J.

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake hazard assessments and rupture forecasts are based on the potential length of seismic rupture and whether or not slip is arrested at fault segment boundaries. Such forecasts do not generally consider that one earthquake can trigger a second large event, near-instantaneously, at distances greater than a few kilometres. Here we present a geodetic and seismological analysis of a magnitude 7.1 intracontinental earthquake that occurred in Pakistan in 1997. We find that the earthquake, rather than a single event as hitherto assumed, was in fact an earthquake doublet: initial rupture on a shallow, blind reverse fault was followed just 19 s later by a second rupture on a separate reverse fault 50 km away. Slip on the second fault increased the total seismic moment by half, and doubled both the combined event duration and the area of maximum ground shaking. We infer that static Coulomb stresses at the initiation location of the second earthquake were probably reduced as a result of the first. Instead, we suggest that a dynamic triggering mechanism is likely, although the responsible seismic wave phase is unclear. Our results expose a flaw in earthquake rupture forecasts that disregard cascading, multiple-fault ruptures of this type.

  9. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Pêcher, A.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.; Van Melle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Episodic GPS measurements are used to quantify the present-day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the southern Pamir to the Himalayan foreland. We report large postseismic displacements following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and several mm/yr thrusting of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau over the foreland, westward thrusting of Nanga Parbat above the Kohistan Plateau, and ~12 mm/yr SSE velocities of the Karakorum Ranges and of the Deosai and Kohistan Plateaus relative to the Indian Plate. Numerical simulations allow to determine a first approximation of slip along active faults: (1) substantial creep of ~87 mm/yr between 2006 and 2012 along the flat northeast of the Balakot-Bagh Thrust affected by the 2005 earthquake; (2) ~5 mm/yr slip of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau, whereas their western boundaries are clearly inactive over the time span covered by our measurements; (3) 13 mm/yr ductile slip along the Main Himalayan Thrust modeled by a dislocation dipping 7° northward, locked at a depth of 15 km; and (4) ~20 mm/yr slip along the shear zone forming the western boundary of Nanga Parbat, between depths of 1.6 and 6.5 km. Residuals velocities suggest the existence of left-lateral strike slip along the Jhelum Fault.

  10. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  11. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  12. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  13. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  14. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  15. Earthquake occurrence and effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, R D

    1990-01-01

    Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

  16. Genetic polymorphisms for 17 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Jammu and Kashmir Saraswat Brahmin population.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhuvnesh; Raina, Anupuma; Dogra, Tirath Das

    2010-09-01

    In this study 17 Y-chromosomal STRs (including DYS19, DYS389I, DS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y GATA H4) were analysed using blood samples of 122 unrelated male individuals belonging to Saraswat Brahmin community from Jammu (ID YP000599) and Kashmir (ID YP000600) region of J&K state of India. The allelic frequency distribution and haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STR for both the populations were calculated. In the Kashmiri Saraswat group, a total of 109 haplotypes were identified in 122 individuals, of these haplotypes, 101 were found only once. The gene diversity values of STR loci ranged from 0.4813 (DYS391) to 0.8645 (DYS385a/b) for Jammu & Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins. PMID:20621539

  17. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region. PMID:26255278

  18. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  19. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2) = 0.67, P = 0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle. PMID:25619695

  20. Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality of Lidder River in Kashmir Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The pristine waters of Kashmir Himalaya are showing signs of deterioration due to multiple reasons. This study researches the causes of deteriorating water quality in the Lidder River, one of the main tributaries of Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya. The land use and land cover of the Lidder catchment were generated using multi-spectral, bi-seasonal IRS LISS III (October 2005 and May 2006) satellite data to identify the extent of agriculture and horticulture lands that are the main non-point sources of pollution at the catchment scale. A total of 12 water quality parameters were analyzed over a period of 1 year. Water sampling was done at eight different sampling sites, each with a varied topography and distinct land use/land cover, along the length of Lidder River. It was observed that water quality deteriorated during the months of June-August that coincides with the peak tourist flow and maximal agricultural/horticultural activity. Total phosphorus, orthophosphate phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniacal nitrogen showed higher concentration in the months of July and August, while the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased in the same period, resulting in deterioration in water quality. Moreover, tourism influx in the Lidder Valley shows a drastic increase through the years, and particularly, the number of tourists visiting the valley has increased in the summer months from June to September, which is also responsible for deteriorating the water quality of Lidder River. In addition to this, the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture and horticulture lands during the growing season (June-August) is also responsible for the deteriorating water quality of Lidder River. PMID:23001554

  1. Micromorphological investigations of the Late Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences of the Kashmir Valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Chandra, Rakesh; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Kowser, Nazia

    2015-11-01

    The loess-paleosol sequences of the Karewa Group preserve a valuable repository of the Late Quaternary climatic changes and the landscape evolution history of the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley in their lithological and pedogenic records. Three representative loess-paleosol sections at Shankerpora (SP), Khan Sahib (KS) and Pattan (PT) localities were chosen for detailed lithostratigraphic fieldwork and micromorphological observations of thin sections. Lithostratigraphic analysis revealed lateral and vertical variation in thickness and number of paleosol profiles from south-west to north-west of the Karewa Basin suggesting the availability of land-surface for periodic loess deposition. The SP section is marked by 6 (SP-S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S12), KS section by 3 (KS-S2, S4, S5) and PT section by 2 (PT-S1, S3) thick mature paleosol profiles. Theses paleosols have well developed 'Ah' and 'Btk' horizons representing prolonged land-surface stability when pedogenic processes outpace loess deposition. On the other hand comparatively thin to thick paleosol profiles represent weak to moderate pedogenic maturity indicating short stratigraphic breaks with rapid loess deposition. Micromorphological observations of thin sections suggested that clay illuviation and CaCO3 accumulation have operated within the paleosol profiles. CaCO3 features are often associated with clay coatings suggesting decalcification of carbonates followed by clay illuviation. Pedogenic CaCO3 probably resulted from the precipitation of the soil solution near the average depth of wetting front. The pedogenic CaCO3, illuvial clay, mottles, iron manganese features, pedal microstructure and blocky aggregates reveal variation in the pedogenic maturity among and within the loess-paleosol sections. The morphological (both micro- and macro-morphological) attributes of loess-paleosols suggest variation of climatic conditions during the Late Quaternary period in the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley, India.

  2. Clinico-bacteriological profile of primary pyodermas in Kashmir: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Y J; Hassan, I; Bashir, S; Farhana, A; Maroof, P

    2016-03-01

    Pyodermas are a common group of infectious dermatological conditions on which few studies have been conducted. This study aimed to characterise the clinical and bacteriological profile of pyodermas, and to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in primary pyodermas in a dermatology outpatient department in Kashmir. Methods We conducted a hospital based cross-sectional study in the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy of Shri Maharaja Hari Singh Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Patients presenting with primary pyodermas were included in the study. A detailed history and complete physical and cutaneous examination was carried out along with microbiological testing to find aetiological microorganisms and their respectiveantimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including that for methicillin resistance, was carried out by standard methods as outlined in the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results In total, 110 patients were included; the age of the study population ranged from 3 to 65 years (mean age 28 years); 62% were male. Poor personal hygiene was noted in 76 (69%). Furunculosis (56; 51%) was the most common clinical presentation. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 89 (81%) of cases, and MRSA formed 54/89 (61%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. All MRSA strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA was high in this sample of communityacquired primary pyodermas. It is therefore important to monitor the changing trends in bacterial infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and to formulate a definite antibiotic policy which may be helpful in decreasing the incidence of MRSA infection. PMID:27092362

  3. AN INDEX OF THE AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS, USED IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine and its distribution in Jammu and Kashmir has been categorized systematically here. The paper deals with 246 medicinal plants and has to off-set an index which is not there so far. Out of 246 medicinal plants 12 plants are considered to be controversial. Substitutes, Adulterants of these plants which are being used in various parts of India were also recorded separately in this study. PMID:22557549

  4. Response to "No major active backthrust bounds the Pir Panjal Range near Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya" by Shah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Chandra, Rakesh; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a rebuttal to the entirely ambiguous and unwanted commentary made by Shah (JAES-D-15-00980) on Dar et al. (2014). The original article was aimed to evaluate the tectono-geomorphic evolution of the Kashmir Valley using geomorphic indices obtained from satellite images and detailed fieldwork. However, Shah while deviating from the core of the article has attempted to build an inexplicable tale about the structural configuration of the region. The comment is primarily based on the misinterpretation regarding the dip direction of a thrust fault. Pertinently, no major ∼SW dipping frontal fault bounding the Pir Panjal Range near Kashmir Valley is shown in the paper by Dar et al. (2014). The commentator has just recycled already documented text pertaining to general tectonic character of a few ∼NE dipping thrusts i.e., the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) and Raisi Fault (RF). Moreover, some unknown structure named as Kashmir Basin Fault (KBF) by the commentator has been discussed, which does not even exist in the region. The commentary on the whole actually does not relate with the investigation reported by Dar et al. (2014), hence merits no consideration for publication.

  5. Seismological identification of the 1998 May 28 Pakistan nuclear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, D.; Douglas, A.; Selby, N. D.; Marshall, P. D.; Porter, D.; Wallis, N. J.

    2002-07-01

    On 1998 May 28 Pakistan announced that it had conducted an underground nuclear test. Here we assess whether seismological data, recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) being set up to help verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), can be used to identify the Pakistani test as a possible underground explosion. The prototype International Data Centre (pIDC) automatically determined the network-averaged body wave and surface wave magnitudes to be 4.9 and 3.6, respectively. One of the most reliable methods of identifying possible underground explosions is the mb : Ms criterion. However, mb : Ms is calibrated using conventional magnitudes from historical earthquakes and explosions. We calculate , in the conventional way, using P waves from the Pakistani test recorded by a simulated standard short-period seismograph and read by an experienced analyst. We also analyse the three components of the surface waves from the Pakistani test to confirm that these are correctly associated, and calculate . On mb : Ms the Pakistani test falls between the historical Eurasian underground explosion and earthquake populations. Thus, while the source may arouse suspicion on mb : Ms, its signature is typical of both explosions and deep-lithospheric Eurasian earthquakes. The vast majority of the seismic P signals from the Pakistani test, recorded at long range, are complex. However, simple P seismograms are recorded by at least three of the IMS stations. Analysis, using the relative amplitude method, of three of the simple P seismograms suggests that the source is shallow (less than 5 km). We conclude that the combination of the mb : Ms signature and shallow depth are sufficient to classify the Pakistani test as a possible explosion. Under the CTBT an on-site inspection would be required to determine whether the explosion was nuclear.

  6. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-02-10

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan.

  7. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  8. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  9. Estimating earthquake potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hazards to life and property from earthquakes can be minimized in three ways. First, structures can be designed and built to resist the effects of earthquakes. Second, the location of structures and human activities can be chosen to avoid or to limit the use of areas known to be subject to serious earthquake hazards. Third, preparations for an earthquake in response to a prediction or warning can reduce the loss of life and damage to property as well as promote a rapid recovery from the disaster. The success of the first two strategies, earthquake engineering and land use planning, depends on being able to reliably estimate the earthquake potential. The key considerations in defining the potential of a region are the location, size, and character of future earthquakes and frequency of their occurrence. Both historic seismicity of the region and the geologic record are considered in evaluating earthquake potential. 

  10. Earthquakes: Predicting the unpredictable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The earthquake prediction pendulum has swung from optimism in the 1970s to rather extreme pessimism in the 1990s. Earlier work revealed evidence of possible earthquake precursors: physical changes in the planet that signal that a large earthquake is on the way. Some respected earthquake scientists argued that earthquakes are likewise fundamentally unpredictable. The fate of the Parkfield prediction experiment appeared to support their arguments: A moderate earthquake had been predicted along a specified segment of the central San Andreas fault within five years of 1988, but had failed to materialize on schedule. At some point, however, the pendulum began to swing back. Reputable scientists began using the "P-word" in not only polite company, but also at meetings and even in print. If the optimism regarding earthquake prediction can be attributed to any single cause, it might be scientists' burgeoning understanding of the earthquake cycle.

  11. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  12. NASA's IMERG Measures Flooding Rainfall in Pakistan

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA used satellite data and added up heavy rainfall that has been occurring in northwestern Pakistan that caused flooding that killed more than 50 people. NASA's IMERG added up rainfall in northwe...

  13. The burden of stroke in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khealani, Bhojo A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiologic literature on stroke burden, patterns of stroke is almost non existent from Pakistan. However, several hospital-based case series on the subject are available, mainly published in local medical journals. Despite the fact that true stroke incidence and prevalence of stroke in Pakistan is not known, the burden is assumed to be high because of highly prevalent stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia and smoking) in the community. High burden of these conventional stroke risk factors is further compounded by lack of awareness, poor compliance hence poor control, and inappropriate management/treatment practices. In addition certain risk factors like rheumatic valvular heart disease may be more prevalent in Pakistan. We reviewed the existing literature on stroke risk factors in community, the risk factor prevalence among stroke patients, patterns of stroke, out come of stroke, availability of diagnostic services/facilities related to stroke and resources for stroke care in Pakistan. PMID:18811747

  14. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  15. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  16. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  17. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  18. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  19. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  20. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rajabali, Alefiyah; Khan, Saeed; Warraich, Haider J; Khanani, Mohammad R; Ali, Syed H

    2008-08-01

    In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men. PMID:18652997

  1. Spatial biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Naseer Ahmed

    2001-07-01

    Mesozoic to Cenozoic biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan has been conducted in order to document the temporal and spatial relationship between different marine strata with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). These relationships were then used to help distinguish different tectonostratigraphic units in the Waziristan and the Kurram areas located at the northwestern margin of the Indo-Pakistani craton. Extensive biostratigraphic work in the Waziristan and Kurram areas enabled to distinguish five tectonostratigraphic units and two significant unconformities in the study area. Different foraminiferal zones from Early Jurassic to Middle Eocenewere developed, although due to random samples these zones are not continuous in the sedimentary record. However continuous biozonation from the Late Paleocene P4 to the Early Eocene P9 (Bolli, 1985) biozone was observed. It is observed that the Santonian stage is generally missing in the sedimentary sequence, and it is only found in the olistoliths. This implies that during the Campanian stage there was instability in the shelf due to ophiolite obduction, which caused the displacement of the Santonian strata. The absence of Early Paleocene (Zone P1--P3) microfauna is suggested by rapid subsidence of the NW Indian shelf beginning in the early Paleocene. Moreover, index fossils for the Palpha, P1a, b, c, d, P2 and P3 biozones are absent in the melange of the Thal area suggesting regional uplift during the Paleocene. The presence of Planorotalites pseudomenardii P4 zone microfauna above the unconformable Upper Cretaceous Kahi melange strata suggest the India-Asia collision age between 58 Ma--56 Ma. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of upper Cretaceous olistoliths was conducted from the Mughal Kot gorge, Baluchistan, Pakistan in order to reveal the depositional history of Late Santonian aged (Dicarinella asymmetrica zone) olistoliths and associated upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary Indo-Pakistani shelf strata

  2. Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-01

    On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns. PMID:24240051

  3. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  4. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  5. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    SciTech Connect

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  6. Paddy crop yield estimation in Kashmir Himalayan rice bowl using remote sensing and simulation model.

    PubMed

    Muslim, Mohammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rather, A Q

    2015-06-01

    The Kashmir Himalayan region of India is expected to be highly prone to the change in agricultural land use because of its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à-vis the Himalayan landscape, its trans-boundary river basins, and inherent socio-economic instabilities. Food security and sustainability of the region are thus greatly challenged by these impacts. The effect of future climate change, increased competition for land and water, labor from non-agricultural sectors, and increasing population adds to this complex problem. In current study, paddy rice yield at regional level was estimated using GIS-based environment policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model. The general approach of current study involved combining regional level crop database, regional soil data base, farm management data, and climatic data outputs with GEPIC model. The simulated yield showed that estimated production to be 4305.55 kg/ha (43.05 q h(-1)). The crop varieties like Jhelum, K-39, Chenab, China 1039, China-1007, and Shalimar rice-1 grown in plains recorded average yield of 4783.3 kg/ha (47.83 q ha(-1)). Meanwhile, high altitude areas with varieties like Kohsaar, K-78 (Barkat), and K-332 recorded yield of 4102.2 kg/ha (41.02 q ha(-1)). The observed and simulated yield showed a good match with R (2) = 0.95, RMSE = 132.24 kg/ha, respectively. PMID:25937498

  7. Prevalence and Antibiogram study of Rhodococcus equi in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    MIR, Irfan Ahmad; KUMAR, Bablu; TAKU, Anil; BHARDWAJ, Rajinder Kumar; BHAT, Mohd Altaf; BADROO, Gulzar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India, and evaluate the zoonotic threat posed by this organism to equine owners and tourists. One hundred and forty-one samples (98 samples from adult animals ≥5 years old and 43 samples from foals less than 6 months old) were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of equines for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 12 isolates of R. equi were recovered, of which 9 were from foals and 3 from adult animals. Therefore, the present study recorded prevalence rates of 20.93% and 3.06% among foals and adult equines respectively. The prevalence rates were found to be 25.58% and 4.08% by 16S rRNA species-specific PCR among foals and adult animals respectively. Thus, the PCR-based assay was found to be more sensitive and helped in quick detection of R. equi than the culture based method which is time consuming and laborious. However, the culture-based method is still preferred due to some limitations of PCR. The antibiogram of the isolates revealed that erythromycin and rifampicin were the most effective antimicrobials with 100% sensitivity, followed by amoxicillin (66.67%), lincomycin (58.3%) and kanamycin (58.3%). The results also revealed that resistance was highest for penicillin G (50%), followed by kanamycin (25%) and streptomycin (25%). PMID:25829867

  8. Epidemiology of Cancers in Kashmir, India: An Analysis of Hospital Data

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S. M. Salim; Qurieshi, Uruj; Ain, Quratul; Jan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. The aim of the present study was to measure the pattern of different cancers in Kashmir, India, a cancer belt with peculiar cancer profile. A hospital based cancer registry was started by the Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, in January 2006, wherein information was collected from cancer patients who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital. Data has been analysed for a period extending from January 2006 to December 2012. Descriptive analysis has been done by using statistical software. A total of 1598 cancer patients were admitted during this period. Overall male to female ratio was 1.33 : 1. Stomach cancer was the most commonly reported cancer (25.2%), followed by colorectal cancer (16.4%) and lung cancer (13.2%) among males. For females, colorectal cancer (16.8%), breast cancer (16.1%), and stomach cancer (10.4%) were the most frequently reported cancers in order of frequency. Tobacco related cancers contributed to more than three-fourths of cancers among men and more than half of cancers for women. There is an urgent need to set up a population based cancer registration system to understand the profile of cancers specific to this geographic region. PMID:27478644

  9. Phytoremediation potential of Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland - a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed Shakeel; Reshi, Zafar A; Shah, Manzoor A; Rashid, Irfan; Ara, Roshan; Andrabi, Syed M A

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. Wetlands are cheap natural alternatives for removal of heavy metals from soils; however, wetland plants vary greatly in their degree of metal uptake. Hokersar wetland, a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya, India is a game reserve of international importance that provides suitable habitat for resident birds and an excellent stopover point for migratory birds visiting from Palaearctic breeding grounds in Central Asia, China, N-Europe and Siberia. The toxicity of chronic dietary metal exposure in birds may have adverse reproductive effects which include decreased egg production, decreased hatchability, and increased hatchling mortality. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the heavy metal sequestration capability of one of the most common wetland plant species Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland. The accumulation of the different elements was in order of Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mo > Co > Cr > Cd > Ni. Translocation factor, i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of P. australis, thus reducing the supply of metals to avifauna and preventing their bio-accumulation. PMID:24933910

  10. Tectono-geomorphic study of the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Chandra, Rakesh; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2014-10-01

    The Karewa Basin nestled between the Pir Panjal Range and the Great Himalayan Range, in Northwest India, has been studied to understand its tectono-geomorphic evolution on the basis of geomorphic indices and morphotectonic parameters supported by the field evidences. Satellite data, topographic maps and digital elevation model (DEM) were used to extract various parameters at various spatial scales. Four watersheds, representative of the entire Karewa Basin, were chosen for detailed studies on the basis of the researchable evidence of the complete sequence of the stratigraphic record and the preservation of geomorphic landscapes. The integrated analysis of the geomorphic and morphometric data provides evidence of the relative variations in the tectonic activity among the watersheds. Geomorphic indices suggest a relatively high degree of tectonic activity along the Pir Panjal side of the Karewa Basin. This variation in the relative degree of tectonic activity is consistent with the field evidence, fault/lineament locations and the landscape geometry of the Karewa Basin. Based on the results from this study, it is suggested that Late Quaternary climate changes, tectonic uplift and erosion of the Pir Panjal Range and changing geometry of the Karewa Lake have played a key role in the evolution of the geomorphic landscape of the Kashmir Valley.

  11. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system. PMID:23906383

  12. Epidemiology of Cancers in Kashmir, India: An Analysis of Hospital Data.

    PubMed

    Qurieshi, Mariya A; Khan, S M Salim; Masoodi, Muneer A; Qurieshi, Uruj; Ain, Quratul; Jan, Yasmeen; Haq, Inaamul; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. The aim of the present study was to measure the pattern of different cancers in Kashmir, India, a cancer belt with peculiar cancer profile. A hospital based cancer registry was started by the Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, in January 2006, wherein information was collected from cancer patients who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital. Data has been analysed for a period extending from January 2006 to December 2012. Descriptive analysis has been done by using statistical software. A total of 1598 cancer patients were admitted during this period. Overall male to female ratio was 1.33 : 1. Stomach cancer was the most commonly reported cancer (25.2%), followed by colorectal cancer (16.4%) and lung cancer (13.2%) among males. For females, colorectal cancer (16.8%), breast cancer (16.1%), and stomach cancer (10.4%) were the most frequently reported cancers in order of frequency. Tobacco related cancers contributed to more than three-fourths of cancers among men and more than half of cancers for women. There is an urgent need to set up a population based cancer registration system to understand the profile of cancers specific to this geographic region. PMID:27478644

  13. A₁A₂BO and Rh gene frequencies among six populations of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Mohd; Hussain, Ruqaiya; Shah, Ahsana; Afzal, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    A study was undertaken to record gene frequencies of ABO blood groups, their subtypes and Rh antigen for six different endogamous groups including a tribal population. The ABO phenotypic frequency varies among six different populations showing significant difference (p<0.0005). Gujjar and Bakarwal (a tribal population) shows highest (42.29%) of B blood phenotypes. A1 is the highest among Syeds (39.31%), O blood group frequency highest among Mughals (43.23%) and A1B and A2B are rare phenotypes showing very low frequency among all populations. The pattern of allele frequencies (p<0.025) is in order of I(O)>I(B)>I(A1)>I(A2), except Syeds (I(O)>I(A1)>I(B)>I(A2)). The rhesus protein (Rh) phenotypic frequency (p<0.01) shows significant increase in Rh(D) positive (87.86% in Syed to 96.03% in Khan) among all populations. The Rh allele (p<0.05) and genotype (p<0.02) frequencies shows a significant difference. Heterozygosity for Rh protein is less than homozygosity among six populations. The result from this study provides information on the genetic variation in blood antigens and rhesus protein among human populations inhabiting Jammu and Kashmir. PMID:24485956

  14. The profile of head injuries and traumatic brain injury deaths in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Yattoo, GH; Tabish, Amin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted on patients of head injury admitted through Accident & Emergency Department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences during the year 2004 to determine the number of head injury patients, nature of head injuries, condition at presentation, treatment given in hospital and the outcome of intervention. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) deaths were also studied retrospectively for a period of eight years (1996 to 2003). The traumatic brain injury deaths showed a steady increase in number from year 1996 to 2003 except for 1999 that showed decline in TBI deaths. TBI deaths were highest in age group of 21–30 years (18.8%), followed by 11–20 years age group (17.8%) and 31–40 years (14.3%). The TBI death was more common in males. Maximum number of traumatic brain injury deaths was from rural areas as compared to urban areas. To minimize the morbidity and mortality resulting from head injury there is a need for better maintenance of roads, improvement of road visibility and lighting, proper mechanical maintenance of automobile and other vehicles, rigid enforcement of traffic rules, compulsory wearing of crash helmets by motor cyclist and scooterists and shoulder belt in cars and imparting compulsory road safety education to school children from primary education level. Moreover, appropriate medical care facilities (including trauma centres) need to be established at district level, sub-divisional and block levels to provide prompt and quality care to head injury patients PMID:18570674

  15. Rapid Assessment of Earthquakes with Radar and Optical Geodetic Imaging and Finite Fault Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sladen, A.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Yun, S.; Li, Z.; Avouac, J.; Leprince, S.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake responders need to know where the earthquake has caused damage and what is the likely intensity of damage. The earliest information comes from global and regional seismic networks, which provide the magnitude and locations of the main earthquake hypocenter and moment tensor centroid and also the locations of aftershocks. Location accuracy depends on the availability of seismic data close to the earthquake source. Finite fault models of the earthquake slip can be derived from analysis of seismic waveforms alone, but the results can have large errors in the location of the fault ruptures and spatial distribution of slip, which are critical for estimating the distribution of shaking and damage. Geodetic measurements of ground displacements with GPS, LiDAR, or radar and optical imagery provide key spatial constraints on the location of the fault ruptures and distribution of slip. Here we describe the analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and sub-pixel correlation (or pixel offset tracking) of radar and optical imagery to measure ground coseismic displacements for recent large earthquakes, and lessons learned for rapid assessment of future events. These geodetic imaging techniques have been applied to the 2010 Leogane, Haiti; 2010 Maule, Chile; 2010 Baja California, Mexico; 2008 Wenchuan, China; 2007 Tocopilla, Chile; 2007 Pisco, Peru; 2005 Kashmir; and 2003 Bam, Iran earthquakes, using data from ESA Envisat ASAR, JAXA ALOS PALSAR, NASA Terra ASTER and CNES SPOT5 satellite instruments and the NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne system. For these events, the geodetic data provided unique information on the location of the fault or faults that ruptured and the distribution of slip that was not available from the seismic data and allowed the creation of accurate finite fault source models. In many of these cases, the fault ruptures were on previously unknown faults or faults not believed to be at high risk of earthquakes, so the area and degree of

  16. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

  17. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) Haplotypes are Associated with Increased Risk of Gastric Cancer in Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Manzoor A.; Srivastava, Priya; Zargar, Showkat A.; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim: Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and progression of several types of cancers. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2274223) in PLCE1 has been identified as a novel susceptibility locus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of three potentially functional SNPs (rs2274223A > G, rs3765524C > T, and rs7922612C > T) of PLCE1 in gastric cancer patients from Kashmir Valley. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in 108 GC cases and 195 healthy controls from Kashmir Valley. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Data were statistically analyzed using χ2 test and logistic regression models. A P value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The frequency of PLCE1 A2274223C3765524T7922612, G2274223C3765524T7922612, and G2274223T3765524C7922612 haplotypes were higher in patients compared with controls, conferred high risk for GC [odds ratio (OR) =6.29; P = 0.001; Pcorr = 0.003], (OR = 3.23; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033), and (OR = 5.14; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033), respectively. Smoking and salted tea are independent risk factors for GC, but we did not find any significant modulation of cancer risk by PLCE1 variants with smoking or excessive consumption of salted tea. Conclusion: These results suggest that variation in PLCE1 may be associated with GC risk in Kashmir Valley. PMID:25434319

  18. Pakistan (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Pakistan's crude birth rate at present is 40/1000. The Pakistan Fertility Survey (PFS) of 1974-75 showed a marital total fertility rate of 8 and marital gross reproduction rate of 3.9. The total fertility rate is estimated at around 6. Evaluation of past family planning activities indicates that the impact of the program on the birth rate has been minimal. Although a large majority of married women know about family planning methods, few fertile couples use a method. Of the 90% of respondents in the PFS who had never used a method, 57% indicated they intended to use a method at some point and 23% said they did not. The average age of all current users was 34 in 1975. Preliminary results of a contraceptive prevalence survey indicate that current use is 10%. The crude birth rate was 46 or 47/1000 in 1965 when an official population program was initiated. The gains from the reduction of the total fertility rate have been partly offset by change in the age structure. Pakistan's population policy was formulated in light of the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action. The program approach is multidisciplinary and due consideration is given to the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development stratgey. The program relies primarily on community participation and involvement of local leadership to promote acceptability. At the federal level, the major focus of the program is on development of national policy, planning and coordination, funding, training, procurement of contraceptives and equipment, research and evaluation, monitoring, and statistics. The population welfare departments at the provincial level are responsible for the administration and supervision of all field activities relating to service delivery, motivation, training, coordination, monitoring, evaluation, and feedback

  19. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  20. Astronomical tides and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Mao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2001-03-01

    A review on the studies of correlation between astronomical tides and earthquakes is given in three categories, including (1) earthquakes and the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth, (2) earthquakes and the periods and phases of tides and (3) earthquakes and the tidal stress. The first two categories mainly investigate whether or not there exist any dominant pattern of the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth during earthquakes, whether or not the occurrences of earthquakes are clustered in any special phase during a tidal period, whether or not there exists any tidal periodic phenomenon in seismic activities, By empasizing the tidal stress in seismic focus, the third category investigates the relationship between various seismic faults and the triggering effects of tidal stress, which reaches the crux of the issue. Possible reasons to various inconsistent investigation results by using various methods and samples are analyzed and further investigations are proposed.

  1. Earthquake swarms in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

  2. Earthquake at 40 feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  3. NCEER seminars on earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantelic, J.

    1987-01-01

    In May of 1986, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) in Buffalo, New York, held the first seminar in its new monthly forum called Seminars on Earthquakes. The Center's purpose in initiating the seminars was to educate the audience about earthquakes, to facilitate cooperation between the NCEER and visiting researchers, and to enable visiting speakers to learn more about the NCEER   

  4. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals. PMID:12341468

  5. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  6. Prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shera, A S; Jawad, F; Maqsood, A

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and the contributing risk factors were estimated by performing a cross-sectional survey conducted earlier in the rural and urban areas of all the four provinces of Pakistan. The statistical analysis was performed from the obtained results by using SPSS version 12.0. The total number of subjects examined were 5433 which included 1893 males (1208 in rural and 685 in urban areas) and 3540 females (2243 in rural and 1297 in urban areas). The prevalence of diabetes in the urban versus the rural areas was 6.0% in men and 3.5% in women against 6.9% in men and 2.5% in women, respectively. Newly diagnosed diabetes was 5.1% in men and 6.8% in women in urban areas and 5.0% in men and 4.8% in women in rural areas. IGT in the urban versus the rural areas was 6.3% in men and 14.2% in women against 6.9% in men and 10.9% in women, respectively. Overall glucose intolerance (DM+IGT) was 22.04% in urban and 17.15% in rural areas. The major risk factors identified were age, positive family history and obesity especially central obesity. PMID:17005289

  7. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  8. Production of crude oils in Pakistan: Outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pakistan`s sedimentary basins cover an area of 827,000 km{sub 2} that stretches from the Karakurum Mountains in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. The first exploration well in the region was drilled near Kundal in 1866, just seven years after the Drake well in Pennsylvania. To date, 384 exploration wells have been drilled in Pakistan resulting in 45 oil and 55 gas discoveries, thus generating a highly favourable success ratio of 1:4. The drilling density in Pakistan is one well/1000 square kilometers. Pakistan has proven oil reserves of around 500 million barrels of oil, whereas proven gas reserves are about 31 trillion cubic feet. However, Pakistan`s resource potential is estimated to be 40 billion barrels of oil and 200 TCF of gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (i) habitat and production of crude oil in Pakistan, (ii) Pakistan`s current energy needs and future outlook, and (iii) steps being taken by the Government of Pakistan to promote exploration for oil and gas.

  9. Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Contains the contents of the Student Investigation booklet of a Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional modules on earthquakes. Includes objectives, procedures, illustrations, worksheets, and summary questions. (MA)

  10. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  11. Missing Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ≥ 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw≥8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw≥8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough

  12. Causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Ahangar, Andleeb; Sufi, Aalia Rasool; Nabi, Mushood; Rather, Muddasar Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Cataract surgery is aimed at restoring sight to near normal vision. This study, conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, is an attempt to determine the causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir. One hundred patients who underwent cataract surgery with an unaided visual acuity of <6/9 at 16 weeks postoperatively were included in the study. Postoperative follow-up examinations were conducted until the 16th week. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded to determine the cause of subnormal vision. Of 100 patients, 40 underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE), 30 underwent small incision cataract surgery (SICS) and 30 underwent phacoemulsification. Seventy-five percent of the patients who underwent ECCE had postoperative astigmatism with a mean astigmatism of 2.2 ± 0.81 diopters at 16 weeks, with the majority having with-the-rule astigmatism. In the SICS group, 17 (56.6 %) patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.75 ± 0.40 diopters, with the majority (82.3 %) having against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. In the phacoemulsification group, 13 (43.3 %) of the patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.48 ± 0.23 diopters with the majority having ATR astigmatism. Other causes of subnormal vision were pseudophakic ametropia, posterior capsular opacity and intraoperative complications like posterior capsular rent and vitreous loss. Postoperative astigmatism was the major cause of subnormal vision with greater astigmatism seen in the ECCE group. Therefore, procedures like smaller incision sutureless surgery and careful biometry are advocated to improve visual outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:24522881

  13. Prevalence of Myopia in Students of Srinagar City of Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ishfaq; Mian, Seema; Mudasir, Syed; Andrabi, K. I.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Myopia is a common ocular disorder. Prevalence data with regard to myopia is scarce in India and almost nonexistent in Kashmir. Objective: To determine the prevalence of myopia in Srinagar City and to evaluate risk factors associated with the disease. Methods: 38 schools in the Srinagar were selected randomly and students were examined by our optometrist team. Children with refractive error of −0.25 D to −5.9 D were considered myopic, while those with −6 D and above were considered high myopic. Statistical analysis used: χ2 Tests were used as appropriate to test whether potential risk factors were significantly associated with myopia. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for risk factors that were independently associated with myopia in this population. Results: A total of 4,360 students of mean age 12.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.99 – 12.22: range, 7–18) participated in the study. Myopia was found in 4.74% students. Increasing age was associated with the increased risk of having myopia. Girl students were more likely to have myopia than boys (OR = 1.52). The prevalence of myopia among girls was more than that of boys. Students from low socioeconomic conditions were having higher prevalence of myopia than their counterparts from higher socioeconomic counterparts. Conclusion: Reduced vision because of myopia is an important health problem in students in Srinagar City. Most of these students do not have the necessary correction spectacles. Effective strategies are needed to eliminate the cause of a significant visual problem. PMID:21475475

  14. Sustainability of winter tourism in a changing climate over Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Marazi, Asif

    2014-04-01

    Mountain areas are sensitive to climate change. Implications of climate change can be seen in less snow, receding glaciers, increasing temperatures, and decreasing precipitation. Climate change is also a severe threat to snow-related winter sports such as skiing, snowboarding, and cross-country skiing. The change in climate will put further pressure on the sensitive environment of high mountains. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to know the impact of climate change on the snow precipitation, water resources, and winter tourism in the two famous tourist resorts of the Kashmir Valley. Our findings show that winters are getting prolonged with little snow falls on account of climate change. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are showing statistically significant increasing trends for winter months. The precipitation is showing decreasing trends in both the regions. A considerable area in these regions remains under the snow and glacier cover throughout the year especially during the winter and spring seasons. However, time series analysis of LandSat MODIS images using Normalized Difference Snow Index shows a decreasing trend in snow cover in both the regions from past few years. Similarly, the stream discharge, comprising predominantly of snow- and glacier-melt, is showing a statistically significant declining trend despite the melting of these glaciers. The predicted futuristic trends of temperature from Predicting Regional Climates for Impact Studies regional climate model are showing an increase which may enhance snow-melting in the near future posing a serious threat to the sustainability of winter tourism in the region. Hence, it becomes essential to monitor the changes in temperature and snow cover depletion in these basins in order to evaluate their effect on the winter tourism and water resources in the region. PMID:24318957

  15. Opportunistic fungi in lake water and fungal infections in associated human population in Dal Lake, Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Ganai, Bashir A; Lone, Bashir A

    2016-04-01

    Natural habitats of opportunistic fungal pathogens are outside of the host; therefore, it is critically important to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of human pathogenic opportunistic fungi in lake water and incidence of fungal infections in associated population in Kashmir, India. Six hundred forty water samples were taken on seasonal basis from a wide network of sampling stations of the lake for an extended period of two years for screening their occurrence. The samples were inoculated onto rose bengal agar, malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and other specified culture media supplemented with Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin followed by incubation at 37 °C. All the samples were positive for fungi, which were later identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region aided by classical morphological culture techniques and physiological profiling. The whole process led to the isolation of sixteen species of opportunistic fungal pathogens belonging to genus Aspergillus, Candida, Penicillium, Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Mucor in decreasing order of prevalence. Furthermore, 20% population (n = 384) of Dal inhabitants was examined for possible fungal infections and it was observed that only 8.07% individuals were positive for fungal infections with 4.68% skin infection cases, 2.34% onychomycosis cases and 1.04% candidiasis cases. Scrapings from onychomycosis and candidiasis patients showed the presence of Aversicolor and Calbicans respectively, resembling exactly the strains isolated from the lake water. However, the skin infection was because of a dermatophyte not isolated for the lake water. Higher prevalence of infection (6.77%) was seen in people using lake water followed by a positive prevalence of 1.30% using tap water. The results of present study suggest that the lake inhabitants are at a greater risk of getting life threatening fungal diseases which may lead to

  16. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  17. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  18. Earthquakes and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  19. Earthquake history of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen earthquakes, intensity V or greater, have centered in Texas since 1882, when the first shock was reported. The strongest earthquake, a maximum intensity VIII, was in western Texas in 1931 and was felt over 1 165 000 km 2. Three shocks in the Panhandle region in 1925, 1936, and 1943 were widely felt. 

  20. Earthquake research in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    The prediction of the Haicheng earthquake was an extraordinary achievement by the geophysical workers of the People's Republic of China, whose national program in earthquake reserach was less than 10 years old at the time. To study the background to this prediction, a delgation of 10 U.S scientists, which I led, visited China in June 1976. 

  1. Can we control earthquakes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    In 1966, it was discovered that high pressure injection of industrial waste fluids into the subsurface near Denver, Colo., was triggering earthquakes. While this was disturbing at the time, it was also exciting because there was immediate speculation that here at last was a mechanism to control earthquakes.  

  2. Modeling earthquake dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Arthur; Durand, Marilou

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate questions arising in Parsons and Geist (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1-11, 2012). Pseudo causal models connecting magnitudes and waiting times are considered, through generalized regression. We do use conditional model (magnitude given previous waiting time, and conversely) as an extension to joint distribution model described in Nikoloulopoulos and Karlis (Environmetrics 19: 251-269, 2008). On the one hand, we fit a Pareto distribution for earthquake magnitudes, where the tail index is a function of waiting time following previous earthquake; on the other hand, waiting times are modeled using a Gamma or a Weibull distribution, where parameters are functions of the magnitude of the previous earthquake. We use those two models, alternatively, to generate the dynamics of earthquake occurrence, and to estimate the probability of occurrence of several earthquakes within a year or a decade.

  3. The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna. PMID:24870331

  4. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  5. Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the correlation between educational policies and political conditions as an indicator of socialization in the nation and state building process in Pakistan. Because of the discrepancies between official statements and the level of ethnic conflict, this study seeks to analyze the standard national social studies curriculum for…

  6. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  7. BCG-vaccination programme in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, Erik; Christensen, Hans; Iversen, Erik

    1957-01-01

    The authors outline the development and organization of the BCG-vaccination campaign that was launched in August 1949 by the Government of Pakistan, with assistance from the International Tuberculosis Campaign. They present some statistical data on the work done up to the end of December 1954 and briefly discuss the pattern of tuberculin sensitivity found in various parts of the country. PMID:13489463

  8. SeaWiFS: Pakistan Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image collected on November 3, 2001 depicts a dust storm blowing southward over the northern end of the Arabian Sea from Pakistan and Iran. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  9. The population policy imperatives: the Pakistan experience.

    PubMed

    Jillani, M S

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan has a current population of 123 million which is projected to grow to 150 million by the year 2000. Concern for population policy, however, has existed in the context of development in Pakistan since the first 5-year Plan of 1955-1960. The family planning program in Pakistan was then included in the second 5-year plan of 1960-65 and has since been a large program. Family planning efforts and population policy are described for Pakistan from the first 5-year plan through 1993. Review reveals that political support and strategies have changed frequently and have adversely affected the family planning program. Funds allocated for the program increased from one plan period to another, but the program has failed to make an impact commensurate with its size and expenditure. Major factors have been the inadequate coverage of population and lack of a systematic approach. Suffering setbacks in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the program did, however, regain momentum through stronger leadership at the political and administrative levels. Efforts are currently being made to improve the coverage and implementation of the Population Welfare Program along with others in the social sector to get the desired annual population growth rate of 2.5% by the year 2000. PMID:12344807

  10. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  11. Administering and Preserving District Records in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moir, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a 1986-87 study of the value, storage conditions, use, and management of district records in Pakistan. Possible solutions to some of the problems identified are analyzed. Recommendations include relocation of records, microfilming, and development of records management and public access policies. Several immediate actions are also…

  12. Library Web OPACs in Pakistan: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse features and functions of indigenously developed web-based catalogues of academic, special and national libraries of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of 16 OPACs is based on a 91-item checklist developed with the help of previous studies conducted in other countries. Findings: The paper…

  13. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  14. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  15. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  16. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth. PMID:12284521

  17. Indian Independence and the Question of Pakistan. [Student Text and] Teacher Resource Book. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    This document includes a student text and a teacher resource book. The student booklet provides an overview of the history of the Indian subcontinent, focuses on key events leading up to partition, and explores the origins of the conflict in Kashmir. It notes that to understand the conflict in Kashmir, people must examine the period of British…

  18. The mass balance of earthquakes and earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, O.; Hovius, N.; Meunier, P.

    2016-04-01

    Large, compressional earthquakes cause surface uplift as well as widespread mass wasting. Knowledge of their trade-off is fragmentary. Combining a seismologically consistent model of earthquake-triggered landsliding and an analytical solution of coseismic surface displacement, we assess how the mass balance of single earthquakes and earthquake sequences depends on fault size and other geophysical parameters. We find that intermediate size earthquakes (Mw 6-7.3) may cause more erosion than uplift, controlled primarily by seismic source depth and landscape steepness, and less so by fault dip and rake. Such earthquakes can limit topographic growth, but our model indicates that both smaller and larger earthquakes (Mw < 6, Mw > 7.3) systematically cause mountain building. Earthquake sequences with a Gutenberg-Richter distribution have a greater tendency to lead to predominant erosion, than repeating earthquakes of the same magnitude, unless a fault can produce earthquakes with Mw > 8 or more.

  19. The impact of the disease early warning system in responding to natural disasters and conflict crises in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahim, M; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Munir, M; Khan, A R

    2010-01-01

    The disease early warning system (DEWS) was introduced in the immediate aftermath of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, with the objective to undertake prompt investigation and mitigation of disease outbreaks. The DEWS network was replicated successfully during subsequent flood and earthquake disasters as well as during the 2008-09 internally displaced persons' crisis. DEWS-generated alerts, prompt investigations and timely responses had an effective contribution to the control of epidemics. Through DEWS, 1360 reported alerts during 2005-09 averted the risk of disease outbreaks through pre-emptive necessary measures, while the 187 confirmed outbreaks were effectively controlled. In the aftermath of the disasters, DEWS technology also facilitated the development of a disease-surveillance system that became an integral part of the district health system. This study aims to report the DEWS success and substantiate its lead role as a priority emergency health response intervention. PMID:21495597

  20. Spatio-temporal patterns and factors controlling the hydrogeochemistry of the river Jhelum basin, Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Mir, Riyaz Ahmad; Jeelani, Gh; Dar, Farooq Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    River Jhelum is a major source of water for growing population and irrigation in the Kashmir Himalaya. The region is trending towards water scarcity as well as quality deterioration stage due to its highly unregulated development. The existence of few literature on various aspects of the basin prompts us to study the spatio-temporal variability of its physicochemical parameters and thereby to understand the regulating hydrogeochemical mechanisms based on 50 samples collected during high flow (June 2008) and low flow (January 2009) periods. The water chemistry exhibited significant spatial variability reflecting the mixing processes in the basin. The seasonal effect does change the concentration of ions significantly with modest variability in the order of ionic abundance. The Ca(2+) ion among cations and HCO3 (-) ion among anions dominate the ionic budget and correlates significantly with the diverse lithology of the basin. Three major water types, i.e., Ca-Mg-HCO3 (72 %), Ca-HCO3 (12 %), and Mg-Ca-HCO3 (16 %), suggest that the chemical composition of water is dominantly controlled by carbonate lithology, besides a significant contribution from silicates. However, at certain sites, the biological processes and anthropogenic activities play a major role. Relatively, the lower ionic concentration during high flow period (summer season) suggested the significant influence of higher discharge via dilution effect. The higher discharge due to higher rainfall and snow melting in response to rising temperature in this period leads to strong flushing of human and agricultural wastes into the river. The factor analysis also reflected the dominant control of varied lithology and anthropogenic sources on the water quality based on the four significant factors explaining collectively about 70-81 % of the total data variance. A two-member chloride mixing model used to estimate the discharge contribution of tributaries to the main river channel showed reliable results. It may

  1. Kidney patient care in disasters: lessons from the hurricanes and earthquake of 2005.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Jeffrey B; Ball, Lynda K; Cohen, Andrew; Kenney, Robert J; Lempert, Kenneth D; Miller, Paul E; Muntner, Paul; Qureshi, Nauman; Yelton, Sarah A

    2007-07-01

    The active 2005 hurricane season alerted Americans to the pressing need for a more effective response to mass casualty incidents. The kidney patient community was particularly affected. Ninety-four dialysis facilities in the Gulf Coast states closed for at least 1 wk in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and additional units were affected by evacuation of dialysis patients. Dialysis units along the Gulf Coast were also affected by Hurricanes Rita and Wilma. Existing emergency response plans were inadequate in providing continuity of care for kidney patients. The Kashmir, South Asia, earthquake of October 2005 killed 97,000 individuals. Building collapse was associated with widespread crush injury, and many patients required temporary hemodialysis. Several regions of the United States have the potential for catastrophic earthquakes. The Kidney Community Emergency Response Coalition has recently issued recommendations for patients, dialysis facilities, and providers, with a goal to improve care of kidney patients in future domestic disasters. With suitable planning, the nephrology community can do much to ensure the continuity of medical care for kidney patients in the face of a wide range of possible natural and human-made disasters. PMID:17699499

  2. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-07-08

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

  3. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  4. Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    surface. Field investigations have found abundant evidence of mud volcanos, sand boils, and fissures from which salty ground water erupted over an area exceeding 10,000 square kilometers. Evidence of the expelled water can also be seen on the MISR images.

    Notice the delicate, dendritic pattern of stream channels throughout many of the salt-flats on the post-earthquake image, especially due north of the epicenter. These carried water brought to the surface by liquefaction during the earthquake. Areas where shallow surface water is present are much easier to see on the false-color multi-angle composite images. Wet areas are exhibiting a combination of enhanced forward-scattered light due to the reflection by the water, and enhanced backward scattering due to surface roughness or the presence of sediments. This combination results in blue to purple hues.

    The region of sand dunes in the upper right and the Indus River valley and delta in the upper left are inside Pakistan. Near the top of the images, there is an east-west trending linear feature separating the Thar desert of Pakistan from the Rann of Kachchh. This is the Nagar Parkar Fault. On both pre-earthquake images, this feature is evident only from the contrasting brown colors on either side of it. On the post-earthquake images, a narrow ribbon defines the boundary between the two geologic provinces. However, only in the multi-angle composite do we see evidence that this ribbon may be a water-filled channel. Because this area is politically sensitive and fairly inaccessible, no field teams have been able to verify liquefaction effects or the presence of water there.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. AGU develops earthquake curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Charles

    AGU, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), announces the production of a new curriculum package for grades 7-12 on the engineering and geophysical aspects of earthquakes.According to Frank Ireton, AGU's precollege education manager, “Both AGU and FEMA are working to promote the understanding of earthquake processes and their impact on the built environment. We are designing a program that involves students in learning how science, mathematics, and social studies concepts can be applied to reduce earthquake hazards.”

  6. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  7. Revisiting the November 27, 1945 Makran (Mw=8.2) interplate earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Z.; Raeesi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) in southern Iran and southwestern Pakistan is a zone of convergence, where the remnant oceanic crust of Arabian plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate with a rate of less than 30 mm/yr. The November 27, 1945 earthquake (Mw=8.2) in eastern section of Makran followed by a tsunami, at some points 15 meters high. More than 4000 victims and widespread devastation along the coastal area of Pakistan, Iran, Oman and India are reported for this earthquake. We have collected the old seismograms of the 1945 earthquake and its largest following earthquake (August 5, 1947, Mw=7.3) from a number of stations around the globe. Using ISS data, we relocated these two events. We used the teleseismic body-waveform inversion code of Kikuchi and Kanamori to determine the slip distribution of these two earthquakes for the first time. The results show that the extent of rupture of the 1945 earthquake is larger than what previously had been approximated in other studies. The slip distribution suggests two distinct sets of asperities with different behavior in the west close to Pasni and in the east close to Ormara. The highest slip was obtained for an area between these two cities which shows geological evidence of rapid uplift. To associate this behavior with the structure of slab interface we studied the TPGA (Trench Parallel Free-air Gravity Anomaly) and TPBA (Trench Parallel Bouguer Anomaly) in MSZ. The results of TPGA does not show the expected phenomenon, which is the correlation of asperities with the area of highly negative TPGA. However, TPBA can make correlation between the observed slip distribution and the structure of slab interface. Using the topography and gravity profiles perpendicular to trench and along the MSZ, we could observe the segmentation in the slab interface. This confirms that we barely expect that the whole interface releases energy in one single megathrust earthquake. Current seismicity in MSZ, although sparse, can fairly

  8. Health issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan: preparation for disasters in future.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Mushtaq, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Army action against terrorism in Pakistan led to the largest human migration in this century. About 3.4 million people (internally displaced persons, IDPs) were displaced. The authors visited all major camps and some houses in Mardan area and interviewed IDPs and doctors at these camps and areas to identify medical needs and current state of provision of medical care. This disaster largely represented displacement of millions of people (IDPs) including women and children to a new weather and environment in overcrowded refugee camps and houses. Influx of large number of displaced people created excessive burden for already deprived local health services. The medical issues and requirements for these IDPs living in camps were totally different from a disaster like earthquake. Global response to this disaster was slow and less effective. The need for a WHO coordination center for creating quick and urgent response for such kind of disasters in future is emphasized in this article. PMID:20496645

  9. Seismic characterization of an active metamorphic massif, Nanga Parbat, Pakistan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, Anne; Sarker, Golam; Beaudoin, Bruce; Seeber, Leonardo; Armbruster, John

    2001-07-01

    Earthquakes recorded by a dense seismic array at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan, provide new insight into synorogenic metamorphism and mass flow during mountain building. Microseismicity beneath the massif drops off sharply with depth and defines a shallow transition between brittle failure and ductile flow. The base of seismicity bows upward, mapping a thermal boundary with 3 km of structural relief over a lateral distance of 12 km. Anomalously low seismic velocities are observed at the core of the massif and extend to depth through the crust. The main locus of seismicity and low velocities correlates with a region of high topography, rapid exhumation, high geothermal gradients, young metamorphic and igneous ages, and crustal fluid flow. We suggest a genetic link between these phenomena in which hot rocks, rapidly advected from depth, are pervasively modified at relatively shallow levels in the crust.

  10. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are