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Sample records for kastel gomilica croatia

  1. Croatia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF), established in 1993, is the sole insurer in the mandatory health insurance (MHI) system that provides universal health coverage to the whole population. The ownership of secondary health care facilities is distributed between the State and the counties. The financial position of public hospitals is weak and recent reforms were aimed at improving this. The introduction of concessions in 2009 (public private partnerships whereby county governments organize tenders for the provision of specific primary health care services) allowed the counties to play a more active role in the organization, coordination and management of primary health care; most primary care practices have been privatized. The proportion of GDP spent on health by the Croatian government remains relatively low compared to western Europe, as does the per capita health expenditure. Although the share of public expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure (THE) has been decreasing, at around 82% it is still relatively high, even by European standards. The main source of the CHIFs revenue is compulsory health insurance contributions, accounting for 76% of the total revenues of the CHIF, although only about a third of the population (active workers) is liable to pay full health care contributions. Although the breadth and scope

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  3. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  4. Venomous snakebites in southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Luksić, Boris; Bradarić, Nikola; Prgomet, Sandra

    2006-03-01

    This retrospective study is based on the analysis of 542 snakebite envenomation cases in southern Croatia, which were treated in the University Hospital Split over the period of 21 years. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of venomous snakebite in southern Croatia, epidemiological and clinical features of snakebite and treatment in the region. The mean annual snakebite incidence in southern Croatia was 5.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The nose- horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) was responsible for most bites, only a small proportion being inflicted by the adder (Vipera berus). People of all ages were affected (1 - 82 year old), but the bites were more frequent in individuals older than 50 (46% of the cases) and in children and adolescents 19 year old and younger (27% of the cases). Most snakebite accidents happened in warm spring and summer months, the highest number occurring in May (22%). A majority of the victims were rural people engaged in agricultural activities. Bites on the upper limbs were more frequent (57%) than bites on the lower limbs (42%). With regard to envenomation severity, there were 15.1% minor, 40.5% mild, 26% moderate and 18% severe cases. Two victims died (0.4%). The antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb was given to virtually all patients, and complications following its administration were rare. The antivenom was used more often than it was suggested by the symptoms present. PMID:16617597

  5. Food contamination monitoring in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Capak, K; Katalenić, M; Barisin, A

    2001-06-01

    The Croatian National Institute of Public Health Implements the statistical food safety monitoring programme for foods marketed in Croatia in accordance with effective laws and regulations. Laboratories for food safety control, certified by the Ministry of Health, report their findings in quarterly notifications, using the standard forms and issue statements of compliance or non-compliance with current regulations, specifying the cause in case of the latter. This paper brings the results for the period 1993-99 as an illustration of the monitoring programme. PMID:11370304

  6. An Energy Overview of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-17

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Croatia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  7. Human hydatidosis in Dalmatia, Croatia.

    PubMed Central

    Morović, M.

    1997-01-01

    Human echinococcosis remains a very serious public health problem worldwide, although a decline in incidence has been observed in some endemic areas during the last decades. However, in some non-endemic areas an increase in new cases and new foci of animal echinococcosis were registered during the same time. In Dalmatia, a well known endemic area of hydatidosis in the most Mediterranean part of Croatia, from the mid-1950s until present a decrease of incidence of over 70% has been registered. Age, sex and occupational category specific incidence as well as lethality rate have remained the same as before. Migrations from rural to urban regions seem to be the most important parameter in the changing epidemiology of human hydatidosis in Dalmatia. PMID:9363027

  8. General practice in Croatia, Yugoslavia

    PubMed Central

    Skupnjak, B.; Novosel, M.

    1976-01-01

    The position and importance of general practice in the Yugoslavian Health Service is being reviewed in a study of the working conditions, the composition and relationship of the primary health care team, the workload, and the opinions of the patients in Croatia, Yugoslavia. We found that many practices had barely half the recommended equipment, that the average workload was 40 patients a day, and that many general practitioners expected others to improve their organisation rather than undertaking it themselves. Those general-practitioner teams which we rated highly were also the most popular with patients. The job satisfaction of nurses varied and was highest when the doctors in the team did not have a high need for status for themselves. We consider general practice to be of crucial importance in the total system of health care in our country and believe that general practitioners should have the same status as specialists. PMID:1003392

  9. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  10. Problems with drugs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vrhovac, B

    1997-01-01

    Croatia has 4.8 million inhabitants, 11,800 physicians, 2000 pharmacists, two now shareholding, pharmaceutical companies (about 6500 employees, total sales of about 350 million US dollars). There are a number of problems due to the war (GNP fell from 3800 to about 1500 US dollars), occupation of 25% of its territory, 0.5 million refugees and lack of resources (139 US dollars/capita for health, about 40 US dollars i.e. 30%!! for drugs)--about three times less than before the aggression. The drug situation is controlled with the help of: (1) donations (approximate value of 600 million US dollars since 1991 from Europe and US), (2) (essential) drug formularies--250 for outpatients, and 580 generic names for various levels of hospital use, (3) special efforts to purchase drugs of good quality at a reasonable price (a kind of tender), (4) control of prescribing (prescriptions, specialists referral) especially by GPs. A new Medicines Act is in preparation and about 1000 generic names are on the market. DRUG EDUCATION: Pharmaca: the Croatian journal of pharmacotherapy has been published since 1962, there are several Drug bulletins (one published since 1975); special chapters on clinical pharmacology in textbooks, translation of three editions of Laurence's textbook with special commentary and adaptation to local needs; ADR spontaneous and intensive monitoring (WHO programme) with a personal feedback to the reporters and regular articles on drug use in a number of periodicals. Data on drug consumption indicates that there is room for improvement of prescribing. There is an enthusiasm for 'vasoactive drugs'--after dipirydamole came oxpentifylline and antimicrobials are always overprescribed. All these problems will hopefully decrease when the war finally stops and when industry (especially tourism) starts being fruitful again. In any case the importance of teaching of pharmacotherapy at the under- and postgraduate level should be recognized. PMID:15073805

  11. Peer Evaluation of Oral Presentations in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Mirjana Matea; Sirkovic, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explore student engagement in peer evaluation activities related to giving scientific presentations in English (L2) and to investigate student attitudes towards this form of evaluation in the course Communication skills in Croatian (L1). The participants in this study were first-year students of engineering in Split, Croatia.…

  12. New records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Ivković, Marija; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New records are provided for Limoniidae and Pediciidae from Croatia, with new distribution records for species in 12 different genera. Four genera and 18 species are newly recorded for Croatia. Until now, including this data, 87 Limoniidae and eight Pediciidae have been recorded from Croatia. In this paper we confirm presence of Ormosia (Oreophila) bergrothi (Strobl, 1895) and we give the first records of Dicranota (Paradicranota) pavida (Haliday, 1833) and Molophilus (Molophilus) repentinus Starý, 1971 from Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26257567

  13. Trichinella pseudospiralis in pig from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Relja; Beck, Ana; Lucinger, Snjezana; Florijancić, Tihomir; Bosković, Ivica; Marinculić, Albert

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are species that are frequently found in domestic pigs and various sylvatic animals in Croatia. During routine trichinoscopy, non-encapsulated larvae were detected in the muscle tissue of a domestic pig. Artificial digestion revealed a larvae burden of 602 muscle larvae per gram of tissue. Tissue section analysis confirmed the presence of non-encapsulated larvae. Multiplex PCR identified the larvae as T. pseudospiralis. This observation is consistent with the reports of a local veterinary inspector who described the presence of non-encapsulated Trichinella in four individual cases over the last 2 years. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Croatia and one of very few cases of T. pseudospiralis infection described in domestic pigs. The detection of non-encapsulated larvae stresses the need for implementation of artificial digestion instead of trichinoscopy for the detection and identification of Trichinella infections. PMID:19054619

  14. Nursing in Croatia: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Kalauz, Sonja; Orlic-Sumić, Marija; Simunec, Dragica

    2008-06-01

    In the health care system of the Republic of Croatia, there are 30000 nurses. More than 7000 of them have college or university professional qualifications. Nursing education consists of secondary-level vocational education followed by two cycles of university-level education--baccalaureate and diploma cycle. A PhD cycle, which would allow the development of scientific career for nurses, does not exist. The secondary-level vocational school qualifications are not recognized by the European Union educational system, requiring a necessary reform in that field. The education of nurses should be attuned with the needs of health care institutions, and nursing care should be based on modern categorization of patients, standards of nursing practice, and clearly defined responsibilities. However, the Croatian Ministry of Health has not yet defined the necessary number of nurses in Croatia or their required educational level. Licensing registered nurses is another great problem that the health care system is facing, because Croatian nurses with only secondary vocational qualifications do not meet the requirements for licensing. The current legislation on nursing is still only formal and not implemented on a wide scale in the health care system. Considering the new trends, nurses in Croatia should work on developing a new systematization of workplaces and more accurate assessment of the job complexity index and nursing salary. PMID:18581608

  15. Ochratoxin A contamination of food from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Peraica, Maja; Flajs, Dubravka; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Ivić, Dario; Cvjetković, Bogdan

    2010-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus moulds under different climatic conditions. Humans and animals are exposed to this compound mainly via ingestion of contaminated food. In Croatia, research on mycotoxins focused on OTA when the mycotoxin theory of endemic nephropathy (EN) was postulated. Ochratoxin A was more frequent and at higher concentration in foods from EN than those from the control regions. Subsequently, OTA concentrations were determined in some commodities intended for human consumption such as maize, wheat, beans and wine. Samples from all parts of Croatia were analyzed and OTA was found in all types of commodities. It was frequently found together with other mycotoxins (fumonisin B(1), fumonisin B(2) and zearalenone). In general, OTA concentration in foods from Croatia is low, but the frequency of positive samples shows considerable variations from year to year depending also on sampling location. Although low levels of OTA were found in a large proportion of analyzed food samples, its persistent co-occurrence with other significant mycotoxins should raise serious public health concerns as there interactions may be synergistic or additive in causing toxicity in humans and animals. There is need to establish control measures through which such contaminations in foods can be managed. PMID:22069674

  16. Nurses in Croatia: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Kalauz, Sonja; Orlić-Šumić, Marija; Šimunec, Dragica

    2008-01-01

    In the health care system of the Republic of Croatia there are 30 000 nurses. More than 7000 of them have college or university professional qualifications. Nursing education consist of secondary vocational education followed by two cycles of university education – baccalaureate and diploma cycle. A PhD cycle, which would allow the development of scientific career for nurses, does not exist. The secondary vocational school qualifications are not recognized by the European Union educational system, requiring a necessary reform in that field. The education of nurses should be attuned with the needs of health care institutions, and nursing care should be based on modern categorization of patients, standards of nursing practice, and clearly defined spheres of responsibility. However, the Croatian Ministry of Health has not yet defined the necessary number of nurses in Croatia or their required educational level. The license for independent work for nurses is another great problem that the health care system is facing, since Croatian nurses with only vocational secondary school qualifications do not meet the requirements to be licensed. The current legislation on nursing is still only formal and not implemented on a wide scale in the health care system. Considering the new trends, nurses in Croatia should work on developing a new systematization of workplaces and more accurate assessing of the job complexity index and the ratio of personal incomes. PMID:18581608

  17. History of eradication of malaria in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gregurić Gracner, Gordana; Vucevac Bajt, Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Malaria as a disease of miasmatic origin was known of as early as in the Ancient times. The first written documents on malaria in Croatia date from the 16th century, and concern Istria. Until the end of the 16th century, malaria was spread on almost the whole territory of Croatia. The first studies of the disease were performed as early as in the 18th century. The first piece of work on malaria in Croatia "De morbo Naroniano tractatus" (on the "Neretva disease") was written by Paduan professor Giusepe Antonio Pujati (1701-1760). The term "malaria" (after the Italian mala-aria, meaning bad air) was first mentioned in the gazette "Danica Ilirska" in 1837. During the 19th century, the sanitization of malaric areas in Istria and the Neretva valley was carried out with the aim of eradication of the disease. However, the first significant results were not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century following the arrival of Dr. Robert Koch and his associates to the Islands of Brijuni. They managed to eradicate malaria by systematic quininisation of the whole population and a number of other procedures like land-improvement or population education. Robert Koch's method of eradication of malaria showed outstanding results in 1903. According to physician Mauro Gioseffi's report from 1932 there haven't been significant outbreaks of malaria since those times. PMID:12812206

  18. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Food from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Peraica, Maja; Flajs, Dubravka; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Ivić, Dario; Cvjetković, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus moulds under different climatic conditions. Humans and animals are exposed to this compound mainly via ingestion of contaminated food. In Croatia, research on mycotoxins focused on OTA when the mycotoxin theory of endemic nephropathy (EN) was postulated. Ochratoxin A was more frequent and at higher concentration in foods from EN than those from the control regions. Subsequently, OTA concentrations were determined in some commodities intended for human consumption such as maize, wheat, beans and wine. Samples from all parts of Croatia were analyzed and OTA was found in all types of commodities. It was frequently found together with other mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2 and zearalenone). In general, OTA concentration in foods from Croatia is low, but the frequency of positive samples shows considerable variations from year to year depending also on sampling location. Although low levels of OTA were found in a large proportion of analyzed food samples, its persistent co-occurrence with other significant mycotoxins should raise serious public health concerns as there interactions may be synergistic or additive in causing toxicity in humans and animals. There is need to establish control measures through which such contaminations in foods can be managed. PMID:22069674

  19. Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

  20. Checklist of the earthworm fauna of Croatia (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Kutuzović, Davorka Hackenberger; Kutuzović, Branimir Hackenberger

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of the Croatian earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published records and authors' personal data. This is the first checklist for Croatia only, with comprehensive information for each earthworm species regarding ecological category, habitat, distribution type and distribution in Croatia. The currently known earthworm fauna of Croatia comprises 68 species belonging to 17 genera, with Octodrilus being the species-richest genus (15 species). Chorologically these species can be allocated to 13 different types of distribution. Nineteen species are endemic of which 10 species are endemic to Croatia and 9 species are endemic to Croatia and neighbouring countries (Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and Montenegro). The endemic earthworms are distributed in the areas of higher altitudes in the Continental and Alpine biogeographic region, mostly covered with forest or autochtonous vegetation. PMID:26106671

  1. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Curković, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Relja

    2009-08-01

    An epizootiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatozoonosis in a population of 924 apparently asymptomatic dogs from different regions of Croatia. DNA was isolated from canine blood and screening PCR on the 666 bp fragment of 18S rRNA revealed that 108 (11.8%) of dogs were infected. Positive samples were confirmed by partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The consensus sequences, derived from various sequence data sets, were compared with sequences of 18S ssrRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available in GenBank. The alignments revealed 106 Hepatozoon canis and two Hepatozoon sp. sequences. Among H. canis isolates, we found a certain amount of heterogeneity, while both Hepatozoon sp. isolates were identical to the Spanish isolate (Accession No. AY600625) from Clethrionomys glareolus. On the basis of eight commonly mutated nucleotide positions in the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, we divided the H. canis isolates into five groups. The results obtained indicate a higher prevalence and significance of hepatozoonosis in Croatia than previously believed and demonstrate that the organisms belonging to H. canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous. PMID:19249302

  2. [Cancer registry of laryngectomized persons in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Pavlić, Blazenka

    2014-03-01

    Cancer poses a major problem in the population of Croatia. Owing to Professor Zivko Kulcar, who founded Cancer Registry at the Institute of Public Health in 1959, statistical data on patients with malignant cancer, including information on the entire territory of the Republic of Croatia, are available. The Act on Official Statistics (Official Gazette 103/2003) and Annual Implementation Plan regulate data recording in Cancer Registry, which is performed by the County Public Health Institutes that control the volume and quality of registration, after which the information is forwarded to the Croatian National Public Health Institute. If information and statistical data are needed for public health or scientific research purposes, one should approach Cancer Registry, having previously filled out a form for aggregated or individual information. However, when requesting information about individuals having undergone laryngectomy, such information is not available. If information about individuals having undergone laryngectomy is needed, e.g., how many of such individuals there are out there, when, where and how they are treated, or their demographic characteristics, such information unfortunately is not available. Therefore, establishment of the registry of patients who have undergone laryngectomy is proposed, which would be maintained by nurses working at ENT departments. PMID:24979893

  3. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment. PMID:18982772

  4. Challenges for health care development in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of the research done in this paper was to establish key challenges and perspectives for health care development in the Republic of Croatia in the next two decades. Empirical research was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews involving 49 subjects, representatives of health care professionals from both, public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). The results have shown that key challenges and problems of Croatian health care can be divided into three groups: functioning of health care systems, health care personnel, and external factors. Research has shown that key challenges related to the functioning of health care are inefficiency, financial unviability, inadequate infrastructure, and the lack of system transparency. Poor governance is another limiting factor. With regard to health care personnel, they face the problems of low salaries, which then lead to migration challenges and a potential shortage of health care personnel. The following external factors are deemed to be among the most significant challenges: ageing population, bad living habits, and an increase in the number of chronic diseases. However, problems caused by the global financial crisis and consequential macroeconomic situation must not be neglected. Guidelines for responding to challenges identified in this research are the backbone for developing a strategy for health care development in the Republic of Croatia. Long-term vision, strategy, policies, and a regulatory framework are all necessary preconditions for an efficient health care system and more quality health services. PMID:23213924

  5. [Disposal of waste containing asbestos in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Vinko

    2009-11-01

    In order to ensure systematic disposal of asbestos waste in the whole of Croatia, its government has mandated the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund to implement emergency measures to collect and dispose of asbestos-containing construction waste. This requires a construction of 45 special disposal containers in the existing municipal waste landfills and contracting collection of asbestos-containing construction waste. By now, the Fund has disposed of 8000 m3 of asbestos cement waste, recovered five dumps with asbestos-containing construction waste, reclaimed a location contaminated by asbestos in Vranjic, and has continued to recover the land at the premises of factory Salonit in bankruptcy, which had been producing corrugated asbestos sheets before the ban. In collaboration with several non-governmental organisations, the Fund has started an educational campaign to protect the environment. PMID:20853773

  6. MRSA in Croatia: prevalence and management.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and length of hospital stay. MRSA is a major pathogen in hospitals and an important pathogen in community infections with few severe and fatal cases. However, MRSA causes the majority of skin and soft tissue infections in the US. The burden of community MRSA is much smaller in Europe, but there are reports of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolated from pigs and cattle causing significant infections in the people who are connected to these farms. MRSA has been present in Croatia for more than 45 years, and it exerts a different impact on health-care infections. A remarkable increase in MRSA percentage was noted in primarily sterile samples in 2002 (37%) in comparison to 2001 (31%). This percentage remained quite high until 2008, when the first signs of a reduced trend were observed. The lowest percentage was 22% in 2012. PMID:26559874

  7. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  8. 78 FR 65220 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country-Croatia (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... requirements for eligible products and suppliers of Croatia (78 FR 60368). Therefore, this rule adds Croatia to... country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). Croatia joined the European Union, which is a party to the WTO GPA, on July 1, 2013. DATES: Effective October 31, 2013....

  9. Medical Informatics in Croatia – a Historical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dezelic, Gjuro; Kern, Josipa; Petrovecki, Mladen; Ilakovac, Vesna; Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira

    2014-01-01

    A historical survey of medical informatics (MI) in Croatia is presented from the beginnings in the late sixties of the 20th century to the present time. Described are MI projects, applications in clinical medicine and public health, start and development of MI research and education, beginnings of international cooperation, establishment of the Croatian Society for MI and its membership to EFMI and IMIA. The current status of computerization of the Croatian healthcare system is sketched as well as the present graduate and postgraduate study MI curricula. The information contained in the paper shows that MI in Croatia developed and still develops along with its advancement elsewhere. PMID:24648620

  10. Venomous snakebites in children in southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Vrkić, Ivana; Brizić, Ivica; Ivić, Ivo; Lukšić, Boris

    2016-03-15

    This retrospective study represents observation of 160 children and adolescents aged up to 18 years that experienced venomous snakebites in southern Croatia and were treated in the Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases in the University Hospital Centre Split from 1979 to 2013. The main purpose of this research was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, local and general complications, and received treatment. Most bites occurred during warm months, from early May to late August (80%), mostly in May and June. Upper limb bites were more frequent (59%) than lower limb bites (40%). Out of the total number of poisoned children, 24% developed local, and 25% general complications. The most common local complications were haemorrhagic blisters that occurred in 20% children, followed by compartment syndrome presented in 7.5% patients. The most dominated general complication was cranial nerve paresis or paralysis, which was identified in 11.2% patients, whereas shock symptoms were registrated in 7% children. According to severity of poisoning, 9.4% children had minor, 35% mild, 30.6% moderate, and 24.4% had severe clinical manifestation of envenomation. Only one (0.6%) child passed away because of snakebite directly on the neck. All patients received antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb, tetanus prophylaxis as well, and almost all of them received antibiotics, and a great majority of them also received corticosteroids and antihistamines. Neighter anaphylactic reaction nor serum disease were noticed in our patients after administrating antivenom. A total of 26% children underwent surgical interventions, and incision of haemorrhagic blister was the most common applied surgical treatment, which was preformed in 15.6% patients, while fasciotomy was done in 7.5% subjects. All of our surgically treated patients recovered successfully. PMID:26802624

  11. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  12. The Educational Program "Zajedno Jaci" (Stronger Together) in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanja, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore intercultural learning undertaken through the educational program "Stronger Together." The program "Stronger Together" was created in 1998 in order to support and educate teachers working with children in post-war regions of Croatia using intercultural education and cooperative learning as tools for addressing problems…

  13. Motivation and Personality of Preservice Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugovic, Ivana; Marusic, Iris; Ivanec, Tea Pavin; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek

    2012-01-01

    The study presents results founded upon the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale validation and the relations between personality traits and motivation for teaching in Croatia. A sample of 374 first-year preservice teachers from three universities participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of the items comprising the Croatian…

  14. Informed consent in Croatia. A work in progress.

    PubMed

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2014-07-01

    As Croatia makes the transition from one political system and type of economy to another, there are inevitable social and political changes that have a profound affect on the healthcare system. This article charts some of the progress of change with respect to patients' rights and informed consent. PMID:24865264

  15. Broad Strokes of Recovery: The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifat-Mrzljak, Greta; Juros, Luka; Vizek-Vidovic, Vlasta

    2004-01-01

    For a long time after the proclamation of independence, Croatia suffered economic stagnation that negatively affected the development of science and higher education. However the turn of the millennium brought higher state investment in science and higher education, and all statistics now show a steady increase in the number of students and…

  16. Ethnic Conflict, Group Polarization, and Gender Attitudes in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunovich, Robert M.; Deitelbaum, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    We examine the sources of traditional gender attitudes during a period of social conflict and change. Using survey data from Croatia (Center for the Investigation of Transition and Civil Society, 1996; N=2,030) we explore the relationships between war-related experiences, in-group and out-group polarization, and two dimensions of gender attitudes:…

  17. Learning Wellness: A Water Exercise Class in Zagreb, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigated the dynamics of a water exercise class with older adults in Zagreb, Croatia. It focused on 3 classes of older swimmers at a community exercise center. A total of 105 participants were asked to complete a short questionnaire. The questionnaire contained items on demographics, use of free time, and…

  18. Bone traumas in late antique populations from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of the analyses of traumatic bone injuries in two Late Antique (3r to 5th century AD) skeletal samples from Croatia: Zadar--located on the eastern Adriatic coast, and a composite skeletal series from continental Croatia consisting of skeletons from Osijek, Vinkovci, Strbinci, and Zmajevac. The osteological series from continental Croatia are related to settlements located on, or near the Danubian military border, while Zadar--350 km to the west, is located deep in the territory of the Roman Empire. Numerous historical sources describe barbaric incursions, as well as large battles related to civil wars during the Late Antique period in continental Croatia. Conversely, there is no mention of similar events in the Zadar region. In accordance with these data our analysis tests the hypothesis that the inhabitants of continental Croatia were exposed to greater levels of violence than those living in Zadar. Analysis of bone traumas in the two series shows a similar, relatively high prevalence of long bone fractures in both samples, with a slightly higher frequency recorded in Zadar. Both series exhibit a high frequency of cranial injuries with, once again, higher frequencies recorded in the Zadar series. Additionally, two perimortem cranial fractures (one caused by a sword, the other by a blunt object) were observed in Zadar. Some of the recorded traumas in both samples resulted from accidents, but a number of injuries clearly resulted from intentional violence of lesser intensity. Further multidisciplinary research incorporating osteological, archaeological, and historical analyses is necessary to confirm the results obtained from these samples. PMID:21874705

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years. PMID:22816210

  20. [Possibilities of governmental quality support of scientific journals in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Marusić, Matko; Marusić, Ana

    2005-01-01

    The measure of success for a scientific journal, which publishes original research, is its visibility in the international scientific community. The most comprehensive bibliographical database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, now Thomson ISI), Web of Science, indexes 13 out of 176 journals that received financial support from the Ministry of Science in 2003, and 7 of them are in the 9 divisions of the most selective ISI bibliographic database, Current Contents. Taking into account the specificities of the small scientific community, or the so-called scientific "periphery" to which Croatia belongs, we proposed a new system of financial support of scientific journals in Croatia. Such system would support all scientific journals fulfilling basic requirements of scholarly publishing, such as structure of the editorial board and office, editorial procedures and records. Indexing in professional and general bibliographic databases would be encouraged by additional financial support and continual control of the editorial work in the journals. PMID:16334734

  1. Thelazia callipaeda-first human case of thelaziosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Paradžik, Maja Tomić; Samardžić, Kristian; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Martinković, Franjo; Janjetović, Željka; Miletić-Medved, Marica

    2016-03-01

    A case of the first ocular thelaziosis in a human male patient in Croatia is presented. Thelaziosis is a zoonosis caused by the nematodes of the genus Thelazia. In all, two types of the genus have been described as causes of infection in humans, Thelazia callipaeda and Thelazia californiensis. This zoonosis, called "oriental eye worm" is very rare in humans in European countries, with high incidence in Asian countries, especially in China, Thailand, and Japan. PMID:26542130

  2. [Continuing medical education in Croatia and the European Union].

    PubMed

    Drazancić, A

    2000-01-01

    The Continuing Medical Education (CME), with attention to other forms of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in Croatia and the today endeavors in the European Union, are presented. In European Union the formal CME is in its starting. The "European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education" (EACCME) of the UEMS is established, which has formulated the principles of continuing education, the credit hours and their realizing, that would enable the mutual recognition of education in all European countries. In Croatia the starting of CME was at beginning of the 20th century, when the professional societies of Croatian Medical Association were founded. CPD was almost exclusively connected to activities of "Andrija Stampar" School of Public Health, to the School of Medicine in Zagreb and partly in Rijeka, which established a great number of postgraduate studies. The CME i.e. the courses of education were tightly connected to activities of the Croatian Medical Association, of its professional societies and its Academy of Medical Sciences, but also to activities of School of Medicine in Zagreb and Rijeka, and recently in Split and Osijek. Since 1995 the third partner, the Croatian Medical Chamber joined too. The number of CME meetings during 1998 is presented. The approximate calculation for needed annual courses of CME for all medical specialties in Croatia is presented. The formation of the National Authority for CME is suggested, in which all the interested institutions should be represented. PMID:11210822

  3. Demonstration of Usutu virus antibodies in horses, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Ljubo; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Listes, Eddy; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Listes, Irena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    We report the first serological evidence of Usutu virus (USUV) infection in horses in Croatia. During 2011, 1380 horse serum samples from healthy animals were collected from six northern Croatian counties. All samples were first screened for West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sixty-nine WNV ELISA-reactive samples were further tested for WNV antibodies by a virus neutralization assay (VN assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and USUV by a VN assay and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies by PRNT. During the same period, 306 human serum samples from patients coming for routine testing with no symptoms of acute febrile disease were tested for USUV IgG using ELISA. Reactive samples were tested for both USUV and WNV using a VN assay. USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in two of 69 WNV ELISA-reactive horse serum samples. Seropositive animals were found in two different regions of Croatia. One additional sample showed specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized USUV. Only one human sample (0.3%) was reactive to USUV antibodies in an ELISA test. In a confirmatory test, WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected, indicating cross-reactive antibodies with USUV in ELISA. The exposure to USUV was documented in two WNV ELISA-reactive horses at distant locations. These results indicate the presence of USUV in northern Croatia. PMID:23808977

  4. First evidence of bluetongue virus serotype 16 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Listes, E; Monaco, F; Labrović, A; Paladini, C; Leone, A; Di Gialleonardo, L; Cammá, C; Savini, G

    2009-07-01

    This study described the first report of BTV-16 in Croatia. Serological evidence occurred in cattle at the end of September and continued during October and November 2004. All positive animals were in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County, a region located in the southernmost part of Croatia. BTV-16 infection was also detected in goats and sheep. Apart from few cases reported in Greece between 1999 and 2000, BTV-16 has never been reported in the Balkanic peninsula before. The BTV strain was isolated from cattle blood samples and typed as BTV-16. When the S5 was sequenced, it showed 100% homology with the BTV-16 vaccine isolate produced by Ondersterpoort Biological Product (SA) and used in Italy during the 2004 BT vaccination campaign. On the other hand no complete homology was found when the same RNA segment sequence was compared with that of the homologous Italian field isolate. As no evidence of livestock movements from Italy was demonstrated, an eolic transmission of the infection through infected Culicoides was hypothesised. According to the local meteostations, in several occasions, during the 2004 summer months, the west-east breeze blew with a speed above 50 km/h from Italy towards the Dubrovnik County. It is concluded that the BTV-16 which infected Croatian livestock was similar to the homologous OBP vaccine isolate and it is likely that it was introduced from Italy into the Southern regions of Croatia through infected Culicoides carried by the wind. PMID:19376658

  5. Secular trends in monthly heating and cooling demands in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvitan, Lidija; Sokol Jurković, Renata

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyzes long-term heating and cooling trends for five locations in Croatia from 1901 to 2008 to assist in the revision of Croatia's heating and cooling energy policy. Trends in monthly heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) were determined for three related temperature threshold values each and analyzed to provide insight into the influence of desired thermal comfort on the extent of changes in energy consumption. Monthly trends in the corresponding number of heating days (HD) and cooling days (CD) were also analyzed. A basic investigation of HDD, HD, CDD, and CD trends proved to be essential to the development of a complete description of important climate-related conditions that impact energy demands associated with heating and cooling. In a few cases, the dependence of the trends on the implemented temperature thresholds was rather pronounced and was reflected in great spatial and temporal variations in monthly trends. The statistical significance of the detected monthly trends illustrated a diverse range of possible impacts of climate changes on heating and cooling energy consumption both across and within three main climate regions in Croatia (continental, mountainous, and maritime). It is confirmed that the applied monthly scale for analyses is suitable for assessing heating and cooling practices.

  6. Massacre over civilians during the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnar, Alan; Stemberga, Valter; Cuculić, Drazen; Coklo, Miran; Cućić, Tamara; Dobi-Babić, Renata

    2005-12-01

    The 1991-1995 War for independence of Croatia was a cruel armed conflict, provoked by the conquering aspirations of the "Yugoslav Federal Army" under Serbian command and Serbian terrorists. It took place on the territory of the Republic of Croatia and gave rise to a mass destruction of civilian and sacral buildings and civilian massacres. Here we present three representative cases as an example of the massacre over civilians that happened in the vicinity of Vrhovine, in northwestern Croatia. Seven civilians were taken from their homes in the village of Dabar, exposed to unprecedented, savage torture and cruel execution. Forensic medicine experts revealed that victims were beaten with blunt objects, probably the butt end of rifles or high boots, stabbed with sharp objects as they were dying, and finally killed by gunshots. Their dead bodies were mutilated by cutting auricles and exposed to post-mortem humiliation. Events at Vrhovine have all the characteristics of crimes against humanity and inapprehensible breaches of the Geneva Convention at the very end of 20th century. PMID:16417196

  7. 78 FR 70480 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country-Croatia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... waive discriminatory purchasing requirements for eligible products and supplies of Croatia (see 78 FR... (WTO GPA). On July 1, 2013, Croatia joined the European Union, which is a party to the WTO GPA. DATES.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The European Union is a party to the WTO GPA and has assumed rights...

  8. Three new species of eriophyoid mites from grass hosts in Croatia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of grass-feeding eriophyid mites are described from Croatia: Acaralox croatiae n. sp., inhabiting purple moorgrass, Molinia coerulea (L.) Moench; Aculodes festucae n. sp., inhabiting tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.; and Aculodes sylvatici n. sp., inhabiting false brome, Br...

  9. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  10. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Croatia in the European context

    PubMed Central

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Kucinar, Jasmina; Kaic, Bernard; Vilibic, Maja; Pandak, Nenad; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vranes, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence, risk factors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution in different population groups in Croatia in the context of HCV epidemiology in Europe, with the aim to gather all existing information on HCV infection in Croatia which will be used to advise upon preventive measures. It is estimated that 35000-45000 of the Croatian population is chronically infected with HCV. Like in other European countries, there have been changes in the HCV epidemiology in Croatia over the past few decades. In some risk groups (polytransfused and hemodialysis patients), a significant decrease in the HCV prevalence was observed after the introduction of routine HCV screening of blood/blood products in 1992. Injecting drug users (IDUs) still represent a group with the highest risk for HCV infection with prevalence ranging from 29% to 65%. Compared to the prevalence in the Croatian general population (0.9%), higher prevalence rates were found in prison populations (8.3%-44%), human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (15%), persons with high-risk sexual behavior (4.6%) and alcohol abusers (2.4%). Low/very low prevalence was reported in children and adolescents (0.3%) as well as in blood donors (0%-0.009%). In addition, distribution of HCV genotypes has changed due to different routes of transmission. In the general population, genotypes 1 and 3 are most widely distributed (60.4%-79.8% and 12.9%-47.9%, respectively). The similar genotype distribution is found in groups with high-risk sexual behavior. Genotype 3 is predominant in Croatian IDUs (60.5%-83.9%) while in the prison population genotypes 3 and 1 are equally distributed (52.4% and 47.6%). Data on HCV prevalence and risk factors for transmission are useful for implementation of preventive measures and HCV screening. PMID:26327756

  11. Supplemental health insurance: did Croatia miss an opportunity?

    PubMed

    Langenbrunner, John C

    2002-08-01

    Croatia continues to face a health-funding crisis. A recent supplemental health insurance law increases revenues through first increasing co-payments, then raising the payroll tax to cover those co-payments. This public finance "slight-of-hand" will not solve the system's structural issues and may worsen system performance both in terms of efficiency and equity. Should Croatia have considered private supplemental insurance as an alternative? There is a new single private supplemental health insurance market now evolving over the EU countries and into Eastern Europe. Croatians could take advantage of lowered costs due to larger risk pooling and the lower administrative overhead of mature insurance organizations. Private supplemental insurance, when designed well, can address several objectives, including a) increased revenues into the health sector; b) removal of the public burden of coverage of selected services for certain population groups; and c) encourage new management and organizational innovations into the sector. Private and multiple company insurance markets are thought to be superior in terms of consumer responsiveness; choice of benefits; adoption of new, more expensive technology; and use of private sector providers. Private sector insurers may also encourage "spillover" effects encouraging reforms with public sector insurance performance. There is already an emerging private insurance market in Croatia, but can it be expanded and properly regulated? The private insurance companies might capture as much as 30-70% of the market for certain services, such as high cost procedures, preferred providers, and hotel amenities. But the Government will need to strengthen the regulatory framework for private insurance and assure that there is adequate regulatory capacity. PMID:12187517

  12. Technical assistance development soil management policy in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruyt, Eva; Helsen, Stefan; Hambach, Patrick; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    As from the first of July 2013, Croatia became a EU member country and therefore has to comply with all the EU-rules (the "acquis") as defined in the European Council in Copenhagen in 1993. One of the aspects of this acquis is the protection and conservation of the soil and groundwater and the remediation of contaminated sites that cause human and environmental risks. On behalf of the Department of Environment, Nature and Energy of the Flemish government together with the Public Waste Agency of Flanders(OVAM), ECOREM was assigned to carry out this study. The scope of this study therefore focuses on the aspect of soil management that can be divided into two main policies, beïng the policy for the prevention of soil contamination from new activities(1) and the policy for the management and remediation of historical soil contamination from local sources like industrial sites(2). To form a soil management policy, Croatia must start from the legal obligations enforced by the European Union. One of the European Directives regulating the monitoring and protection of soil and groundwater is the new Industrial Emission Directive ('IED' - 2010/78/EU) from the 24th of November 2010. Whereas the framework of the Directive is larger than contamination of soil , the focus of this study was limited to soil contamination only. In order to comply with the existing EU policy contributing to soil protection, the regulations in the IED, the Croatian government needs to adapt existing legislations or apply new regulations regarding soil monitoring for the industrial activities. Also other EU Directives enforce actions contributing to soil protection. Therefore, a questionnaire with different sorts of questions was sent to the different stakeholders (environmental institutes, agencies, ministries,…). The results were interpreted and allowed Ecorem, being the environmental consultant, to evaluate the gaps in the environmental and soil management policy. This study gives advice on how

  13. Modelling of maize production in Croatia: present and future climate.

    PubMed

    Vučetić, V

    2011-04-01

    Maize is one of the most important agricultural crops in Croatia, and was selected for research of the effect of climate warming on yields. The Decision Support System for the Agrotechnology Transfer model (DSSAT) is one of the most utilized crop-weather models in the world, and was used in this paper for the investigation of maize growth and production in the present and future climate. The impact of present climate on maize yield was studied using DSSAT 4.0 with meteorological data from the Zagreb-Maksimir station covering the period 1949-2004. Pedological, physiological and genetic data from a 1999 field maize experiment at the same location were added. The location is representative of the continental climate in central Croatia. The linear trends of model outputs and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test indicate that the beginning of silking has advanced significantly by 1·4 days/decade since the mid-1990s, and maturity by 4·5 days/decade. It also shows a decrease in biomass by 122 kg/ha and in maize yield by 216 kg/ha in 10 years.Estimates of the sensitivity of maize growth and yield in future climates were made by changing the initial weather and CO(2) conditions of the DSSAT 4.0 model according to the different climatic scenarios for Croatia at the end of the 21st century. Changed climate suggests increases in global solar radiation, minimal temperature and maximal temperature (×1·07, 2 and 4°C, respectively), but a decrease in the amount of precipitation (×0·92), compared with weather data from the period 1949-2004. The reduction of maize yield was caused by the increase in minimal and maximal temperature and the decrease in precipitation amount, related to the present climate, is 6, 12 and 3%, respectively. A doubling of CO(2) concentration stimulates leaf assimilation, but maize yield is only 1% higher, while global solar radiation growth by 7% increases evapotranspiration by 3%. Simultaneous application of all these climate changes suggested that

  14. Modelling of maize production in Croatia: present and future climate

    PubMed Central

    VUČETIĆ, V.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Maize is one of the most important agricultural crops in Croatia, and was selected for research of the effect of climate warming on yields. The Decision Support System for the Agrotechnology Transfer model (DSSAT) is one of the most utilized crop–weather models in the world, and was used in this paper for the investigation of maize growth and production in the present and future climate. The impact of present climate on maize yield was studied using DSSAT 4.0 with meteorological data from the Zagreb–Maksimir station covering the period 1949–2004. Pedological, physiological and genetic data from a 1999 field maize experiment at the same location were added. The location is representative of the continental climate in central Croatia. The linear trends of model outputs and the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test indicate that the beginning of silking has advanced significantly by 1·4 days/decade since the mid-1990s, and maturity by 4·5 days/decade. It also shows a decrease in biomass by 122 kg/ha and in maize yield by 216 kg/ha in 10 years. Estimates of the sensitivity of maize growth and yield in future climates were made by changing the initial weather and CO2 conditions of the DSSAT 4.0 model according to the different climatic scenarios for Croatia at the end of the 21st century. Changed climate suggests increases in global solar radiation, minimal temperature and maximal temperature (×1·07, 2 and 4°C, respectively), but a decrease in the amount of precipitation (×0·92), compared with weather data from the period 1949–2004. The reduction of maize yield was caused by the increase in minimal and maximal temperature and the decrease in precipitation amount, related to the present climate, is 6, 12 and 3%, respectively. A doubling of CO2 concentration stimulates leaf assimilation, but maize yield is only 1% higher, while global solar radiation growth by 7% increases evapotranspiration by 3%. Simultaneous application of all these climate changes

  15. Health care reform in Croatia: for better or for worse?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Mastilica, M

    1998-01-01

    Along with the rest of Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has begun to dismantle its long-standing socialist health care system and to replace it with a market-based approach. Marketization's advocates maintain that the market will bring efficiency and quality to the Croatian health care system. Nevertheless, data from consumer surveys and official statistics reflect the reform's hidden costs: limited access to care, heightened costs, growing inequality, and the deemphasis of preventive and proactive care in favor of costly therapeutic medicine. PMID:9702140

  16. Physicians' strike and general mortality: Croatia's experience of 2003.

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Kujundzić-Tiljak, Mirjana; Babić-Erceg, Andrea; Coric, Tanja; Lang, Slobodan

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether the physicians' strike, which took place in Croatia in 2003, had an impact on the mortality of the population. Mortality data from the National Bureau of Statistics relating to the strike period (15 January - 14 February 2003) were selected and compared with the previous and subsequent periods of the same duration in 2001, 2002 and 2004. Of the 52,575 deaths in 2003, Croatia recorded 4,682 (8.9%, 95% Confidence interval 8.4-9.4) in the strike period from the 15th of January to the 14th of February 2003 or 1.1 deaths per 1000. No deviations of the 15th of January to the 14th of February period's share of the death total in relation to other observation periods were noted. It is impossible to associate the strike based on the figures shown in this paper with either an increase or decrease in population mortality. PMID:18041403

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to porcine parvovirus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Roić, Besi; Cajavec, Stanislav; Toncić, Josip; Madić, Josip; Lipej, Zoran; Jemersić, Lorena; Lojkić, Mirko; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko; Sostarić, Branko

    2005-10-01

    Serologic evidence of exposure to porcine parvovirus (PPV) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Croatia was investigated. Serum samples from 219 wild boars captured during 2003 from 12 different locations in the Republic of Croatia were tested by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antibodies to PPV were detected in 91 (41.6%) of tested samples and positive results were detected in wild boar from all sample locations. Adults had a significantly higher prevalence (70%) than juveniles (31%; P < 0.01). Our results indicate that wild boar populations throughout the Republic of Croatia are exposed to PPV. PMID:16456171

  18. New records of moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Croatia, with the description of Berdeniella keroveci sp.nov.

    PubMed

    Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Ivković, Marija; Klarić, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Berdeniella keroveci sp. nov. is described based on males collected in Croatia. Current knowledge of the psychodid fauna of Croatia is reviewed and new records of 16 species are presented. Short taxonomic notes on Pericoma pseudocalcilega Krek, 1972, Pneumia balkanica (Krek, 1990), Pneumia mutua (Eaton, 1893), Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) and Lepiseodina tristis (Meigen, 1810) are given. In total, 33 species of Psychodidae are known to occur in Croatia. PMID:25112736

  19. Estimation of copper intake in moderate wine consumers in croatia.

    PubMed

    Tariba, Blanka; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Pizent, Alica

    2011-09-01

    To estimate Cu exposure level from wine consumption and to assess possible health risk for moderate wine consumers, wine samples were collected from different wine-growing areas of Croatia. Median concentrations were 180 μg L-1, range (76 to 292) μg L-1, in commercial wines and 258 μg L-1, range (115 to 7600) μg L-1, in homemade wines (P>0.05). Maximum permitted level of 1000 μg L-1 was exceeded in three homemade wines. However, daily intake of Cu from wine (in the range from 0.02 mg d-1 to 1.52 mg d-1) estimated from Cu concentration in all wine samples is lower than the tolerable upper intake level of 5 mg d-1 proposed by the EU Scientific Committee on Food and does not present a risk to moderate wine consumers. PMID:21971106

  20. Knowledge and attitudes towards sun protection in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Vurnek Zivković, Maja; Dediol, Iva; Zeljko Penavić, Jasna; Simić, Dubravka

    2010-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer; the World Health Organization estimates that more than 2 million cases of skin cancer are being diagnosed each year worldwide. Excessive sun exposure and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are the major avoidable risk factors for skin cancer, including melanoma. Sun protection can be achieved through behavioral modification, social changes and environmental changes: regular use of sunscreen, wearing hats and protective clothes, staying in the shade, creating shade by planting trees or constructing canopies, practicing work and sport activities during the time of the day when the sun is not the strongest and many others. The aim of this paper was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes about sun protection and sun behavior patterns in Croatia, as well as the perception of melanoma among general population. Our results indicate relatively good sun behavior patterns among our participants and their mostly correct perception of melanoma. PMID:20402310

  1. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation. PMID:24888560

  2. Project Northland in Croatia: results and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    West, Bernadette; Abatemarco, Diane; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A; Zec, Vezna; Russo, Andrea; Milic, Ranko

    2008-01-01

    As part of an international public health partnership formed in 2001 we assessed the impact of Project Northland in Croatia--an adolescent alcohol school-based prevention intervention implemented in Split--on students. The curriculum was implemented in 13 randomly selected schools with another 13 schools serving as controls. The evaluation included quantitative and qualitative methods, using pre/post-tests to compare intervention and controls and follow-up focus groups with parents and teachers. Quantitative data showed the intervention was more successful in changing attitudes in the first two years, but had less impact on older students. Qualitative data suggest benefits from the program overall. Given the intervention was successful in the earlier grades it should be initiated earlier to have a greater impact. Challenges and lessons learned are offered. PMID:18592807

  3. Impact of heat waves on mortality in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat waves present an increased risk, but in very long heat waves the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.

  4. Stable isotope composition of the meteoric precipitation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hunjak, Tamara; Lutz, Hans O; Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana

    2013-01-01

    The precipitation is the input into the water system. Its stable isotope composition has to be known for the proper use and management of water resources. Croatia is not well represented in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, and the geomorphology of the country causes specific local conditions. Therefore, at the Stable Isotope Laboratory (SILab), Rijeka, we monitor the stable isotope composition (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of precipitation. Since δ(18)O and δ(2)H are well correlated, we concentrate the discussion on the δ(18)O distribution. Together with GNIP, our database contains 40 stations in Croatia and in the neighbouring countries. Their different latitudes, longitudes and altitudes give information of great detail, including the influence of the topographic structure on the precipitation in the south-eastern part of Europe, as well as the complex interplay of the different climate conditions in the area. Within a few hundred kilometres, the stable isotope values display a significant change from the maritime character in the south (mean δ(18)O around-6 to-8‰) to the continental behaviour in the north (mean δ(18)O around-8 to-11‰). Depending on the location, the mean δ(18)O values vary with altitude at a rate of approximately-0.2‰/100 m and-0.4‰/100 m, respectively. Also the deuterium excess has been found to depend on location and altitude. The data are being used to construct a δ(18)O map for the entire area. PMID:23937110

  5. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    Krnic, Darko; Anic-Matic, Andrea; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Draganic, Pero; Zezelic, Sasa; Puljak, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Background The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids), ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group) and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B). The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in Croatia corresponds to patient needs. PMID:26357478

  6. [Regional characteristics of arterial hypertension in adult population of Croatia].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Hrabak-Zerjavić, Vlasta; Ivicević Uhernik, Ana

    2007-06-01

    Data collected in the Croatian Health Survey launched in 2003 by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare were analyzed. The survey included a regionally stratified random sample. Using the method of structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height and weight), data were collected on 9,070 subjects aged >18. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was calculated from two measurements. Inclusion criteria in the group of subjects with elevated blood pressure were the subject's reporting taking antihypertensive medication and/or mean systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg, and/or mean diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg. Descriptive analysis was done on figures yielded by use of the SPSS software. Subjects with elevated blood pressure accounted for 44.2% (95%CI=42.61-45.85) of study population, with a h gher rate in male (45.6%; 95%= 43.14-48.06) and lower in female subjects (43.0%; 95%CI=41.46-44.55). Croatia was estimated to have 1,538,982 inhabitants with high blood pressure (748,072 males and 790,910 females). The proportion of individuals with elevated blood pressure was highest (78.9%; 95%CI=76.9-81.0; CV=1.32) in the 65 age group, followed by 35-64 age group 46.9% (95% CI=44.8-41.0; CV=2.3), and lowest rate (13.8%; 95%CI=11.1-16.6; CV=10.2) in the 18-34 age group. Regional distribution of high blood pressure was as follows: central Croatia 46.4% (95%CI=42.9-49.9; CV= 3.8), south 45.3% (95%CI= 40.9-49.7; CV=. 5.0), City of Zagreb 44.7% (95%CI= 40.9-48.5; CV= 4.3), east 44.2% (95%CI=40.5-47.8; CV=4.2), north 43.0% (95%CI=40.9-49.7; CV= 5.0), and west 40.5% (95%CI= 36.0-45.0; CV= 5.7). In the female group aged 35-64, regional distribution was as follows: east 52.3% (95%CI=46.0-58.7; CV=6.2), central Croatia 45.4% (95%CI=40.3-50.5; CV=5.7), City of Zagreb 43.5 (95%CI=38.1-48.9; CV=6.4), south 40.7% (95%CI=37.4-44, 0; CV=4.1), north 39.3% (95% CI=33.7-44.8; CV=7.2), and west 35.1% (95%CI=26.1-44.2; CV= 13.1). Differences

  7. Prevalence of Erectile and Ejaculatory Difficulties among Men in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Bajić, Žarko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence and risk factors of erectile difficulties and rapid ejaculation in men in Croatia. Method We surveyed 615 of 888 contacted men aged 35-84 years. The mean age of participants was 54 ± 12 years. College-educated respondents and the respondents from large cities were slightly overrepresented in the sample. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in June and July 2004 by 63 trained interviewers. The questionnaire used in interviews was created for commercial purposes and had not been validated before. Results Out of 615 men who were sexually active in the preceding month and gave the valid answers to the questions on erectile difficulties and rapid ejaculation, 130 suffered from erectile or ejaculatory difficulties. Men who had been sexually active the month before the interview and gave the valid answers to the questions on sexual difficulties reported having erectile difficulties more often (77 out of 615) than rapid ejaculation (57 out of 601). Additional 26.8% (165 out of 615) and 26.3% (158 out of 601) men were classified as being at risk for erectile difficulties and rapid ejaculation, respectively. The prevalence of erectile difficulties varied from 5.8% in the 35-39 age group to 30% in the 70-79 age group. The association between age and rapid ejaculation was curvilinear, ie, U-shaped. Rates of rapid ejaculation were highest in the youngest (15.7%) and the oldest (12.5%) age groups. Older age (odds ratios [OR], 6.2-10.3), overweight (OR, 3.3-4.2), alcohol (OR, 0.3-0.4), intense physical activity (OR, 0.3), traditional attitudes about sexuality (OR, 2.8), and discussing sex with one’s partner (OR, 0.1-0.3) were associated with erectile difficulties. Education (OR, 0.1-0.3), being overweight (OR, 22.0) or obese (OR, 20.1), alcohol consumption (OR, 0.2-0.3), stress and anxiety (OR, 10.8-12.5), holding traditional attitudes (OR, 2.8) and moderate physical activity (OR, 0.1) were factors associated with rapid

  8. Geochemistry of topsoil in kindergarten playgrounds in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šparica Miko, M.; Miko, S.; Hasan, O.; Mesić, S.; Bukovec, D.; Hruškova, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical mapping based on analysis of urban topsoil (0-5 cm) and deeper soil horizons (40-50 cm) in kindergarten playgrounds has been carried out in Zagreb. In two geochemical studies performed by sampling on a regular grids (1x1 km2) it was determined that the soils in the Old Town and industrial area have elevated concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Zn). The high soil heavy metal concentrations are decreasing toward the outer parts of the city, similar to patterns observed in many other cities in Europe. Since the youngest children are exposed to topsoil in playgrounds, an evaluation of heavy metal pollution for 150 kindergarten and 50 public playground topsoil was made. During the study aqua regia (ISO 11464) soil extracts were analyzed for 42 major and trace elements. Urban soil pollution in each city is specific depending on pollution sources and the geochemical signature of the local lithology. Based on the calculated enrichment factors for heavy metals and the regional geochemical baseline values for northwestern Croatia the following elements were found in concentrations that can be attributed to pollution: Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu. Also elevated concentrations Sb, Ag, Zn and Cd at some of the locations indicate anthropogenic influences. Other elements considered as potentially toxic (As, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Tl) have concentrations within the established regional soil baselines and can be considered as lithogenic. Guidance values for heavy metals in soils for kindergarten playground soils have not been established in Croatia so the quality criteria for soils in playgrounds of Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used as well as calculated enrichment factors were used to evaluate the degree of soil pollution. It was determined that based on the composite soil data 21 locations should be assessed with follow up studies to determine the need for remediation. In Zagreb, only 5 of the 64 kindergartens sampled had an elevated dust lead level. Paint chips taken from

  9. Introduction of Participatory Conservation in Croatia, Residents' Perceptions: A Case Study from the Istrian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  10. The newest findings on Red Lake (Dinaric karst of Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrić, Ivo; Jukić, Branimir

    2014-05-01

    Red Lake in the Dinaric karst (Croatia) is of the deepest karst lakes in the world. Even so, through the history of Red Lake's research there were many controversies in the conclusions and the theories concerning its genesis, geomorphology and hydrology. This work has for a goal to present the newest research results won with the help of emerging technologies based on LiDAR and SoNAR methods. The measurements took place during September 2013. New generation of equipment developed to advance the geoscientific research has been deployed during the field work and the gathered data enabled the analysis which led to a new understanding of the lake's morphology. Some of the results confirmed already known and well documented features of Red Lake whereas others disputed widely accepted assumptions in the scientific community and general public. The objective of this paper is also groundwork for further research in the field of karst hydrology and a new insight on local and regional scale.

  11. Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prohic, E.; Hausberger, G.; Davis, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin -Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin -Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Bone porosity and longevity in early medieval Southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bečić, Kristijan; Jandrić Bečić, Darija; Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Zekić Tomaš, Sandra; Anterić, Ivana; Bašić, Zeljana

    2014-03-01

    Porosity of the skull and skeletal remains, especially of the orbital roof, are one of the most frequent pathological findings on ancient human skeletal remains. There are several presumed causes of this condition and anthropologists consider skull porosities as a marker of physical and nutritional stress. A total of 115 graves were discovered at the early-medieval graveyard near Zadar (Croatia) that contained 128 partially preserved skeletons. Average estimated age at death was 37.2 ± 12.6 years for men, 31.9 ± 13.9 for women, and 5.3 ± 3.6 years for subadults. Pathological bone porosity was analysed. Cribra orbitalia was observed on 21 skulls (28.7%), signs of temporal porosity were noticed on six skulls and signs of subperiosteal bleeding on three skulls. Nineteen skulls had bone porosities in other areas. There was a significant difference (p = 0.039) in achieved age of adults with and without cribra orbitalia as those with cribra orbitalia lived on average 8.1 years longer. The bone porosity was probably caused by malnutrition that might have had a beneficial effect on longevity of adults, similar to effects of restricted food intake on extending lifespan through epigenetic signatures influencing gene expression. PMID:24219154

  13. First Epigravettian Ceramic Figurines from Europe (Vela Spila, Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    Farbstein, Rebecca; Radić, Dinko; Brajković, Dejana; Miracle, Preston T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent finds of 36 ceramic artifacts from the archaeological site of Vela Spila, Croatia, offer the first evidence of ceramic figurative art in late Upper Palaeolithic Europe, c. 17,500–15,000 years before present (BP). The size and diversity of this artistic ceramic assemblage indicate the emergence of a social tradition, rather than more ephemeral experimentation with a new material. Vela Spila ceramics offer compelling technological and stylistic comparisons with the only other evidence of a developed Palaeolithic ceramic tradition found at the sites of Pavlov I and Dolní Věstonice I, in the Czech Republic, c. 31,000–27,000 cal BP. Because of the 10,000-year gap between the two assemblages, the Vela Spila ceramics are interpreted as evidence of an independent invention of this technology. Consequently, these artifacts provide evidence of a new social context in which ceramics developed and were used to make art in the Upper Palaeolithic. PMID:22848495

  14. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  15. [First online continuing tele-education in gastroenterology in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Pulanić, Roland; Iveković, Hrvoje; Pulanić, Drazen; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Ostojić, Rajko; Premuzić, Marina; Lepoglavec, Zeljko

    2003-01-01

    The expansion and popularity of the Internet created the expansion of tele-medicine, with tele-education as its important part. Such on-line distance learning is especially important for diseases being in the focus of public health interest, as diseases of the gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary and pancreatic system due to their frequency. Therefore, in this study is shown the "TIGEL project of tele-interventional gastroenterology" that was launched in May 2001 at the Center for Interventional Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, University Department of Medicine, Zagreb University Hospital Center. The project includes creation of a web site at the server of the Zagreb University School of Medicine (www.mef.hr/edumed/gastro/index.html), and among the most important goals of the project is continuous medical tele-education in gastroenterology. Beside description of the project, one of the founders of continuous on-line medical education in Croatia, this work describes many advantages but also some still unsolved questions considering medical tele-education, a very promising but still developing way of education. PMID:15038219

  16. The changing pattern of poisoning with psychoactive drugs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Macan, J; Turk, R; Plavec, D; Bosan-Kilibarda, I

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency of poisoning with psychoactive drugs (benzodiazepines, antidepressants and neuroleptics) over the last 15 years in Croatia. The analysis was based on poisoning incidents reported over the phone (hot line) to the Zagreb Poison Control Center and included two periods: 1985-1991 (period I) and 1992-1999 (period II). The data were analysed separately for children and adults. Each phone call was counted as one poisoning incident. Child poisoning with neuroleptics was significantly higher in period II than in period I and so was the adult poisoning with antidepressants, amytriptyline, and combined psychoactive drugs. The frequency of total psychoactive drug poisoning was significantly higher in adults than in children in both periods. From 1992, the frequency of adult poisoning with antidepressants considerably increased as one of the many consequences of war-related stress. The results indicate a need for careful psychiatric evaluation and more critical use of antidepressants in affected individuals. PMID:11276965

  17. Mercury in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) organs in Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Spirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Crnić, Andreja Prevendar

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the concentrations of total mercury were analyzed in the pheasant organs (liver, kidney, brain and muscle) that live freely in an area that was exposed to elevated levels of mercury as a result of industrial activity (mercury contaminated natural gas production and processing which began in 1980). The range of the median mercury concentration values (wet weight) in pheasant organs in Podravina, Croatia were 0.0004-0.024, 0.0001-0.034, 0.0002-0.016 and 0.0001-0.025 μg/g for liver, kidney, brain, and muscle, respectively. Results of these studies confirms that in the study area in the observed period there was no significant mercury contamination which can be linked to anthropogenic activities (hydrocarbon production)‥ On the contrary, systematic measurements demonstrate a small but constant (barely noticeable) decline in mercury concentrations in pheasant's organs. Primarily, this is the result of the significant improvement in the technological process which involves the removal of mercury from the natural gas that was designed and implemented in 1993. However, due to the need for reliable control of mercury contaminated natural gas production and the importance for better understanding of long-term exposure to low levels of mercury, and assessment of their possible harmful effects on the environment, human and animal health, research will be continued. PMID:23379943

  18. Regional differences in the prevalence of arterial hypertension in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Kern, Josipa; Babić-Erceg, Andrea; Ivicević-Uhernik, Ana; Vuletić, Silvije

    2009-04-01

    This paper analyzes the Croatian Adult Health Survey data, collected in 2003 with a total of 9,070 respondents aged 18+. Based on an average of two measurements, respondents with the mean systolic arterial pressure > or = 140 mmHg or mean diastolic pressure > or = 90 mmHg were classified as hypertensive. The data for men and women were analyzed separately, according to regions. Prevalence of hypertension in men was 40.5% (95% confidence interval CI 37.9-43.01; coefficient of variability CV = 3.2), women 34.9% (95% CI 33.2-36.7; CV 2.5). There were no significant differences in regional prevalence in men, except in the Northern and Eastern region. In women we did not detect any significant regional difference. Non-controlled arterial hypertension is an important public health problem in all monitored regions of Croatia. Raising awareness about the problem, early detection and encouraging the population to adhere to the therapy for elevated arterial pressure, in addition to a healthy life style, are important for successful control and harm reduction. PMID:19563141

  19. Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosy, Caroline; Zaninovic, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in Croatia. The Adriatic coast is a popular travel destination for tourists, especially during the summer months. During their activities, tourists are affected by atmospheric conditions and therefore by weather and climate. Therefore, it is important to have reliable information about thermal conditions as well as their impacts on human beings. Here, the climate tourism potential of Croatia is presented and quantified on the basis of three selected stations in different climatic regions. The physiologically equivalent temperature is used for analysis as well as other climatic parameters relevant for tourism and recreation. The results already point to hot conditions for outdoor activities in summer during afternoons, especially along the coast but also for continental regions, resulting in a reduction of the climate tourism potential. In the future, this trend looks set to increase, possibly leading to a changing tourism sector in Croatia requiring adaptation and new strategies.

  20. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign. PMID:24851633

  1. First case of Q fever endocarditis in Croatia and a short review.

    PubMed

    Zekanović, Drazen; Morović, Miro; Borcilo, Marina Nekić; Rode, Oktavija Daković

    2010-09-01

    We present a 70-year-old man from Dalmatia, Croatia, with a history of prolonged high fever diagnosed as Q fever endocarditis. As far as we know, this is the first case of chronic Q fever in Croatia. The treatment was started as for culture-negative endocarditis, but was without clinical response. After significantly high anti-phase I IgG plus IgA antibodies titers to Coxiella burnetii were shown, the initial treatment with doxycycline was changed and ciprofloxacin was started with good clinical response. PMID:20977118

  2. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m(3)) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m(3). Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration. PMID:22410823

  3. Larger benthic foraminifera of the Paleogene Promina Beds (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosovic, V.; Mrinjek, E.; Drobne, K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to add more information about complex origin of Promina Beds (traditionally interpreted as Paleogene molasse of Dinarides), two sections (Lišani Ostrovački and Ostrovica, Central Dalmatia, Croatia) have been studied in detail. Sampled carbonate sequences contain predominantly coralline red algae, larger benthic foraminifera and corals. Based on sedimentary textures, nummulitid (Nummulites s.str and Asterigerina sp.) test shapes and the associated skeletal components, altogether three types of the Middle Eocene (Lutetian to Bartonian) facies were recognized. The Ostrovica section is composed of alternating couples of marly limestones and marls, several decimeters thick with great lateral continuity. Two facies which vertically alternate are recognized as Nummulites - Asterigerina facies, where patchily dispersed large, robust and party reworked larger benthic foraminifera constitute 20% and small bioclasts (fomaniniferal fragments and whole tests less than 3 mm in diameters) 10% of rock volume and, Coral - Red algal facies with coral fragments of solitary and colonial taxa up to 1 cm in size constitute 5 - 40%, red algae 15 - 60% and lager benthic foraminifera up to 5% of rock volume. The textural and compositional differences among the facies suggest rhythmic exchanges of conditions that characterize shallower part of the mesophotic zone with abundant nummulithoclasts with deeper mesophotic, lime mud-dominated settings where nummulitids with the flat tests, coralline red algae and scleractinian corals are common. The scleractinian corals (comprising up to 20% of rock volume) encrusted by foraminifera (Acervulina, Haddonia and nubeculariids) or coralline red algae and foraminiferal assemblage made of orthophragminid and nummulitid tests scattered in matrix, are distributed uniformly throughout the studied Lišani Ostrovački section. In the central part of section, wavy to smooth thin (< 1 mm) crusts (laminas) alternating with encrusted corals occur. The

  4. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  5. Dew and rain water collection in the Dalmatian Coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk, I.

    2009-06-01

    Passive dew harvesting and rainwater collection requires a very small financial investment but can exploit a free, clean (outside urban/industrial zones) and inexhaustible source of water. This study investigates the relative contributions of dew and rain water in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. In addition, we evaluate the utility of transforming abandoned roof rain collectors ("impluviums") to collect dew water too. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 and October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m 2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data (air temperature and relative humidity, cloud cover, windspeed and direction). Maximum yields were 0.41 mm in Zadar and 0.6 mm in Komiža. The mean yearly cumulative dew yields were found to be 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). Because of its physical setting, Komiža represents a poor location for dew collection. However, during the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. Refurbishing the abandoned impluviums to permit dew collection could then provide useful supplementary water, especially during the dry season. As an example, the 1300 m 2 impluvium at Pod\\vspilje near Komiža could provide, in addition to rain water, 14,000 L dew water per year.

  6. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  7. Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery. (SK)

  8. Action Research as a Tool of Professional Development of Advisers and Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim; Milovic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Whilst educational action research is not unknown in Croatia, its use is not widespread. In part, this might be because action research assumes a high level of autonomy for practitioner-researchers, and a constructivist view of knowledge, neither of which are traditional characteristics of the Croatian system. This article reports on a capacity…

  9. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  10. Investigating Parents' Attitudes towards Digital Technology Use in Early Childhood: A Case Study from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikelic Preradovic, Nives; Lešin, Gordana; Šagud, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate perceptions of parents in Croatia towards advantages and disadvantages of computer use in general as well as their children's computer use and to reveal parents' concerns and opinions about digital technology (DT) education in kindergarten. The paper reports on research findings from one of the large public…

  11. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  12. Historical and contemporary population genetics of the invasive western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lemic, D; Mikac, K M; Bažok, R

    2013-08-01

    Classical population genetic analyses were used to investigate populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Croatia in 1996 and 2009. The number of alleles was low in both 1996 and 2009; however, more alleles were found in the putative populations surveyed in 2009. Croatia had only 51% of the alleles recorded from the United States and 69% from Europe. However, 10 private (unique) alleles were found in Croatia, which were not found previously in Europe. Most populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, although no linkage disequilibrium was found. Low to no genetic differentiation was found between population pairwise comparisons in 1996, with a greater level of differentiation found between populations sampled in 2009. Using the program STRUCTURE, a single genetic cluster was found for populations sampled in 1996 and 2009. However, two genetic clusters were detected when the 1996 and 2009 data were combined, indicating significant temporal differentiation. Isolation by distance pattern of gene flow characterized populations sampled in 2009 only when the most distant population of Ogulin (the head of the expansion front) was included in the analysis. When Ogluin was excluded from the 2009 analysis no isolation by distance pattern was found. The possible impact that control practices have had on the population genetics of D. v. virgifera in Croatia from 1996 to 2009 are discussed in light of the temporal genetics differences found. PMID:23905746

  13. Mental Health Consequences in Men Exposed to Sexual Abuse during the War in Croatia and Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero

    2010-01-01

    In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the…

  14. A Language Academy by Any Other Name(s): The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Keith; Peti-Stantic, Anita

    2011-01-01

    There are three main institutions in Croatia today that are actively engaged in language management activities on the national level: The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, The Council for the Norms of the Croatian Standard Language, and the Institute for the Croatian Language and Linguistics. Their efforts are focused on establishing the…

  15. Teaching Classification To Fit a Modern and Sustainable LIS Curriculum: The Case of Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavic, Aida

    Library classification at the Croatian library school of the Department of Information Sciences, University of Zagreb (Croatia) has an important place in the department's curriculum. This is due to the fact that classification is the most important indexing language in Croatian libraries and documentation centers and services, and its role has not…

  16. Creating an Intercultural Learning Opportunity: Zagreb, Croatia and Plattsburgh, New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountcastle, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2009 I embarked on a teaching experiment in which I joined an online SUNY-Plattsburgh class taking my Anthropology of Human Rights course with a conventional class at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, where I was a visiting professor teaching the same course. My motivations were several, but prominent among them was to test the…

  17. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  18. Building a Team of Passionate Callers to Enrich Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojsic, Jasenka; Magzan, Masa

    2010-01-01

    This article is about a group of eight people joined by a common idea--a strong call to enrich education in Croatia so that it motivates leadership and empowers children. Through use of philosophy and methodology of Appreciative Inquiry, this informal group of people has gradually developed into the core team of a potential national movement.…

  19. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  20. Modelling soil properties in a crop field located in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunovic, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Millan, Mesic; Percin, Aleksandra; Zgorelec, Zeljka

    2016-04-01

    Development of tillage activities had negative effects on soil quality as destruction of soil horizons, compacting and aggregates destruction, increasing soil erosion and loss of organic matter. For a better management in order to mitigate the effects of intensive soil management in land degradation it is fundamental to map the spatial distribution of soil properties (Brevik et al., 2016). The understanding the distribution of the variables in space is very important for a sustainable management, in order to identify areas that need a potential intervention and decrease the economic losses (Galiati et al., 2016). The objective of this work is study the spatial distribution of some topsoil properties as clay, fine silt, coarse silt, fine sand, coarse sand, penetration resistance, moisture and organic matter in a crop field located in Croatia. A grid with 275x25 (625 m2) was designed and a total of 48 samples were collected. Previous to data modelling, data normality was checked using the Shapiro wilk-test. As in previous cases (Pereira et al., 2015), data did not followed the normal distribution, even after a logarithmic (Log), square-root, and box cox transformation. Thus, for modeling proposes, we used the log transformed data, since was the closest to the normality. In order to identify groups among the variables we applied a principal component analysis (PCA), based on the correlation matrix. On average clay content was 15.47% (±3.23), fine silt 24.24% (±4.08), coarse silt 35.34% (±3.12), fine sand 20.93% (±4.68), coarse sand 4.02% (±1.69), penetration resistance 0.66 MPa (±0.28), organic matter 1.51% (±0.25) and soil moisture 32.04% (±3.27). The results showed that the PCA identified three factors explained at least one of the variables. The first factor had high positive loadings in soil clay, fine silt and organic matter and a high negative loading in fine sand. The second factor had high positive loadings in coarse sand and moisture and a high

  1. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Extreme Soil Temperature in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja

    2015-04-01

    In terms of taking the temperature of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil temperature started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain temperature series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term temperature series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of extreme soil temperatures, which are not real extreme values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil temperature, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the variability of the surface maximal soil temperature on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil temperature. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil temperature in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the

  2. Usage of Alternative, Environmentally Acceptable Materials—Experience from Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišić, I.; Zagvozda, M.; Dimter, S.

    2015-11-01

    The concept of sustainability should be the main guiding principle in the construction industry today. It mandates conservation of natural resources and thus lower impact on the environment. In road construction, part of construction industry that consumes largest quantities of natural materials, sustainable building and maintenance of roads is possible trough application of secondary materials. Usage of industrial and construction waste presents energy, ecologically and financially effective alternative. Republic of Croatia, even as a new member of the European Union, still lags behind the well-established practices of the application of alternative materials in different European countries. The reasons for this can be found in the current legal and technical regulations for alternative materials. In this paper, the existing regulations for alternative materials and the impact they have on the application of these materials in practice in the region of eastern Croatia will be shown.

  3. Freshwater and brackish bryozoan species of Croatia (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata, Phylactolaemata) and their genetic identification.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Novosel, Maja; Koletić, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater and brackish species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata class. Twelve species of bryozoans were recorded and morphologically determined at eight locations in the Black Sea and the Adriatic basin in Croatia. Twelve species of Bryozoa have been listed in the taxonomic index for Croatia (Conopeum seurati, Lophopus crystallinus Paludicella articulata, Cristatella mucedo, Fredericella sultana, Hyalinella punctata, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella emarginata, Plumatella fruticosa, Plumatella fungosa, Plumatella geimermassardi and Plumatella repens). For the purposes of gene identification of recorded species, molecular markers for nuclear 18S and 28S genes, ITS2 region and mitochondrial COI gene were amplified. Genetic identifications of morphologically determined bryozoan species were confirmed using highly similar sequences local alignment analysis. Proliferation of freshwater bryozoan species over long distances with the help of the vector animals was confirmed by defining haplotypes on the base of 18S, 28S and ITS2 sequences associated with the Black Sea-Mediterranean waterfowl flyway. PMID:26624355

  4. [Succinylcholine use by anesthesiologists in Croatia--is it really abandoned?].

    PubMed

    Carev, Mladen; Karanović, Nenad; Ujević, Ante; Kardum, Goran; Cengić, Vesna; Funck, Natasha; Culić, Natasa; Racić, Goran; Dogas, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to establish the prevalence of succinylcholine use among Croatian anesthesiologists in adult elective and emergency surgery, as well as in pediatric surgery, regarding gender, position, working place, and working experience of physicians. The anesthesiologists were expected to express their personal opinions regarding the drug, as well as experienced side effects in their own clinical practice. A total of 125 anesthesiologists (out of 590 in Croatia) from both university and county hospitals in Croatia anonymously filled out the questionnaire regarding the use of succinylcholine (Appendix 1). The questionnaire was structured to assess the use of succinylcholine in adult elective and emergency surgery, and in pediatric anesthesia, to obtain the reasons for the preference or rejection of succinylcholine, and information about observed side effects. The differences in use regarding gender, position, working place, and working experience were tested using chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Vast majority (approximately 70%) of anesthesiologists in Croatia still use succinylcholine. The percentages of anesthesiologists that never use succinylcholine in adult elective, adult emergency and pediatric surgery were 20%, 6%, and 31%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the use of succinylcholine regarding position, working place, and working experience, but male anesthesiologists used it less frequently in pediatric anesthesia compared with their female colleagues (chi2 = 5.08; p = 0.02). Forty-two per cent never experienced a complication from the drug use. The most frequently reported side effects were bradycardias (67%) and myalgias (54%), followed by prolonged blockade (33%), and allergy (33%). Asystole was reported by 10% of the respondents. In conclusion, succinylcholine is still widely used by anesthesiologists in Croatia. The majority of surveyed physicians were aware of its possible dangerous

  5. Schizophrenia in Croatia: interregional differences in prevalence and a comment on constant incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Folnegović, Z; Folnegović-Smalc, V

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine why differences exist in schizophrenia prevalence and risk in some areas of Croatia, when schizophrenia incidence rates do not appear to vary. DESIGN--Areas differing by schizophrenia admission rates in patients born in 1953 and admitted by the age of 31 years are compared using a number of indicators relating both to general population characteristics and to those of schizophrenic cases in these populations. SETTING--The study covers the whole of Croatia (4,601,469 inhabitants, 1981 census). SUBJECTS--By the age of 31 years, out of 80,445 individuals born in Croatia in 1953, 464 were admitted for and diagnosed as having schizophrenia. MAIN RESULTS--Admission risk rates are higher in those parts of Croatia where emigration rates are high and lower where immigration rates are high. There is also a positive correlation with schizophrenia prevalence and manic depressive psychosis rates. There is a negative correlation with age of onset of schizophrenia and with schizophrenic reproduction rates. In the study areas, hospital incidence rates are not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS--Economic migration and negative selection in the domestic population are likely to be the most significant factors leading to differences in schizophrenia prevalence. The approximately equal incidence rates in the population, with different prevalence and admission risks, are linked to differences in the disease onset among schizophrenics with a positive family history for this condition. In other words, these patients, when part of the population with a greater prevalence and a greater hereditary loading, experience the onset more often at an earlier age. Thus they have a lower reproduction rate than in a population with a lower prevalence and a lower hereditary loading. Thus incidence rates in populations with different prevalences and different hereditary loads are maintained roughly equal over generations. Images PMID:1645081

  6. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. Methods 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. Results The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10–19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Conclusions Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation. PMID:26376183

  7. Awareness and Use of Evidence-based Medicine Databases and Cochrane Library Among Physicians in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Katarina; Mirić, Dino; Jurin, Ana; Vukojević, Katarina; Aljinović, Jure; Čarić, Ana; Marinović Guić, Maja; Poljičanin, Ana; Košta, Vana; Rako, Dalibora; Marušić, Ana; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess awareness and use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) databases and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study with a telephone survey was performed among 573 physicians (88.6% response rate from 647 contacted physicians) from family practice and 4 major university hospital centers in Croatia. The main outcome measures were physicians' awareness of The Cochrane Collaboration, awareness and use of The Cochrane Library, access to EBM databases, and access to internet at work. Results Overall, 54% of respondents said they had access to EBM databases, but when asked which databases they used, they named mostly non-EBM databases. The question on the highest level of evidence in EBM was correctly answered by 53% respondents, 30% heard of The Cochrane Collaboration, and 34% heard about The Cochrane Library. They obtained information about The Cochrane Library mostly from colleagues and research articles, whereas the information about EBM was gained mainly during continuous medical education. There were more respondents who thought The Cochrane Library could help them in practice (58%) than those who heard about The Cochrane Library (30%). Only 20% of the respondents heard about the initiative for the establishment of the Croatian branch of The Cochrane Collaboration. Family physicians had significantly lower level of awareness, knowledge, and use of EBM and The Cochrane Library than physicians from university hospitals. Conclusion There is low awareness about EBM and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia, which creates a need for educational interventions about EBM for the benefit of health care in Croatia. PMID:20401959

  8. Differences in the Fitness Levels of Urban and Rural Middle School Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Dario; Bernstein, Eve R.; Podnar, Hrvoje; Vozzolo, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that suburban youth are more fit than urban youth in Croatia. Method: Differences (p < 0.05) in fitness levels and motor abilities of 9,164 (F = 4,671, M = 4,493) Croatian children (age range: 11-14 years) from urban (F = 1,380, M = 1,268), mixed rural-urban (F = 274, M = 289), and rural (F = 3017, M = 2936) areas were…

  9. Serologic evidence of Leptospira spp. serovars in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slavica, Alen; Konjevic, Dean; Huber, Duro; Milas, Zoran; Turk, Nenad; Sindicic, Magda; Severin, Kresimir; Dezdek, Danko; Masek, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples from 52 free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) collected in Croatia over a period of 10 yr (1998-2007) were tested by microscopic agglutination test for specific antibodies (Ab) to 12 Leptospira spp. pathogenic serovars. At titers ranging from 1:100 to 1:2,000, 19 samples (36.5%) were Abpositive to at least one serovar. Antibodies for 10 Leptospira spp. serovars were detected: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, Sejroe, Canicola, Poi, Hardjo, Ballum, Saxkoebing, Pomona, and Grippotyphosa. In comparison to previous reports, the prevalence of Ab to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae (52.6%) was significantly higher. Other common serovars were Australis (47.4%) and Sejroe (42.1%). High Ab titers for serovars Canicola (1:500) and Grippotyphosa (1:1,000) were detected for the first time in free-ranging bears from Croatia. A significant correlation between the age of the bears and detection of Ab to Leptospira spp. serovars suggested the presence of pathogenic agents in the natural habitats, whereas increasing trends of Ab prevalence for specific serovars (Icter-ohaemorrhagiae, Australis, and Sejroe) confirmed cohabitation of bears with rats and other small terrestrial mammals on garbage dumps and at bear feeding stations. To prevent cohabitation of bears and rodents, improvements in Croatian waste treatment, big game management, and rodent control programs are strongly recommended, especially in Lika and Gorski Kotar, regions that have high-quality natural habitats for brown bears in Croatia. PMID:20090039

  10. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Croatia: regulation of the profession.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Topic, Elizabeta; Cvoriscec, Dubravka; Cepelak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity exists across Europe in the definition of the profession of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine and also in academic background of specialists in this discipline. This article provides an overview of the standards of education and training of laboratory professionals and quality regulations in Croatia. Clinical chemistry in Croatia is almost exclusively practiced by medical biochemists. Although term Medical biochemist often relates to medical doctors in other European countries, in Croatia medical biochemists are not medical doctors, but university degree professionals who are qualified scientifically. Practicing the medical biochemistry is regulated by The Health Care Law, The Law of the Medical Biochemistry Profession and The Law of the State and Private Health Insurance. According to the law, only medical biochemists are entitled to run and work in the medical biochemistry laboratory. University degree is earned after the 5 years of the studies. Register for medical biochemists is kept by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. Licensing is mandatory, valid for 6 years and regulated by the government (Law on the Health Care, 1993). Vocational training for medical biochemists lasts 44 months and is regulated by the national regulatory document issued by the Ministry of Health. Accreditation is not mandatory and is provided by an independent, non-commercial national accreditation body. The profession has interdisciplinary character and a level of required competence and skills comparable to other European countries. PMID:22141201

  11. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-02-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. PMID:26711522

  12. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the old institutionalized people in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Nevajda, Branimir; Havelka-Mestrović, Ana; Bilić, Morana; Nevajda, Andreja Podvez; Romić, Dominik; Vuletić, Vladimira; Cukljek, Snjezana; Sicaja, Mario; Bocina, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MeS) is defined by a cluster of abnormalities comprising obesity, hypertension, carbohydrate intolerance and dyslipidemia. MeS increases the risk of developing various diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral angiopathy and type 2 diabetes. In our study, the subjects were 561 persons, residents of 11 homes for the elderly in Zagreb, Croatia. There were 160 men (28.5%) and 401 women (71.5%), aged from 56 to 96 years (the average being 79 years). Physical examination was conducted, which included blood pressure measurement, and body height and weight. Blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Along with other biochemical parameters, the levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol (LDL, HDL-C) were also measured. The results have shown the prevalence of MeS in the elderly instutionalised people to be in the range of 20.8%, according to WHO criteria. The most common MeS component was hypertension, and it was significantly more frequent in women than in men; also, the elevated triglyceride levels were more often found in women; the difference between men and women was also statistically significant. MeS is a serious and growing health problem not only in Croatia but worldwide as well. Further studies are needed to verify the prevalence of MeS in Croatia, as it is a major risk for CVD and many other severe diseases. PMID:23697274

  13. The presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on large pig breeding farms in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Habrun, Boris; Račić, Ivana; Beck, Relja; Budimir, Ana; Benić, Miroslav; Kompes, Gordan; Spičić, Silvio; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2011-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged worldwide and have become resistant to a variety of antibiotics. MRSA colonisation in pigs was first reported from the Netherlands in 2005, where pigs were implicated as a source of human MRSA infections (Voss et al., 2005). This paper presents the first report on the presence of MRSA on large pig breeding farms in Croatia, together with the determination of the mecA gene, the results of spa typing and susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. Dust samples (7-11 per farm) were collected from eight large pig farms in Croatia. Of the total 68 swabs, the mecA gene was detected in 24 isolates growing on the MRSA agar. All isolates were resistant to oxacillin, tetracycline and streptomycin, and susceptible only to vancomycin, while 92% of the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Genotyping of the MRSA strains was performed by spa typing, and revealed t011 (n = 17), t034 (n = 5) and t1451 (n = 2). The results presented here predict that MRSA is present on a large number of pig farms in Croatia. PMID:22079702

  14. Association among Education Level, Occupation Status, and Consanguinity in Tunisia and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kerkeni, Emna; Monastiri, Kamel; Saket, Besma; Rudan, Diana; Zgaga, Lina; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between education level, occupation status (a proxy for socio-economic status), and consanguinity in 2 large data sets from Tunisia and Croatia countries with different attitudes toward consanguinity. Methods The sample of 1016 students, attending 5 university institutions in Monastir, Tunisia, were interviewed about the educational level and occupation status of their parents and the degree of parental relatedness. In Croatia, a sample of 1001 examinees from 9 isolated island populations was interviewed about their own educational level, occupation status, and consanguinity. Results Prevalence of consanguinity (offspring of second cousins or closer) among 1016 Tunisian students was 20.1%, and 9.3% among 1001 Croatian isolates. In Tunisia, the association between consanguinity and both parental degree of education and parental occupation status was highly significant in women (P<0.001), but not significant in men. In Croatia, no statistically significant associations were noted, although there was a consistent trend of increased prevalence of consanguinity with lower education level or occupation status in both genders, but more pronounced in women. Conclusion Association between education level, socio-economic status, and consanguinity needs to be taken into account in inbreeding studies in human populations. The relationship may be specific for each studied population and highly dependent on the cultural context. It is generally more pronounced among women in most settings. PMID:16912991

  15. Serological, Bacteriological, and Molecular Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Domestic Animals in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Špičić, Silvio; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Račić, Ivana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Cvetnić, Željko

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present the surveillance data on Brucella melitensis, B. suis, and B. ovis infection in cattle, sheep, goats, and swine in Croatia obtained in 2008 by serological, bacteriological, and molecular methods for diagnostics of brucellosis in domestic animals. Methods We serologically tested 42 785 cattle serums, 22 686 sheep and goat serums, and 28 520 swine serums using the Rose Bengal test, complement fixation test, and various immunosorbent assays. We also tested 10 173 ram blood samples for B. ovis infection using the complement fixation test. Bacteriological examination was conducted on 214 samples collected from 34 serologically positive animals. Different molecular methods were employed in the identification and typing of 20 isolates from the samples. Results B. melitensis biovar (bv.) 3 was confirmed with different identification methods in 2 flocks in 2 Croatian counties and B. suis bv. 2 in 3 herds in 3 counties. B. melitensis in cows was confirmed for the first time in Croatia. Infection with B. ovis was serologically confirmed in 202 rams in 12 counties. Conclusions In 2008, the size of the brucellosis-affected area in Croatia and the efficiency of detection and prevention of brucellosis in sheep, goats, and swine were satisfactory. Infection with B. melitensis in cattle was confirmed for the first time and possible links for infection in humans were detected. More efficient measures for suppression and control of ovine epididymitis are required and a new strategy may be necessary for complete eradication of this disease. PMID:20718085

  16. Can Croatia join Europe as competitive knowledge-based society by 2010?

    PubMed

    Petrovecki, Mladen; Paar, Vladimir; Primorac, Dragan

    2006-12-01

    The 21st century has brought important changes in the paradigms of economic development, one of them being a shift toward recognizing knowledge and information as the most valuable commodities of today. The European Union (EU) has been working hard to become the most competitive knowledge-based society in the world, and Croatia, an EU candidate country, has been faced with a similar task. To establish itself as one of the best knowledge-based country in the Eastern European region over the next 4 years, Croatia realized it has to create an education and science system correspondent with European standards and sensitive to labor market needs. For that purpose, the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (MSES) has created and started implementing a complex strategy, consisting of the following key components: the reform of education system in accordance with the Bologna Declaration; stimulation of scientific production by supporting national and international research projects; reversing the "brain drain" into "brain gain" and strengthening the links between science and technology; and informatization of the whole education and science system. In this comprehensive report, we describe the implementation of these measures, whose coordination with the EU goals presents a challenge, as well as an opportunity for Croatia to become a knowledge-based society by 2010. PMID:17167853

  17. Multiple criteria approach to site selection of radioactive waste disposal facility in the Republic of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, A.; Skanata, D.

    1995-12-31

    Site selection approach to radioactive waste disposal facility, which is under way in Croatia, is presented in the paper. This approach is based on application of certain relevant terrestrial and technical criteria in the site selection process. Basic documentation used for this purpose are regional planning documents prepared by the Regional Planning Institute of Croatia. The basic result of research described in the paper is the proposal of several potential areas which are suitable for siting a radioactive waste repository. All relevant conclusions are based on both data groups -- generic and on-field experienced (measured). Out of a dozen potential areas, four have been chosen as representative by the authors. The presented comparative analysis was made by means of the VISA II computer code, developed by the V. Belton and SPV Software Products. The code was donated to the APO by the IAEA. The main objective of the paper is to initiate and facilitate further discussions on possible ways of evaluation and comparison of potential areas for sitting of radioactive waste repository in this country, as well as to provide additional contributions to the current site selection process in the Republic of Croatia.

  18. Can Croatia Join Europe as Competitive Knowledge-based Society by 2010?

    PubMed Central

    Petrovečki, Mladen; Paar, Vladimir; Primorac, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The 21st century has brought important changes in the paradigms of economic development, one of them being a shift toward recognizing knowledge and information as the most important factors of today. The European Union (EU) has been working hard to become the most competitive knowledge-based society in the world, and Croatia, an EU candidate country, has been faced with a similar task. To establish itself as one of the best knowledge-based country in the Eastern European region over the next four years, Croatia realized it has to create an education and science system correspondent with European standards and sensitive to labor market needs. For that purpose, the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (MSES) has created and started implementing a complex strategy, consisting of the following key components: the reform of education system in accordance with the Bologna Declaration; stimulation of scientific production by supporting national and international research projects; reversing the “brain drain” into “brain gain” and strengthening the links between science and technology; and informatization of the whole education and science system. In this comprehensive report, we describe the implementation of these measures, whose coordination with the EU goals presents a challenge, as well as an opportunity for Croatia to become a knowledge-based society by 2010. PMID:17167853

  19. Characterisation of pseudorabies virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Keros, Tomislav; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Dežđek, Danko; Jemeršić, Lorena; Roić, Besi; Bedeković, Tomislav

    2014-12-01

    Serological data imply that pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) is present in domestic pigs and wild boars in Croatia. Therefore, this study included testing of brain tissue samples collected from 200 domestic pigs and 105 wild boars originating from seventeen districts of Croatia. The presence of pseudorabies virus (PrV) DNA was confirmed in samples originating from six domestic pigs (3%) and one wild boar (0.95%). Positive samples were sequenced and analysed on the basis of a gC genome fragment. PrV strains have shown to be genetically identical and they are strongly related to some representative strains in the relatively heterogeneous Clade A. The results clearly show that PrV is still circulating among the domestic pig population in Croatia. Furthermore, the presence of pseudorabies virus in wild boars underlines the importance of this species as a PrV reservoir. Continued surveillance is necessary to track the viral spread in order to achieve final eradication of the disease. PMID:25410393

  20. Crveno jezero - the biggest sinkhole in Dinaric Karst (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.

    2012-04-01

    fascinating and has been measured on a number of occasions. Valuable and interesting data about the lake depth, as presented by academician Milivoj Petrik in 1955, show that the lake is about 250 meters deep, which discouraged any attempts to dive to the bottom of the lake. During the 5th International Congress of Speleology held in Stuttgart in Germany, Croatian cavers and speleologists have tried to add the Red Lake to the list of deepest pits in the world, as its real depth amounted to 518 meters at the time. However, the response of the documentation committee was that the depth had not been duly documented, that no man has been at such depth etc., although in reality it is a real pit one half of which is filled with water. In late 1970's and early 1980's the speleodiving activities rapidly gathered momentum in all parts of the world and it is in this period that deepest dives were made at the source called Fontaine de Vaucluse. At that time, a special underwater vehicle, the so called "Speleonaut", attained (without crew) the depth of 315 meters. Similar vehicle called Hyball descended down to the depth of 165 meters in Hranicke propasti in Czech Republic. These speleological structures are therefore considered as sufficiently documented and, as such, they have been added to the list of the world's deepest water structures. In 1980's speleodiving has became an increasingly popular cave exploration method in Croatia. Thus, the decision was made to contact the world's best speleodivers and invite them to investigate the Red Lake. In 1981, during their stay in the USA, Dr. Mladen Garašić contacted Mr. Jochan Hassenmayer who was at that time the best speleodiver of the world. However, because of political climate that prevailed in that period, Mr. Hassenmayer finally decided not to come to our country. In an unfortunate turn of events, this diver was later affected with a permanent disability. In the course of 1989 and 1990, Dr. Garašić established contact with Mr. Sheck

  1. Genus Neelus Folsom, 1896 (Hexapoda, Collembola) reveals its diversity in cave habitats: two new species from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Lukić, Marko; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Neelus Folsom, 1896, N. cvitanovici sp. nov. and N. lackovici sp. nov., are described from caves of Croatia. N. lackovici sp. nov. exhibit marked troglomorphic features such as extremely elongated ungua and antennae, larger body among others. Descriptions are completed with comparative tables for chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for the congeners and identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Neelus species in Croatian caves are added. Threats of troglobiotic Neelus species in Croatia are discussed. PMID:27394325

  2. Patient radiation doses in the most common interventional cardiology procedures in Croatia: first results.

    PubMed

    Brnić, Z; Krpan, T; Faj, D; Kubelka, D; Ramac, J Popić; Posedel, D; Steiner, R; Vidjak, V; Brnić, V; Visković, K; Baraban, V

    2010-02-01

    Apart from its benefits, the interventional cardiology (IC) is known to generate high radiation doses to patients and medical staff involved. The European Union Medical Exposures Directive 97/43/Euroatom strongly recommend patient dosimetry in interventional radiology, including IC. IC patient radiation doses in four representative IC rooms in Croatia were investigated. Setting reference levels for these procedures have difficulties due to the large difference in procedure complexity. Nevertheless, it is important that some guideline values are available as a benchmark to guide the operators during these potentially high-dose procedures. Local and national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed as a guidance. A total of 138 diagnostic (coronary angiography, CA) and 151 therapeutic (PTCA, stenting) procedures were included. Patient irradiation was measured in terms of kerma-area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine-frames (F). KAP was recorded using calibrated KAP-meters. DRLs of KAP, FT and F were calculated as third quartile values rounded up to the integer. Skin doses were assessed on a selected sample of high skin dose procedures, using radiochromic films, and peak skin doses (PSD) were presented. A relative large range of doses in IC was detected. National DRLs were proposed as follows: 32 Gy cm(2), 6.6 min and 610 frames for CA and 72 Gy cm(2), 19 min and 1270 frames for PTCA. PSD <1 Gy were measured in 72 % and PSD >2 Gy in 8 % of selected patients. Measuring the patient doses in radiological procedures is required by law, but rarely implemented in Croatia. The doses recorded in the study are acceptable when compared with the literature, but optimisation is possible. The preliminary DRL values proposed may be used as a guideline for local departments, and should be a basis for radiation reduction measures and quality assurance programmes in IC in Croatia. PMID:19880413

  3. BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF HEALTH TOURISM SERVICE PROVIDERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Vrkljan, Sanela; Hendija, Zvjezdana

    2016-03-01

    Health tourism can be generally divided into medical, health spa and wellness tourism. Health spa tourism services are provided in special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts, and include under medical supervision controlled use of natural healing factors and physical therapy in order to improve and preserve health. There are 13 special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia. Most of them are financed through the state budget and lesser by sale on the market. More than half of their accommodation capacity is offered for sale on the market while the rest is under contract with the Croatian Health Insurance Fund. Domestic overnights are several times higher than foreign overnights. The aim of this study was to analyze business performance of special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia in relation to the sources of financing and the structure of service users. The assumption was that those who are more market-oriented achieve better business performance. In proving these assumptions, an empirical research was conducted and the assumptions were tested. A positive correlation was proven in tested indicators of business performance of the analyzed service providers of health-spa tourism with a higher amount of overnight stays realized through sales on the market in relation to total overnight stays, with a greater share of foreign overnights in total of overnights and with a higher share of realized revenue on the market out of total revenue. The results of the research show that special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts that are more market-oriented are more successful in their business performance. These findings are important for planning the health and tourism policies in countries like Croatia. PMID:27333722

  4. Population data for 17 short tandem repeat loci on Y chromosome in northern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gršković, Branka; Mršić, Gordan; Polašek, Ozren; Vrdoljak, Andro; Merkaš, Siniša; Anđelinović, Simun

    2011-03-01

    Human Y-short tandem repeats (STRs) are tandem repeat arrays of two to seven base pair units on non-recombining region (NRY) of the human Y chromosome. Studies on Y-STR are interesting in both population genetics and forensics. The aim of this study was to investigate the population genetic properties of 17 STR loci on Y chromosome in the northern Croatia region. We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analysis collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre "Ivan Vučetić". A total of 220 unrelated healthy men from northern Croatia were selected for the purpose of this study. Genomic DNA was extracted using Chelex procedure from FTA(®) cards. Y-chromosomal STRs were determined using the AmpFISTR Yfiler PCR amplification kit. The haplotype frequencies were determined by direct counting and analyzed using Arlequin 3.1 and analysis of molecular variance calculated with the Y chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool. A total of 210 haplotypes were identified, 200 of which were unique. Total haplotype diversity was 0.995. Locus diversity varied from 0.331 for DYS392 to 0.783 for DYS385 locus. Allele frequencies diversity was 0.662. Discrimination capacity was 95.7%. The use of European minimal haplotype set indicated the most resemblance of this population to the Croatian capital of Zagreb, with modest resemblance to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Hungary. This article provides the first overview of the Y chromosome STR variability in northern Croatia, thus providing the referent point for any future forensic and genetic epidemiology efforts in this region. PMID:20859689

  5. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self

  6. Analysis of 12 X-chromosomal markers in the population of central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnjac, Josip; Ozretić, Petar; Merkaš, Siniša; Ratko, Martina; Lozančić, Mateja; Rožić, Sara; Špoljarić, Daniel; Korolija, Marina; Popović, Maja; Mršić, Gordan

    2016-07-01

    Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit is a commercially available set that allows simultaneous PCR amplification of 12 X-STR markers belonging to four linkage groups (LG). To assess the forensic efficiency of these markers for the population of central Croatia and consequent applicability in routine forensic casework, DNA from 200 blood samples of unrelated donors (100 female and 100 male) was amplified by Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Statistical computations based on allele and haplotype frequencies for LG1 - LG4 were performed using Arlequin 3.5 software and on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org. In female samples, all X-STR markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The most informative marker for central Croatia population was DXS10135 with polymorphism information content (PIC) 0.9296. The least polymorphic locus was DXS8378 (PIC=0.6363). Power of discrimination (PD) varied from 0.6968 to 0.9336 in male and from 0.8476 to 0.9916 in female samples. Combined PD exceeded 0.999999999 in both men and women. In male samples, linkage disequilibrium (LD) test revealed significant association (P=0.0000) of one marker pair in LG4 and two marker pairs in LG3. Portion of observed haplotypes in the number of possible haplotypes varied from 2.86% to 7.47% across all LGs. LG1 was the most informative with haplotype diversity (H) 0.9972. High PD of all analyzed markers exhibited for central Croatia population confirms suitability of Investigator® Argus X-12 for forensic pertinence. Moreover, results of this study will be included in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 12 X-STR loci, which is necessary for the correct interpretation of the forensic casework results. PMID:27497338

  7. Analysis of 8 X-chromosomal markers in the population of central Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Gršković, Branka; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Popović, Maja; Primorac, Dragan; Mršić, Gordan

    2013-01-01

    Aim To analyze 8 X-linked short tandem repeat (STR) markers in the population of central Croatia and to evaluate their forensic efficiency. Methods We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analyses, collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre ‘‘Ivan Vučetić.’’ Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR amplification kit was used for typing the data of 99 unrelated healthy women and 78 men from central Croatia. Haplotype frequencies were calculated only in male samples. Arlequin 3.5 software was used to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), observed and expected heterozygosity. Power of discrimination (PD) for men and women, polymorphism information content (PIC), power of exclusion, and mean exclusion chance for deficiency cases, normal trios, and duos were determined using online database ChrX-STR.org. Results In female samples, deviations from HWE (P = 0.006) for each locus were not found. LD test performed both on female and male samples revealed no significant association between markers (P = 0.002). DXS10135 was the most polymorphic locus (PIC = 0.931). PD varied from 0.692 to 0.935 in male and from 0.845 to 0.992 in female samples. Combined PD reached 99.999999% in men and 99.9999999999% in women. Conclusion Performed analyses revealed that the studied marker set contained polymorphic markers with high power of discrimination. We can conclude that Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR kit is suitable for application in the population of central Croatia. Results of this study, together with collected allele and haplotype frequencies, are the first step in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 8 X-STR loci. PMID:23771754

  8. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia – Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. Methods The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. Results There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (P < 0.001), and in 50.0% VTE was the main cause of death. Estimated incidence of VTE in Croatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Conclusion Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden. PMID:26718761

  9. A Multifaceted Approach to Revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grgurić, Josip; Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Pavičić Bošnjak, Anita; Stanojević, Milan

    2016-08-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in Croatia in 1993. By 1998, 15 of 34 maternity facilities were designated "Baby-Friendly." Introduction of hospital bags, violating the International Code of the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, led to a standstill in the BFHI. The aim of this article is to describe the successful reintroduction of the BFHI in Croatia between 2007 and 2015. After hospital bags were abolished in 2007, UNICEF Croatia undertook an assessment of BFHI implementation. All maternity facilities were invited by UNICEF and the Ministry of Health to join the renewed BFHI. UNICEF materials were translated and training for trainers, assessors, coordinators, and hospital staff held. By June 2015, 30 of 32 (94%) maternity facilities, providing care to 89% of newborns, were Baby-Friendly. Nine maternity hospitals have been renovated and 2 new hospitals have been built. Exclusive breastfeeding rates have risen 16% at 0 to 2 months (from 51% in 2007 to 67% in 2014) and 14% at 3 to 5 months (from 32% in 2007 to 46% in 2014). Fourteen "Breastfeeding-Friendly" primary care practices have been designated, 166 breastfeeding support groups are in operation, criteria for Mother-Friendly care are being piloted in 2 maternity facilities, and "Ten Steps in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" are being introduced. The BFHI provides an excellent opportunity for revitalizing breastfeeding protection, promotion, and support in all settings. Recognition and support of the BFHI by the Croatian government was crucial for implementing the BFHI, whereas the marketing practices of the breast milk substitutes industry are an ongoing challenge. PMID:27121238

  10. Trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Croatia, 1988 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Mateja; Samaržija, Miroslav; Jakopović, Marko; Kuliš, Tomislav; Znaor, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To describe and interpret lung cancer incidence and mortality trends in Croatia between 1988 and 2008. Methods Incidence data on lung cancer for the period 1988-2008 were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry, while mortality data were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Population estimates for Croatia were obtained from the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. We also calculated and analyzed age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. To describe time incidence and mortality trends, we used joinpoint regression analysis. Results Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in men decreased significantly in all age groups younger than 70 years. Age-standardized incidence rates in men decreased significantly by -1.3% annually. Joinpoint analysis of mortality in men identified three trends, and average annual percent change (AAPC) decreased significantly by -1.1%. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in women increased significantly in all age groups older than 40 years and decreased in younger women (30-39- years). Age-standardized incidence rates increased significantly by 1.7% annually. Joinpoint analysis of age-standardized mortality rates in women identified two trends, and AAPC increased significantly by 1.9%. Conclusion Despite the overall decreasing trend, Croatia is still among the European countries with the highest male lung cancer incidence and mortality. Although the incidence trend in women is increasing, their age standardized incidence rates are still 5-fold lower than in men. These trends follow the observed decrease and increase in the prevalence of male and female smokers, respectively. These findings indicate the need for further introduction of smoking prevention and cessation policies targeting younger population, particularly women. PMID:22522986

  11. Web-Based Systems Development: Analysis and Comparison of Practices in Croatia and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Vukovac, Dijana Plantak

    The “dot.com” hysteria which sparked fears of a “Web crisis” a decade ago has long subsided and firms established in the 1990 s now have mature development processes in place. This chapter presents a timely re-assessment of the state of Web development practices, comparing data gathered in Croatia and Ireland. Given the growth in popularity of “agile” methods in the past few years, a secondary objective of this research was to analyse the extent to which Web development practices are guided by or otherwise consistent with the underlying principles of agile development.

  12. Characterization and source apportionment of fine particulate sources at Rijeka, Croatia from 2013 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Stelcer, Eduard; Orlić, Ivica; Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Cohen, David

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 daily aerosol samples were collected in Rijeka, Croatia during period from 6th August 2013 to 29th January 2015. In total, 259 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed by PIXE and PIGE techniques to give information on 21 elements from Na to Pb. Additionally, black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method. Results were statistically evaluated using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Eight major pollution sources: auto, smoke, secondary sulfates, heavy oil combustion, sea spray, road dust, industry iron and soil dust were identified together with their relative contributions in total PM2.5 pollution.

  13. New and interesting species of the genus Bryaxis Kugelann, 1794 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlaváč, Peter

    2016-01-01

    New data on the genus Bryaxis Kugelann, 1974 from Croatia are presented. Two new species, Bryaxis bedeki sp. nov. and Bryaxis biokovensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Bryaxis issensis (J. Müller, 1909) is redescribed based on six males collected at the type locality, in the cave Špilja kod Vlore on the island of Vis, and the aedeagus of this species is figured for the first time. New distributional data of Bryaxis scapularis (Reitter, 1881), Bryaxis crepsensis crepsensis (J. Müller, 1947), Bryaxis stolzi (Machulka, 1932), and Bryaxis erichsonii erichsonii (Kiesenwetter, 1849) are also provided. PMID:27470840

  14. Survey for Hantaviruses, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, and Rickettsia spp. in Small Rodents in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunoflourescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava–Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas. PMID:24866325

  15. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  16. Current practice variations in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Mahnik, Alan; Mahnik, Silvija; Dimnjakovic, Damjan; Curic, Stjepan; Smoljanovic, Tomislav; Bojanic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate current preferences and opinions on the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in Croatia. METHODS: The survey was conducted using a questionnaire which was sent by e-mail to all 189 members of the Croatian Orthopaedic and Traumatology Association. Only respondents who had performed at least one ACL reconstruction during 2011 were asked to fill out the questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirty nine surgeons responded to the survey. Nearly all participants (95%) used semitendinosus/gracilis tendon autograft for reconstruction and only 5% used bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. No other graft type had been used. The accessory anteromedial portal was preferred over the transtibial approach (67% vs 33%). Suspensory fixation was the most common graft fixation method (62%) for the femoral side, followed by the cross-pin (33%) and bioabsorbable interference screw (5%). Almost all respondents (97%) used a bioabsorbable interference screw for tibial side graft fixation. CONCLUSION: The results show that ACL reconstruction surgery in Croatia is in step with the recommendations from latest world literature. PMID:24147268

  17. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  18. Molecular survey of Babesia microti in wild rodents in central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Relja; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snježana; Mrljak, Vladimir; Margaletić, Josip; Habrun, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Babesia divergens and B. divergens-like organisms are the main causative agents of human babesiosis in Europe. Recently, the first case of human infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in Germany, implicating the presence of zoonotic isolates. To estimate the presence of zoonotic B. microti in Croatia we analyzed 120 small wild mammals that serve as its reservoir by polymerase chain reaction. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) were both found to be infected with prevalence of 16.2%. Sequence analysis of the portion of 18S rDNA gene demonstrated that six polymerase chain reaction-positive samples, detected in both rodent species, were identical to that of the human Jena/Germany strain (EF413181). The other two isolates were identical to the nonzoonotic Munich strain (AB071177). The results of this study indicate the presence of zoonotic B. microti in A. flavicollis and M. glareolus in Croatia and a potential risk for human health. PMID:20553109

  19. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus. PMID:20646832

  20. Lead and cadmium content in human milk from the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Frkovic, A.; Kras, M.; Alebic-Juretic, A.

    1997-01-01

    Though occupational exposure to toxic metals (lead, cadmium) is well documented, harmful effects of environmental exposure to lower levels of these two metals is still under investigation. Most toxic metals are emitted by human activities and the atmosphere is the main transport route for these elements. According to some authors, 332 358 t of lead and 7570 t of cadmium were emitted in the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in 1983. The principle source of lead is traffic, e.g. leaded petrol, still widely used in Croatia, as well as coal combustion, iron and steal production. Volcanic activity, zinc production and waste incineration are the main sources of cadmium. Recent study indicates that traffic could also be the main source of cadmium found along busy streets. Chronic lead exposure at low levels is associated with adverse health effects especially in fetus and young children. This study examines lead and cadmium levels in breast milk from nursing women living in the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship. PMID:24331881

  2. Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

  3. Factors affecting sex ratio at birth in Croatia 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Pavic, Dario

    2012-05-01

    This investigation aims to contribute to the existing literature on demographic and ecological factors affecting the sex ratio at birth, by analysing the births in Croatia from 1998 to 2008. Data from birth certificates for all Croatian births for the investigated period (n=420,256) were used to establish the link between parental ages, birth order, region of birth, parental occupation and parental education level, and sex of the child. The χ² test and t-test were used to assess the significance of each of the factors, along with multiple logistic regression to control for possible confounding effects. The results suggest that a joint higher age of both parents significantly lowers the sex ratio at birth. There is also a regional variation in sex ratio at birth, the lowest value being in Central Croatia and the highest in the City of Zagreb. Changes in the reproductive physiology of older parents are most probably responsible for the lower sex ratio, although the limited sample size warns against widespread generalizations. The causes of the regional variation in sex ratio at birth are most likely the different regional levels of obesity and physical inactivity. PMID:22225622

  4. Sexual torture of men in Croatia and other conflict situations: an open secret.

    PubMed

    Oosterhoff, Pauline; Zwanikken, Prisca; Ketting, Evert

    2004-05-01

    Sexual torture constitutes any act of sexual violence which qualifies as torture. Public awareness of the widespread use of sexual torture as a weapon of war greatly increased after the war in the former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. Sexual torture has serious mental, physical and sexual health consequences. Attention to date has focused more on the sexual torture of women than of men, partly due to gender stereotypes. This paper describes the circumstances in which sexual torture occurs, its causes and consequences, and the development of international law addressing it. It presents data from a study in 2000 in Croatia, where the number of men who were sexually tortured appears to have been substantial. Based on in-depth interviews with 16 health professionals and data from the medical records of three centres providing care to refugees and victims of torture, the study found evidence of rape and other forced sexual acts, full or partial castration, genital beatings and electroshock. Few men admit being sexually tortured or seek help, and professionals may fail to recognise cases. Few perpetrators have been prosecuted, mainly due to lack of political will. The silence that envelopes sexual torture of men in the aftermath of the war in Croatia stands in strange contrast to the public nature of the crimes themselves. PMID:15242212

  5. Genetic diversity among human parainfluenza virus type 2 isolated in Croatia between 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Šantak, Maja; Slović, Anamarija; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Mlinarić Galinović, Gordana; Forčić, Dubravko

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics and evolution of the human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) in Croatia, and also globally, are largely unknown. Most HPIV2 infections are treated symptomatically outside the hospital setting. Thus, the diagnosis is missing making it difficult to follow the genetic variation and evolution of the HPIV2. This study explores hospitalized HPIV2 cases in Croatia during 4-year period (2011-2014). Most cases in this period were reported in October or November (68.75%) and most of patients were under 2 years of age (81.25%). For molecular analyses, we used the F and HN gene sequences and showed that although both regions are equally suitable for phylogenetic analyses it would be advantageous to use regions longer than 2 kb for HPIV2 analyses of isolates which are spatially and temporally closely related. We show here that the dominant cluster in this area was cluster G3 while only one strain isolated in this period was positioned in the distant cluster G1a. Further monitoring of the HPIV2 will determine whether cluster G3 will remain dominant or it will be overruled by cluster G1a. This will be important for the surveillance of virus circulation in population and significance of the viral infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1733-1741, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004845

  6. Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnić, Sanja; Beck, Relja; Listeš, Eddy; Lojkić, Ivana; Savini, Giovanni; Roić, Besi

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Insect species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) to susceptible hosts. The infection is present in the Mediterranean region. Recently, it has also been reported in Central, Western, and Northern Europe where BTV‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. In the meantime, BTV‑14 has appeared in the North‑Eastern part of Europe. In the present study, BTV serotype 16 (BTV‑16) was detected by virus neutralisation (VNT)‑assay and real‑time reverse transcription‑PCR (rRT‑PCR) in 1 antelope and BTV‑1 in 3 of 10 Oryx antelopes (Oryx leucoryx) imported in Croatia from the Sultanate of Oman. No BTV vectors were collected during the antelope quarantine on the Veliki Brijun Island. Also, no BTV antibodies were detected in sheep, cattle, and deer on the Island. Entomological studies did not reveal any new vector species that may have been introduced with the infected antelopes on their transportation. It was the first time that BTV was demonstrated in animals imported in Croatia. It involved BTV‑1, which had never been demonstrated before and BTV‑16, which had been previously recorded in domestic ruminants. PMID:26129665

  7. Proceeding of the International Scientific Colloquium: MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (How to Teach and Learn Mathematics) (Osijek, Croatia, April 13, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the Organisational Committee of the international scientific colloquium Mathematics and Children is to encourage additional scientific research in the field of mathematics teaching in Croatia. The development of science and education is a part of a long-term Education Sector Development Plan 2005-2010. Following the example of…

  8. Application of the Cobb-Douglas Model to the Use of Information Resources by Industry in Croatia, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarc, J.; Svarc, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Cobb-Douglas model applied to value added as a function of labor, capital, purchases of information services, and purchases of other input is used to investigate the use of information by the industrial sector of Croatia, Yugoslavia. It is concluded that less than an optimal amount of information resources is being used. (13 references)…

  9. Anaesthesiology activities in Croatia from the first ether narcosis in Zadar in 1847 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    This is a short review of the historical development of anaesthesiology and intensive care in Croatia from its beginning to recent days (2008). Five months after the first public demonstration of ether anaesthesia in the USA, Ivan Bettini followed with the first ether anaesthesia in Zadar, on 13 March 1847. In the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the following doctors wrote about performing anaesthesia: Miroslav Čačković (in 1896), Dragutin Schwarz, Edo Šlajmer, Milan Crljenak, Antun Medanić, BoŽidar Lavrić, Simo Mučalov, Josip Vodenhal, Ante Drešćik, Radoslav Akerman, and Đurđa Klaić. The first endotracheal anaesthesia, was induced by Dr Risto Ivanovski at the military hospital in Zagreb in 1948. Croatian anaesthesiology started to develop in 1950 with the introduction of a one-year postgraduate course in Copenhagen, within the framework of a WHO programme, intended for underdeveloped and developing countries and overseen by the WHO Centre for Anaesthesiology. Croatian physicians attending this course were Andrija Longhino, Jagoda Bolčić Wickerhauser, Miroslav Hromadko, Mara Biondić, and Vlasta Lederer. The first specialists in anaesthesiology in Croatia were urđa Klaić, Ljubomir Ribarić, and Jagoda Bolčić Wickerhauser. In Zagreb, the first postgraduate courses in anaesthesiology were held in 1953, 1955, and 1957. In 2007, the anaesthesiology service in Croatia consisted of three Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinics, three Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Departments, 11 Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Units, 13 Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Services, and eight Anaesthesiology Units within Surgery Departments. It included 481 specialists in anaesthesiology and resuscitation and 172 general physicians specialising in anaesthesiology and resuscitation (totalling 653 in December 2007). This means that one specialist serviced 9,140 people, that is, 6,730 if we include GPs undergoing specialist training

  10. The endemic mollusks reveal history of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia in NW Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandic, Oleg; Kurečić, Tomislav; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fossil mollusk record of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia settled in the southern Pannonian Basin. The samples originate from Vukomeričke gorice, a low hill-range situated north of the Kupa River in the area between the towns of Zagreb, Sisak and Karlovac in NW Croatia. Representing the SW margin of the Lake Slavonia the freshwater deposits alternate there with the alluvial series, providing altogether about 400-m-thick, Pliocene continental succession, known in literature by informal name Paludina beds (acc. to a junior synonym of Viviparus). The endemic fauna of the Lake Slavonia became particularly well-known in the late 19th century after Melchior Neumayr demonstrated that the gradual evolutionary change of the mollusk phenotypes toward more complex morphology represents a function of adaptation to environmental change in the paleolake. Even Charles Darwin commented that result as by far the best case which I have ever met with, showing the direct influence of the conditions of life on the organization. The deposition in the Lake Slavonia (~4.5 to ~1.8 Ma) coincides with the Pliocene Climate Optimum (PCO), but captures also the transition into the Pleistocene climate marked by the initial Ice Age pulse at 2.59 Ma. The increase of polar temperatures resulted during PCO in a significant melting of the ice caps leading to a global sea level rise tentatively getting up to 25 m higher than today. Coincidence of the climate and geodynamic settings in southeastern Europe provided conditions supporting extended settlement of lacustrine environments including Lake Slavonia, Lake Kosovo, Lake Transylvania and Lake Dacia, all characterized by explosive adaptive radiations of viviparid snails. In particular, the latter adaptive radiations resulted in the regional phylostratigraphy of Lake Slavonia Viviparus species enabling excellent stratigraphic control for the investigated deposits. Hence, based on this evidence, the

  11. Self-help, mutual aid and chronic patients' clubs in Croatia, Yugoslavia: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    Kulcar, Z

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the clubs for patients with hypertension which have operated effectively in parts of Croatia and Slovenia (Yugoslavia) for more than 15 years, with many thousands of patients enrolling voluntarily. Based on the principle of self-help, yet involving the regular participation of members of a patient's own primary health team, they increase compliance with long-term treatment regimens and improve the quality of life. Such programmes are capable of reducing the amount of time devoted by a medical practitioner while increasing the effectiveness of treatments. If they are to succeed, it is essential to ensure regular club meetings, social activities and encouragement to each individual member to find a role and to continue attending for as long as possible. A new life style and consequent benefits to health are obtained only through long membership. PMID:2041007

  12. Development of a Model for Planning Specialist Education of Medical Doctors in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Relić, Danko

    2016-01-01

    Development of a model for simulation of the needed number of specialists of different specialties in the Republic of Croatia by the year 2035 based on the expected changes in size and age structure of population and experts' estimates of the needs. The model will be implemented in the form of a computer program based on the estimated most potent predictors. The developed model will be used as a tool for the simulation of different scenarios for specialist education combined with other factors like migration flows, changes in retirement age and skill mixing in order to compare different possibilities and options for the renewal of the Croatian healthcare personnel. Results will enable the development of recommendations for decision making and the adoption of a rational plan of referral to specialist training. Indirectly, developed model will be useful for needs assessment and simulation and planning of workforce renewal of other health professionals and for other countries. PMID:27577497

  13. Forecasting ozone concentrations in the east of Croatia using nonparametric Neural Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač-Andrić, Elvira; Sheta, Alaa; Faris, Hossam; Gajdošik, Martina Šrajer

    2016-07-01

    Ozone is one of the most significant secondary pollutants with numerous negative effects on human health and environment including plants and vegetation. Therefore, more effort is made recently by governments and associations to predict ozone concentrations which could help in establishing better plans and regulation for environment protection. In this study, we use two Artificial Neural Network based approaches (MPL and RBF) to develop, for the first time, accurate ozone prediction models, one for urban and another one for rural area in the eastern part of Croatia. The evaluation of actual against the predicted ozone concentrations revealed that MLP and RBF models are very competitive for the training and testing data in the case of Kopački Rit area whereas in the case of Osijek city, MLP shows better evaluation results with 9% improvement in the correlation coefficient. Furthermore, subsequent feature selection process has improved the prediction power of RBF network.

  14. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  15. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  16. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Croatia and France.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Jerkovic, Igor; Masotti, Véronique; Milos, Mladen; Mastelic, Josip; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Viano, Josette

    2003-02-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of two populations of Artemisia absinthium, from France and from Croatia, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of A. absinthium of French origin contain (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenyl acetate as major components while the oils of Croatian A. absinthium contain mainly (Z)-epoxyocimene and beta-thujone. Analysis of oils before and after anthesis showed some quantitative differences. Analysis of separated leaves and flowering heads showed only few differences among these organs. As they contain no thujone, antimicrobial screening was performed on samples of French origin and showed that A. absinthium oil inhibited the growth of both tested yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri). PMID:12624823

  17. Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Susić, Mato; Brozović, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipović; Milenović, Aleksandar; Strinović, Davor; Brkić, Hrvoje; Pandurić, Dragana Gabrić

    2014-03-01

    In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits. PMID:24851626

  18. Scientometric analysis of anthropology in the Republic of Croatia for the period of 1980-1996.

    PubMed

    Bencetic Klaić, Z; Klaić, B

    1997-06-01

    Anthropologists from the Republic of Croatia have published 254 scientific papers in the period from 1980-1996, that are included in the secondary publication Social Science Citation Index. Scientists working in the scientific subfield anthropology participate with approximately 2% in the overall scientific output of the Republic of Croatia. Thirty-six international articles were published (14.2% of the total number), while the rest of 218 papers were published solely by domestic authors. An average anthropological paper is published by 3.06 authors, and approximately one-third of all articles by a single author. The major part of scientific papers (237 articles or 93.3%), Croatian anthropologists have published in a domestic primary scientific journal Collegium Antropologicum. All scientific papers together obtained 380 citations or 1.5 citations per article. The citation of articles is approximately 60% above the expected average for the respective journals. Published international papers had 6.6 citations, while articles by domestic authors had 0.65 citation per paper. Anthropological scientific papers obtained 154 independent citations and participate with 40.5% in the total number of citations. In the first five years after publishing, 166 articles (65.4% of the total number) were not cited, while the world's average for the scientific subfield anthropology was greater, 79.5% uncited articles. Only 19.4% of international papers and 72.9% of domestic papers were not cited in this five-year period. Based on scientometric indicators of a scientific output, that is, the number of published papers, partial scientific contribution, i.e., partial authorship, and scientific influence, i.e. number of citations, a method for the evaluation of scientific papers and their authors has been suggested in this paper. PMID:9225525

  19. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Čadež, Neža; Uroić, Ksenija; Miljković, Marija; Tolinački, Maja; Doušova, Petra; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Raspor, Peter; Topisirović, Ljubiša; Golić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Materials and Methods: Twelve yeast strains isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evaluated. Results: The results revealed that two strains of Kluyvereomyces lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM 2453 grew above one log unit (Δ log CFU/ml) in the complex colonic medium during 24 h of cultivation, while Torulaspora delbrueckii ZIM 2460 was the most resistant isolate in chemically-simulated conditions of gastric juice and upper intestinal tract. It was demonstrated that the strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM2441 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIM 2415 were highly adhesive to Caco-2 cells, while strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and Debaryomyces hansenii ZIM 2415 exhibit the highest adhesion percentage to HT29-MTX cells. All strains significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased the proliferation of GALT cells, suggesting the possible strain-specific immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Conclusion: The dairy yeast isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties, particularly the strain K. lactis ZIM 2408, which appears to be the best probiotic candidate in terms of all three criteria. Taking into account their immunomodulatory potential, the yeast isolates could be further tested for specific probiotic applications and eventually included in functional food formulated for patients suffering from diseases associated with an increased inflammatory status. PMID:26401378

  20. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure. PMID:26351197

  1. Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Southern Croatia: Impact of Sensitization to Ambrosia elatior

    PubMed Central

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n = 56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Results Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median±interquartile range, 50 ± 11 vs 7 ± 4; P<0.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (median±interquartile range, 12 ± 2 vs 0 ± 0; P<0.001). Conclusion A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia. PMID:17309141

  2. Is burnout in family physicians in Croatia related to interpersonal quality of care?

    PubMed

    Ožvačić Adžić, Zlata; Katić, Milica; Kern, Josipa; Soler, Jean Karl; Cerovečki, Venija; Polašek, Ozren

    2013-06-01

    The impact of physician burnout on the quality of patient care is unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of burnout in family physicians in Croatia and its association with physician and practice characteristics, and patient enablement as a consultation outcome measure. Hundred and twenty-five out of 350 family physicians responded to our invitation to participate in the study. They were asked to collect data from 50 consecutive consultations with their adult patients who had to provide information on patient enablement (Patient Enablement Instrument). Physicians themselves provided their demographic and professional data, including workload, job satisfaction, consultation length, and burnout [Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS)]. MBI-HSS scores were analysed in three dimensions: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). Of the responding physicians, 42.4% scored high for EE burnout, 16.0% for DP, and 15.2% for PA. Multiple regression analysis showed that low job satisfaction and more patients per day predicted high EE scores. Low job satisfaction, working more years at a current workplace, and younger age predicted high DP scores. Lack of engagement in education and academic work, shorter consultations, and working more years at current workplace predicted low PA scores, respectively (P<0.05 for each). Burnout is common among family physicians in Croatia yet burnout in our physicians was not associated with patient enablement, suggesting that it did not affect the quality of interpersonal care. Job satisfaction, participation in educational or academic activities and sufficient consultation time seem to reduce the likelihood of burnout. PMID:23819934

  3. [Is the management of migraine and tension headache in Croatia satisfactory?].

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Vlasta Vuković

    2013-12-01

    According to the epidemiological study conducted in Croatia, 15% of the population suffer from migraine, 20.6% from tension-type headache and 2.4% from chronic headache. Although migraine is a frequent primary headache and poses a major problem to both the affected individuals and the society, it is considered that migraine is underdiagnosed. The study revealed half of patients with headache and even 36.3% of respondents with migraine to have never visited a doctor. Migraine and tension-type headache are not satisfactorily treated; in the study, one-quarter of the respondents were fully satisfied with the treatment of their headaches, approximately half were partially satisfied, one-fifth were mostly unsatisfied, and 10% were completely unsatisfied. It should be noted that specific therapy for migraine attacks, i.e. triptans, are available on the market and can be administered for moderate and severe headache attacks. Triptans are prescribed rarely, not only in Croatia but also in the world, although studies have shown that the use of triptans increases productivity at work and improves the quality of life in migraineurs. Prophylaxis may significantly improve the quality of life; the Croatian epidemiological study showed only 14% of respondents with migraine to have ever used prophylactic therapy. Considering that migraine is an 'expensive disorder', appropriate treatment of patients with migraine will decrease the costs that include visits to general practitioners, emergency departments and cost of hospitalization. Even indirect costs will decrease as well, including the costs caused by absenteeism from work and costs caused by reduced efficiency at work. It is necessary to educate the population about migraine and therapeutic options. Lack of time, unrecognized patients and insufficient knowledge about current treatment of migraine and other primary headaches are probably the reasons why patients do not receive appropriate therapy. Continuous campaigns, which

  4. Working group for trichinellosis--a way of systematic prevention, control and eradication of trichinellosis in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Balić, Davor; Marinculić, Albert; Krešić, Kata; Barić, Josip; Periškić, Marin; Škrivanko, Mario; Kovač, Zlatko; Krznarić, Marko

    2015-03-01

    At the end of the last century, human trichinellosis was an important public health problem in the eastern parts of Croatia. Moreover, the majority of clinically infected people were registered in Vukovar-Srijem County (up to 60% of all human cases registered in Croatia). Also, 95% of all Trichinella positive swine carcasses originated from Vukovar-Srijem County. Beside the health threat, trichinellosis implied not only notable economic expenses but also threatened to endanger traditional way of life and eating habits. In order to reduce all negative consequences of the disease, a multidisciplinary Working group for trichinellosis was founded. The group consisted of scientists and experts from different fields of work, who helped and significantly contributed to minimizing the threats of trichinellosis as well as to maintaining and preserving the method of traditional processing and consumption of swine meat. The members, the methods and the results of the Working group activities will be discussed in this paper. PMID:26040102

  5. Application of multi-criteria decision-making on strategic municipal solid waste management in Dalmatia, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vego, Goran; Kucar-Dragicević, Savka; Koprivanac, Natalija

    2008-11-01

    The efficiency of providing a waste management system in the coastal part of Croatia consisting of four Dalmatian counties has been modelled. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. The analysis covered two levels; first, the potential number of waste management centres resulting from possible inter-county cooperation; and second, the relative merits of siting of waste management centres in the coastal or hinterland zone was evaluated. The problem was analysed according to several criteria; and ecological, economic, social and functional criteria sets were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods were shown to be efficient tools for analysing the problem considered. Such an approach provided new insights to waste management planning at the strategic level, and gave a reason for rethinking some of the existing strategic waste management documents in Croatia. PMID:18032019

  6. Changes in the organizational structure of public health nurse service in the Republic of Croatia 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Bendeković, Zvonimir; Simić, Dobrislav; Gladović, Ana; Kovačić, Luka

    2014-12-01

    Since 1996, after the privatization of primary health care, public health nurse (PHN) in Croatia remained employed within the health center, mainly responsible for the preventive care of the inhabitants from defined catchment's area. Before that time they were part of general practice teams. The main aim of the study was to investigate what are the trends in the organizational structure of PHN service in Croatia, from 1995-2012. The main source was the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks. The obtained results shows that they are college educated and mostly in full-time jobs. The important findings are the lack of nurses and theirs regional differences. In highly demanding societies, with growing numbers of elderly, mental, social and economic problems, it will be worthy to consider the lower standard then 5 100 inhabitants per one PHN. Also, it should be taken into account to invest into the lowering of regional disparities. PMID:25643533

  7. Accumulated Metals and Metallothionein Expression in Organs of Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) Within Natural Gas Fields of Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Milin, Čedomila

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact of natural gas facility near Molve (Podravina, Croatia) was assessed using hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as biomonitors. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the environment lead to their accumulation in different tissues of hares. The authors have tested accumulation and distribution of several metals in hare liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. The accumulation of copper in hare liver and kidneys with concomitant decrease of zinc was observed in animals from Podravina region as opposed to the control group of animals (Island Krk, Croatia). Secondly, the expression of metallothioneins was assessed because of their crucial role in metal homeostasis. Observed elevation of metallothionein expression in tested organs emphasizes the possible prolonged negative effects of heavy metals in the surroundings as well as a state of oxidative stress in animals. Further monitoring of the area is necessary for better control of hydrocarbon processing to diminish the possible negative environmental effects. PMID:24965325

  8. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma. PMID:26244830

  9. The international flow of cultural capital and an American anthropologist's experiences doing ethnography in Croatia: the insider/outsider question.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B C

    1998-12-01

    This essay is a discussion of the author's changing perspectives of his anthropological research in Croatia which comes about through the postmodern critique of theorectical paradigms as well as the fact that financial and cultural globalization has changed the subject of our research. Added to the globalization process and the international flow of cultural capital in Croatia are the recent events of the collapse of a modernism experiment in Marxism and the emergence of ethnic nationalism. The complexity of these current postmodern trends in theorectical anthropology, combined with complex current historical processes on top of a very complex history in Croatia, raise real questions about whether or not the outsider anthropologist can textualize the cultural situation here. But, a question still remains as to whether the insider anthropologist/ethnologist can textualize a cultural situation that is difficult to draw parameters around because of the international flow of cultural capital, e.g., are the younger generation really focused on localized ethnic nationalism or is this now a situation that is so internationalized that our former assumptions about local place make no longer make sense? PMID:9887619

  10. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  11. Seed-borne fungi and ochratoxin A contamination of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Domijan, A-M; Peraica, M; Zlender, V; Cvjetković, B; Jurjević, Z; Topolovec-Pintarić, S; Ivić, D

    2005-03-01

    The study was designed to identify seed-borne fungi on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in 13 counties of the Republic of Croatia and their association with ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Bean samples (N=45) were collected in Croatia in 2001 shortly after the harvest and were stored at -20 degrees C for mycological and mycotoxin analyses. The most common fungi isolated were Cladosporium spp. (98%) Alternaria spp. (75%), Aspergillus spp. (73%), Rhizopus spp. (73%), Penicillium spp. (69%), Fusarium spp. (38%), Botrytis spp. (27%), Trichothecium spp. (24%), and Chaetomium spp. (18%). OTA was found only in samples contaminated with Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. Using HPLC (detection limit 0.25 microg/kg), OTA was found in 17 out of 45 samples (38%), and the mean concentration in positive samples was 0.41+/-0.21 microg OTA/kg. Beans from south Croatia (Adriatic coast) were OTA-free and the least mould-infected, while the mean OTA concentration and mould infection of samples from other regions were similar. The OTA contamination of beans in our country is low. Although beans are not severely contaminated with OTA, their consumption may contribute to the exposure to OTA from other commodities. PMID:15680678

  12. Psychosocial adjustment to sex reassignment surgery: a qualitative examination and personal experiences of six transsexual persons in croatia.

    PubMed

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Lauri Korajlija, Anita; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  13. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in Croatia: detection and characterisation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    PubMed

    Lipej, Z; Segalés, J; Toplak, I; Sostarić, B; Roić, Besi; Lojkić, M; Hostnik, P; Grom, J; Barlic-Maganja, Darja; Zarković, Kamelija; Oraić, D

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Croatia, and to determine the epizootiological, clinical and pathomorphological features of the disease. During a systematic health monitoring programme conducted in the period from January 2002 to June 2003, PMWS was suspected on eight different pig-producing farms in Croatia. The diagnosis of PMWS met all three key criteria: the presence of compatible clinical signs, the presence of the characteristic microscopic lymphoid lesions, and the detection of PCV2 within the lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by in situ hybridisation (ISH). Moreover, PCV2 DNA from swine tissues was extracted and sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis of 4 Croatian PCV2 strains showed close relationship to PCV2 strains isolated in Slovenia, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, China and Hungary. PCV2 was also demonstrated by electron microscopy in the lymph node of an affected animal. This is the first demonstration of PMWS in Croatia based on all scientifically accepted diagnostic criteria. PMID:16156133

  14. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Croatia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of tuberculosis. A number of studies have addressed the issue of risk factors for tuberculosis development. Croatia is a European country with an incidence rate of 14/100 000 which is slowly decreasing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and biological risk factors for tuberculosis in Croatia in comparison to other high-income, low-incidence European countries. Methods A total of 300 tuberculosis patients were matched for age, sex and county of residence to 300 controls randomly selected from general practitioners’ registers. They were interviewed and their medical records were evaluated for variables broadly described as potential risk factors. Results In multiple logistic regression, the following factors were significant: parents born in a particular neighbouring county (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (OR = 3.90, 95% CI 2.01-7.58), the lowest level of education (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.39-8.50), poor household equipment (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 1.51-14.76), unemployment (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.18-6.16), contact with tuberculosis (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.27-3.77), former (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.19-4.33) and current smoking habits (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.36), diabetes (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.05-5.38), a malignant disease (OR = 5.79, 95% CI 1.49-22.42), being underweight in the previous year (OR = 13.57, 95% CI 1.21-152.38). Conclusion In our study, the identified risk groups for tuberculosis reflect a complex interaction between socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle and non-communicable diseases. Interventions focused on poverty will undoubtedly be useful, but not sufficient. Tuberculosis control would benefit from a combination of broad public health activities aimed at the prevention and control of risky lifestyles and non-communicable diseases, interventions outside the health sector, and efforts to constantly

  15. Construction of the bridge in the cavern in the Vrata tunnel (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Sasa Kovacevic, Meho; Juric-Kacunic, Danijela

    2010-05-01

    In the Dinaric karst system in Croatia some 11500 speleological objects have been explored so far, more than 1000 of which were discovered during construction works. Such speleological objects without natural entrance on the terrain surface (which are called "caverns") have been discovered on the construction sites of the highways. Over the past twenty years they have been systematically investigated and treated. A special kind of remediation was conducted in the cavern's large hall of the "Vrata" tunnel on the Zagreb - Rijeka highway. Due to size, shape, cavern's position and hydrogeological parameters (fissured and karstified aquifers) within the karst system it was necessary to design and construct a 58 m bridge over the cavern. In addition, the cavern's vault had to be reinforced and stabilized, as the overburden was very thin. The beam-and -stringer grid with special anchors was used. The cavern's rehabilitation in the "Vrata" tunnel was a unique undertaking, and the bridge (without piers) is the cavern's longest bridge in the world. A speleological object of large dimensions was discovered in the "Vrata"tunnel's right tube on the Rijeka-Zagreb highway. Speleological, geotechnical, engineering geological and hydrogeological investigation works were carried out for the purpose of preservation the speleological object (cavern). On the basis of classification results of rock masses and conducted numerical analyses the support system for the cavern's vault stabilization was selected. The support system's elements include the beam-and-stringer grid constructed on the terrain's surface above the cavern, tendons and geotechnical anchors. To ensure stability of the speleological object, and to conduct the backward numerical analyses the measurement of vertical deformations from the terrain's surface along the rock's mass by means of sliding micrometers was undertaken. Backward numerical analyses combined with geotechnical measurements enable safer and more rational

  16. Early Results of Recently Introduced Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding Procedure for Morbid Obesity in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Franjic, B. D.; Glavan, E.; Bekavac-Beslin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Morbid obesity is a growing medical problem that has become of epidemic proportions. Various dietary and pharmaceutical approaches do not obtain acceptable long-term results. Surgery, however, especially gastric restriction, represents a viable therapeutic solution. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m2 or >35 kg/m2 with at least one severe comorbidity are considered morbidly obese and generally qualify for weight-loss surgery. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is currently the most commonly performed procedure, because it is minimally invasive, does not cause metabolic complications, is completely reversible, and is adjustable. In Croatia, the first LAGB was performed in May 2004 at Clinical Hospital “Sestre Milosrdnice.” The aim of this report is to illustrate a newly performed surgical treatment and its results for morbid obesity in Croatia. Methods: Within a 12-month period, the adjustable gastric band was implanted in 15 morbidly obese patients (female, 8; male, 7; mean age, 46.67 years; range, 26 –59 years). The so-called “pars flaccida” technique was used. Results: One operation required conversion to laparotomy due to a gastric lesion, and 1 laparoscopy operation was terminated due to massive postoperative adhesions. The average duration of surgery was 90±30 minutes. Mean length of stay was 4.9 days (range, 3–9). An average BMI at the time of surgery was 52.21 kg/m2 (range, 45.29 to 61.59; mean body weight was 155.58 kg (range, 127 to 204). Throughout 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups, an average of 18.71%, 25.06%, 34.37%, 41.23%, and 47.32% of excessive weight loss (EWL) was observed. Good tolerance and a low complication rate were noted. Conclusion: LAGB resulted in good early results and a low complication rate. LAGB appears to be a quality surgical procedure for the management of morbid obesity. PMID:17575750

  17. Hazard assessment of landslide and debris flow in the Rjeina river valley, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Watanabe, Naoki; Marui, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The Rječina River extends approximately 18.7km long and flows into the Adriatic Sea at the center of Rijeka City, Croatia. Landslide, debris flow and rockfall are main geohazards in the middle part of the Rječina river basin. The zone between the Valići reservoir dam and the Pasac Bridge is particularly the most unstable and hazardous area in the river basin. The Grohovo landslide in the middle part of the river basin is located on the valley's slope facing southwest and situated at just downstream of the Valići dam. This landslide is the largest active landslide along the Adriatic Sea coast in Croatia. Assuming that serious heavy rainfall or earthquake occurs, it is most likely to occur two types of geohazard event. One scenario is that the debris deposited on the Grohovo landslide will move down to the channel of the Rječina River and dam up the river course. Another scenario is that the slope deposits on the landslide will be mixed with water and subsequently turn into a debris flow reaching to Rijeka City. We simulate both two cases of the formation of landslide-dam and the occurrence of debris-flow by two integrated models using GIS to represent the dynamic process across 3D terrains. In the case of the formation of landslide-dam, it is assumed that slope deposits will move downhill after failing along a shear zone. GIS-based revised Hovland's 3D limit equilibrium model is used to simulate the movement and stoppage of the slope deposits to form landslide-dam. The 3D factor of safety will be calculated step by step during the sliding process simulation. Stoppage is defined by the factor of safety much greater than one and the velocity equal to zero. The simulation result shows that the height of the landslide-dam will be nine meters. In case of debris flow, the mixture of slope deposits and water will be differentiated from landslide by fluid-like deformation of the mobilized material. GIS-based depth-averaged 2D numerical model is used to predict the

  18. Occurrence of an Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Similar to a Clinical Isolate in Paleosol from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Durn, Goran; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Kovacic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections are considered to be caused exclusively by contamination and transmission in hospital environments. The natural habitats of clinically important multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. remain to be defined. In this paper, we report an incidental finding of a viable multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, related to clinical isolates, in acid paleosol from Croatia. The environmental isolate of A. baumannii showed 87% similarity to a clinical isolate originating from a hospital in this geographic area and was resistant to gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. In paleosol, the isolate was able to survive a low pH (3.37), desiccation, and a high temperature (50°C). The probable source of A. baumannii in paleosol is illegally disposed waste of external origin situated in the abandoned quarry near the sampling site. The bacteria could have been leached from waste by storm water and thus infiltrated the paleosol. PMID:24584245

  19. Perinatal Health Statistics as the Basis for Perinatal Quality Assessment in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, Urelija; Filipović-Grčić, Boris; Đelmiš, Josip; Glivetić, Tatjana; Juras, Josip; Mustapić, Željka; Grizelj, Ruža

    2015-01-01

    Context. Perinatal mortality indicators are considered the most important measures of perinatal outcome. The indicators reliability depends on births and deaths reporting and recording. Many publications focus on perinatal deaths underreporting and misclassification, disabling proper international comparisons. Objective. Description of perinatal health care quality assessment key indicators in Croatia. Methods. Retrospective review of reports from all maternities from 2001 to 2014. Results. According to reporting criteria for birth weight ≥500 g, perinatal mortality (PNM) was reduced by 31%, fetal mortality (FM) by 32%, and early neonatal mortality (ENM) by 29%. According to reporting criteria for ≥1000 g, PNM was reduced by 43%, FM by 36%, and ENM by 54%. PNM in ≥22 weeks' (wks) gestational age (GA) was reduced by 28%, FM by 30%, and ENM by 26%. The proportion of FM at 32–36 wks GA and at term was the highest between all GA subgroups, as opposed to ENM with the highest proportion in 22–27 wks GA. Through the period, the maternal mortality ratio varied from 2.4 to 14.3/100,000 live births. The process indicators have been increased in number by more than half since 2001, the caesarean deliveries from 11.9% in 2001 to 19.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The comprehensive perinatal health monitoring represents the basis for the perinatal quality assessment. PMID:26693484

  20. Characteristics of hepatitis C infection in injecting drug users in Zadar County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Sonicki, Zdenko; Zekanović, Drazen

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine additional risk factors that could increase the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection among injecting drug users (IDU). The study included 327 heroin addicts registered in Zadar County, Croatia. The participants were divided into two groups according to their HCV status. HCV-positive and HCV-negative study participants were compared. HCV-positive group started injecting heroin at earlier age (median 18.5 years) than HCV-negative group (median 20.0 years) (p = 0.032) and had been injecting heroin for a significantly longer period (median 5 years vs. median 4 years, respectively; p < 0.001). IDUs in HCV-positive group shared their injecting equipment significantly more often than IDUs in HCV-negative group (p < 0.001; chi2 = 32.7). The main reasons for starting drugs were curiosity, psychological reasons (depression and/or neurosis), and peer or partner pressure in HCV-positive group, and fun, curiosity, and peer pressure in HCV-negative group (p = 0.051; chi2 = 23.6). Earlier onset of heroin use, longer heroin use, sharing injection equipment, curiosity, and psychological problems as reasons for starting drugs were associated with higher prevalence of HCV infection among injecting heroin users in Zadar County. PMID:18982740

  1. Long-term investigations of radioactive matter in the air of Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franic, Zdenko; Marovic, Gordana; Sencar, Jasminka

    2008-09-01

    Investigations on the distribution and fate of naturally occurring, nuclear-weapons-produced, and reactor-released radionuclides in the city of Zagreb, Coatia, have been conducted as part of the monitoring program for radioactive contamination of the human environment in Croatia since the early 1960s. This paper describes long-term investigations of man-made 137Cs and naturally occurring 7Be in the city of Zagreb after the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl nuclear accident caused a major increase in 137Cs activity concentrations only in 1986, which quickly decreased over the next few years to pre-Chernobyl values. The observed mean residence time for 137Cs in the air during the post-Chernobyl period from January 1987 to December 1990 was estimated to be 1.0 year. During this period, the observed mean residence time for 137Cs in fallout was estimated to be 0.9 years. The mean 7Be activity concentration in the air from 1987 to 2004 was (5.4 ± 2.8) × 10 - 3 Bq m - 3 . The measured 7Be activity concentrations showed seasonal behavior with the highest usually measured in July. Despite the constant presence of radioactive matter in the Zagreb air during the observational period, activity concentration values never exceeded legal limits. Consequently, 137Cs doses incurred by inhaling contaminated air after the Chernobyl accident were very small.

  2. Radioactivity in the Mediterranean flora of the Kaštela Bay, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Skoko, B; Marović, G; Babić, D

    2014-09-01

    This study refers to background activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (208)Tl, (40)K, and (137)Cs in soil and plants of the Kaštela Bay, Croatia and related plant-soil concentration ratios (CR's). Fourteen different Mediterranean plant species growing in natural conditions have been included and were divided into three major plant groups (grasses and herbs, shrub, tree). Radionuclide activity concentrations were determined by means of high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, and organic matter content) were also analysed. CR ranges were within one order of magnitude for (40)K (10(-2)-10(-1)), (238)U, and (226)Ra (10(-3)-10(-2)), and two orders of magnitude for (232)Th, (208)Tl, and (137)Cs (10(-4)-10(-2)). There was no statistical difference between the plant groups in radionuclide uptake. Overall statistical analyses indicated a moderate negative relationship between soil concentrations and CR values, and no relationship with soil parameters, except a negative one for (137)Cs. Comparison with literature showed more agreement with studies that were done in the Mediterranean than with ICRP and IAEA databases. Our data not only describe the natural radioactivity of the Bay, but also create a dataset that could be relevant for further radioecological assessments of the Kaštela Bay. PMID:24769388

  3. First outbreak of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease in humans, Croatia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Pandak, Nenad; Peric, Ljiljana; Barbic, Ljubo; Listes, Eddy; Cvitkovic, Ante; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Between September 6 and 21, 2012, seven human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive infection were laboratory confirmed in Croatia. The median patient age was 62 years (range 48-77). Five patients presented with meningoencephalitis and two patients with meningoencephalitis followed by acute flaccid paralysis. Four of them had an underlying disease (hypertension). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WNV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies of low avidity were detected in six patients, whereas one showed only IgM antibodies. All samples were confirmed using plaque-reduction neutralization and microneutralization tests. Five patients recovered fully. Before human cases were reported, acute asymptomatic WNV infection was demonstrated by detection of IgM antibodies in sentinel horses. Moreover, an increased WNV IgG seropositivity in horses was detected in counties where human cases occurred. Adulticidal and larvicidal treatments were administered immediately in the respective places of residence. The end of the warm season contributed to the fact that there were no new cases of WNV disease recorded. PMID:24283515

  4. Earthquake history of the Republic of Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albini, P.; Rovida, A.; Locati, M.

    2009-12-01

    Among the towns constellating the Dalmatian coast, Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia), stands out, both because of its location in the middle of the Eastern Adriatic coast and its long-lasting, independent history of a Modern Age town and its small coastal territory. An important intelligence crossroads, squeezed as it was in between powerful and influential neighbours, such as the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice, in its history (1358-1808) the Republic of Ragusa did experience heavily damaging earthquakes. We narrate the story of these earthquakes, which were recorded in the historical documentation of the Republic (today stored at the State Archives of Dubrovnik - Drzavni arhiv u Dubrovniku) as well as in documents from officers of other Mediterranean countries and letters of individuals. Of special note is the 6 April 1667 earthquake, which inflicted a permanent scar on the Republic. The earthquake's direct effects and their consequences caused a serious financial crisis, so critical that it took over 50 years for Ragusa to recover. This large earthquake is reappraised on the basis of newly investigated sources, and effects of the damage within the city walls are detailed. A seismic history of Ragusa is finally proposed, supported by full-text coeval records.

  5. Quantitative analysis of the flavonoids in raw propolis from northern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Bakmaz, Marina; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-03-01

    Spectrometric analyses of flavonoids in twenty propolis samples, collected from ten different geographic localities in northern Croatia using two complementary methods, are reported. Flavones and flavonols were determined using aluminum chloride and expressed as quercetine equivalent while flavanones were determined using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and expressed as naringenin. Contents of flavones and flavonols were similar for most samples and ranged from 2 to 2.3%, except for one sample with a concentration of 1.3% and one sample in which it was not possible to detect flavones and flavonols. The content of flavanones in propolis samples is very variable. 55% of samples contained flavanones between 15 and 24% and 45% of samples between 4 and 14%. Total levels of flavonoids in raw propolis samples ranged between 5 and 26%; for the majority of samples (75%), the total level of flavonoids ranged between 15 and 25.9%. The high variability of flavanone concentration will affect the biological activity of propolis preparations. PMID:15050046

  6. Heavy metals and metalloid content in vegetables and soil collected from the gardens of Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Puntarić, Eda; Puntarić, Ida; Mayer, Dijana; Bosnir, Jasna; Lasić, Dario; Jergović, Matijana; Klarić, Ivana; Vidosavljević, Marina; Krivdić, Ivancica

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in green leafy vegetables and soil in the urban area of Zagreb, Croatia and to determine if there is a connection between the contamination of soil and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables and soil samples were taken from the gardens located in the outskirts of the city. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; showing that average concentrations of metals and metalloids in vegetables and in soil, regardless of the location of sampling were below the maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The analysis determined that metal concentrations in only nine vegetable samples (9%) were above maximum allowed values prescribed by national and European legislation (three with higher concentrations of Pb, one with a higher concentration of Cd and five with higher concentrations of Hg). Concentrations of contaminants present in the analysed samples, in general, are lower than the ones published in similar studies. The final distribution and concentration of contaminants in vegetables of Zagreb, besides industry and traffic, is affected by the dominant wind direction. PMID:24308243

  7. Physicians’ interpersonal relationships and professional standing seen through the eyes of the general public in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ćurković, Marko; Milošević, Milan; Borovečki, Ana; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical professionalism, as a cornerstone of medicine’s social contract with society, demands physicians adhere to high professional standards while placing public interest ahead of self-interest. This study’s objective was to investigate perceptions of the basic elements of medical professionalism related to physicians’ interpersonal relationships and their professional standing in the view of the broader public. Methods A field survey was conducted using an independently created questionnaire on a nationally representative three-stage probabilistic sample of 1,008 Croatian citizens. By including weights, the sample became nationally representative in terms of sex, age, education, and regional representation. The survey was carried out from April 17 to May 13, 2012. Results The Croatian public recognizes the importance of collaboration among physicians, but their everyday experiences tell a different story, in which almost half of the respondents evaluated physicians’ collaboration as being mediocre, poor, or nonexistent. The perception of physicians’ priorities and their primary interests, where every sixth respondent believes physicians always or almost always puts their own interest in front of that of the patients, as well as the perception of their inadequate adherence to professional standards, is indicative of a disillusioned stance of the public toward the medical profession in Croatia. Conclusion This research offered insight into findings that can have a profound and long-lasting effect on a health care delivery process if they are not further analyzed and rectified. PMID:25210442

  8. Genetic evidence for tula virus in Microtus arvalis and Microtus agrestis populations in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Scharninghausen, Jerrold J; Pfeffer, Martin; Meyer, Hermann; Davis, Donald S; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Faulde, Michael

    2002-01-01

    To determine the threat of hantavirus infection to U.S. Forces, small mammals were sampled from training areas within Croatia. Of the 152 samples, 20 were positive for Tula virus (TUL), 12 common voles (Microtus arvalis) and eight field voles (Microtus agrestis). Sequences from M. agrestis were found in five and sequences from M. arvalis were found in six of seven sequence groups. The high percentage of the same TUL sequences in M. agrestis and M. arvalis suggests the co-occurrence of this virus in both Microtus species is not an accident. If M. agrestis field voles were accidentally infected with TUL, the percentage of polymerase chain reaction-positive animals should be lower than that of M. arvalis. Because the infection rate in M. arvalis (11.8%) was less than half of that found in M. agrestis (27.6%), it is unlikely that the predominance of positive M. agrestis could be due to accidental exposure. It is much more likely that the Croatian virus is circulating between both rodent species. PMID:12656127

  9. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trond; Baranov, Viktor; Hagenlund, Linn Katrine; Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes "Metriocnemini" and "Orthocladiini". Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe "Metriocnemini". Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. PMID:27119557

  10. Novel locus for fibrinogen in 3' region of LEPR gene in island population of Vis (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Tomas, Željka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Barešić, Ana; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Narančić, Nina Smolej

    2014-11-01

    Leptin, a possible mediator between energy homeostasis, inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), acts via leptin receptors. We investigated association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) with several CVD risk factors: body mass index, waist circumference (WC), serum lipids, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels. Thirty-one SNPs in and near LEPR gene were analyzed in 986 inhabitants of the island of Vis, Croatia and 29 SNPs in the inland sample (N=499). We assessed linkage disequilibrium (LD), SNP and haplotype associations with the selected phenotypes. rs4291477 significantly associated with fibrinogen (P=0.003) and rs7539471 marginally significantly with high-density lipoprotein (P=0.004), but only in the Vis sample, while rs10493384 marginally significantly associated with triglyceride levels (P=0.006) in the inland sample. SNPs were grouped into eight LD blocks in Vis and in seven blocks in the inland population. Haplotype A-C-A-A-G-A in block 5 in Vis (rs1782754, rs1171269, rs1022981, rs6673324, rs3790426, rs10493380) and haplotype A-A-A-A in block 4 in the inland data (rs1782754, rs1022981, rs6673324, rs1137100) were nominally associated with WC, P=7.085 × 10(-22) (adjusted P=0.0979) and P=5.496 × 10(-144) (adjusted P=0.1062), respectively. PMID:25296580

  11. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  12. Environmental impact of historical harbour city Zadar (Croatia) on the composition of marine sediments and soils.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Kralik, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sediment samples and soils along the coast line of the Adriatic Sea were sampled along a transect near the coast line at Zadar/Croatia, ranging from north-western suburbs via the historical centre and the industrial area to south-east suburbs. The sediments were dominated by carbonates and clay minerals, and contaminations with Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn-TOC (total organic carbon) at the historical centre and the industrial site were detected, as well as P and Mo input at the mouth of a small creek, probably from agriculture. No trends between the composition of surface and subsurface sea sediments were seen. At the historic harbour site, total element concentrations versus grain size showed a minimum in the fine silt fraction for most of the elements analysed. The soil samples behind the shoreline were not carbonaceous, but dominated by Fe-Al- oxides, some contained high levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sn-Zn. Surprisingly, high TOC values within the soils might be assigned to human impacts, not to humus. Contrary to data from street dust samples from Seoul city/Korea, which were measured within our laboratory at the same time, Pt-Ir-Au were at ambient levels due to the limited use of catalysts in cars in the Zadar area at the time of sampling. PMID:21830135

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. PMID:24562053

  14. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11 680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11 680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. Results The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P < 0.001) and intraoral incisions (P < 0.001) were performed among male patients, whereas significantly more alveolectomies and apicoectomies were performed among female patients (P < 0.001). A greater prevalence of periodontal disease was found in patients residing in Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. Conclusion The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients’ awareness of the importance of oral health. PMID:23444246

  15. Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Simić, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

    2012-01-01

    The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

  16. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    PubMed

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy. PMID:22615201

  17. The recent health reform in Croatia: true reforms or just a fundraising exercise?

    PubMed

    Svaljek, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Croatia's most recent reform of the healthcare system was implemented in 2008. The aim of the reform was to enhance financial stability of the system by introducing additional sources of financing, as well as increase the efficiency of the system by reducing sick pay transfers to households, rationalising spending on pharmaceuticals, restructuring hospitals etc. This paper attempts to assess the success of the 2008 healthcare system reform in reaching financial stability and sustainability, and to evaluate the effects of the reform on equity in funding the system. It takes into account the fact that the reform coincided with a severe economic crisis and decline in the overall living standard of Croatian citizens. The paper shows that the reform ended up being expansionary and thus impaired the necessary fiscal adjustment. Finally, it is argued that in circumstances of declining disposable incomes, increased co-payments aimed at the financial stabilisation of the health system made health services less affordable and could have had detrimental effects on equity in the utilisation of health care. PMID:24138731

  18. Natural radionuclides in bottled drinking waters produced in Croatia and their contribution to radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Rožmarić, Martina; Rogić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Strok, Marko

    2012-10-15

    Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in all Croatian bottled drinking natural spring and natural mineral water products, commercially available on the market, were determined. The samples originated from various geological regions of Croatia. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (234)U>(238)U>(226)Ra>(228)Ra>(210)Pb>(210)Po and (226)Ra>(228)Ra>(234)U>(238)U>(210)Pb>(210)Po for natural spring and mineral waters, respectively. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual effective ingestion doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for children from 7 to 12 years of age, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each type of water, as well as for each population group, were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1 mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to the European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different water types and within each water type, as well as between different age groups, where the lowest contribution was found for uranium isotopes and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:22906977

  19. Redefinition of gestational diabetes mellitus: implications for laboratory practice in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Lovrenčić, Marijana Vučić; Honović, Lorena; Kralik, Saša; Matica, Jasminka; Prašek, Manja; Pape-Medvidović, Edita; Ivanišević, Marina; Đelmiš, Josip

    2013-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes has become a very challenging task in prenatal care worldwide. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has recently issued recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. These recommendations, the first to provide harmonised, evidence-based criteria for the diagnosis and classification of diabetes in pregnancy, are currently being discussed and accepted worldwide by the relevant authorities. As the acceptance of the proposed criteria has major implications for both clinical and laboratory settings, a concerted action towards necessary changes in practice has to be carefully planned and adjusted to national health-care specificities. IADPSG criteria have been strongly advocated by the Croatian Perinatology Society, resulting in a new strategy for the detection and diagnosis of hyperglycaemic disorders in pregnancy. To address the respective laboratory requirements, in April 2012, the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists appointed a Working Group to provide a standardised procedure for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes, applicable to all laboratories involved in prenatal care, in both primary and specialised health-care facilities. In this paper we discuss key laboratory-related issues regarding succesful implementation of the IADPSG criteria in Croatia. PMID:23457760

  20. Comparison between XRF and IBA techniques in analysis of fine aerosols collected in Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Mandić, Luka; Orlić, Ivica; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David D.

    2014-10-01

    The new system for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been installed at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA) at the University of Rijeka. Currently the key application of this new XRF system is in the field of environmental science, i.e. in the analysis of fine airborne particles. In this work, results of initial multi-elemental analysis of PM2.5 fraction is reported for the first time in the region of Rijeka, Croatia. Sampling was performed at the Rijeka City center, during a continuous 9-day period in February/March 2012. All samples were collected on stretched Teflon filters in 12 h periods. To check the reliability of the new XRF system, results of XRF analysis are compared with the results obtained by the well-established Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) laboratory at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The concentrations of H, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. In addition, black carbon was determined by Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Very good agreement between XRF and IBA techniques is obtained for all elements detected by both techniques. Elemental concentrations were correlated with the traffic volume and wind speed and direction. The summary of our findings is presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Redefinition of gestational diabetes mellitus: implications for laboratory practice in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lovrencić, Marijana Vucić; Honović, Lorena; Kralik, Sasa; Matica, Jasminka; Prasek, Manja; Pape-Medvidović, Edita; Ivanisević, Marina; Delmis, Josip

    2013-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes has become a very challenging task in prenatal care worldwide. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has recently issued recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. These recommendations, the first to provide harmonised, evidence-based criteria for the diagnosis and classification of diabetes in pregnancy, are currently being discussed and accepted worldwide by the relevant authorities. As the acceptance of the proposed criteria has major implications for both clinical and laboratory settings, a concerted action towards necessary changes in practice has to be carefully planned and adjusted to national health-care specificities. IADPSG criteria have been strongly advocated by the Croatian Perinatology Society, resulting in a new strategy for the detection and diagnosis of hyperglycaemic disorders in pregnancy. To address the respective laboratory requirements, in April 2012, the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists appointed a Working Group to provide a standardised procedure for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes, applicable to all laboratories involved in prenatal care, in both primary and specialised health-care facilities. In this paper we discuss key laboratory-related issues regarding succesful implementation of the IADPSG criteria in Croatia. PMID:23457760

  2. Terrestrial Biodiversity Analyses in Dalmatia (Croatia): A Complementary Approach Using Diversity and Rarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelaska, Sven D.; Nikolić, Toni; Šerić Jelaska, Lucija; Kušan, Vladimir; Peternel, Hrvoje; Gužvica, Goran; Major, Zoran

    2010-03-01

    Here we present the methodology used for terrestrial biodiversity analysis and site selection in Phase B of the UNDP/GEF COAST project. The analysis was focused on the problem of biodiversity evaluation in four Croatian counties stretching from sea level to the highest mountain in Croatia. Data on habitats, vascular flora, and fauna (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, ground beetles, and underground invertebrates) were collected and analyzed for each of the four counties. Emphasis was given to the richness of endangered species and the rarity of endemic species. Based on the spatial analyses of habitat, fauna, and flora data, four to six areas were selected from each county and ranked according to their biodiversity importance. Overlap between areas important for richness and those important for rarity was highest for data on flora (65.5%) and lowest for data on fauna (16.7%). When different data sets were compared, the lowest overlap was between flora and fauna (17.1%) and largest between fauna and habitats (23.9%). Simultaneous overlap among all three data sets was found in just 6.5% of the overall selected areas. These results suggest that less specific data, with respect to taxa threat status, could better serve as surrogate data in estimating overall biodiversity. In summary, this analysis has demonstrated that Dalmatia is a region with a high overall biodiversity that is important in a broader European context.

  3. Cult of St. Blasius, patron saint of throat sufferers and of otolaryngologists, in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Skrobonja, Ante; Muzur, Amir; Jurdana, Stanko

    2005-03-01

    In the introductory part presented is a short hagiography of St. Blasius, and the legend of miraculous healing of a child in whose throat a bone had stuck, threatening to choke the child. Thanks to that legend, St. Blasius has become the traditional patron of the laryngeal diseases, and, since recently, the patron of the otolaryngologists, too. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the cult of St. Blasius, which is present in Croatia since the 10th century until present. Venerated all over the country, St. Blasius has been "elected" the heavenly protector of 10 parish communities, as well as of the city and the dioceses of Dubrovnik. Beside pilgrimage and prayers, among many traditional forms of folk piety, a ritual called "grlicenje" has been preserved-a curative and preventive blessing of the throat with crossed candles on the Saint's Day. In more recent times, the same day has been remembered among Croatian otolaryngologists and the societies of laryngectomized persons, who chose St. Blasius for their patron, too. PMID:15733587

  4. Chemical composition and genotoxicity assessment of sanitary landfill leachate from Rovinj, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2012-04-01

    Chemical analysis and an in vitro approach were performed to assess elemental composition and genotoxic effects of the samples of landfill leachate taken from Lokva Vidotto sanitary landfill the official landfill for Rovinj town, Croatia. Two samples of landfill leachate were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate macro, micro and trace elements by atomic absorption spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and colorimetry. Genotoxicity of sanitary landfill leachate was evaluated in human lymphocytes by the use of the micronucleus test and comet assay. Samples were characterized with relatively low concentrations of heavy metals while organic component level exceeded upper permissible limit up to 39 times. Observed genotoxic effects should be connected with high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, which exceeded permissible limit up to 180 times. Leachate samples of both sanitary landfills increased the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Increase of DNA damage in human lymphocytes was also detected by virtue of measuring comet assay parameters. All parameters showed statistically significant difference compared to negative control. Increased micronucleus and comet assay parameters indicate that both samples of sanitary landfill leachate are genotoxic and could pose environmental and human health risk if discharged to an aquatic environment. PMID:22177983

  5. Carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, Croatia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hrenovic, Jasna; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Kazazic, Snjezana; Kovacic, Ana; Ganjto, Marin; Tonkic, Marija

    2016-04-14

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging hospital pathogen. Whereas A. baumannii isolated from patients or hospitals has been reported, there are few data regarding propagation of viable A. baumannii in the natural environment. This study investigates the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of viable A. baumannii in municipal wastewater and its persistence through the wastewater treatment process. A total of 21 A. baumannii isolates were recovered at a secondary type of municipal wastewater treatment plant in Zagreb, Croatia: 15 from raw influent wastewater and six from final effluent. All isolates were carbapenem- and multidrug-resistant. Among 14 isolates tested for blaOXA genes, all harboured the constitutive blaOXA-51-like gene, while the acquired blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-40-like genes were found in 10 and three isolates respectively. Six A. baumannii isolates recovered from effluent wastewater multiplied and survived in sterilised effluent wastewater up to 50 days. These findings support the idea that multidrug-resistant A. baumannii can occur and have the ability to survive in the environment. PMID:27105318

  6. Heavy metals and acidic components in total deposited matter in Sibenik and National Park Kornati, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cacković, Mirjana; Kalinić, Natasa; Vadjić, Vladimira; Pehnec, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of 6 years (1999-2004) of monitoring acidic components (fluoride, chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium, thallium) in total deposited matter (TDM) in the town of Sibenik and the National Park Kornati, Croatia, in order to determine their levels, spatial and temporal variations, and possible emission source. Bulk deposition samples were collected using the Bergerhoff samplers. TDM matter was determined gravimetrically. Acidic anions were analyzed using ion chromatography. Metallic components were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that the levels of measured pollutants were relatively low compared to those reported in other investigations. Statistical analysis indicates that the measured pollutants originate from several sources such as resuspended soil, industry, road dust, traffic, and secondary aerosols as the most important. The levels of TDM show a slightly increasing trend at all sampling sites. A significant increasing trend in the levels of nitrate and sulfate in TDM could be the consequence of increasing traffic activity and urbanization. The significant increasing trend in the ratio between nitrate and sulfate in TDM indicates that the nitrate and sulfate relative contribution to acidification is increasing. The level of heavy metals in TDM was in order of lead > thallium > cadmium at all sampling sites with slightly decreasing trend. PMID:18414927

  7. Radiological characterization of tap waters in Croatia and the age dependent dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Rožmarić, Martina; Rogić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Barišić, Delko; Planinšek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in tap waters, originating from various geological regions of Croatia, were determined. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (238)U≈(234)U>(228)Ra≈(210)Pb>(226)Ra≈(210)Po. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual internal doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for infants, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each population group were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different age groups but for each group the lowest contribution was found for (226)Ra and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:24997928

  8. Low permeability Neogene lithofacies in Northern Croatia as potential unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvić, Tomislav; Sučić, Antonija; Cvetković, Marko; Resanović, Filip; Velić, Josipa

    2014-06-01

    We present two examples of describing low permeability Neogene clastic lithofacies to outline unconventional hydrocarbon lithofacies. Both examples were selected from the Drava Depression, the largest macrostructure of the Pannonian Basin System located in Croatia. The first example is the Beničanci Field, the largest Croatian hydrocarbon reservoir discovered in Badenian coarse-grained clastics that consists mostly of breccia. The definition of low permeability lithofacies is related to the margins of the existing reservoir, where the reservoir lithology changed into a transitional one, which is mainly depicted by the marlitic sandstones. However, calculation of the POS (probability of success of new hydrocarbons) shows critical geological categories where probabilities are lower than those in the viable reservoir with proven reserves. Potential new hydrocarbon volumes are located in the structural margins, along the oil-water contact, with a POS of 9.375%. These potential reserves in those areas can be classified as probable. A second example was the Cremušina Structure, where a hydrocarbon reservoir was not proven, but where the entire structure has been transferred onto regional migration pathways. The Lower Pontian lithology is described from well logs as fine-grained sandstones with large sections of silty or marly clastics. As a result, the average porosity is low for conventional reservoir classification (10.57%). However, it is still an interesting case for consideration as a potentially unconventional reservoir, such as the "tight" sandstones.

  9. Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n., a new species from the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group from Croatia (Insecta, Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) with molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes on the group

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Szivák, Ildikó; Pauls, Steffen U.; Bálint, Miklós; Delić, Antun; Vučković, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new autumnal caddisfly species Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n. from 8 localities in the Banovina region of Croatia. We also present molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes (emergence, sex ratio and seasonal dynamics) on the new species and discuss the distribution of Chaetopteryx species in general and the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group in particular. Based on Bayesian phylogenetic analysis Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi was separated from the clade containing the other subspecies of Chaetopteryx rugulosa. Thus the subspecies Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi is here raised to species level, Chaetopteryx schmidi, as it was described originally. We further present distribution data on rare species in the genus Chaetopteryx in Croatia. PMID:23950680

  10. Implications of the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union for Croatian health care system.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The Republic of Croatia's accession to the European Union (EU) will affect all segments of economy and society, including the health care system. The aim of this paper is to establish the potential effects of joining the EU on Croatian health care, as well as to assess its readiness to enter this regional economic integration. The paper identifies potential areas of impact of EU accession on Croatian health care and analyzes the results of the conducted empirical research. In this research, a method of in-depth interviews was applied on a sample of 49 subjects; health professionals from public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). Once Croatia joins the EU, it will face: new rules and priorities in line with the current European health strategy; the possibilities of drawing funds from European cohesion funds; labour migrations; new guidelines on patient safety and mobility. From the aspect of harmonising national regulations with EU regulations in the area of health care, Croatian system can be assessed as ready to enter the EU. Croatia's accession to the EU can result in a better information flow, growth of competitiveness of Croatian health care system, enhanced quality, inflow of EU funds, development of health tourism, but also in increased migration of health care professionals, and potential increase in the cost of health care services. Functioning within the EU framework might result in adaptation to the EU standards, but it could also result in the concentration of staff and institutions in larger cities. PMID:23213925

  11. Psychological Consequences of Rape on Women in 1991-1995 War in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9 ± 2.4 months after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n = 65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n = 58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n = 40), and suicidal ideas (n = 25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). Conclusion War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning. PMID:16489699

  12. Body Image and Weight Control among Adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States in the Context of Global Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Petronyte, Gintare; Sumskas, Linas; Kuzman, Marina; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare body image and weight control behavior among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States (US), the countries with striking contrasts in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents. Method The study was carried out according to the methodology of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children collaborative survey. Nationally-representative samples of students, aged 13 and 15, were surveyed in Lithuania (3778 respondents), Croatia (2946 respondents), and the US (3546 respondents) in the 2001/2002 school year. Results In all three countries, girls perceived themselves as being “too fat” more frequently than boys (37.0% vs 19.7%, P<0.001, z test). The prevalence of this perception increased with age among girls (32.7% vs 41.1%, P<0.001, z test) and decreased among boys (21.4% vs 17.9%, P = 0.005, z test). Lithuanian adolescents were least likely to perceive themselves as “too fat;” this perception was significantly more frequent in Croatia and the US (24.2%, 27.5%, and 34.3%, respectively; P<0.001, χ2 test). With the exception of 15-year-old Lithuanian boys, in all respondents the proportion of adolescents with body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile who perceived themselves as “too fat” was significantly higher (up to 3.13 times among 15-year-old US girls) than the proportion of adolescents with BMI ≤15th percentile who perceived themselves as “too thin.” The highest proportion of overweight boys and girls on a diet or doing something else to lose weight was found in the US. Boys in Lithuania were most likely to be satisfied with their weight regardless of their weight status. Conclusion Perceived body image and weight control behavior differ among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the US. Cross-cultural, age, and sex influences moderate body image and weight control behavior in underweight and overweight adolescents. PMID:18461679

  13. Traditional CVD risk factors and socio-economic deprivation in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narancic, Nina Smolej; Salihović, Marijana Pericić; Klarić, Irena Martinović; Barbalić, Maja; Starcević, Boris; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Janićijević, Branka

    2008-09-01

    Researches into health inequalities consistently show disadvantages in health status, morbidity and mortality for various ethnic minority groups. Current knowledge about prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mainly derives from studies carried out in populations of European origin while the evidences involving Roma population are scarce. Roma, an ethnic minority of northern Indian origin, live in many countries throughout the world and are well known for preserved traditions and resistance to assimilation. They are most often marginalized economically, spatially, politically and in terms of culture. In order to assess the health status and health-related lifestyle attributes, a multidisciplinary anthropological and epidemiological community-based study was carried out including a total of 423 members of the Bayash Roma minority population living in two regions of Croatia (144 men and 279 women, aged 18-84 yrs). Hypertension (HT) was found in 24.8% Bayash Roma (21.5% men and 26.5% women) using standard diagnostic criteria (i.e. BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive therapy). The prevalence increases from 5.9% in the age group 18-34 yrs; 35.0% in the age group 35-64 yrs, and 51.4% in the age group 65+ yrs. The prevalence of hypertension in the Bayash Roma is almost half of the magnitude of what is usually reported for the general population of Croatia. It is also lower when compared with other European populations and this finding is not due to comparatively younger average age of the Bayash sample. The significant association of hypertension with age and BMI was confirmed in this study and the importance of non-traditional SES-related CVD risk factors was highlighted. Smoking is a part of traditional Roma life-style and with 70% of smokers almost the entire population is equally exposed to this risk factor in their family environment. Since homogenously distributed, this risk factor did not show to be a significant predictor of hypertension. The

  14. Fluviokarst and classical karst: Examples from the Dinarics (Krk Island, Northern Adriatic, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benac, Čedomir; Juračić, Mladen; Matičec, Dubravko; Ružić, Igor; Pikelj, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    In order to contribute to the debate on the role of fluvial erosion in the shaping of karst, two nearby areas with different karstic landscapes were compared. Areas A and B are located relatively close to each other on the southern side of the Krk Island (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Both areas are composed of similar limestone with a very high CaCO3 content. Area A is a typical doline or polygonal type ("classical") of karst with numerous dolines (up to 57/km2) covered with terra rossa (red soil) and Mediterranean maquis shrubland. Dolines are located in zones which correspond to the strike of the main geological structures. Dry karstic valleys are visible only on gently inclined coastal slopes bordering the karstic plateau. In contrast, area B is typical of a bare karst landscape with a strong (palaeo)fluvial imprint. The dolines are absent, and the bedrock is only sporadically covered with terra rossa. Palaeogene marls have been observed in a few elongated depressions and in the coastal zone of area B. Along steep coastal slopes, valleys (up to 460 m/km2) are cut into the carbonates. The traces of episodic surface flows are visible in some of these valleys, in contrast to the valleys in area A. Remnants of a disrupted ancient fluvial network are clearly visible on the elevated karstic plateau in area B. Differences in the recent morphology are attributed mainly to varying thicknesses of the Palaeogene impermeable marly cover, and the intensity of tectonics in the two areas.

  15. Chromosome damage and cancer risk in the workplace: the example of cytogenetic surveillance in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Fucić, Aleksandra; Znaor, Ariana; Strnad, Marija; van der Hel, Olga; Aleksandrov, Anastasija; Miskov, Snjezana; Grah, Josip; Sedlar, Miljenko; Jazbec, Ana Marija; Ceppi, Marcello; Vermeulen, Roel; Boffetta, Paolo; Norppa, Hannu; Bonassi, Stefano

    2007-07-30

    The use of cytogenetic assays in the surveillance of populations occupationally exposed to genotoxic carcinogens originates from the assumption that chromosomal alterations might be causally involved in early stages of carcinogenesis. Historical cohort studies have since 1990s consistently reported an association between the level of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy subjects and the risk of cancer. Only in few cases, have these results been transformed into a regulatory tool for improving occupational safety. The cytogenetic surveillance program adopted for more than two decades in the Republic of Croatia is one of these few examples. Croatian workers exposed to genotoxic agents were systematically screened for CA, to identify occupational settings needing a priority intervention. Significant increases of mean CA frequency were observed in groups exposed to ionizing radiation, chemical agents, and mixed exposures when compared with a group of unexposed referents. CA data on 736 men and 584 women, monitored between 1987 and 2000, have been associated with cancer incidence. Although the small size of the cohort did not allow for reaching statistical significance, the medium tertile of the CA frequency distribution was associated with a doubling of cancer incidence rate ratio (IRR=2.40; 95% CI 0.85-6.77) when compared with the lowest tertile. For chromosome-type CA, IRR was non-significantly increased for both the medium (IRR 1.53, 95% CI 0.58-3.99) and high categories (IRR 1.69; 95% CI 0.61-4.72). Recommendations for future strategies comprise the inclusion of predictive biomarkers in surveillance programs, the definition of a regulatory framework, and their possible use for the identification of individual risk profiles. PMID:17651925

  16. New discoveries and interpretations of hominid fossils and artifacts from Vindija Cave, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ahern, James C M; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja; Janković, Ivor; Smith, Fred H

    2004-01-01

    Beginning with excavations during the 1970s, Vindija Cave (Croatia) has yielded significant Middle and Upper Paleolithic fossil and archaeological finds. We report on seven recently identified hominid fossils, a newly associated partial hominid cranial vault from level G(3), nine possible bone retouchers, and a revised interpretation of the Mousterian artifact assemblage from the site. This new information reinforces our knowledge of the complex biocultural phenomena revealed in unit G and earlier deposits at Vindija. Six of the new hominid fossils derive from stratigraphic units G and I, while one lacks exact provenience. All specimens preserving diagnostic anatomy are from Neandertals. One of the postcranial remains, a radius fragment which exhibits Neandertal-like anatomy, comes from level G(1)and is congruent with the previously established association of Neandertals with an early Upper Paleolithic industry at the site. The partial cranial vault represents the most complete Neandertal from Vindija. The possible retouchers derive from unit G. Our analysis of these artifacts suggests that both percussion and pressure techniques may have been used by Neandertals in the final stage of tool production (retouching). This paper also presents a revision of the artifact analysis for late Mousterian level G(3). We separated raw materials into two main groups due to the differing ways that the materials fracture and the differing morphology of the debitage. The use of raw material in level G(3)is different from earlier Middle Paleolithic levels at Vindija. This indicates that the G(3)late Neandertals were making choices regarding source material somewhat more like the Upper Paleolithic people at the site. When interpreted within a larger regional framework, the Vindija archaeological and hominid fossil remains demonstrate a complex, mosaic pattern of biocultural change in the Late Pleistocene of south-central Europe. PMID:14698684

  17. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of the Pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in the Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galović, Lidija

    2016-03-01

    In the Eastern Croatia impressive loess-paleosol successions up to 30 m thick are exposed. In the Zmajevac I section three paleosols are intercalated in loess while in the Zmajevac, Erdut and Šarengrad sections there are four paleosols are intercalated in loess. IRSL age estimates of 17.8 ± 1.9 and 217 ± 22 ka. In all investigated sections, alluvial sediments are intercalated in the loess deposits, indicating periods of fluvial activity. Strongly abraded typical aeolian spherical grains characterized by pitted well-rounded surface that was developed during transportation have original crystal surface almost destroyed. Surface of quartz grains preserves micro textures characteristic for all transport medias that it has been exposed to. However, muscovite grain surface enable successful distinguishing if the last transport was by wind or by aquatic media. Characteristic of all horizons with muscovite as a dominant mineral is recent settling of organisms. Beside the Danube, Drava and Sava River flood plains, part of the analyzed sediments also originates from regional Tertiary sediments which are rich in granite (as a muscovite-bearing rock), indicating the local influence. Enrichment of pyroxenes in the Šarengrad section points to the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone as its source of origin eroded by the Sava River southern tributaries. Šarengrad section is the southernmost among the analyzed sections and the southern edge of the Carpathian Basin. Thus, beside the Alpine region, the mineral composition is influenced by minerals from the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone in Bosnia. Warming periods are not represented just by paleosols, but also with laminated alluvial sediments.

  18. Urban-rural differences in a population-based breast cancer screening program in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Stamenić, Valerija; Strnad, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate urban-rural differences in the distribution of risk factors for breast cancer. Methods We analyzed the data from the first round of the “Mamma” population based-screening program conducted in Croatia between 2007 and 2009 and self-reported questionnaire results for 924 patients with histologically verified breast cancer. Reproductive and anthropometric characteristics, family history of breast cancer, history of breast disease, and prior breast screening history were compared between participants from the city of Zagreb (n = 270) and participants from 13 counties with more than 50% of rural inhabitants (n = 654). Results The screen-detected breast cancer rate was 4.5 per 1000 mammographies in rural counties and 4.6 in the city of Zagreb, while the participation rate was 61% in rural counties and 59% in Zagreb. Women from Zagreb had significantly more characteristics associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (P < 0.001 in all cases): no pregnancies (15% vs 7%), late age of first pregnancy (≥30 years) (10% vs 4%), and the most recent mammogram conducted 2-3 years ago (32% vs 14%). Women from rural counties were more often obese (41% vs 28%) and had early age of first live birth (<20 years) (20% vs 7%, P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion Identification of rural-urban differences in mammography use and their causes at the population level can be useful in designing and implementing interventions targeted at the reduction of inequalities and modifiable risk factors. PMID:21328724

  19. Contribution of Forensic Anthropology to Identification Process in Croatia: Examples of Victims Recovered in Wells

    PubMed Central

    Šlaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovečki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta

    2007-01-01

    Aim To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. Methods From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Results Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n = 37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Conclusion Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells. PMID:17696305

  20. Porcine astrovirus viremia and high genetic variability in pigs on large holdings in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Starešina, Vilim; Jemeršić, Lorena

    2013-03-01

    Astroviruses are emerging viral agents, primarily enteropathogenic in mammals, but recently have been acknowledged to have extra-intestinal implications in humans and mink. Porcine astrovirus is thought to be widely distributed and highly prevalent among pigs, nevertheless its clinical significance remains doubtful as it can be detected in diarrheic as well as in healthy pigs. Recent reports imply the immense genetic variability among porcine astrovirus strains with five distinct lineages being characterized so far. Herein, we report porcine astrovirus circulation in the blood of healthy pigs in different age categories bred on two large industrial holdings in Croatia, with viral RNA seroprevalence of 3.89%. These are the first extra-intestinal findings of astrovirus in pigs, indicating a more complex pathogenesis than previously thought. Partial polymerase sequences of serum-derived strains provisionally clustered into porcine astrovirus lineages 2 and 4, sharing high genetic identity with previously described porcine astrovirus strains. The results were supported by detecting porcine astrovirus strains in composite fecal samples, regardless of pig category or holding tested. Phylogenetic analysis of derived strains suggested the presence of porcine astrovirus lineages previously detected in pig sera with an additional highly genetically divergent lineage 5, reported for the first time in Europe. Moreover, the existence of possible sub lineages should not be excluded. The results obtained in the present study, contribute to knowledge of porcine astrovirus pathogenesis; even though it's possible clinical significance remains unclear. High fecal prevalence accompanied with vast genetic diversity on a relatively confined area, underscores the importance of pigs as porcine astrovirus reservoirs with eventual recombination events as a possible outcome. PMID:23313832

  1. Health insurance in Croatia: dynamics and politics of balancing revenues and expenditures.

    PubMed

    Voncina, Luka; Kehler, Jenni; Evetovits, Tamas; Bagat, Mario

    2010-04-01

    Since 2002, the Croatian social health insurance system has undergone substantial reforms, initiated for the most part with the aim of addressing the perpetual financial deficits of the state health insurance fund. While the reforms focussed heavily on increasing the inflow of private funds into the health care system, underlying inefficiencies contributing significantly to poor financial performance have been largely ignored. Furthermore, contrary to demographic trends and developments in social health insurance schemes in other countries, funding health care became even more dependent on its main collection mechanism-payroll tax-and consequently on the employment ratio and wage level. Little effort has been made to diversify the revenue base or to increase the efficiency of revenue collection. Like other countries, Croatia is facing difficulties in adjusting its 'Bismarck' system to its changing demographic and socioeconomic context. Instead of targetting a comprehensive effort at improving revenue collection and limitating unnecessary expenditure and system inefficiencies, simplified approaches to balance the budget have been implemented at a high price to users and with limited effect. As a result, the Croatian health insurance system now offers a lower level of financial protection, while still facing the problem of spending more than can be collected through the current mix of revenue collection mechanisms. The authors suggest that, in order to meet the sustainability requirement of the health financing system, measures affecting both revenue and expenditure should be considered and implemented. On the revenue collection side, the Croatian government must make further efforts to improve collection from the informally employed to broaden the base of contributing members; equally important is the diversification of revenue sources by increasing transfers from general taxation revenues. On the expenditure side, exploring inefficiencies of the delivery system can

  2. Trace metals in the environment and population as possible long term consequence of war in Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Puntarić, Dinko; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Jergović, Matijana; Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Puntarić, Ida; Vidosavljević, Marina

    2014-09-01

    War in Croatia resulted with a significant release of contaminants into the environment as a result of the use of combat assets, mainly conventional, mostly aimed at civilian targets. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of metals and metalloids in the soils, water, plants (Taraxacum officinale), serum, urine and hair of the inhabitants in eastern Croatia. Overall results show minor abnormalities in presence of some trace metals in soil (As, Hg, Pb, Sb), water (As, Fe) and dandelion leaves (As) in some locations. Compared with soil samples from areas exposed to low intensity combat activity soil samples from areas exposed to heavy fighting had higher concentrations of As, Hg and Pb than allowed by national legislation for ecologic farming. Drinking water with the exceptions of the concentrations of Fe, As and Mn was in accordance with national legislation. Examinees from Dalj had mean hair Sb level 10-19x higher then examinees from any other location. However, when these data are correlated through methods of principal component analysis, presence of trace metals in some war affected areas can be followed from soil, through plants up to population proving that intense combat activities over small area leave metal presence that can be followed even 15 years after the war. PMID:25507359

  3. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters. PMID:22728801

  4. Repeat HIV Testing at Voluntary Testing and Counseling Centers in Croatia: Successful HIV Prevention or Failure to Modify Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Matković Puljić, Vlatka; Kosanović Ličina, Mirjana Lana; Kavić, Marija; Nemeth Blažić, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing plays a critical role in preventing the spread of the virus and identifying infected individuals in need of care. Voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTs) not only conduct testing but they also provide counseling. Since a proportion of people who test negative for HIV on their previous visit will return for retesting, the frequency of retesting and the characteristics of those who retest may provide insights into the efficacy of testing and counseling strategies. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study of 1,482 VCT clients in Croatia in 2010, 44.3% had been tested for HIV before. The rate of repeat HIV testing is lower in Croatia than in other countries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) clients, those with three or more sexual partners in the last 12 months, consistent condom users with steady partners, and intravenous drug users were more likely to be repeat testers. This finding suggests that clients presenting for repeat HIV testing are those who self-identify as being at a higher risk of infection. Our data showed that testing positive for HIV was not associated with repeat testing. However, the effects of repeat testing on HIV epidemiology needs to be explored. PMID:24705595

  5. Origin of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from swine affected by PCV2-associated diseases in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novosel, D; Tuboly, T; Csagola, A; Lorincz, M; Cubric-Curik, V; Jungic, A; Curik, I; Segalés, J; Cortey, M; Lipej, Z

    2014-04-26

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes some of the most significant economic losses in pig production. Several multisystemic syndromes have been attributed to PCV2 infection, which are known as PCV2-associated diseases (PCVDs). This study investigated the origin and evolution of PCV2 sequences in domestic pigs and wild boars affected by PCVDs in Croatia. Viral sequences were recovered from three wild boars diagnosed with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD), 63 fetuses positive for PCV2 DNA as determined by PCR, 14 domestic pigs affected with PCV2-SD (displaying severe interstitial nephritis) and five domestic pigs with proliferative and necrotising pneumonia. Seventeen complete PCV2 genomes were recovered. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on median-joining phylogenetic networks, amino acid alignments and principal coordinate analysis were performed using complete genomes, as well as complete and partial ORF sequences for ORF1 and ORF2. Two of the 17 PCV2 sequences belonged to PCV2a, 14 to PCV2b and one was unclustered. PCV2b was the predominant genotype in Croatia and has been linked to international trade as a route of introduction. Correlation between particular viral strains with PCVDs is lacking. PMID:24591478

  6. Trace metals in the environment and population as possible long term consequence of war in Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Puntarić, Dinko; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Jergović, Matijana; Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Puntarić, Ida; Vidosavljević, Marina

    2014-09-01

    War in Croatia resulted with a significant release of contaminants into the environment as a result of the use of combat assets, mainly conventional, mostly aimed at civilian targets. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of metals and metalloids in the soils, water, plants (Taraxacum officinale), serum, urine and hair of the inhabitants in eastern Croatia. Overall results show minor abnormalities in presence of some trace metals in soil (As, Hg, Pb, Sb), water (As, Fe) and dandelion leaves (As) in some locations. Compared with soil samples from areas exposed to low intensity combat activity soil samples from areas exposed to heavy fighting had higher concentrations of As, Hg and Pb than allowed by national legislation for ecologic farming. Drinking water with the exceptions of the concentrations of Fe, As and Mn was in accordance with national legislation. Examinees from Dalj had mean hair Sb level 10-19x higher then examinees from any other location. However, when these data are correlated through methods of principal component analysis, presence of trace metals in some war affected areas can be followed from soil, through plants up to population proving that intense combat activities over small area leave metal presence that can be followed even 15 years after the war. PMID:25420375

  7. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian... YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND... and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb...

  8. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina controlled by... YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND... Bosnia and Herzegovina controlled by Bosnian Serb forces. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a...

  9. The International Scientific Colloquium MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (The Math Teacher) = Treci medunarodni znanstveni skup MATEMATIKA I DIJETE (Ucitelj matematike) (3rd, Osijek, Croatia, March 18, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In the monograph The Math Teacher (following the Third International Scientific Colloquium Mathematics and Children in 2011), the term "teacher" designates a person who teaches mathematics, and the context of each article reveals whether this implies the teacher at a pre-school institution, a school or a university instructor. In Croatia, much…

  10. Geomorphological map as a tool for visualisation of geodiversity - example from Cave Park Grabovaca (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzjak, Nenad; Bocic, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen

    2014-05-01

    Cave Park Grabovaca is located near Perusic in Lika region (central Croatia). It was established in 2006 at the area of 5.95 km2 (protection category: significant landscape). The main task is management and protection of Samograd, Medina and Amidzina caves that were declared as geomorphological monuments, and 6 other caves located close to each other. Owing to the central geographic location in Croatian Dinaric karst area, good traffic connections between central Europe and tourist centres of the Adriatic coast, preserved nature and easy accessible karst features typical for the Dinaric Karst, it has good potential to develop as an research, educational and tourist centre. In 2013. Cave Park management and the Department of Geography (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science) established a core team that started to develop the project of Geoeducational centre (GEC) with following goals: exploration-evaluation-presentation-education. According to the accepted strategy, the first step in the project process is to enlarge the area and change the protection category. During the consultation process team members take into account protection, environmental, local economy, tourism and local population issues and proposed that protected area should be increased to 52,2 km2. This enlargement provides more efficient protection, greater geodiversity and biodiversity by occupying geotope, biotope, and landscape units typical for the whole Lika karst region. The next step was inventorying, evaluation, analysis and visualisation of geological, geomorphological and speleological phenomena. This 2 year task was made in cooperation between Croatian Geomorphological Society, Department of Geography, Speleological Society Karlovac and Caving Club Samobor. The inventory was made using field-work mapping and geotagged photographs, cave mapping and DEM analysis. It resulted in GIS oriented geodatabase consisting of geomorphological forms, processes and cave inventory. From those data

  11. Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E in Selected Population Groups in Croatia: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vilibic-Cavlek, T; Vilibic, M; Kolaric, B; Jemersic, L; Kucinar, J; Barbic, L; Bagaric, A; Stevanovic, V; Tabain, I; Sviben, M; Jukic, V; Mlinaric-Galinovic, G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E has become an emerging infection in many European countries. We analysed the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in selected population groups in Croatia. Overall HEV IgG seropositivity was 5.6%, while 1.9% participants showed IgM antibodies suggestive of recent infection. No IgM-positive sample was positive for HEV RNA. HEV IgG antibodies were most prevalent in alcohol abusers (8.9%) and war veterans (8.6%), compared with 6.1% among injecting drug users and 2.7% in healthcare professionals. No individual with high-risk sexual behaviour tested HEV seropositive. HEV IgG positivity increased significantly with age from 1.8% to 2.3% in individuals younger than 40 years to 11.3% in individuals older than 50 years (P = 0.023). The mean age of HEV-positive participants was significantly higher than that of HEV-negative participants (50.9 ± 11.8 years versus 41.2 ± 11.8 years, P = 0.008). Seroprevalence rates were significantly higher in residents of suburban and rural areas compared with residents of urban areas (14.5% versus 2.5%, P = 0.003). Additionally, an increasing prevalence of HEV IgG antibodies was observed from 1.8% in participants living in families with two household members to 12.1% in those living with more than four members (P = 0.046). Gender, marital status, educational level, sexual orientation, source of drinking water, history of blood transfusions, surgical procedures, tattooing and travelling were not associated with HEV seroprevalence. Logistic regression showed that living in suburban/rural areas was the main risk factor for HEV seropositivity (OR = 6.67; 95%CI = 1.89-25.0; AOR = 7.14, 95%CI = 1.89-25.0). PMID:26776465

  12. Family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness in adolescents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tripković, Mara; Francisković, Tanja; Grgić, Neda; Ercegović, Nela; Graovac, Mirjana; Zecević, Iva

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research is to look into the roles of families' social situation and cohesion in adolescent auto-aggressiveness in Croatia. The research was conducted on a sample of Zagreb high school students which encompassed 701 pupils of both genders aged 14-19. The basic demographic data were obtained using the Structured Demographic and Family Data Questionnaire. Auto-aggressiveness was tested using a section of the Report on Youth Aged 11-18 and the Scale of Auto-destructiveness--SAD, whereas the family cohesion was tested with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales FACES III. The obtained results show differences according to the gender: girls are more prone to auto-aggressiveness than boys (t = -3.385, df = 565, p = 0.001) and girls more often show symptoms of destructiveness (t = -3.809, df = 637, p < 0.001) and anxiety (t = -6.562, df = 640, p < 0.001), while boys show pronounced aggressiveness (t = 2.655, df = 653, p = 0.008). Significant family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness are parents' marital status (chi2 = 18.039, df = 4, p = 0.001), their financial situation (F(2.548) = 4.604, p = 0.010), alcoholic father (chi2 = 9.270, df = 2, p = 0.010), mentally ill mother (t = 5.264, df = 541, p < 0.001), as well as mentally ill father (t = 4.744, df = 529, p < 0.001), and corporal punishment by mother (F(2.542) = 8.132, p < 0.001) or father (F(2.530) = 5.341, p = 0.005). Adolescents from split families show more auto-aggressiveness. Family cohesion appears to be considerably associated with auto-aggressiveness and the adolescents that see their families as less cohesive have more mental problems (chi2 = 29.98, df = 2, p < 0.001). There is a connection between auto-destructive behavior in adolescents and family factors. Knowledge of family's social situation and cohesion may help understand, prevent and treat auto-aggressiveness in adolescents. PMID:24611318

  13. Distribution of trace metals in anchialine caves of Adriatic Sea, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuculić, Vlado; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Željko; Mlakar, Marina

    2011-11-01

    This study presents results of the first comprehensive research on ecotoxic trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) in aquatic anchialine ecosystems. Data show the influence of hydrological and geological characteristics on trace metals in highly stratified anchialine water columns. Distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in two anchialine water bodies, Bjejajka Cave and Lenga Pit in the Mljet National park, Croatia were investigated seasonally from 2006 to 2010. Behaviour and concentrations of dissolved and total trace metals in stratified water columns and metal contents in sediment, carbonate rocks and soil of the anchialine environment were evaluated. Trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in both anchialine water columns were significantly elevated compared to adjacent seawater. Zn and Cu concentrations were the highest in the Lenga Pit water column and sediment. Elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cu in Bjejajka Cave were mainly terrigenous. Significantly elevated concentrations of cadmium (up to 0.3 μg L -1) were found in the water column of Bjejajka cave, almost two orders of magnitude higher compared to nearby surface seawater. Laboratory analysis revealed that bat guano was the major source of cadmium in Bjejajka Cave. Cadmium levels in Lenga Pit, which lacks accumulations of bat guano, were 20-fold lower. Moreover, low metal amounts in carbonate rocks in both caves, combined with mineral leaching experiments, revealed that carbonates play a minor role as a source of metals in both water columns. We observed two types of vertical distribution pattern of cadmium in the stratified anchialine Bjejajka Cave water column. At lower salinities, non-conservative behaviour was characterized by strong desorption and enrichment of dissolved phase while, at salinities above 20, Cd behaved conservatively and its dissolved concentration decreased. Conservative behaviour of Cu, Pb, Zn and DOC was observed throughout the water column. After heavy rains, Cd

  14. [The Journal of Slavonian Physicians (Glasnik druztva Slavonskih Liecnika), the journal of the medical society in Croatia 1877-1878].

    PubMed

    Belicza, Biserka; Tucak, Antun

    2003-01-01

    If we discuss chronological appearance of medical journals as official gazettes of medical associations in this part of the world and Europe, then Glasnik druztva slavonskih liecnika (Glasnik DSL) is the first and the oldest medical journal of this kind in Croatia, whose first number is dated January 1, 1877, and the last December 1, 1878. It is the gazette of the Slavonian Medical Association in Osiek (DSL in Osiek), a professional medical association founded in 1874, which today marks its activity as the Croatian Medical Association--Osijek Branch (HLZ). Our goal was to investigate the key determinants of its appearance in the context of the role and contribution of Slavonian physicians in the promotion and development of Croatian medical literature, particularly medical periodicals in the 19th century. The conclusions we reached are based on the knowledge acquired during previous investigations on the history of medical associations and development of professional medical periodicals in Croatia and Slavonia in the 19th century, and on the historical material and preserved documentation of DSL in Osiek, HLZ in Zagreb, and Glasnik DSL from the beginning of 1874 through 1878. Basic determinants of the appearance and relatively short duration of the monthly periodical Glasnik DSL are highlighted, with the emphasis on: 1) events preceding its publication, including initiatives of physicians in Slavonia for the development of Croatian medical terminology, professional medical publications, particularly medical journals from the middle of the 19th century through 1876; 2) circumstances accompanying the publication of the journal Glasnik DSL in the period from January 1, 1877 through 1878; 3) events contributing to making decision on discontinuation of its publishing. The results are presented in several separate chapters which offer new scientific knowledge about the history of the medical Journal Glasnik DSL, and about the role of Slavonian physicians and DSL in Osiek

  15. Accreditation of medical laboratories in Croatia--experiences of the Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital "Merkur", Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata; Nazor, Aida; Perkov, Sonja; Surina, Branka; Kardum-Paro, Mirjana Mariana; Siftar, Zoran; Sikirica, Mirjana; Sokolić, Ivica; Ozvald, Ivan; Vidas, Zeljko

    2010-03-01

    Since 2003 when the international norm for implementation of quality management in medical laboratories (EN ISO 15189, Medical laboratories--Particular requirements for quality and competence) was established and accepted, accreditation has become practical, generally accepted method of quality management and confirmation of technical competence of medical laboratories in the whole world. This norm has been translated into Croatian and accepted by the Croatian Institute for Norms as Croatian norm. Accreditation is carried out on voluntary basis by the Croatian Accreditation Agency that has up to now accredited two clinical medical biochemical laboratories in the Republic of Croatia. Advantages of accredited laboratory lie in its documented management system, constant improvement and training, reliability of test results, establishing users' trust in laboratory services, test results comparability and interlaboratory (international) test results acceptance by adopting the concept of metrological traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:20437640

  16. Phylogenetic characterisation of feline immunodeficiency virus in naturally infected cats in Croatia indicates additional heterogeneity of subtype B in Europe.

    PubMed

    Perharić, Matko; Biđin, Marina; Starešina, Vilim; Milas, Zoran; Turk, Nenad; Štritof, Zrinka; Hađina, Suzana; Habuš, Josipa; Stevanović, Vladimir; Mojčec-Perko, Vesna; Kovač, Snježana; Martinković, Krešimir; Barbić, Ljubo

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed on 29 domestic cats with a variety of clinical signs, possibly related to FIV infection. Blood samples were tested by a rapid immunochromatographic (ICA) procedure for detection of FIV antibodies. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a portion of the proviral gag gene. All 11 positive PCR products were sequenced and compared with previously reported FIV sequences. Croatian proviral isolates that could be amplified were clustered within subtype B, and additional heterogeneity was confirmed by the formation of three separate clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of circulating strains in Croatia and in southeast Europe is necessary to improve diagnostic methods and selection of the appropriate vaccinal strains. PMID:27318929

  17. Variations in mugwort (Artemisia spp.) airborne pollen concentrations at three sites in central Croatia, in period from 2002 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Culig, Josip

    2006-12-01

    In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of September with the highest concentrations in August. The percentage of the total pollen count ranged from 0.52% to 0.92%. The intradiurnal peak occurred between 10 a.m. and 12 a.m. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlations between higher air temperature and high pollen concentration as well as high precipitation and low pollen concentration. Results of this study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Artemisia pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:17243566

  18. Test and evaluation of Japanese GPR-EMI dual sensor systems at Benkovac test site in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Furuta, K.; Pavković, Nikola

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental design and the evaluation result of a trial that were carried out from 1 February to 9 March 2006 using real PMA-1A and PMA-2 landmines at the Benkovac test site in Croatia. The objective of the Croatia- Japan joint trial is to evaluate dual sensor systems, which use both ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductive (EMI) sensors. A comparative trial was also carried out by Croatian deminers using an existing EMI sensor, i.e., a metal detector (MD). The trial aims at evaluating differences in performance between dual sensors and MDs, especially in terms of discrimination of landmines from metal fragments and extension of detectable range in the depth direction. Devices evaluated here are 4 prototypes of anti-personnel landmine detection systems developed under a project of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), the supervising authority of which is the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The prototypes provide operators with subsurface images, and final decision whether a shadow in the image is a real landmine or not is left to the operator. This is similar to the way that medical doctors find cancer by reading CT images. Since operators' pre-knowledge of locations of buried targets significantly influences the test result, three test lanes, which have 3 different kinds of soils, have been designed to be suitable for blind tests. The result showed that the dual sensor systems have a potential to discriminate landmines from metal fragments and that probability of detection for small targets in mineralized soils can be improved by using GPR.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals. PMID:26002287

  20. A variant of the Southern German clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Budimir, A; Deurenberg, R H; Bosnjak, Z; Stobberingh, E E; Cetkovic, H; Kalenic, S

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and molecular epidemiology of clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered in 24 hospitals in 20 cities in Croatia from October to December 2004. A total of 1815 consecutive S. aureus isolates were recovered, 248 of which were MRSA. The MRSA isolates were analysed using spa typing, multilocus sequence typing and SCCmec typing. Furthermore, the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was determined as a genetic marker for community-associated MRSA. The MRSA prevalence was 14%. Ninety-six per cent of the MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 95% to clindamycin and azithromycin, 94% to gentamicin, and 93% to erythromycin. The majority of the MRSA isolates (78%) was associated with the ST111-MRSA-I clone. In addition, various other endemic MRSA clones were observed, such as the ST247-MRSA-I (4%), the ST45-MRSA-IV (2%), the ST5-MRSA-I (2%), the ST239-MRSA-III (2%), the ST5-MRSA-II (1%), the ST8-MRSA-IV (1%) and the ST5-MRSA-IV (<1%) clones. Furthermore, we observed one PVL-negative ST80-MRSA-IV isolate. Four PVL-positive MRSA isolates were found, associated with ST8-MRSA-IV, ST80-MRSA-IV and ST80-MRSA-I. The ST111-MRSA-I clone was predominant in Croatia. Future surveillance studies of MRSA are important to elucidate whether changes in the clonal distribution of MRSA will occur, and if the minor endemic MRSA clones observed in the present study will replace the ST111-MRSA-I clone on a large scale. PMID:19732087

  1. Primary healthcare information system--the cornerstone for the next generation healthcare sector in Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Koncar, Miroslav; Gvozdanović, Darko

    2006-01-01

    At no time in the history of medicine has the growth in knowledge and technologies been so profound [Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2001. ISBN 0-309-07280-8]. However, healthcare delivery systems today are not able to keep up with the pace. Studies have shown that it takes an average of about 17 years for new knowledge generated by randomized trials to be incorporated into practice [B. Andrew, S. Boren, Managing clinical knowledge for health care improvement, in: Yearbook of Medical Informatics, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 2000, pp. 65-70]. It is safe to say that today healthcare systems "have the data, but not information". In order to provide highest quality patient care, Republic of Croatia has started the process of introducing enterprise information systems to support business processes in the healthcare domain. Two major requirements are in focus: to provide efficient healthcare related data management in support of decision-making processes; and to support continuous process of healthcare resources spending optimization. The first initiated project refers to Primary Healthcare Information System (PHCIS) that provides domain of primary care with state-of-the-art enterprise information system that connects General Practitioners, Pediatricians and Gynecologists offices with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and Public Health Institute. In the years to come, PHCIS will serve as the main integration platform for connecting all other stakeholders and levels of healthcare (e.g. hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories) into single enterprise healthcare network. This article gives an overview of PHCIS, explains challenges that were faced in designing and implementing the system, and elaborates PHCIS role as the cornerstone for the next generation healthcare provisioning in Republic of Croatia. PMID:16213189

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria in a University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Dogas, Varja; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Radic, Marina; Tonkic, Marija

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Centre (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19

  3. Physical and chemical properties of dew and rain water in the Dalmatian coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Lekouch, I.; Muselli, M.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, I.; Sojat, V.

    2010-07-01

    The possibility to use dew water as a supplementary source of water is evaluated in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. The relative contributions of dew and rain water and their chemical quality is estimated. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 to October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data. Maximum yields were 0.41 mm (Zadar) and 0.6 mm (Komiža). The mean yearly cumulative yields were 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). During the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. The chemical properties of dew water versus rain water were analyzed during three years (2004 - 2006) in Zadar. The corresponding parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions (HCO3-,Cl-, SO42-,NO3-), major cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). The mean pH and EC values were comparable for dew and rain water, pH = 6.7 (dew) and pH = 6.35 (rain), EC = 195.5 microS cm-1 (dew) and EC = 178.1 microS cm-1 (rain). The ratio (SO42- + NO3-) / (Ca2+ + Mg2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of both dew and rain water. Both dew and rain water exhibited low mineralization. The analysis of the major ions showed that the concentration of cations is high compared to that of anions (presumably NO2-,HCOO- and CH3COO- non-measured ions), with Ca2+, Na+ and Mg2+ the main ions. In order to discriminate between the marine and non-marine origin of ions, the sea-salt fraction (SSF) was calculated by taking Na+ as a reference. The small SSF value in dew suggests a considerable

  4. Results from stable isotope investigations of river waters in Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, H.; Frančišković-Bilinski, S.; Rank, D.; Stadler, P.; Bilinski, H.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation (GNIP), revealing an approximate vertical d O-18 gradient of -0,30‰ per 100 m, as reported by Vreča et al. (2006). In addition, this stable isotope data for the GNIP station Zavižan predominantly indicates precipitation from the Adriatic coast, in contrary to the GNIP station Zagreb, the precipitation of which is more influenced by continental air masses. Due to the lack of local precipitation isotope data in the Kupa drainage basin it is not possible to directly analyse the modification of the isotopic signature and its temporal variation in river waters. To sum up, the isotopic composition of river waters in the Kupa Basin is controlled by two factors: the mean altitude of the recharge areas, and differences in the isotope composition of air moisture of more maritime or more continental influence. Along with use for hydrological investigations, the presented isotope data set can serve as a base line of isotope data for assessing future climate impacts within the Kupa Basin, such as temperature changes and change of precipitation distribution. Vreča, P., Bronić, I. K., Horvatinčić, N., Baresić, J. (2006): Isotopic characteristics of precipitation in Slovenia and Croatia: Comparison of continental and marine stations.- Journal of Hydrology, 330, 457-469.

  5. Phylogenetic comparison of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains detected in domestic pigs until 2008 and in 2012 in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been present for the last 2 decades in Croatia, causing large economical losses in the pig production. The clinical features of the infections are mostly manifested by the development of respiratory problems, weight loss and poor growth performance, as well as reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Even though the infections are continuously recognized in some regions in Croatia, the heterogeneity of the detected viral strains from 2012 has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to compare virus strains of PCV2 and PRRSV detected until 2008 in Croatia with strains isolated in 2012 to gain a better epidemiological understanding of these two infections. Results PCV2 and PRRSV strains detected in 2012 in fattening pigs from regions where these two diseases have been previously described were compared to strains that have been detected in the same regions within the past two decades. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating PCV2 and PRRSV strains are distantly related to the previously described Croatian viral strains. However, when compared to known isolates from the GenBank a high genetic identity of PRRSV isolates with isolates from Hungary, Denmark and the Netherlands was found. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that even though PCV2 and PRRSV are constantly present in the investigated regions in Croatia, the viral strains found in 2012 genetically differ from those detected in earlier years. This indicates that new entries into the pig population appeared with regard to both infections, probably as a result of pig trade. PMID:24839544

  6. [Founding and activity of the Society of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slovenia as reported in the newspapers from 1874 to 1875].

    PubMed

    Belicza, Biserka; Buklijas, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the first active year of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, today's Croatian Medical Association, (from February 26, 1874 until the annual assembly held on June 31, 1875), based upon the articles published in Zagreb daily newspapers Obzor and Narodne novine and a Zadar newspaper--Narodni list. The writings of these newspapers are situated in the spatial and temporal context based on data from secondary literature and Austrian daily newspapers. These articles were employed as historical sources, which we used to find answers to following questions: How did the Croatian public accept the foundation of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia? What did the public expect and what duties was this Association to fulfill according to the public? Finally, how did the public evaluate the results of the Association's work at the end of its first year of existence? The foundation of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia coincided with numerous initiatives on the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy level. Goal of these initiatives was to create a well ramified network of physicians' organisations that were to deal with issues related to the social status of physicians, such as fees for their professional services, retirement funds, pensions for family members etc. The first official "Rules of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia" from May 1874, puts promotion of scientific medicine and health improvement before the interests of the medical profession status. Croatian public expected that the newly founded Association would engage itself in matters such as improving medical practice, eradicating diseases, promoting foundation of a medical school in Zagreb, counselling political bodies on the health-related issues, and so on. Based on the newspaper articles, especially ones published at the end of the first year of the Associations' existence

  7. Emigration-related attitudes of the final year medical students in Croatia: a cross-sectional study at the dawn of the EU accession

    PubMed Central

    Kolčić, Ivana; Čikeš, Mihaela; Boban, Kristina; Bućan, Jasna; Likić, Robert; Ćurić, Goran; Đogaš, Zoran; Polašek, Ozren

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the emigration-related attitudes of final year medical students in Croatia at the dawn of the EU accession in 2013. Methods All final-year medical students at four Croatian medical schools (Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, and Osijek) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey on emigration attitudes. Results Among 260 respondents (response rate 61%), 90 students (35%) reported readiness for permanent emigration, expecting better quality of life (N = 22, 31%), better health care organization (N = 17, 24%), more professional challenges (N = 10, 14%), or simply to get a job (N = 8, 11%), while the least common expectation were greater earnings (N = 7, 10%). The most common target countries were Germany (N = 36, 40%), USA and Canada (N = 15, 17%), and UK (N = 10, 11%). In a multivariate analysis, readiness for permanent emigration was associated with an interest in undertaking a temporary training abroad (odds ratio [OR] 6.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-16.72), while the belief that the preferred specialty could be obtained in Croatia appeared protective against emigration (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59). Conclusion Despite shortages of health care workers in Croatia, the percentage of students with emigration propensity was rather high. Prevalent negative perception of the Croatian health care and recent Croatian accession to the EU pose a threat of losing newly graduated physicians to EU countries. PMID:25358878

  8. Unexpected sudden death due to recreational swimming and diving in men in Croatia in a 14-year period.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Zijad; Duraković, Marjeta Misigoj; Skavić, Josip; Gojanović, Marija Definis

    2012-06-01

    The article deals with 17 sudden deaths which occurred during recreational swimming and diving in men in Croatia in a 14-year period: from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2011. The sample is taken out from the total number of 61 sudden deaths in men during or immediately after sport or recreational exercise. Included are also sudden deaths of 8 foreigners spending holidays at the Croatian Adriatic Coast. In all of them forensic medicine autopsy was done. Thirteen males from Croatia died during recreational swimming. Three of them were aged 15-29 yrs: one had signs of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the second suffered from chronic myopericarditis with left ventricular aneurysm, and the third had cardiomegaly and blood alcohol level of 1.7 per thousand. Five were aged 30-64 yrs: four of them have suffered from coronary atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy of 15-18-18-22 mm, and one with left ventricular hypertrophy drowned suddenly, probably because of malignant ventricular arrhythmia. The fifth suffered stroke and drowned. Five elderly men, aged 65-85 yrs, have suffered from coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis or myocardial scars, and three of them had left ventricular hypertrophy of 19 mm. Four males died during recreational diving. One aged 26yrs drowned, at autopsy he had left ventricular hypertrophy of 17 mm. Three males were middle-aged: two had coronary atherosclerosis, two of them had a severe degree of coronary atherosclerosis and one had coronary atherosclerosis of medium degree but with myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy of 18 mm. Seven male foreigners died, five of them during swimming: two aged 30-64 and two aged 65-85. They all have had coronary atherosclerosis: one of them had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall, and one hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as well. One middle-aged and one elderly man died during diving, and both had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall. One elderly foreign

  9. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results

  10. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    PubMed

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (<3-mm fraction) was carelessly deposited in gardens, forests, and into a sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future

  11. Prostitutes and criminals: beginnings of eugenics in Croatia in the works of Fran Gundrum from Oriovac (1856-1919)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Fran Gundrum (1856-1919) was a Croatian physician, encyclopedist, and an advocate of medical enlightenment and healthy lifestyle. In order to identify and analyze Gundrum’s ideas about the problems of prostitution and criminality, we studied all of his books, booklets, and articles published between 1905 and 1914. We showed that Gundrum’s theories of heredity, morality, and sexual hygiene incorporated many of the important discussions of his time, especially those related to the Darwinian paradigm. Gundrum’s project of collecting statistics on prostitutes was the first such study published on the territory of today's Croatia. Although he rejected the notions of born prostitutes and born criminals, defended by Italian criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, he still regarded eugenics as a convenient method of dealing with the ills of society. He believed that criminals were degenerate individuals representing a violent threat to the society and that it was legitimate to use radical means, such as sterilization and deportation, to deal with this problem. Organicistic view of the society prevented him from seeing the individual rights as important as that of the society to protect itself. Nevertheless, this view led to many humanistic ideas, such as the binomial illness/poverty in case of prostitution, which influenced many prominent works of social medicine movement. PMID:22522997

  12. The town of Cabar, Croatia, a high risk area for multiple sclerosis--analytic epidemiology of dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Perković, Olivio; Jurjević, Ante; Rudez, Josip; Antoncić, Igor; Bralić, Marina; Kapović, Miljenko

    2010-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is demyelization disease of central nervous system of unidentified causes. Analytic epidemiological research of 19 patients, clinically approved cases of MS and 25 controls, autochthonic inhabitants of town of Cabar, Croatia, the high-risk zone for the disease, was made. The research plan included case-control investigation--the "door to door" questionnaire--about nutrition habits. An odds ratio (OR) was calculated for all the factors which were more frequently found in the patients than in the controls, and vice versa. The variables that were connected with significant risk for MS in the town of Cabar included: alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), animal fats/dried meat products consumption (p = 0.007), nitrate salting (p = 0.03), strong spices (p = 0.007), mixed bread (p = 0.002), oat and oat products consumption (p = 0.0075). No connection was found with regular consumption of vegetables and fruit (p = 0.009), blue fresh fish (p = 0.028), other fresh fish (p = 0.03), freshwater fish (p = 0.002), canned fish (p = 0.004), dormouse meat (p = 0.007), air-dried meat products (p = 0.004) and using the water from water supply (p = 0.011). In the town of Cabar nutritional customs, primarily food rich in animal fats, alcohol-abuse, and oat consumption could have an influence on MS pathogenesis in genetically inclined individuals. PMID:21305732

  13. Functional Inference of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms on Enzyme Stability as a Potential Risk Factor for Down Syndrome in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Babić Božović, Ivana; Starčević Čizmarević, Nada; Buretić-Tomljanović, Alena; Ristić, Smiljana; Petrović, Oleg; Kapović, Miljenko; Brajenović-Milić, Bojana

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the biochemical structure and function of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) provides new evidence in elucidating the risk of having a child with Down syndrome (DS) in association with two common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk for DS according to the presence of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms as well as the stability of the enzyme configuration. This study included mothers from Croatia with a liveborn DS child (n = 102) or DS pregnancy (n = 9) and mothers with a healthy child (n = 141). MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were assessed by PCR-RFLP. Allele/genotype frequencies differences were determined using χ2 test. Odds ratio and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the effects of different alleles/genotypes. No statistically significant differences were found between the frequencies of allele/genotype or genotype combinations of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the case and the control groups. Additionally, the observed frequencies of the stable (677CC/1298AA, 677CC/1298AC, 677CC/1298CC) and unstable (677CT/1298AA, 677CT/1298AC, 677TT/1298AA) enzyme configurations were not significantly different. We found no evidence to support the possibility that MTHFR polymorphisms and the stability of the enzyme configurations were associated with risk of having a child with DS in Croatian population. PMID:20592453

  14. Cation exchange capacity of loess and overlying soil in the non-carbonate loess sections, North-Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomašić, Nenad; Kampić, Štefica; Cindrić, Iva Juranović; Pikelj, Kristina; Lučić, Mavro; Mavrić, Danijela; Vučetić, Tajana

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption properties in terms of cation exchange capacity and their relation to the soil and sediment constituents (clay minerals, Fe-, Mn-, and Al-oxyhydroxides, organic matter) were investigated in loess, soil-loess transition zone, and soil at four loess-soil sections in North-Western Croatia. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk samples, the samples after oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn and Al, and after removal of organic matter, as well as of the separated clay fraction, was determined using copper ethylenediamine. Cation exchange capacity (pH˜7) of the bulk samples ranges from 5 to 12 cmol c /kg in soil, from 7 to 15 cmol c /kg in the soil-loess transition zone, and from 12 to 20 cmol c /kg in loess. Generally, CEC values increase with depth. Oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn, and Al, and removal of organic matter cause a CEC decrease of 3-38% and 8-55%, respectively, proving a considerable influence of these constituents to the bulk CEC values. In the separated clay fraction (<2 μm) CEC values are up to several times higher relative to those in the bulk samples. The measured CEC values of the bulk samples generally correspond to the clay mineral content identified. Also, a slight increase in muscovite/illite content with depth and the vermiculite occurrence in the loess horizon are concomitant with the CEC increase in deeper horizons, irrespective of the sample pretreatment.

  15. Cation exchange capacity of loess and overlying soil in the non-carbonate loess sections, North-Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomašić, Nenad; Kampić, Štefica; Cindrić, Iva; Pikelj, Kristina; Lučić, Mavro; Mavrić, Danijela; Vučetić, Tajana

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption properties in terms of cation exchange capacity and their relation to the soil and sediment constituents (clay minerals, Fe-, Mn-, and Al-oxyhydroxides, organic matter) were investigated in loess, soil-loess transition zone, and soil at four loess-soil sections in North-Western Croatia. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk samples, the samples after oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn and Al, and after removal of organic matter, as well as of the separated clay fraction, was determined using copper ethylenediamine. Cation exchange capacity (pH˜7) of the bulk samples ranges from 5 to 12 cmolc/kg in soil, from 7 to 15 cmolc/kg in the soil-loess transition zone, and from 12 to 20 cmolc/kg in loess. Generally, CEC values increase with depth. Oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn, and Al, and removal of organic matter cause a CEC decrease of 3-38% and 8-55%, respectively, proving a considerable influence of these constituents to the bulk CEC values. In the separated clay fraction (<2 μm) CEC values are up to several times higher relative to those in the bulk samples. The measured CEC values of the bulk samples generally correspond to the clay mineral content identified. Also, a slight increase in muscovite/illite content with depth and the vermiculite occurrence in the loess horizon are concomitant with the CEC increase in deeper horizons, irrespective of the sample pretreatment.

  16. Nationwide Survey of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Strains Producing CTX-M Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Fiolić, Zlatko; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Mareković, Ivana; Cetkovic, Helena; Kalenić, Smilja

    2015-12-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing bacteria have been increasingly reported in both hospital and community patients. Production of ESBLs is the major mechanism of resistance to oxymino-cephalosporins and aztreonam in Gram-negative bacteria. Recently a new family of ESBLs with predominant activity against cefotaxime (CTX-M β-lactamases) has been reported. Over 80 CTX-M enzymes have been described so far, which can be grouped into five main subgroups according to amino acid sequence identity (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-25). In some countries, CTX-M β-lactamases are the most prevalent types of ESBLs, for instance in Russia, Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Japan, Taiwan, China and Argentina. These enzymes have been identified in countries near Croatia such is Italy, Hungary and Austria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the types of CTX-M β lactamases produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from October 2006 to January 2007 from both community- and hospital-based isolates were included (Figure 1.). 128 ESBL isolates were subjected to further analysis: screening with double disc diffusion test and confirmed by ESBL E test. PMID:26987165

  17. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama – Trojama Cave in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama—Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes “Metriocnemini” and “Orthocladiini”. Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe “Metriocnemini”. Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. PMID:27119557

  18. Flow cytometric detection of DNA cell cycle alterations in hemocytes of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) off the Adriatic coast, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Micić, Milena; Batel, Renato; Zahn, Rudolf K

    2003-07-16

    Studies were carried out to determine the alteration in DNA cell cycle characteristics of hemocytes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected at 17 different locations (146 individuals) along the Adriatic coast, Croatia. In order to connect possible genomic manifestation to urban and/or industrial waste flow cytometry was used. We studied incidence of altered DNA profile reflective of chromosomal fragmentation phenomena or aneuploid mosaicism, coefficient of variation (CV) in DNA fluorescence as a measure of intraindividual genome size variability and DNA index (DI) as a measure of ploidy. The different classes of DNA cell cycle alterations found in this study mirror either acute or cumulative genotoxic effects of the surrounding environment on mussel hemocyte DNA. These are intraindividual genome size variability (CV>8, seven individuals from four sites), aneuploidy (altered DNA profile and DI<0.9, 45 individuals from 14 sites) and accidental apoptotic processes (altered DNA profile and presence of apoptotic cells, two individuals from two sites). Normal cell cycle DNA profiles were obtained for 89 (60.9%) individuals from all 17 sites and for 146 examined samples polyploids were absent. Flow cytometry proved to be a powerful technique for the determination of alterations in cell cycle characteristics in mussel hemocyte DNA. Therefore, it may be used in pollution control measurements to distinguish affected or vulnerable populations from healthy populations living in the presence of a wide variety of marine environmental contaminants. PMID:12799105

  19. Skeletal and dental indicators of health in the late mediaeval (12-15th century) population from Nin, southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, M; Martinčić, O; Strinović, D; Slaus, M

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive bioarchaeological study of the late mediaeval (12-15th century) skeletal sample from Nin was carried out in order to test the historically documented hypothesis that during the late mediaeval period Nin sustained a period of rapid development that resulted in it becoming one of the major urban centres on the eastern Adriatic coast. The analysed pathological changes (alveolar bone disease, dental caries, dental enamel hypoplasia, cribra orbitalia, periostitis, tuberculosis, Schmorl's nodes, vertebral osteoarthritis, and bone fractures) indicate a relatively good quality of life for the majority of the population from this late mediaeval site. A low prevalence of dental pathologies suggests an adequate diet while a low frequency of long bone trauma testifies to a relatively peaceful life for the inhabitants of mediaeval Nin. Increased urban development during this period resulted in a worsening of sanitary conditions most likely caused by overcrowding, which is reflected in the presence of tuberculosis and the relatively high frequencies of dental enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia. An additional health concern for the late mediaeval inhabitants of Nin may have been the presence of malaria, as recorded in numerous historical sources. Comparison with other Croatian mediaeval skeletal samples suggests that the inhabitants of late mediaeval Nin experienced somewhat better living conditions than their contemporaries from other parts of Croatia. PMID:23102923

  20. Chemical diversity of the natural populations of Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium (TREVIR.) SCH.BIP.) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grdiša, Martina; Babić, Sandra; Periša, Martina; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Kolak, Ivan; Liber, Zlatko; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Satovic, Zlatko

    2013-03-01

    Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium (TREVIR.) SCH.BIP.) is a plant species endemic to the east Adriatic coast. The bioactive substance of Dalmatian pyrethrum is a natural insecticide, pyrethrin, a mixture of six active components (pyrethrins I and II, cinerins I and II, and jasmolins I and II). The insecticidal potential of pyrethrin was recognized decades ago, and dried and ground flowers have traditionally been used in Croatian agriculture and households. A total of 25 Dalmatian pyrethrum populations from Croatia were studied to determine the pyrethrin content and composition, and to identify distinct chemotypes. The total pyrethrin content ranged from 0.36 to 1.30% (dry flower weight; DW) and the pyrethrin I/pyrethrin II ratio ranged from 0.64 to 3.33%. The statistical analyses revealed that the correlations between the percentage of pyrethrin I and of all the other components were significant and negative. The total pyrethrin content was positively correlated with the percentage of pyrethrin I and negatively correlated with cinerin II. The multivariate analysis of the chemical variability enabled the identification of five chemotypes among 25 Dalmatian pyrethrum populations. The chemical characterization of indigenous Dalmatian pyrethrum populations may serve as a good background for future breeding and agricultural exploitation. PMID:23495162

  1. Dietary items as possible sources of (137)Cs in large carnivores in the Gorski Kotar forest ecosystem, Western Croatia.

    PubMed

    Šprem, Nikica; Piria, Marina; Barišić, Domagoj; Kusak, Josip; Barišić, Delko

    2016-01-15

    The mountain forest ecosystem of Gorski Kotar is distant from any significant sources of environmental pollution, though recent findings have revealed that this region is among the most intense (137)Cs contaminated area in Croatia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate (137)Cs and (40)K load in three large predator species in the mountain forest ecosystem. Radionuclides mass activities were determined by the gamma-spectrometric method in the muscle tissue of brown bear (47), wolf (7), lynx (1) and golden jackal (2). The highest (137)Cs mass activity was found in lynx (153 Bq kg(-1)), followed by brown bear (132 Bq kg(-1)), wolf (22.2 Bq kg(-1)), and golden jackal (2.48 Bq kg(-1)). Analysis of 63 samples of dietary items suggests that they are not all potentially dominant sources of (137)Cs for wildlife. The most important source of radionuclides for the higher parts of the food-chain from the study area were found to be the mushroom species wood hedgehog (Hydnum repandum), with a transfer factor TF of 5.166, and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) as a plant species (TF=2.096). Food items of animal origin indicated higher mass activity of radionuclides and therefore are possible moderate bioindicators of environmental pollution. The results also revealed that possible unknown wild animal food sources are a caesium source in the study region, and further study is required to illuminate this issue. PMID:26556746

  2. Patterns of internet use and mental health of high school students in Istria County, Croatia: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bezinović, Petar; Roviš, Darko; Rončević, Nena; Bilajac, Lovorka

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine associations between different forms of internet use and a number of psychological variables related to mental health in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative sample of students (N = 1539) from all high schools in the region of Istria in Croatia (14-19 years). The associations between four factors of internet use and nine mental health indicators were analyzed using canonical correlation analysis. Results The four canonical functions suggested a significant association between different types of internet use and specific indicators of mental health (P < 0.001). Problematic internet use, more typical among boys, was associated with general aggressive behavior and substance abuse (P < 0.001). Experiences of harassment, more typical among girls, were associated with health complaints, symptoms of depression, loneliness, and fear of negative evaluation (P < 0.001). Using the internet for communication and entertainment was associated with better relationships with peers (P < 0.001), while use of the internet for academic purposes was associated with conscientiousness (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results suggest that different patterns of internet use are significantly associated with specific sets of positive and negative mental health indicators. The data support the assumption that internet use can have both positive and adverse effects on the mental health of youth. PMID:26088855

  3. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk. PMID:26858083

  4. Seasonal atrazine contamination of drinking water in pig-breeding farm surroundings in agricultural and industrial areas of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gojmerac, T; Kartal, B; Bilandzic, N; Roic, B; Rajkovic-Janje, R

    1996-02-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) a s-triazine herbicide, has been widely used in Croatian agriculture. Due to atrazine extensive use and its biodegradation in nature within at least one year (Klassen and Kodoum 1979), atrazine residues are found in ground, surface, drain and drinking water (Vidacek et al. 1994; Gojmerac et al. 1994). Groundwater downgradient from atrazine treated fields may show seasonal concentration peaks which could exceed the safe level (Wehtje et al. 1983). Therefore, the use of atrazine includes permanent control of its residues in water, particularly in relation to its use as a herbicidal chemical and groundwater contamination (Graham 1991). Furthermore, the presence of atrazine in the environment and its possible ingestion via the water, food and feed chain, may present a risk for the animal and human health. The analysis of atrazine residues in soil can be performed by either colorimetry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Vickrey et al. 1980), and in water, soil and food by immunoassay in comparison with HPLC or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS-MS) (Bushway et al. 1988; Bushway et al. 1989; Bushway et al. 1992; Thurman et al. 1990). We describe the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for one-year seasonal monitoring of atrazine residues in drinking water from two differently situated pig-breeding farms (agricultural and industrial areas) in Croatia. Results obtained by ELISA were compared to those produced by HPLC. PMID:8720093

  5. A comparison of fruit chemical characteristics of two wild grown Rubus species from different locations of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dujmović Purgar, Dubravka; Duralija, Boris; Voća, Sandra; Vokurka, Aleš; Ercisli, Sezai

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of our study was to investigate differences in nutritional (dry matter, soluble solids content, total acidity and pH value) and bioactive values (ascorbic acid, total anthocyanins, total phenols, and non-flavonoids content) of wild grown raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackberry (Rubus discolor) genotypes harvested from native populations in Croatia. The average total acidity ranged from 0.93 to 1.72% in R. discolor and 1.57 to 1.91% in R. idaeus. Ascorbic acid was found between 22.34 mg and 45.00 mg 100 g⁻¹ in R. idaeus, while it was between 30.64 mg and 33.09 mg 100 g⁻¹ in R. discolor genotypes. A great variability in total anthocyanins was detected in roatian wild blackberry and raspberry genotypes, ranging from 2,226 to 2,367 mg kg⁻¹ for blackberries and 279 to 582 mg kg⁻¹ for raspberries, indicating wild blackberries are particularly rich in anthocyanins. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that investigated wild growing fruit species have a great potential in nutritive research, as well as in biodiversity research. It is necessary to carry out further investigation and evaluation of wild growing fruit species to utilize them in the most appropriate way, as well as conservation of interesting accessions in the gene banks. PMID:22936111

  6. A six decades long follow-up on body size in adolescents from Zagreb, Croatia (1951-2010).

    PubMed

    Zajc Petranović, Matea; Tomas, Željka; Smolej Narančić, Nina; Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Veček, Andrea; Miličić, Jasna

    2014-03-01

    Most studies analysing the influence of socioeconomic deterioration on body size focus on the impact of food shortages and diseases on the growth in early childhood. To evaluate how socioeconomic conditions influence the growth during the adolescence, we tracked the body size of 15-19 year-olds over the last sixty years covering the socialist period (1951-1990), the war (1991-1995) and the transition to capitalistic economy. This study of Zagreb, Croatia, adolescent population provides information on the secular trend in height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) and examines their relation with Real Gross Domestic Product. From 1951 to 2010 the girls' height approximately increased by 6.2cm and weight by 6.8kg, while the boys' height increased by 12.2cm and weight by 17.3kg. Prior to 1991 mean BMI in girls was higher than in boys, but from 1991 on, the interrelation between the sexes has been opposite, possibly mirroring the cultural trends that started in mid-1970s and reflecting higher sensitivity of boys to the socioeconomic changes. In conclusion, the secular trend in body size over the investigated period reflects the positive economic trends interrupted by the war. The recent increase in BMI corresponds to the country's economic recovery and indicates the "nutrition transition". PMID:24200552

  7. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  8. Common Variant in Myocilin Gene Is Associated with High Myopia in Isolated Population of Korčula Island, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vatavuk, Zoran; Škunca Herman, Jelena; Benčić, Goran; Andrijević Derk, Biljana; Lacmanović Lončar, Valentina; Petric Vicković, Ivanka; Bućan, Kajo; Mandić, Krešimir; Mandić, Antonija; Škegro, Ivan; Pavičić Astaloš, Jasna; Merc, Ivana; Martinović, Miljenka; Kralj, Petra; Knežević, Tamara; Barać-Juretić, Katja; Zgaga, Lina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To study the association between genetic variants in myocilin and collagen type I alpha 1 genes and high myopia in an isolated island population. Methods A total of 944 examinees from the genetic epidemiology study conducted on the island of Korčula, Croatia, were included in the study. We selected 2 short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) available in our genome-wide scan set of SNPs that were previously associated with high myopia and used them to replicate previous claims of possible association. Results Nineteen cases of high myopia, defined as the refraction of ≤-6.00 diopters, were identified and included in the analysis. We showed that rs2075555 in the COL1A1 gene was not associated with high myopia. In contrast, rs2421853 in the myocilin gene was significantly associated in both bivariate (P = 0.006) and age- and sex-adjusted analysis (P = 0.049). Conclusion Myocilin seems to be a very strong candidate for explaining some of the pathophysiological pathways leading to the development of both glaucoma and high myopia. As our finding was obtained in a relatively under-powered sample, further research and replication of these results is needed. PMID:19260140

  9. Coastal cliff geometry derived from structure-from-motion photogrammetry at Stara Ba\\vska, Krk Island, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ružić, Igor; Marović, Ivan; Benac, Čedomir; Ilić, Suzana

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the capability of structure-from-motion photogrammetry in defining the geometry of cliffs and undercuts in rocks of complex geomorphology. A case site was chosen along pocket beaches near the village of Stara Ba\\vska on the Adriatic Sea island of Krk, Gulf of Kvarner, Croatia, where cliff erosion of 5 m in breccias was identified by comparison of aerial photographs from 1960 and 2004. The 3D point cloud was derived from approx. 800 photos taken on 9 January 2014 by a single camera from various elevations and angles, and processed using the online software ReCap (Autodesk). Data acquisition was found to be quick and the method easy to implement. The difference between the georeferenced 3D cloud points and an RTK-GPS survey was 7 cm, i.e. within the limits of RTK-GPS precision. Quantifying the spatial variation in undercut geometries revealed that the deepest and largest (17 m3) undercut was in the south-eastern sector of the beach. Reconstructing the detailed geomorphology of this 3.8-m-deep undercut convincingly demonstrates the high efficiency of the method. Such assessments of spatiotemporal changes in undercut and overhang volumes can prove useful for evaluations of cliff erosion risk. Coupled with the low cost and relatively simple application, this is evidently an attractive technique for meaningful geotechnical and coastal engineering monitoring in the future on the island of Krk and, for that matter, also on other Adriatic islands and in similar settings worldwide.

  10. Association of trait and specific hopes: cross sectional study on students and workers of health professions in Split, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Domagoj; Marušić, Matko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hope (hoping) is most commonly assessed as a dispositional trait and associated with quality of life, self-care agency and non-attempts of suicide. However, little research has been conducted on hoping for specific events. Materials and Methods. We distributed a survey consisting of Integrative Hope Scale (IHS) and visual analogue scales on which respondents could declare their levels (intensity) of hope for specific events, to all first year health students enrolled at the University Department of Health Studies, Split, Croatia in 2011/2012, as well as to working health professionals attending a nursing conference in April 2012. Results. A total of 161 (89.4%) students and 88 (89.8%) working health professionals returned the completed questionnaires. We found high trait hope scores of students and working health professionals (Md = 111, 95% CI [109–113] vs. Md = 115, 95% CI [112–119]; U = 5,353, P = 0.065), and weak to moderate correlations of trait and specific hopes (r = 0.18–0.48, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient). Students and workers reported 31 different things they hoped for most in life, of which the most prevalent were being healthy and happy. There was very little agreement between participants’ reported influence of the four factors compromising the trait hope (self-confidence, ambition, optimism, and social support) on their specific hopes. Conclusions. Our findings, while strengthening the validity of hope as a trait, indicate that specific hopes of individuals are moderated by factors not captured by the IHS trait scale. Further research should explore specific hoping in detail, as well as the effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing specific or generalized hoping. PMID:26819851

  11. Molecular characterisation and infection dynamics of Dentitruncus truttae from trout (Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Krka River, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Irena, Vardić Smrzlić; Damir, Valić; Damir, Kapetanović; Zrinka, Dragun; Emil, Gjurčević; Helena, Cetković; Emin, Teskeredžić

    2013-11-01

    Dentitruncus truttae (Acanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala) is an intestinal parasite of fish that can cause extensive damage to the host digestive tract, yet little is known about its epidemiology and genetic variability. It is a member of the Illiosentidae family with a worldwide distribution restricted to parts of southeast Europe. Its usual host is brown trout (Salmo trutta), but we report here the first detection in the intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We examined the physiology of D. truttae-infected S. trutta and O. mykiss, seasonal and spatial variability of D. truttae infections, and genetic variability of the parasite population in Krka River, Croatia. D. truttae was more abundant in both trout populations in the autumn, with no seasonal variation in prevalence. The parasite was more abundant in male than female trout (n=75, p<0.01). Analysis of the spatial distribution of the parasite across various sampling sites along the river showed the lowest prevalence and abundance of parasitic infections at the most downstream sampling site, which may reflect the predominance of female fish there and/or the smaller population of intermediate hosts. To provide the first molecular insights into D. truttae, we analysed sequences at three marker loci: the 18S rRNA gene, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA confirmed the taxonomic grouping of D. truttae in the Illiosentidae family, first made more than 50 years ago based on morphology. The COI haplotype network did not show discrete genetic clusters corresponding to the different sampling sites, suggesting a stable population. These insights into D. truttae haplotype frequency distribution and intrapopulation genetic variation revealed minimal genetic variability, compared to the other acanthocephalan species. PMID:23972767

  12. Association of trait and specific hopes: cross sectional study on students and workers of health professions in Split, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Malički, Mario; Marković, Domagoj; Marušić, Matko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hope (hoping) is most commonly assessed as a dispositional trait and associated with quality of life, self-care agency and non-attempts of suicide. However, little research has been conducted on hoping for specific events. Materials and Methods. We distributed a survey consisting of Integrative Hope Scale (IHS) and visual analogue scales on which respondents could declare their levels (intensity) of hope for specific events, to all first year health students enrolled at the University Department of Health Studies, Split, Croatia in 2011/2012, as well as to working health professionals attending a nursing conference in April 2012. Results. A total of 161 (89.4%) students and 88 (89.8%) working health professionals returned the completed questionnaires. We found high trait hope scores of students and working health professionals (Md = 111, 95% CI [109-113] vs. Md = 115, 95% CI [112-119]; U = 5,353, P = 0.065), and weak to moderate correlations of trait and specific hopes (r = 0.18-0.48, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). Students and workers reported 31 different things they hoped for most in life, of which the most prevalent were being healthy and happy. There was very little agreement between participants' reported influence of the four factors compromising the trait hope (self-confidence, ambition, optimism, and social support) on their specific hopes. Conclusions. Our findings, while strengthening the validity of hope as a trait, indicate that specific hopes of individuals are moderated by factors not captured by the IHS trait scale. Further research should explore specific hoping in detail, as well as the effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing specific or generalized hoping. PMID:26819851

  13. Post-Roman sea-level changes on Pag Island (Adriatic Sea): Dating Croatia's "enigmatic" coastal notch?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Flaux, Clément; Vacchi, Matteo; Miko, Slobodan; Dumas, Vincent; Boetto, Giulia; Radic Rossi, Irena

    2014-09-01

    The presence of a regional-wide notch (45 to 115 cm below present biological mean sea level [BMSL]) along the Adriatic coast of Croatia, at a string of sites between Zadar and Rijeka, provides evidence for a rapid but poorly constrained subsidence event(s) after Roman times. For more than a century, this geomorphological tidal level indicator has attracted rich scientific debate but many unresolved questions remain. In this paper, we present new results from Caska Bay (Pag Island) looking at notch morphology and Holocene salt-marsh stratigraphy to constrain the chronology of this crustal deformation on Pag Island. The typical salt-marsh stratigraphy comprises low to high salt-marsh muds interjected by an unconformable marine layer (which lies between - 50 and - 100 cm BMSL) consistent with an abrupt transgression. The palaeoecological record shows an abrupt shift in assemblages across the salt-marsh mud-sand sediment contact translating abrupt coastal changes. Geochronological data constrain this event to around 1000 to 1200 cal. AD. The altitude of the layer is coeval with the submerged notch attested on limestone cliffs around the bay. The U-shape of the notch profile, coupled with the sharp palaecological contacts and submerged Roman pier, implies that sea-level rise was episodic and not gradual as suggested by regional numerical models. Together, our findings shed new light on the chronology of the "enigmatic" Croatian notch on the island of Pag, and highlight the need to couple geomorphological studies of rocky coasts with high-resolution sediment records.

  14. A comparison of interpolation methods on the basis of data obtained from a bathymetric survey of Lake Vrana, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiljeg, A.; Lozić, S.; Šiljeg, S.

    2015-08-01

    The bathymetric survey of Lake Vrana included a wide range of activities that were performed in several different stages, in accordance with the standards set by the International Hydrographic Organization. The survey was conducted using an integrated measuring system which consisted of three main parts: a single-beam sonar HydroStar 4300 and GPS devices; a Ashtech ProMark 500 base, and a Thales Z-Max® rover. A total of 12 851 points were gathered. In order to find continuous surfaces necessary for analysing the morphology of the bed of Lake Vrana, it was necessary to approximate values in certain areas that were not directly measured, by using an appropriate interpolation method. The main aims of this research were as follows: (a) to compare the efficiency of 14 different interpolation methods and discover the most appropriate interpolators for the development of a raster model; (b) to calculate the surface area and volume of Lake Vrana, and (c) to compare the differences in calculations between separate raster models. The best deterministic method of interpolation was multiquadric RBF (radio basis function), and the best geostatistical method was ordinary cokriging. The root mean square error in both methods measured less than 0.3 m. The quality of the interpolation methods was analysed in two phases. The first phase used only points gathered by bathymetric measurement, while the second phase also included points gathered by photogrammetric restitution. The first bathymetric map of Lake Vrana in Croatia was produced, as well as scenarios of minimum and maximum water levels. The calculation also included the percentage of flooded areas and cadastre plots in the case of a 2 m increase in the water level. The research presented new scientific and methodological data related to the bathymetric features, surface area and volume of Lake Vrana.

  15. A comparison of interpolation methods on the basis of data obtained from a bathymetric survey of Lake Vrana, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiljeg, A.; Lozić, S.; Šiljeg, S.

    2014-12-01

    The bathymetric survey of Lake Vrana included a wide range of activities that were performed in several different stages, in accordance with the standards set by the International Hydrographic Organization. The survey was conducted using an integrated measuring system which consisted of three main parts: a single-beam sonar Hydrostar 4300, GPS devices Ashtech Promark 500 - base, and a Thales Z-Max - rover. A total of 12 851 points were gathered. In order to find continuous surfaces necessary for analysing the morphology of the bed of Lake Vrana, it was necessary to approximate values in certain areas that were not directly measured, by using an appropriate interpolation method. The main aims of this research were as follows: to compare the efficiency of 16 different interpolation methods, to discover the most appropriate interpolators for the development of a raster model, to calculate the surface area and volume of Lake Vrana, and to compare the differences in calculations between separate raster models. The best deterministic method of interpolation was ROF multi-quadratic, and the best geostatistical, ordinary cokriging. The mean quadratic error in both methods measured less than 0.3 m. The quality of the interpolation methods was analysed in 2 phases. The first phase used only points gathered by bathymetric measurement, while the second phase also included points gathered by photogrammetric restitution. The first bathymetric map of Lake Vrana in Croatia was produced, as well as scenarios of minimum and maximum water levels. The calculation also included the percentage of flooded areas and cadastre plots in the case of a 2 m increase in the water level. The research presented new scientific and methodological data related to the bathymetric features, surface area and volume of Lake Vrana.

  16. Sense of coherence and coping in adolescents directly affected by the 1991--5 war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ebina, Ryoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2008-12-01

    This study was guided by the salutogenic model, and aimed to: 1. describe the social contexts of stronger and weaker SOC (sense of coherence) participants who were adolescents or entering adulthood in the war-affected regions in Croatia, and 2. identify how the levels of SOC related to their responses to the stressors in their social context. Qualitative longitudinal study design and methods were used for the analysis. In-depth semi-structured interviews, participant observations and SOC scale were carried out, and data were collected from 17 female participants twice during two years. The general social context of the participants was summarized with published materials on the similar subjects and analysis of the field-notes and the participants' narratives. In the analysis of the qualitative data, comparisons were made between the three SOC levels (low, middle, high levels categorized with SOC scores), relating to the participants' self-described social contexts. Childhood stability, acceptance of own ethnic identity, management of uncertainty, and the meanings of work emerged as the responses and resources that may influence SOC. How Ottawa Charter health promotion strategies can be adapted in the post-conflict regions is discussed and priorities of addressing strategies are suggested. The discussion points include: 1. the importance of re-orienting health services and creating supportive environments from the aspects of building the secure base of children and promoting health of the next generation; 2. the required personal skills that enabled adolescents to exercise control and make choices conducive to health in a social context of the a war-related turbulent society; 3. the needs for building healthy public policies to tackle unemployment and strengthening community action to rebuild social capital through work revenues. PMID:19066232

  17. Decisional conflict and vaccine uptake: cross-sectional study of 2012/2013 influenza season in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Pavličević, Ivančica; Škrabić, Slavica; Merćep, Ana Hrvojka; Marušić, Matko; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As scientific, media and individual opinions on the need for seasonal influenza vaccination differ, we explored patients’ decisional conflict and perceived physician and social support when making a vaccination choice. Material and methods We conducted a survey of patients with previous vaccination experience in a single family medicine office in Split, Croatia. The questionnaire included the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS), perceived social support, and attitudes and knowledge concerning vaccination. Results Out of 203 (86%) adult patients with previous vaccination experience, 182 (40.4%) opted to vaccinate in the current season, 98 (48.3%) refused, and 22 (11.3%) were undecided. The median decisional conflict score was highest among those undecided (43.8 out of the maximum 100, interquartile range (IQR) 33.2–52.3), lowest among those opting to vaccinate (17.2, IQR 9.4–26.6), and intermediate among those who refused vaccination (25.0, IQR 17.2–39.1) (p < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests). The most common self-reported reasons for vaccination were previous vaccination experience (n = 85, 42%) and media information (n = 62, 30%). Those who refused vaccination felt less satisfied with the support they received from their family physician than those who decided to vaccinate (median 6.5 (IQR 0–9) vs. 9 (IQR 5–10) on a scale from 0 to 10), respectively; p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusions Higher decisional conflict of patients who refuse influenza vaccination and those undecided, alongside their perceived low support of the family physician in making that choice, emphasize the importance family doctors play in advising and helping patients make informed decisions about seasonal influenza vaccination. PMID:26322091

  18. Landslide prediction using combined deterministic and probabilistic methods in hilly area of Mt. Medvednica in Zagreb City, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Watanabe, Naoki; Marui, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The hilly slopes of Mt. Medvednica are stretched in the northwestern part of Zagreb City, Croatia, and extend to approximately 180km2. In this area, landslides, e.g. Kostanjek landslide and Črešnjevec landslide, have brought damage to many houses, roads, farmlands, grassland and etc. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the potential landslides and to enhance landslide inventory for hazard mitigation and security management of local society in this area. We combined deterministic method and probabilistic method to assess potential landslides including their locations, size and sliding surfaces. Firstly, this study area is divided into several slope units that have similar topographic and geological characteristics using the hydrology analysis tool in ArcGIS. Then, a GIS-based modified three-dimensional Hovland's method for slope stability analysis system is developed to identify the sliding surface and corresponding three-dimensional safety factor for each slope unit. Each sliding surface is assumed to be the lower part of each ellipsoid. The direction of inclination of the ellipsoid is considered to be the same as the main dip direction of the slope unit. The center point of the ellipsoid is randomly set to the center point of a grid cell in the slope unit. The minimum three-dimensional safety factor and corresponding critical sliding surface are also obtained for each slope unit. Thirdly, since a single value of safety factor is insufficient to evaluate the slope stability of a slope unit, the ratio of the number of calculation cases in which the three-dimensional safety factor values less than 1.0 to the total number of trial calculation is defined as the failure probability of the slope unit. If the failure probability is more than 80%, the slope unit is distinguished as 'unstable' from other slope units and the landslide hazard can be mapped for the whole study area.

  19. Croatia is a safe tourist destination – study of foreign citizen mortality in Splitsko-dalmatinska and Primorsko-goranska County during the period 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Bečić, Kristijan; Jandrić Bečić, Darija; Čengija, Morana; Ćurić, Goran; Alujević, Antonio; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the mortality rate of foreign citizens in Croatia. Methods Data were collected from the Departments for Forensic Pathology in Split and Rijeka, which are the autopsy centers of the counties with approximately 35% of total foreign visitors, as well as from the Croatian Central Bureau for Statistics for the period 2001-2010. The mortality rate (number of deaths of members of each nationality per 100 000 entrances ratio) and standardized mortality ratio (ratio between the observed and expected number of deaths) were calculated, and χ2 goodness of fit test was used for statistical analyses. Results There were 447 deaths (325 men, 72.7%) of foreign citizens (mortality rate of 0.0015%). A total of 207 deaths (46.3%) were by natural causes, more often among older people, and 240 deaths (53.7%) were injury deaths, more often among younger people, mostly by drowning or traffic-related (22.2% and 18.6% of all deaths, respectively). Most represented were citizens of German, Austrian, Czech, and Italian nationality, with 115 (25.7%), 59 (13.2%), 58 (13.0%), and 52 deaths (11.6%), respectively. Mortality rate by nationality showed no significant difference (P < 0.05). The standardized mortality ratio was lowest in Hungarian and Czech citizens (0.17) and highest in US citizens (0.35). Conclusions Croatia has low foreign citizens’ mortality rate and could be considered a safe tourist destination. PMID:23771761

  20. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Šver, Lidija; Bielen, Ana; Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05). Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends. PMID:27327498

  1. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05). Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends. PMID:27327498

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Roic, Besi; Jemersic, Lorena; Terzic, Svjetlana; Keros, Tomislav; Balatinec, Jelena; Florijancic, Tihomir

    2012-01-01

    We determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (Sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in Croatia. These counties account for an important part of the Croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. Samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (PPV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Antibodies to all of the infectious pathogens except SVDV were detected. There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence between the two periods for PPV, ADV, PCV2, PRRSV, and PRCV, with a higher prevalence of PPV and ADV in the 2009-10 period (P<0.05). During the same period, the prevalence of PCV2, PRRSV, and PRCV was lower (P<0.05). Our results provide information on the current disease exposure and health status of wild boars in Croatia and suggest that wild boars may act as a reservoir for several pathogens and a source of infection for domestic pigs and other livestock as well as humans, especially for ADV. PMID:22247381

  3. Molecular characterization of class b carbapenemases in advanced stage of dissemination and emergence of class d carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bedenić, Branka; Sardelić, Sanda; Luxner, Josefa; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Varda-Brkić, Dijana; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela; Mareković, Ivana; Frančula-Zaninović, Sonja; Krilanović, Marija; Šijak, Dorotea; Grisold, Andrea; Zarfel, Gernot

    2016-09-01

    Carbapenemases involved in acquired carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae belong to Ambler class A serin β-lactamases, class B metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) or class D OXA-48-like β-lactamases. The aim of the present study was to analyse the molecular epidemiology and the mechanisms and routes of spread of class B and class D carbapenemases in Croatia. In total 68 isolates were analyzed. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution method. PCR was used to detect antibiotic-resistance genes. Genotyping was performed by rep-PCR and MLST. Sixty-five isolates were found to harbour VIM-1 carbapenemase, seven of which were positive also for NDM-1, while two strains harboured only NDM-1. OXA-48 was detected in three isolates, two of which coproduced VIM-1. Thirty-six strains possessed additional CTX-M-15 β-lactamase whereas 64 were positive for TEM-1. CMY was found in 18 Citrobacter freundii isolates and DHA-1 in one Enterobacter cloacae isolate. Four different plasmid-incompatibility groups were found: A/C, L/M, N and FIIAs. Unlike C. freundii and E. cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high diversity of rep-PCR patterns. E. cloacae and C. freundii predominantly belonged to one large clone which was allocated to ST105 and ST24, respectively. Three different types of carbapenemases were identified showing the complexity of CRE in Croatia. PMID:27174090

  4. Trapped between Tradition and Transition – Anthropological and Epidemiological Cross-sectional Study of Bayash Roma in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Martinović Klarić, Irena; Smolej Narančić, Nina; Drmić, Stipe; Peričić Salihović, Marijana; Barać Lauc, Lovorka; Miličić, Jasna; Barabalić, Maja; Zajc, Matea; Janićijević, Branka

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess the key characteristics related to living conditions and health in the Bayash Roma population in Baranja and Međimurje regions of Croatia and identify possible demographic and socio-economic sources of variance in self-reported health and reproductive profile. Methods The study comprised a total of 266 adult Bayash individuals from Baranja and 164 from Međimurje (aged 41.3 ± 15.1 years). Data on ethno-historical and demographic background, self-identity, life and hygiene conditions, education, employment, health insurance, and health (dietary and smoking habits, reproductive characteristics, diagnosed and undiagnosed health problems, use of medications). were obtained through interviews. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used in statistical analyses. Results The reported migratory pattern demonstrated that 88.8% of the examinees were born in the region of residence, which showed that the Bayash population was autochthonous and sedentary one. Financially, the Bayash primarily relayed on social welfare support allowance (84%) and child allowance (47%), while merely 2% were permanently and 23% occasionally employed. The proportion of the Bayash who had never attended school amounted to 33.3% (19.3% men and 60.9% women). The access to public water supply system was available to 52.5% of examinees, whereas only 1.7% had public sewage system, and 23.4% had private septic tanks. The most commonly reported health problems were frequent headaches (20.3%), stomach pain (16.3%), anxiety or insomnia (13.1%), hypertension (9.3%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (8.6%). The logistic regression identified level of education (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.94) and access to health insurance (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.46-12.77) as socio-economic/life-style factors playing a significant role in the occurrence of COPD. Conclusion Our results indicate poor inclusion of the Bayash in the essential social service sectors

  5. Topographic Expression of Active Tectonics in the Absence of Physical Erosion in the External Dinarides of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casale, G.; Paulson, K.; Salamonsen, E.; Bennett, R. A.; Surkovic, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Dinarides of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina form part of the actively deforming Adria-Eurasia boundary, but their topography differs greatly from similar sized active orogens such as the neighboring Northern Apennines. The Dinarides include two distinct regions with contrasting surface drainage patterns: the surface drainage of the External Dinarides is a series of disconnected internally drained basins, whereas the Internal Dinarides much more closely resemble the Northern Apennines with well connected basins and waterways. We used SRTM DEMs to characterize surface drainage in the Dinarides and found a strong correlation between mapped rock-type and surface connectivity. Specifically, disconnected internally drained basins are restricted to carbonate lithologies prevelant in the External Dinarides, which are often susceptible to chemical dissolution, whereas heterogenous rock types found in the Internal Dinarides are associated with typical dendritic drainages. The extent of the carbonate-dominated topography characterizing the External Dinarides is further divided into areas of distinctly higher (300-700 m) and (<100 m) lower relief despite the inability of the low topography of the Dinarides to concentrate precipitation and thus chemical erosion. Therefore, the topographic variation between these two areas is either controlled by the contrasting solubility of various carbonate lithologies, or active tectonics. To test for contrasting solubility, we analyzed a suite of samples from both ridge and valley forming sites using a microprobe and ICP-MS. We found that the weight percent Ca was indistinguishable between our samples and that of pure calcite. We then expanded our investigation by incorporating spectral analysis of ASTER imagery across the entire external Dinarides, with similar results. We conclude that the large scale topography of the External Dinarides is not the result of lithologic heterogeneity, and is instead controlled by tectonics. Our

  6. Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question

  7. Spatial variability of soil carbon, pH, available phosphorous and potassium in organic farm located in Mediterranean Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Šeput, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, available phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are some of the most important factors to soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, with implications to crop production. The aim of this work is study the spatial variability of SOC, pH, P and K in an organic farm located in river Rasa valley (Croatia). A regular grid (100 x 100 m) was designed and 182 samples were collected on Silty Clay Loam soil. P, K and SOC showed moderate heterogeneity with coefficient of variation (CV) of 21.6%, 32.8% and 51.9%, respectively. Soil pH record low spatial variability with CV of 1.5%. Soil pH, P and SOC did not follow normal distribution. Only after a Box-Cox transformation, data respected the normality requirements. Directional exponential models were the best fitted and used to describe spatial autocorrelation. Soil pH, P and SOC showed strong spatial dependence with nugget to sill ratio with 13.78%, 0.00% and 20.29%, respectively. Only K recorded moderate spatial dependence. Semivariogram ranges indicate that future sampling interval could be 150 - 200 m in order to reduce sampling costs. Fourteen different interpolation models for mapping soil properties were tested. The method with lowest Root Mean Square Error was the most appropriated to map the variable. The results showed that radial basis function models (Spline with Tension and Completely Regularized Spline) for P and K were the best predictors, while Thin Plate Spline and inverse distance weighting models were the least accurate. The best interpolator for pH and SOC was the local polynomial with the power of 1, while the least accurate were Thin Plate Spline. According to soil nutrient maps investigated area record very rich supply with K while P supply was insufficient on largest part of area. Soil pH maps showed mostly neutral reaction while individual parts of alkaline soil indicate the possibility of penetration of seawater and salt accumulation in the

  8. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages. PMID:26975612

  9. Beginnings and success in preventing anophelism by means of gambusia fish on the island of Krk in Croatia from 1922 to 1927.

    PubMed

    Skrobonja, Ante; Materljan, Neven; Skrobonja, Ivana

    2010-08-01

    The introductory part has summarized the role of malaria in the course of history and various attempts of its eradication in Croatia before the World War I. Furthemore, there is a list of activities and results accomplished between 1922 and 1927 on the island of Krk by Dr. Otmar Trausmiller. After a systematic sanitation of all anopheles habitats, primarily natural and artificial bodies of still water, and introduction of imported gambusia to those bodies of water, anopheles was virtually eradicated on the island. What followed was an evident decrease of new malaria incidents, and in the campaign against malaria there was still major concern in the form of chronic patients and intensive quinine therapy. Today, about eighty years after it was introduced to Krk, gambusia still abides in ponds across the island and it represents one of the main factors in the protection against potential revival of indigenous malaria. PMID:21258304

  10. Health Care and Community-based Interventions for War-traumatized People in Croatia: Community-based Study of Service Use and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Frančišković, Tanja; Tovilović, Zdravko; Šuković, Zoran; Stevanović, Aleksandra; Ajduković, Dean; Kraljević, Radojka; Bogić, Marija; Priebe, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Aim To explore the use of health care and community-based services in war-affected regions of Croatia and its relation to mental health. Methods A sample of 719 adults exposed to at least one war-related traumatic event were selected by random-walk technique from three Croatian counties and interviewed for socio-demographic data, mental health status (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), and service use (Matrix for the Assessment of Community and Healthcare Services) in the period from 1991 to 2006. Descriptive analysis of service use was performed. Relations between service use, current mental health, and recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results The traumatized population used a wide range of health care and community-based services. Health care was the most frequently used service category, especially primary health care (92.5%), followed by accommodation support (57.9%), financial support (57.7%), and employment support (32.5%). Compared with participants without mental disorders, participants with current PTSD were more likely to use only legal support (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.99), while participants with other mental disorders were more likely to use social support and contacts (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.08-2.75). Receiving accommodation support (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.03-4.06) was the only significant predictor of recovery from PTSD, while seeking legal support (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.92) was related to slower recovery. Conclusion Although a wide range of services were organized to help the traumatized population in Croatia, only the solution of housing issue significantly predicted recovery. The organization of help services should take into consideration the existing infrastructure and local specificities, and respect the needs of people in war-affected areas. PMID:18716995

  11. The rock magnetic characteristics of last glacial cycle loess from the island of Susak (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Duchoslav, Maguerita; Rolf, Christian; Wacha, Lara; Frechen, Manfred; Galovic, Lidija

    2010-05-01

    Loess is by far the most important terrestrial archive that provides detailed palaeoclimatic information for the whole Quaternary. Loess covers wide areas in Asia and Southeast Europe where continental and sub-continental climates predominate. In Mediterranean climate settings, however, loess deposits are almost absent and the few existing sites provide invaluable palaeoclimatic information. Heller & Liu (1984) were the first who used magnetic susceptibility variations in Chinese loess to correlate the loess deposits to marine records. The susceptibility variations in the loess-palaeosol couplets resemble the pattern of the global ice volume record with higher values in palaeosols (interglacials) and lower values in loess (glacials). In most parts of the Eurasian loess belt, the intensity of pedogenesis leads to enhancement of magnetic minerals in soils. However, in other parts of the world under different climatic conditions, even depletion of the magnetic fraction could be observed. Furthermore, the wind strength during dust transport and loess deposition also seems to control the magnetic mineralogy. With stronger winds, minerals with higher density such as iron oxides are enriched during aeolian transport. Here we report on first results from a detailed rock magnetic investigation of a loess sequence from the Adriatic coast of Croatia. The Pjeskokop site is located on the island of Susak in the northern Dalmatian archipelago. On Susak, aeolian sands, sandy loess and loess have been deposited on Cretaceous marine limestones and form an up to 20 metres thick Pleistocene sediment blanket (Cremaschi 1990). At the Pjeskokop site, non-oriented samples were collected with narrow spacing (~2 cm) from a more than 11 metres high section. All samples were subjected to standard rock laboratory procedures. Detailed petrographical and grain size studies on parallel samples are in progress. A strongly rubified pedo-complex forms the base of the sequence. Weakly developed

  12. [Quality of health care, accreditation, and health technology assessment in Croatia: role of agency for quality and accreditation in health].

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Renato; Huić, Mirjana; Mestrović, Josipa

    2010-12-01

    standards, and providing other services in the field of healthcare quality assurance, improvement, promotion and monitoring, according to the Act. Formal activities of the Agency in the field of HTA actually began in summer 2009. In the field of quality and accreditation, the plan and program of healthcare quality assurance, improvement, promotion and monitoring was finished and published in October 2010; preparation of the healthcare quality standards as well as the accreditation standards is still in process, with the aim to start accreditation process at 10 hospitals in 2011. Education in the field of healthcare quality assurance, improvement and promotion has been established as a continuous process from the beginning. The Agency is member of the International Society for Quality in Health Care (ISQua) and participates in the work of the European Accreditation Network (EAN). In the field of HTA, the Agency has established international collaboration and support, which resulted in its appointment and participation in the European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Joint Action Project as a EUnetHTA Partner, as well as its membership in the international society, HTAi. TAIEX project has been approved as a two-day workshop in December 2010. The Croatian HTA Guidelines have been issued with the aim to start the HTA process and reports that should serve as recommendations, as a support to policy-makers at the national level, in particular the Croatian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and Croatian Institute of Health Insurance, in making evidence-informed decisions on the strategic planning, investment, management and implementation of technologies in health care, on funding (reimbursement) and coverage of health technologies, and at hospital level on the request from hospital directors and policy teams. In conclusion, establishment of all these measures in Croatia is by no means an easy and quick process, however, we do believe that it is feasible

  13. Geochemical characteristics of the St. Jakob (Croatia) Pb-Zn mineral deposit - a connection between the Alps and the Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleše, Pia; Palinkaš, Ladislav

    2014-05-01

    The Pb and Zn ore deposit of St. Jakob (ore paragenesis: galena, sphalerite, pyrite) is situated on Mt. Medvednica (Croatia), within the Palaeozoic-Triassic magmatic-sedimentary complex, a unit overprinted by Early-Cretaceous middle-grade metamorphism. The epigenetic ore is hosted in unmetamorphosed dolomites, which do not belong, lithologically or genetically, to the underlying Palaeozoic-Triassic complex. The host dolomites consist of ooids and sparite cement, indicators of a shallow marine environment. This associates them with a series of Norian dolomites that are part of the Triassic clastite and platform carbonates nappe, situated several kilometers away. The identification of the ore dolomites as a separate unit suggests that the Triassic carbonate nappe once covered a larger area, most of which is now eroded with the dolomites remaining as a klippe. The dolomites have enriched LREE and depleted HREE. Negative Eu and Ce anomalies indicate formation in an anoxic marine environment. Four types of fluid inclusions were identified in quartz veins syngeneic with the ore in the dolomites. Quartz veins from the adjacent sheeted marbles (part of the Palaeozoic-Triassic complex) contained only three fluid inclusion types. The primary ore fluid, present only in the ore dolomites, is represented by two-phase inclusions with a methane-rich vapour phase, and H2O-NaCl-KCl-CaCl2 liquid phase with a salinity of 5 wt. % NaCl eqv. The secondary fluid, present in quartz veins from both rocks, is represented by two-phase inclusions with a CO2 rich vapour phase and H2O liquid phase with a salinity of 4 wt. % NaCl eqv. Very high homogenisation temperatures indicate leakage (and subsequent healing) of inclusions. Fluid inclusions provide more evidence for the distinction of ore dolomites from the Palaeozoic-Triassic complex, but also reveal their partly common history, possibly from after the emplacement of the nappe. X-ray diffraction revealed these secondary ore minerals

  14. Freshwater mass balance and exchange of water masses with the open sea: the Mljet Lakes (Croatia, Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martincic, Urska; Bezak, Nejc; Zagar, Dusan; Makovec, Tihomir; Lucic, Davor; Onofri, Vladimir; Malacic, Vlado

    2016-04-01

    Two karstic seawater lakes (Veliko - Big and Malo - Small Lake) located in the National Park Mljet on the Mljet Island in Croatia were investigated in this study. The Small and the Big Lake cover 0.25 and 1.45 km2, respectively. The two lakes are connected to each other and to the sea by narrow channels. The connecting channel between the Big Lake and the sea is 12 m wide and 3 m deep. The connection to the Small Lake leads through another artificial channel (2.7 m wide and 0.8 m deep). The average salinity of the Big and the Small lake is 37.75 and 36.9, respectively, and the average salinity of the open sea is 38.5. While previous studies have been conducted due to the lakes' unique ecosystem and the karstic characteristics of the area, the main aim of this study was to determine the freshwater mass balance and exchange of water masses with the nearby sea. Several measurement campaigns were performed between 2008 and 2015 when meteorological parameters as well as salinity, water temperature and water velocities in both lakes and the channels were observed. A perpetual year was determined using available meteorological data. The contribution of the surface runoff to both lakes was modelled using the hydrological rainfall-runoff HEC-HMS model. Curve number parameter was estimated using the CLC Corine Land cover and geomorphological maps. Evaporation from the lake was calculated using the Verburg, Kondo and Coare equations. We found that the annual evaporation approximately equals the annual rainfall to the lake surface (cca. 550-600 mm). From the hydrological model and the difference between precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface we calculated the annual net excess of freshwater between 0.5 106 and 0.7 106 m3. The average salinity in both lakes is lower than the salinity in the sea; therefore, we hypothesize that the excess water should be discharged either through the channel between the Big Lake and the open sea or through underwater karstic sink

  15. Alcohol-related road traffic accidents before and after the passing of the Road Traffic Safety Act in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduard; Bozić, Boris; Missoni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gather enough data in order to formulate theory- and research-based recommendations to policy makers with the intention of decreasing the number of alcohol-related accidents and victims on Croatian roads. The data on the injured traffic participants and the share of participants under the influence of alcohol were collected from the police reports of the Traffic Police Department, Ministry of the Interior, written at the scene of the respective accidents. This documentation was then processed by descriptive epidemiology and analysed through a four-year period, before and after the passing of the New Road Traffic Safety Act in the Republic of Croatia, on 20 August 2004. In the first six months of 2005, after the passing of the Act, there were 3,275 accidents caused by the motorists under the influence of alcohol (12.5% of all the accidents), with 64 persons killed. Only 5 fatalities (8%) were caused by the drivers with measured blood alcohol concentration of up to 0.5 per thousand. As much as 27 fatalities (42%) were caused by the drivers with measured more than 1.5 per thousand, while half of the fatalities, 32 (50%), were caused by drivers with 0.5-1.5 per thousand. In this period, more than 451,000 violations were recorded, whereas in the same period of the previous year, the number of violations was about 519,000. A reduction of the total number of accidents is the result of the new regulation provision, according to which the incidents without human victims do not have to be reported to the police. The number of traffic accidents caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol had increased by some dozen per cents, namely: 2005 - 6,219 persons, 2006- 6,590 persons, noting that in 2006 one less person was killed (123) compared to 2005. In 2005, drivers with alcohol concentration of 0-0.5 per thousand caused 1,096 accidents, with 14 fatalities, whereas in 2006 there were 1,164 accidents with 9 fatalities. A total of 2,314 accidents

  16. Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jemeršić, Lorena; Dežđek, Danko; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzić, Svjetlana; Konjević, Dean; Beck, Relja

    2014-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. PMID:24035586

  17. Age-developmental stage and severity of trauma related symptoms, anxiety and depressive symptoms in participants who lost their fathers during the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Plasć, Ivana Dijanić; Poljarević, Sanja; Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Children of different ages will experience a traumatic event in a different ways. The most important in the generalization of research findings is recognizing that children of different ages think differently, act differently and have different emotional functioning. Experiences that are extremely traumatic to an adult may be perceived by a young child as something that is not so frightening. The fear that the child feels will more frequently be a reflection of that of the adult rather than generated by the child's own perception of the event. So, the individual experience of the trauma is age dependent. Our study focused on children who lost their fathers in conditions of war The aim was to explore the association between age-developmental stages and the severity of trauma related symptoms, anxiety and depressive symptoms in participants who lost their fathers during the war. The study included 103 people who lost their fathers during the war in Croatia, who came to the physical and psychiatric examination organized by the Ministry of Family, War Veterans and Intergenerational Solidarity. The sample was consisted of the participants who were children, or not born yet, at the time when they lost their fathers during the war in Croatia. At the time of interview, the participants were aged between 15 and 35 years old. Data was collected using a structured clinical interview which also included socio-demographic data. Data about former and current psychiatric symptoms were collected using the following instruments: Clinician- Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD). Results showed that there was significant correlation between age and results on used scales. The participants who lost their fathers at a very young age or even before they were born showed less trauma symptoms (r=0.249; p < 0.05) less anxiety (r=0.374; p < 0.01) and depressive (r=0.384; p<0.01) symptoms than participants who lost their fathers at

  18. Cross-sectional Biomonitoring of Metals in Adult Populations in Post-war Eastern Croatia: Differences Between Areas of Moderate and Heavy Combat

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Matijana; Miškulin, Maja; Puntarić, Dinko; Gmajnić, Rudika; Milas, Josip; Sipos, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in metal and metalloid exposure between residents of areas in eastern Croatia exposed to heavy fighting during the war in Croatia and residents of areas exposed to moderate fighting. Methods Concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn), reported to be associated with military operations, were determined in hair, serum, and urine samples using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. A total of 127 and 46 participants from areas of heavy and moderate fighting, respectively, were included. Results Compared with participants from areas exposed to moderate fighting, participants from areas exposed to heavy fighting had significantly higher serum concentrations of Al (87.61 vs 42.75 μg/L, P = 0.007), As (5.05 ± 1.79 vs 4.16 ± 1.55 μg/L, P = 0.003), Ba (7.12 vs 6.01 μg/L, P = 0.044), and V (17.98 vs 16.84 μg/L, P = 0.008); significantly higher urine concentrations of As (43.90 vs 11.51 μg/L, P < 0.001) and Cd (0.67 vs 0.50 μg/L, P = 0.031); and significantly higher hair concentrations of Al (12.61 vs 7.33 μg/L, P < 0.001), As (0.32 vs 0.05 μg/L, P < 0.001), Cd (0.03 vs 0.02 μg/L, P = 0.002), Fe (22.58 vs 12.68 μg/L, P = 0.001), Pb (1.04 vs 0.69 μg/L, P = 0.006), and V (0.07 vs 0.03 μg/L, P < 0.001). Conclusion Differences between populations from eastern Croatian areas exposed to heavy and populations exposed to moderate fighting point to the need for extensive monitoring of metal and metalloid exposure, emphasizing the role of biomonitoring through ecologic and preventive activities. PMID:20960595

  19. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnica, V.; Škarić, K.; Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Fazinić, S.; Jakšić, M.; Mudronja, D.; Pavličić, M.; Peranić, I.; Schreiner, M.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily μ-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as μ-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment.

  20. Epidemiological study of suicide in the Republic of Croatia -- comparison of war and post-war periods and areas directly and indirectly affected by war.

    PubMed

    Grubisić-Ilić, Mirjana; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Grubisić, Frane; Kovacić, Zrnka

    2002-09-01

    We examined the differences in the suicide characteristics between areas directly and indirectly affected by war activities and in war and post-war periods according to the following variables: suicide rate, sex, age and method of suicide. Analysis was done on 5349 suicides committed in the period 1993-1998 (war and post-war years). The suicide rates in the Republic of Croatia oscillated in the pre-war, war and post-war periods (1985-2000) but without significant differences. In the areas directly affected by war, the suicide rate was significantly lower than in other areas during the study period 1993-1998 (chi-square = 10.3245; P = 0.0017). The number of suicides in both sexes declined in the areas directly affected by war-more in men than in women; the difference between sexes was statistically significant (chi-square = 3.6697; P = 0.055). Middle- and old-aged people were the population with high suicide risk in both areas (t = 1.76; P = 0.078). There were significant differences in the methods of suicides between war and non-war areas (chi-square = 108.8473; P = 0.001). Firearms or explosive devices were the methods used more significantly for suicides in the areas directly affected by war than in other areas, whereas hanging was more frequently used in the areas indirectly affected by war. PMID:12381495

  1. Fatty-acid profile of total and polar lipids in cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in freshwater and seawater (Croatia) determined by transmethylation method.

    PubMed

    Staver, Mladenka Malenica; Jerković, Igor; Giacometti, Jasminka; Malenica, Ante; Marijanović, Zvonimir

    2012-08-01

    Fatty acids from total lipids and polar lipids in cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in seawater (SW) and freshwater (FW) were identified and quantified from the muscle samples in January, April, and July. The highest total lipid and polar lipid amounts were found in April. July contents of total lipids were low, but percent of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was high in SW and FW environment (particularly n-3 PUFAs). Variety of 17 fatty acids was identified by GC-FID after transmethylation. The predominant fatty acids in rainbow trout from SW and FW were: docosahexaenoic acid among n-3 PUFAs, palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and oleic acid among monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Appreciably higher n-3/n-6 ratio was found in total lipids in April (6.40, FW fish) and in polar lipids in July (18.76; SW fish). High n-3/n-6 ratio in total lipids and polar lipids of rainbow trout from SW and FW, besides beneficial n-3/n-6 ratio in the commercial fish food, could be characteristic for the local environmental conditions (Croatia). PMID:22899619

  2. North vs south differences in acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage in Croatia: hospitalization incidence trends, clinical features, and 30-day case fatality

    PubMed Central

    Ljubičić, Neven; Pavić, Tajana; Budimir, Ivan; Puljiz, Željko; Bišćanin, Alen; Bratanić, Andre; Nikolić, Marko; Hrabar, Davor; Troskot, Branko

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the seven-year trends of hospitalization incidence due to acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage (APUH) and associated risk factors, and examine the differences in these trends between two regions in Croatia. Methods The study collected sociodemographic, clinical, and endoscopic data on 2204 patients with endoscopically confirmed APUH who were admitted to the Clinical Hospital Center “Sestre Milosrdnice,” Zagreb and Clinical Hospital Center Split between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We determined hospitalization incidence rates, 30-day case fatality rate, clinical outcomes, and incidence-associated factors. Results No differences were observed in APUH hospitalization incidence rates between the regions. Age-standardized one-year cumulative APUH hospitalization incidence rate calculated using the European Standard Population was significantly higher in Zagreb than in Split region (43.2/100 000 vs 29.2/100,000). A significantly higher APUH hospitalization incidence rates were observed in the above 65 years age group. Overall 30-day case fatality rate was 4.9%. Conclusion The hospitalization incidence of APUH in two populations did not change over the observational period and it was significantly higher in the Zagreb region. The incidence of acute duodenal ulcer hemorrhage also remained unchanged, whereas the incidence of acute gastric ulcer hemorrhage increased. The results of this study allow us to monitor epidemiological indicators of APUH and compare data with other countries. PMID:25559836

  3. Traditional and Modern Biomedical Prospecting: Part I-the History: Sustainable Exploitation of Biodiversity (Sponges and Invertebrates) in the Adriatic Sea in Rovinj (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E. G.; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Isabel M.

    2004-06-01

    Nature, especially the marine environment, provides the most effective drugs used in human therapy. Among the metazoans, the marine sponges (phylum Porifera), which are sessile filter feeders, produce the most potent and highly selective bioactive secondary metabolites. These animals (or their associated symbiotic microorganisms) synthesize secondary metabolites whose activity and selectivity has developed during their long evolutionary history (evochemistry). The exploitation of these resources has become possible due to the progress in molecular and cell biology. BIOTECmarin, the German Center of Excellence follows this rationale. In the past, these animals have been successfully and extensively utilized to isolate bioactive compounds and biomaterials for human benefit. Pharmaceuticals prepared from marine animals, primarily sponges, have been applied since ancient times (Hippocrates, Aristotle and later Plinius). It has been reported that extracts and/or components from sponges can be used for the treatment of specific diseases. For a systematic and applied-oriented exploitation, the successful development of effective compounds largely depends on quality of the institutional infrastructure of marine stations and more so on the biodiversity. The Center for Marine Research in Rovinj (Croatia) fulfils these prerequisites. Founded in 1891, this institute has to its credit major discoveries related to exploitation of secondary metabolites/biomaterials from sponges for therapeutical application and to obtain biomaterials for general wellbeing. This is the first part of a review focusing on biomedical prospecting. Here, we have mainly described the historic background. The details of techniques, substances, approaches and outlooks will be discussed in the second part. PMID:15257328

  4. Preliminary report on vaccination in Croatia against poliomyelitis with type 1 (CHAT) and type 3 (W-Fox) attenuated polioviruses of Koprowski

    PubMed Central

    Ikić, D.; Jančikić, B.; Lulić, V.; Ćuk, D.; Juzbašić, M.; Manhalter, T.; Sindik, A.

    1963-01-01

    The incidence of poliomyelitis in the People's Republic of Croatia has progressively increased since 1945, and in 1953 and 1960 there were serious epidemics. In order to protect the age-groups at greatest risk a mass vaccination campaign was carried out with Koprowski live-virus vaccine in the early spring of 1961, covering the entire population aged 3 months to 20 years. Altogether 1 339 244 persons were given type 1 (CHAT strain), and 1 287 909 received type 3 (W-Fox). Over 100 000 persons were estimated to possess no pre-existing antibody to any of the three types of poliovirus. Although no unvaccinated control group was set up, it is considered that the epidemiological and serological data indicate the safety and efficacy of the vaccination. The serological conversion rate was 91.5% for type 1 and 93.5% for type 3. No post-vaccinal reactions were observed. The usual summer peak in incidence did not occur in 1961, altogether 6 cases being recorded from June (when immunity is considered to have been established) to December. This is the lowest figure since 1945. PMID:20604139

  5. Serum antibodies directed against classical swine fever virus and other pestiviruses in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Roic, B; Depner, K R; Jemersic, L; Lipej, Z; Cajavec, S; Toncic, J; Lojkic, M; Mihauevic, Z

    2007-04-01

    The presence of serum antibodies directed against classical swine fever (CSF) virus and other pestiviruses among the wild boar (Sus scrofa) population in Croatia was investigated. During 2003, serum samples from 214 wild boars were collected in 10 hunting areas in the continental part of the country. The sera were examined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and in the virus neutralization test (VNT). Out of 214 sera tested 111 (51.87 %) were positive by ELISA and regarding neutralising antibodies, against CSFV 75 (35.05 %) samples were positive. In the VNT with the C-strain (conventional live vaccine strain China) and the strain Uelzen were used. Samples were also tested for neutralizing antibodies against border disease virus (BDV) using the strain 137/4 and against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) using the NADL strain. Neutralizing antibodies against the C-strain were detected in 36 sera (16.82 %), against strain Uelzen in 17 sera (7.94 %) and in 22 sera (10.28 %) against both strains. In five sera (2.33 %) neutralizing antibodies against BVDV and BDV were found. PMID:17484502

  6. First description of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Croatia and phylogenetic analysis of partial PCV2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Lipej, Z; Segalés, J; Jemersić, Lorena; Olvera, A; Roić, Besi; Novosel, D; Mihaljević, Z; Manojlović, L

    2007-09-01

    This report describes the first case of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in wild boar in Croatia. During the winter season of 2004, eight wild young piglets (of approximately 2 to 5 months of age) were found dead in a fenced hunting area. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on mesenteric lymph nodes and all animals yielded positive results. In one of these animals diagnosis of PMWS was established based on the three key diagnostic criteria including the clinical manifestation, moderate lymphoid lesions consisting of lymphocyte depletion and granulomatous inflammation, and detection of the presence of PCV2 genome within the lymphoid lesions by in situ hybridisation (ISH). Three additional wild piglets had also mild PMWS-like lesions and a low amount of PCV2 was also found. No PMWS-like lesions or PCV2 genome were detected in the rest of the wild piglets studied. Three PCR-positive isolates were partially sequenced, which confirmed the diagnosis of PCV2 and demonstrated that the three sequences were genetically identical. The phylogenetic analysis of a representative PCV2 isolate indicated that its sequence (DQ875444) is grouped in a separate branch with Hungarian isolate (AY256460) and differs from any of the annotated sequences. PMID:17867466

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and

  8. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736, Pliva, Croatia). Full and distended stomach, and vascular response.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Brcic, L; Blagaic, A B; Zoricic, I; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Keller, N; Sipos, K; Jakir, A; Udovicic, M; Tonkic, A; Kokic, N; Turkovic, B; Mise, S; Anic, T

    2006-12-01

    Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, safe in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL 10, PLD 116, PLD 14736, Pliva, Croatia)) has a particular cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotective activity. The cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotection researches largely neglect that stomach distension could per se jeopardize the mucosal integrity, with constantly stretched mucosa and blood vessels, and sphincters more prone for reflux induction. After absolute alcohol instillation in fully distended rat stomach, gastric, esophageal and duodenal lesions occur. Throughout next 3 min, left gastric artery blood vessels clearly disappear at the serosal site, indicative for loss of vessels both integrity and function. Contrary, constant vessels presentation could predict the beneficial effect of applied agent. After pentadecapeptide BPC 157 instillation into the stomach the vessels presentation remains constant, and lesions of stomach, esophagus, and duodenum are inhibited. Standards (atropine, ranitidine, omeprazole) could only slightly improve the vessels presentation compared to control values, and they have only a partial effect on the lesions. In this review we emphasize BPC 157 unusual stability, and some of its important effects: effectiveness against various lesions in gastrointestinal tract, on nitric oxide (NO)-system, and NO-agents effects, on somatosensory neurons, salivary glands function, recovery of AMP-ADP-ATP system, endothelium protection, effect on endothelin, and on angiogenesis promotion. It also antagonizes other alcohol effects, including acute and chronic intoxication. Given peripherally, it counteracts the consequence of central dopamine system disturbances (receptor blockade), and induces serotonin release in substantia nigra. Therapeutic potential of BPC 157 as a cytoprotective agent is also seen in its capability to heal various wounds. Given directly into the stomach, BPC 157 instantly recovers disturbed lower esophageal

  9. Landscape response to recent tectonic deformation in the SW Pannonian Basin: Evidence from DEM-based morphometric analysis of the Bilogora Mt. area, NE Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoš, Bojan; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Tomljenović, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Bilogora Mt. area is a transpressional structure located in the NE of Croatia, linked with the tectonic evolution of the Drava Depression. The structure formed during Pliocene and Quaternary from the inversion of NW-striking Drava Depression Boundary Fault, which originated as a normal fault and was reactivated as a dextral strike-slip fault. During Pliocene and Quaternary time, Bilogora Mt. area underwent more than 400 m of differential uplift, while still ongoing tectonic deformation is documented by historical and instrumental seismicity (3.5 ≤ ML ≤ 5.6). In this geomorphic study, the recent deformation in the Bilogora Mt. area, although obscured by landscape evolution variables, was assessed using DEM-based landscape morphometry and a set of morphometric indexes. Local relief and slope angle variability distributions were combined with morphometric indexes computed at the scale of the drainage basin. We analyzed hypsometric curves with the hypsometric integral (HI), basin asymmetry (AF) and parameters of longitudinal stream profiles (Cf, Cmax, Δl/L, θ, and ksn). Analyzed morphometric parameters were combined into a cumulative index of relative tectonic activity (RTA). This index summarizes drainage basin response to the possible recent tectonic activity. Results suggest that most of the tectonic activity is probably located along the NE front of the Bilogora Mt. area, in its NW and central part. This activity could be likely related to recent tectonic activity along the Kalnik Mt. Fault zone and Drava Depression Boundary Fault zones, respectively. A subordinate area characterized by recent tectonic activity could be suggested within the southernmost part of the study area. Quaternary activity in this area is probably related to NE-striking faults in vicinity of the town Daruvar that continue towards the northeast into the study area. Though methodology presented here represents a good identification tool of possible ongoing deformation, this study will be

  10. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the HEPP Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roje-Bonacci, T.; Bonacci, O.

    2013-04-01

    The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of town of the Dubrovnik (Croatia). Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s-1 and 117 m3 s-1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981-2011), is 24.05 m3 s-1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968-1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s-1. There is a project for construction of the hydro electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. Top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130, m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain planned to be realized, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some potential, but very probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained.

  11. MICROBIAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF PATHOGENS CAUSING VENTILATOR- ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA AT INTENSIVE CARE UNIT, SESTRE MILOSRDNICE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL CENTER, ZAGREB, CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Turković, Tihana Magdić; Grginić, Ana Gverić; Cucujić, Branka Đuras; Gašpar, Božena; Širanović, Mladen; Perić, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is very common in many intensive care Units, but there are still many uncertainties about VAP, especially about the choice of initial empiric antibiotics. The incidence of specific pathogens with different susceptibility patterns causing VAP varies from hospital to hospital. This is the reason why empiric initial antibiotic treatment for VAP should be based not only on general guidelines (that recommend therapy according to the presence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria), but also on up-to-date information on local epidemiology. The aim of this study was to determine the microbial profile of pathogens causing VAP and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The study was conducted in the 15-bed surgical and neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia. Retrospective data were collected from September 2009 to March 2013. All patients that developed VAP during the study period were eligible for the study. According to study results, the incidence of VAP was 29.4%. The most commonly isolated bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus (21.1%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.0%) and Acinetobacter species (13.6%). All Staphylococcus aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 100% susceptibility to cefepime and very high susceptibility to pip'eracillin-tazobactam (96%), ceftazidime (93%) and ciprofloxacin (89%). Ampicillin-sulbactam was highly effective for Acinetobacter species, showing resistance in only 8% of isolates. In conclusion, according to study data, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with VAP without risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria is ceftriaxone and for patients with risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria ampicillin-sulbactam plus cefepime plus vancomycin or linezolid. PMID:26415308

  12. The harsh life on the 15th century Croatia-Ottoman empire military border: analyzing and identifying the reasons for the massacre in Cepin.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Vyroubal, Vlasta; Bedić, Zeljka

    2010-03-01

    Excavation of the historic period cemetery in Cepin, Croatia revealed the presence of a large number of perimortem injuries distributed among males, females, and subadults. Archaeological and historical data suggest these individuals were victims of a raid carried out by Turkish akinji light cavalry in 1441. Comparisons with the frequencies of perimortem trauma in 12 other, temporally congruent skeletal series from the Balkans (n = 2,123 skeletons) support this assumption. The role of the akinji in the Ottoman army was twofold: to supply war captives, and to terrorize and disperse local populations before the advance of regular troops. This article tests the hypothesis that the purpose of the 1441 raid was the latter. To accomplish this, perimortem trauma in the series were analyzed by sex, age, location, and depth of the injury. A total of 82 perimortem injuries were recorded in 12 males, 7 females, and 3 subadults. The demographic profile of the victims suggests that young adults were specifically targeted in the attack. Significant sex differences are noted in the number, distribution, and pattern of perimortem trauma. Females exhibit significantly more perimortem injuries per individual, and per bone affected, than males. The morphology and pattern of perimortem trauma in females is suggestive of gratuitous violence. Cumulatively, analysis of the osteological data suggest that the objective of the 1441 akinji raid was to spread terror and panic in the Cepin area, either as revenge for recent military setbacks, or as part of a long-term strategy intended to depopulate the area around Osijek. PMID:19902455

  13. Geochemistry and geodynamics of a Late Cretaceous bimodal volcanic association from the southern part of the Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Northern Croatia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pamic, J.; Belak, M.; Bullen, T.D.; Lanphere, M.A.; McKee, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present petrological and geochemical information on a bimodal basaltrhyolite suite associated with A-type granites of Late Cretaceous age from the South Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Croatia). Basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites, associated in some places with ignimbrites, occur in volcanic bodies that are interlayered with pyroclastic and fossiliferous Upper Cretaceus sedimentary rocks. The petrology and geochemistry of the basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites are constrained by microprobe analyses, major and trace element analyses including REE, and radiogenic and stable isotope data. Basalts that are mostly transformed into metabasalts (mainly spilites), are alkalic to subalkalic and their geochemical signatures, particularly trace element and REE patterns, are similar to recent back-arc basalts. Alkali-feldspar rhyolites have similar geochemical features to the associated cogenetic A-type granites, as shown by their large variation of Na2O and K2O (total 8-9%), very low MgO and CaO, and very high Zr contents ranging between 710 and 149ppm. Geochemical data indicate an amphibole lherzolite source within a metasomatized upper mantle wedge, with the influence of upper mantle diapir with MORB signatures and continental crust contamination. Sr incorporated in the primary basalt melt had an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7039 indicating an upper mantle origin, whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the alkalifeldspar rhyolites and associated A-type granites is 0.7073 indicating an apparent continental crust origin. However, some other geochemical data favour the idea that they might have mainly originated by fractionation of primary mafic melt coupled with contamination of continental crust. Only one rhyolite sample appears to be the product of melting of continental crust. Geological and geodynamic data indicate that the basalt-rhyolite association was probably related to Alpine subduction processes in the Dinaridic Tethys which can be correlated with

  14. Two new freshwater fish species of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from karst poljes in Eastern Herzegovina and Dubrovnik littoral (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    Bogutskaya, Nina G.; Zupančič, Primož; Bogut, Ivan; Naseka, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Telestes dabar and Telestes miloradi, are described on the basis of morphological comparisons of isolated geographical populations of fishes identified earlier as Telestes metohiensis. A lectotype is designated for Telestes metohiensis, whose range is shown to include waters of Gatačko, Cerničko, and Nevesinjsko poljes in Eastern Herzegovina. Telestes dabar from Dabarsko Polje (Eastern Herzegovina) and Telestes miloradi from Konavosko Polje (south Croatia) share with Telestes metohiensis the following combination of characters that distinguish them from the rest of the genus Telestes: pharyngeal teeth in one row, usually 5–4; preoperculo-mandibular canal not communicating with the infraorbital canal; mouth subterminal, the tip of the mouth cleft on or below the level of the ventral margin of the eye; postcleithrum minute or absent; ventral portion of the trunk with a dark stripe on a pale background; and dorsal portion of trunk uniformly dark and bordered ventrally by a dark midlateral stripe. Telestes dabar and Telestes miloradi are distinguishable from Telestes metohiensis in usually having 8½ branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. usually 7½), 9 or 10 gill rakers (vs. 7–10, usually 8), and the dark stripe on the ventral portion of the trunk below the main pigmented area of the back narrow and usually not reaching posteriorly to the caudal peduncle (vs. dark stripe wide and extending posteriorly to the caudal peduncle). Telestes dabar is distinguished from Telestes miloradi by having scales on most of the body situated close to one another and overlapping in a region behind the pectoral girdle and usually on the caudal peduncle (vs. overlapping scales on most of the body); the lateral line usually incomplete and interrupted, with 24–69, usually 54–65, total scales (vs. lateral line usually complete, with 55–67 total scales); scales above and below the lateral line slightly smaller than lateral-line scales (vs. of about equal size

  15. Prevalence of comorbidity in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and its association with elevated HbA1c: A cross-sectional study in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bralić Lang, Valerija; Bergman Marković, Biserka

    2016-01-01

    Objective To the authors’ knowledge, there are few valid data that describe the prevalence of comorbidity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients seen in family practice. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of comorbidities and their association with elevated (≥ 7.0%) haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) using a large sample of T2DM patients from primary care practices. Design A cross-sectional study in which multivariate logistic regression was applied to explore the association of comorbidities with elevated HbA1c. Setting Primary care practices in Croatia. Subjects Altogether, 10 264 patients with diabetes in 449 practices. Main outcome measures Comorbidities and elevated HbA1c. Results In total 7979 (77.7%) participants had comorbidity. The mean number of comorbidities was 1.6 (SD 1.28). Diseases of the circulatory system were the most common (7157, 69.7%), followed by endocrine and metabolic diseases (3093, 30.1%), and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (1437, 14.0%). After adjustment for age and sex, the number of comorbidities was significantly associated with HbA1c. The higher the number of comorbidities, the lower the HbA1c. The prevalence of physicians’ inertia was statistically significantly and negatively associated with the number of comorbidities (Mann–Whitney U test, Z = –12.34; p < 0.001; r = –0.12). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of comorbidity among T2DM patients in primary care. A negative association of number of comorbidities and HbA1c is probably moderated by physicians’ inertia in treatment of T2DM strictly according to guidelines. Key pointsThere is a high prevalence of comorbidity among T2DM patients in primary care.Patients with breast cancer, obese patients, and those with dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease were more likely to have increased HbA1c.The higher the number of comorbidities, the lower the HbA1c. PMID:26853192

  16. Are the 1/3-Octave Band 63- and 125-Hz Noise Levels Predictive of Vessel Activity? The Case in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago (Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Fortuna, Caterina Maria; Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Gospić, Nikolina Rako

    2016-01-01

    A 3-years sea ambient-noise (SAN) monitoring was carried out in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago (Croatia), where a bottlenose dolphin population is threatened by unregulated nautical tourism. A total of 540 5-min SAN samples were collected and analyzed in an Indicator 11.2.1 (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) perspective. The 1/3-octave band center frequencies of 63 and 125 Hz (re 1 μPa.rms) proved to be predictive of local predominant ship type over time. However, the noisiest band level was centered on 200 Hz. We therefore suggest measuring a wider frequency band than those requested in Indicator 11.2.1. PMID:26611038

  17. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in Croatia: the role of transmission clusters of men who have sex with men carrying the T215S surveillance drug resistance mutation.

    PubMed

    Grgic, Ivana; Lepej, Snjezana Zidovec; Lunar, Maja M; Poljak, Mario; Vince, Adriana; Vrakela, Ivana Baca; Planinic, Ana; Seme, Katja; Begovac, Josip

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in newly diagnosed and treatment-naive HIV-infected patients from Croatia and evaluate a possible contribution of transmission clusters to the spread of resistant virus. The study enrolled treatment-naive HIV-infected patients that entered clinical care at the Croatian Reference Center for HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2008. The protease gene and a part of the reverse transcriptase gene of the HIV-1 genome were sequenced by using the Trugene HIV-1 Genotyping System. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was analyzed by using the surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) list recommended by the WHO in 2009. We report findings for 118 of 180 eligible patients (65.6% coverage). SDRM were detected in 26 of 118 patients (22.0%) who were infected with subtype B and belonged mostly to the men having sex with men (MSM). The majority of patients with primary resistance carried SDRM associated with resistance to nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, 23 of 118 patients, 19.5%). The most frequently found NRTI SDRM was T215S (17 of 118 patients, 14.4%). SDRM associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were detected in three (2.5%) patients and primary resistance to protease inhibitors was not detected. Non-B subtypes were detected in 13/118 patients (11%). A total of 12 transmission pairs and eight distinct transmission clusters were identified with the largest cluster harboring sequences from 19 patients; among them all but two were carrying the T215S mutation. This study showed a high prevalence of TDR in newly diagnosed MSM from Croatia and is an important contribution concerning the relationship between local transmission clusters and the spread of resistant virus. PMID:22906365

  18. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  19. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roje-Bonacci, T.; Bonacci, O.

    2013-08-01

    The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of the town of Dubrovnik (Croatia). Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s-1 and 117 m3 s-1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981-2011), is 24.05 m3 s-1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968-1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s-1. There is a project for construction of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. The top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130 m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained. The HEPP Ombla could result in many large and hard-to-predict negative consequences which are specific for this particular HEPP, for example (1) severe spring discharge change; (2) unpredictable regional groundwater redistribution; (3) threatening of endemic fauna; (4) induced seismicity; (5) induced sinkholes; (6) occurrence of landslides; (7) conflict regarding internationally shared karst aquifers; (8) intensification of karst flash floods; (9) sea water intrusion in coastal karst aquifer; etc.

  20. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting. PMID:27436392

  1. Collision-related Early Paleozoic evolution of a crustal fragment from the northern Gondwana margin (Slavonian Mountains, Tisia Mega-Unit, Croatia): Reconstruction of the P-T path, timing and paleotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balen, D.; Massonne, H.-J.; Petrinec, Z.

    2015-09-01

    An orthogneiss from the oldest metamorphic complex at Mt. Papuk (Tisia Mega-Unit, Croatia) enables the quantification of the P-T evolution of Early Paleozoic rocks of the Panonian Basin basement in contrast to neighboring peri-Gondwanan terrains which are significantly overprinted by pre-Variscan, Variscan, and Alpine events. Two different groups of Ce-rich monazite within oval-shaped corona microstructures have been observed. Age dating of the corona cores yielded two populations with average ages of 528 ± 7 (2σ) Ma and 465 ± 7 Ma, respectively. Furthermore, an Y-rich group, found inside garnet cores, was dated at 616 ± 23 Ma. Th-rich monazite included in garnet rims yielded an age of 491 ± 6 Ma. The youngest monazite group at 417 ± 20 Ma is located inside mica. The orthogneiss precursor was a calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline igneous peraluminous crustal rock (diorite) from an active continental marginal setting. The calculated P-T pseudosection in the MnNCKFMASHTO system in combination with assemblage characteristics and mineral chemistry data provides good constraints on the P-T evolution: for stage I peak P-T conditions of 13 kbar and 670 °C were derived followed by stage II, which was characterized by moderate cooling accompanied by uplift to mid-crustal levels (5.2 kbar and 610 °C). Subsequently, the system cooled to 480 °C at ~ 4.4 kbar (stage III). Formation of titanite rims on ilmenite suggests further cooling to 4 kbar and 400 °C (stage IV). The clockwise P-T path implies exhumation from a tectonically thickened crustal setting (ca. 45 km depth at a geothermal gradient of ~ 15 °C/km) to mid-crustal levels (ca. 18 km) followed by cooling at depths < 14 km. Crustal thickening was due to the collision of a continental plate (Gondwana) with a smaller plate, which was underthrust.

  2. Effectiveness of the UNICEF/WHO 20-hour Course in Improving Health Professionals’ Knowledge, Practices, and Attitudes to Breastfeeding: A Before/After Study of 5 Maternity Facilities in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Burmaz, Tea

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate knowledge, practices, and attitudes to breastfeeding among Croatian health professionals before and after the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund/World Health Organization (UNICEF/WHO) 20-hour course. Methods Study included 5 of 9 maternity hospitals in southern Croatia, which had completed the UNICEF/WHO 20-hour breastfeeding training course between December 2007 and February 2009. An anonymous questionnaire testing knowledge, practices, and attitudes was distributed to 424 health professionals before training and to 308 health professionals afterwards. Health professionals’ attitudes were assessed using the validated Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. Results The pre-training response rate was >90%, but only 53% of data were analyzed; the post-training response rate was 69%. Only one-fifth of health professionals prior to training knew that breast preparation in pregnancy was unnecessary, but this increased to 57% after training (P < 0.001). The proportion of health professionals who recognized hospital practices that support breastfeeding and signs of poor positioning when breastfeeding nearly doubled after training (P < 0.001). The proportion of health professionals correctly recommending immediate “skin-to-skin” contact post-Cesarean section under local anesthesia did not improve significantly, and stratification analyses showed that younger respondents (<36 years) were more likely to support this practice. Although the proportion of health professionals who correctly managed mastitis improved significantly as a result of the training, the proportion of those who after training inappropriately recommended partial or complete cessation of breastfeeding remained high at 47%. The number of staff with positive attitudes toward breastfeeding increased from 65% to 79%, whereas the number of staff with neutral attitudes dropped from 26.6% to 9.9% (P < 0.001). Even after training, a substantial proportion of health

  3. Caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Methods Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permanent and lower-case letters to primary teeth) and decayed, missed, and filled surfaces (DMFS), as well as the significant caries index (SiC). Results The median DMFT and DMFS of all children were 3 and 4, respectively. The median DMFT and DMFS of 12-year-old children were 4 and 5, respectively. The highest median DMFT score of 7 was found among 14-year-old children. There was a significant difference between age groups (7-10 years and 11-14 years) in DMFT and DMFS. Among 8-year-old children, the median dmft index was the highest (5.5) and SiC index was 7.4. As far as the location of caries on the surface of the first permanent molar is concerned, caries occurred mostly in the central occlusal surface (27.6%). Conclusion Our results showed a high caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, indicating a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care. PMID:22180264

  4. The history of pharmacy studies in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kujundzić, N; Inić, S

    2014-02-01

    The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry). PMID:24640607

  5. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. PMID:26721719

  6. University Students' Attitudes: Croatia versus Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Norman V.; Racic, Stanko; Gelo, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed Croatian and Turkish business school students, from universities emphasizing globalization, to analyze whether consideration for travel to the USA is affected by attitude toward their own country and the USA. The results from comparing and contrasting differences between these countries and differences between males and females in each…

  7. Information Literacy in Croatia: An Ideological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poler Kovacic, Melita; Zgrabljic Rotar, Nada; Erjavec, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    New information and communication technologies were widely perceived as something that would lead post-socialist European countries towards the technologically developed information society. In this article, a critical perspective is taken in examining information literacy as an ideological form. The deconstruction of ideological practice was…

  8. Who empowers women towards healthier lifestyles? Example from western Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Ksenija; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Suljić, Petra; Todorović, Goran; Vuletić, Silvije; Cović, Ana

    2009-04-01

    This article explores who among the doctors, other health care workers, family or somebody else most frequently advised women about their lifestyle changes related to cardiovascular health (including smoking, nutritional habits and physical activity). We analyzed who advised the most, in relation to the parameters important in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases: age, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). Sample was a part of comprehensive Croatian Adult Health Survey, comprised of women from Primorje-Goran, Istra and Lika-Senj Counties. Results indicated low frequency of advising on lifestyle changes in primary health care in all three counties, with most advice from general practitioners on nutritional habits. Family and other health care workers advised about smoking and nutrition and had strong influence in the youngest age groups. The GPs failure to counsel younger population and disease-free women could be regarded as the missed opportunity for avoidance of preventable risk factors that are associated with cardiovascular diseases. Other subjects in the health care process, as well as the family and media could fill the gaps between the patients and health care system messages. In order to create and develop such heterogeneous network approaches to training various programs and activities have to take into account all specific gender and regional characteristics. PMID:19563164

  9. Tertiary volcanic rocks from the southern Pannonian Basin, Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, E.H.; Bullen, T.D.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Tertiary volcanic rocks of the southern part of the Pannonian Basin are related to a sequence of tectonic events that occurred along the northern margin of the Dinarides when subduction ceased and after uplift of the region in middle Eocene time. The oldest rocks are andesites and dacites erupted during an Egerian to Eggenburgian marine transpression phase. In early Miocene time (about 17 Ma), rifting started, probably caused by the rise of the mantle, resulting in E-W extension and strike-slip faulting leading to formation of the Pannonian Basin. The initial rifting was accompanied by trachyandestic volcanism of Karpathian age, followed by Badenian-age (15 to 13 Ma) volcanic activity producing baslats, andesites, and dacites. During these volcanic phases the Pannonian Basin, or the Paratethys, probably was periodically connected with the Mediterranean Sea. The final period of volcanism (about 9 to 7 Ma) produced alkalic basalts and basalts and occurred in fresh-water environments. These volcanic rocks have had a complex petrological evolution, related to an active continental margin. Egerian-Eggenburgian andesites and dacites can be explained by upper crustal assimilation with fractional crystallization (ACF) of primary basalt magma. The three younger associations originated by partial melting of rocks from both the upper mantle and the lower crust. Their evolution was accompanied by crustal contamination. 39 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Physics Education Research in Croatia: Historical Roots and Actual Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marušic, M.; Sliško, J.

    2012-01-01

    Quality pedagogical tradition of Central European countries, in which the Croatian school system existed and evolved, helped in the establishment of the Department of Methodology of Teaching (in several disciplines) at the University of Zagreb and other Croatian universities (Split, Rijeka and Osijek). Unfortunately, it was not too long ago that…

  11. Analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Culig, Josip; Mitić, Bozena; Vukusić, Ivan; Sostar, Zvonimir

    2003-01-01

    Employing the volumetric method by use of a Hirst sampler, a total of 71,286 pollen grains, as many as 94.20% of them allergenic, were recorded in the air samples from the city of Zagreb during the 2002 pollen season. Among identified pollen of 35 plant species/genera/families, 23 were allergenic: Taxus/Juniperus, Alnus sp., Fraxinus sp., Betula sp., Corylus sp., Poaceae, Urticaceae, Artemisia sp., Ambrosia sp., Carpinus sp., Castanea sp., Chenopodiaceae, Salix sp., Populus sp., Ulmus sp., Juglans sp., Quercus sp., Platanus sp., Fagus sp., Plantago sp., Pinus sp., Picea sp. and Abies sp. The pollen of these plants also cause the majority of pollinosis in Europe. Study results and the pollen calendar designed for the 2002 pollen season for the City of Zagreb provide useful data for allergologists to reach an accurate diagnosis. The calendar also provides timely information on airborne pollen types and air concentrations for individuals with pollen hypersensitivity, thus allowing them to adjust their daily activities so as to minimize their contact with allergens and improve their quality of life both at home and at work. PMID:12852741

  12. Quality of Religious Education in Croatia Assessed from Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baric, Denis; Burušic, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the quality of religious education in Croatian primary schools when assessed from teachers' perspective. Religious education teachers (N?=?226) rated the impact of certain factors on the existing quality of religious education in primary schools and expressed their expectations about the future…

  13. Karstification, Caves and Karst Aquifers on the Adriatic Islands (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.; Terzic, J.

    2009-04-01

    This article deals with the Adriatic karst island aquifers especially from the point of view of karstification and how karst phenomena influence the accumulation of groundwater, its movements inside the system and its outflow. Flow through karst channels has been separated from flow through fractures within the rock mass regarding the scale of study. Although it is usually understood that groundwater flow in karst aquifers is usually turbulent, it has been shown that this phenomenon should also be taken into consideration regarding the scale. Turbulent flows are present in karst channels, but on most islands the majority of flow is happening through the network of fractures and joints within the rock mass, and that flow is predominantly laminar proven by statistic processing of step-drawdown pumping test. It has been shown how extensive and systematical research of karst aquifers must cover both phenomena. The most significant method of karst channel flows research as well as for disintegrated fault zones tracing is pointed out. On the other hand, while rock mass behaves according to the Darcy's law to a certain extent, hydraulic parameters can be used for description of such an aquifer. Still, in karst terrains all hydraulic values should be taken only as approximations. Based on all known findings it is possible to conclude that karstification processes are very important for hydrogeologic research on the Adriatic islands. In order to understand those processes, besides the karstification process, it is also important to know about the changes in sea level during recent geologic past - especially in Holocene. Karst phenomena from earlier karstification phases also exist and participate in the whole hydrogeologic setting, but because of the latter processes, they don't have the significance of recent ones which are still hydrogeologically active. Due to karstification and the presence of dissolution cavities, channels, and speleological objects, a very heterogeneous rock mass was created. Groundwater flow in such environment must be studied in two ways: a part of water flows through karst channels or at least tectonically predetermined fracture zones while another part flows through the network of fractures within the rock mass itself. Bigger presence of speleological objects, karst springs, submarine springs, estavelles or ponors, indicates that the majority of flow happens through dissolution channels. On the other hand when there are no such objects or very few of them, it is right to assume that the majority of flow happens within the rock mass. According to that follows the knowledge about scale effects (fig. 5). In regional scale attention should be directed on flow through karst channels and fracture zones. Tracer tests results are the most important in such cases. However when the well's surroundings or borehole's surroundings are analyzed, then we talk about local or subregional scale, and in that case hydraulic parameters of rock mass and well should be calculated. Based on 12 available tracing experiments 24 underground connections have been determined with average apparent velocity of 1.09 cm/s. The results clearly indicate the fact that when tracing was performed in natural karst environment apparent velocities are higher and vice versa. Such data indicates that tracings for sanitary protection of a part of a terrain should be done from a real karst object, even if it's a fracture zone. Tracing from a borehole regularly gives significantly lower apparent velocities. The average velocity for natural connections was 1.42 cm/s; and for those from artificial objects it was 0.45 cm/s. On most Adriatic islands, especially smaller ones, there has been no significant preferential groundwater flows established, which means that majority of flow happens within rock mass/aquifer. Such aquifer is to some extent subjected to general laws of groundwater flow, so even if the terrain is karstified, aquifer and well parameters should be calculated. Still, at every moment one should be aware of basic karst terrain properties, and the results should be seen only as approximate, as an order of magnitude. In that way 18 step-drawdown pumping tests results from islands wells and boreholes were analyzed. Special attention was directed to analysis of laminar and turbulent flow ratio. Generally it is thought that predominant conditions in karst are turbulent flow, but they are disputed to a certain extent. At discharge rate of 1 l/s most of flow is regularly laminar, and average share of laminar flow is almost 70%. Still, by increasing discharge rate to 10 l/s the situation changes. Now turbulent flow is predominant, while a part of laminar flow drops to some 30%. It is possible to state that natural flow without pumping is mostly laminar and it validates the assumption that calculating hydraulic parameters of rock mass according to Darcy law is justified. Still, the probability that boreholes will match hydrogeologically active karst channel with distinctive turbulent flow is relatively low.

  14. Processes of Globalisations and Adult Educations in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapan, Anita; Lavrnja, Ilija

    Globalization is one of those words being used every day, although the majority of the common people hardly know its true meaning. Globalization is a term formed and promoted by economists and ecologists, both understanding the world as a unique and inseparable space. Globalization is a force reorganizing the world's economy, and the main…

  15. Materialism, affective states, and life satisfaction: case of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipovčan, Ljiljana Kaliterna; Prizmić-Larsen, Zvjezdana; Brkljačić, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have used Material Values Scale (MVS) to assess beliefs about importance to own material things. The aims of this study were to validate the MVS scale and to explore the relationships between materialistic values and well-being of Croatian citizens. The study was carried out on a representative sample of N = 1129 Croatian citizens. We used the short 9-item version of the MVS, life satisfaction rating, ratings of two positive (Positive affect) and four negative emotions (Negative affect) over the past month, and demographic variables (age, gender, income). The original dimensionality of the MVS was not confirmed; confirmatory factor analyses yielded two instead of three factors, Happiness and Centrality/Success. When controlled for income, gender and age, the Happiness dimension predicted Life satisfaction and both Positive and Negative affect, indicating that people who believed that the material goods in ones life leads to happiness reported to have lower life satisfaction, lower level of positive affect and higher level of negative affect over the past month. The Centrality/Success dimension was positively related to Positive affect, indicating that the belief that possessions play a central role in enjoyment leads to more frequent experiences of happiness and satisfaction over the past month. PMID:26587367

  16. Depression and suicidality in the adolescents in Osijek, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Degmecić, Dunja; Filaković, Pavo

    2008-03-01

    Mood disorders in children and adolescents and their treatments have received increasing attention and clinical investigation over the last few decades. The core features of mood disorders are essentially the same across the life span. Developmental level, however, appears to influence the expression of certain mood symptoms with greater frequency than other within the framework of depressive disorders. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death in children between the ages of 10 and 15 years and the third leading cause of death among the adolescents and young adults 15-25 years. In this article the authors presents cross-sectional study done on the sample of 286 adolescents. Adolescents fulfilled self-rating scale Beck Depression Inventory for the screening of the depression and suicidality. In our sample 3.85% of the adolescents fulfilled the criteria for severe depressive episode and the 5.94% of the adolescents fulfilled criteria for moderate depressive episode. Also on the item of suicidality (Item 9) 0.7% of the adolescents had very high score, while 8.4 had significant score for the suicidal risk. Our results are in concordance with similar epidemiological studies done world while. PMID:18496908

  17. Note on the spring region of Gacka River (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Mandic, Magda; Bojic, Diana; Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana; Lutz, Hans O; Bronic, Ines Krajcar

    2008-06-01

    We present the first results of a study of the Gacka River spring area, an important Croatian drinking water resource. Stable isotope data (obtained at the Stable Isotope Laboratory SILab in Rijeka) are used in combination with hydrological and meteorological data. The delta18O values give information on the mean catchment altitudes of the three main springs of Gacka River (Majerovo vrelo, Tonkovica vrelo and Pecina). Hydrological, meteorological and stable isotope data indicate good mixing of infiltrated and ground waters. The precipitation d-excess shows a seasonally varying influence of continental and maritime air masses. PMID:18569191

  18. Expert witnesses in dentistry: a comparison between Italy and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Čuković-Bagić, Ivana

    2012-11-01

    A dentist is frequently required to translate dental trauma into monetary value, for example after car accidents and/or work-related injuries. When called to act in this capacity a dentist should combine his/her biological and technical knowledge with a quality medico-legal knowledge. Calculation of economic (pecuniary) damages and non-economic (non-pecuniary) damages requires specific training in medico-legal matters and awareness of the inherent pitfalls. Expert Witnesses registered in Court are usually asked to perform this duty. Nevertheless, European countries have differences regarding dental damage evaluations as well as significant differences in the conditions required for registration as an Expert Witness in Court. A dental Expert Witness has precise responsibilities and is subject to civil or criminal proceedings (depending on the judicial system) if found wanting. In forensic/legal dentistry a medico-legal doctor should not work in isolation from a dentist in dental cases nor is it wise for a dentist to work in the courts without having had specific training regarding judicial disciplines relating to dental damages. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the principal differences in the judicial systems regarding the appointment of Expert Witnesses in both Italian and Croatian courts. The next step will expand this investigation through to European countries in order to marshal knowledge towards harmonization, best practice and a common ground for dental evaluation and claim compensations (in accordance with the Council of Europe Resolution 75 – 7 Compensation for physical injury or death). PMID:23221264

  19. Mood effects of weather conditions of the Zagreb population, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Momirović, Aleksandar; Resanović, Branislava; Culig, Josip; Herljević, Ivona

    2005-12-01

    The level of information on biometeorologic reports and mood effects of weather conditions on the Zagreb population were assessed in a sample of 782 subjects. Only 103 (13.2%) study subjects had not been informed on biometeorologic reports. Mood effects of weather conditions were reported by more than 76% of study subjects, 18.3% of them reporting meteorosensitivity. Meteorosensitivity showed a female predominance, and increased with age and level of education. 88% of chronic patients reported discomforts caused by changes in atmospheric conditions. Apathy and sleepiness were the most common mood changes associated with weather changes, whereas humid weather was indicated as a weather type that caused most discomforts in study subjects. PMID:16417154

  20. Distribution of phosphorus in the eastern Adriatic Sea sediments (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijević, Slavica; Bogner, Danijela; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Veža, Jere

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is very important nutrient for the eastern Adriatic Sea owing to its limiting role in the primary production. Orthophosphate concentrations are low (median HPO42- value: 0.039 µmol dm-3) as a consequence of relatively small number of freshwater inflows and cyclonic circulation of oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean water masses. Due to anthropogenic influence in coastal areas such as bays, estuaries and channel waters, P concentrations increment occurred leading to the formation of trophic gradient from the open sea towards the coast. As marine sediment presents the ultimate sink for particulate organic P from the water column, as well as for inorganic P forms, knowledge about distribution of different sediment P species is of great importance for understanding the burial, diagenesis and environmental geochemical significance of P. This paper presents results of P distribution at the eastern Adriatic sites of different trophic status (open sea, channel, estuary, semi-enclosed bay under the anthropogenic influence and fish farms) during 2002-2012. In the water column dissolved and particulate inorganic and organic P were analyzed. In all sediments total phosphorus (organic and inorganic P) was determined, while at certain sites beside organic P, inorganic P forms were examined using modified SEDEX methods (P in biogenic - P-FD; authigenic - P-AUT and in detrital apatite - P-DET; phosphorus bound to iron oxides and hydroxides - P-Fe). Various geochemical variables in the water column and sediment (HPO42- concentration, sediment redox potential, granulometric composition, carbonate content, iron, organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were also investigated. Results proved total P concentrations range between 3 and 161 µmol g-1, with highest values at sites under the strong anthropogenic impact including fish farms, estuaries and bay areas. Major inorganic P species in the eastern Adriatic was P-Fe form. Fish debris P species P-FD, prevailed in fish farm sediments. Detrital and authigenic apatite P concentrations were explained by either terrestrial inputs or by internal transformation from other P forms. Statistical analysis among P and geochemical parameters indicated the granulometric composition as a leading differentiation parameter in sediment P species distribution. Statistics also indicated P-Fe importance in the P flux on the sediment water interface due to correlation between orthophosphate concentration in the water column, sediment pore water, redox-potential and iron concentration.

  1. Pro-longed exile and potential integration processes in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sujoldzić, A

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess initial contact, social distance and interethnic attitudes between refugee/displaced groups and Croatian host society in Dalmatia as a predictor of possible integration processes. In spite of many similarities between the analyzed groups (Bosnian refugees, displaced persons from Eastern Slavonia and Dalmatian population), sharing a period of common history and linguistic features that should facilitate integration, the results reveal complex and ambivalent attitudes of these groups, socially differentiated by age, gender and education. The study indicates the need for major efforts in stimulating integration and enabling the development of intercultural identities as a prerequisite for social stability. PMID:10402731

  2. Rogoznica Lake (Croatia), a unique anoxic seawater system on the Adriatic coast under the anthropogenic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciglenečki, Irena; Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Marguš, Marija; Čanković, Milan; Carić, Marina; Viličić, Damir; Ljubešić, Zrinka; Kršinić, Frano; Batistić, Mirna; Janeković, Ivica; Plavčić, Filip

    2014-05-01

    Rogoznica Lake is a typical example of euxinic saline lake, situated on the eastern Adriatic coast (43o32'N 15o58'E). It is a karstic depression filled with seawater, with an area of 10276 m2 and a maximum depth of 15m The lake has circular shape and is surrounded with sheer, karstic cliffs (4-23 m high), which completely protect the lake from the influence of the wind. During the year the lake is thermally, densely and chemically stratified into oxic and anoxic layers. The surface water is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia occurs in the bottom layer. The mixolimnion varies seasonally and it is greatly influenced by meteorological conditions (temperature, wind, rainfall) which also influence the water layer mixing. Vertical mixing usually occurs during autumn/winter when cold, oxygen-rich water from the surface sinks downwards. Depending on the intensity of the mixing process anoxic conditions in the entire water column could appear. At the boundary oxia-anoxia usually a pinky colored chemocline layer, cca 50 cm thick develops. Anoxic deep water is characterized by high concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSS up to 1mM, mainly in the form of sulfide), and nutrients (NH4+, up to 150 μM; PO43-, up to 22 μM; SiO44-, up to 400 μM) as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC up to 6 mg l-1) indicating the pronounced remineralization of allochthonous organic matter produced in the surface water The eutrophication of the lake is strongly influenced by nutrient recycling under anaerobic conditions. Due to the extreme ecological conditions which prevail in this lake, phyto- and zooplankton populations are represented by a relatively small number of species, some of them, however, in the populations denser than those in the surrounding sea. After the period of total anoxia appearance, the number of species and their abundance are significantly reduced in comparison with the pre-anoxia values. Diatoms were found to be the dominant microphytoplankton group while copepods, the heterotrophic zooplankton organisms, play an important role and control the biochemical processes in the lake, especially in the post-anoxic period. The calanoid copepod Acartia italica is the only metazoan plankton species surviving and reaching high abundance in the Rogoznica Lake. Results of recent investigations (since 2001 up to now) have showed significant change of organic matter properties what most probably is a consequence of changes in phytoplankton abundance and composition in relation with significant change in hydrographic conditions, i.e. temperature and salinity that highly influence stratification process what we believe is closely related with global climate changes. All our data show how particular sequences of meteorological events, some of which can be regarded as extreme, have affected the internal processes in the Lake. An integration of all results (since 1994 up to now) reveals an interesting possibility that this environment may well potentially serve as valuable sentinels of climate change.

  3. Identity of Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Istra Peninsula in Croatia (Adriatic Sea basin)

    PubMed Central

    Zupancic, Primoz; Mrakovcic, Milorad; Marcic, Zoran; Naseka, Alexander M.; Bogutskaya, Nina G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A chub of previously ambiguous identity from the Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers (south-eastern Istra Peninsula) was studied and compared with geographically close Squalius squalus, Squalius zrmanja, and Squalius janae recently described from the Dragonja River drainage in the Adriatic Sea basin in Slovenia. It was shown that the chub from the south-eastern Istra Peninsula differs from all know species of Squalius but one: Squalius janae. Three samples examined from Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers and Squalius janae from its type locality, Dragonja River, show the following characters typical for the latter species: a long head (the head length 27–32% SL); a pointed conical snout with a clearly projecting upper jaw; a long straight mouth cleft, the lower jaw length (39–45% HL) exceeding the caudal peduncle depth; a large eye; commonly 9? branched anal-fin rays; commonly 44 total vertebrae (24+20 or 25+19); bright silvery colouration, scales easily lost; iris, pectoral, pelvic and anal fin pigmentation with yellow shades. The data on the distribution of Squalius chubs in the northern Adriatic basin support the assumption that the range of Squalius janae is determined by the geology of the Trieste Flysch Basin and the Pazin Flysch Basin forming the base of the Istra Peninsula. The distribution pattern of this species does not support a simple model of fish dispersal and a complete connectivity within the whole Palaeo-Po historical drainage. Indeed, it indicates a disrupted surface palaeohydrography that was heavily fragmented by karstification in the whole Dinaric area. PMID:21594132

  4. Paleomagnetism and Thermal History of the Permian Succession of the Velebit Mts (Dinarides, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, M.; Werner, T.; Vlahovic, I.; Srodon, J.; Anczkiewicz, A.; Velic, I.; Sidorczuk, M.

    2012-12-01

    The studied area of Velebit Mts, a part of the Adria Microplate, belonged to a NE margin of Gondwana during the Carboniferous and Permian. While Permian is characterised by clastics, post-Permian sedimentation is dominated by a thick sequence of carbonate rocks. Today, the entire sequence, representing a stratigraphic range from Carboniferous to Recent, is in places more than 10,000 m thick. The mid-Permian deposits of the core part of the Velebit Mt. at Kosna and Crne Grede localities were investigated using paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements, supported by XRD, AFT and K-Ar studies of the clastic part of the profile (Carboniferous to Triassic). Hysteresis studies revealed that magnetic susceptibility of reddish siltstones/sandstones as well as underlying conglomerates is mostly carried by the paramagnetic matrix with a significant but varying contribution of hematite and some SP/SD magnetite. AMS fabric with low anisotropy ratio (1-3%) is strongly oblate at Kosna and weakly prolate at Crne Grede, reflecting differences in the contribution of magnetic phases. Thermal enhancement of AMS results in substantial increase of susceptibility, anisotropy ratio and more oblate fabric due to growth of SP magnetite fraction,.Enhanced AMS fabric tends to mimic tectonic fabric supporting that SP/SD magnetite is younger syntectonic phase more prone to record younger remagnetization. The paleotemperatures have been estimated by clay minerals analyses of the Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic shales. K-Ar and apatite fission track analyses (AFT) provided time constraints for the maximum paleotemperature and the uplift event, respectively. The paleotemperature estimates gave a range from ca. 140 to more than 200°C. Generally, the highest paleotemperatures are recorded within the Carboniferous rocks. K-Ar measurements of multiple fractions of illite-smectite separated from Triassic bentonites gave a consistent range of the Late Cretaceous ages of the maximum paleotemperatures between 100 and 60 Ma. AFT performed on sediments of Carboniferous to Triassic age indicate complete track resetting. The preliminary AFT dating results indicates two cooling episodes around 55 and 28 Ma. Track length distribution analyses conducted on older age population suggest slow to moderate cooling rates. A significant remagnetization of the Permian rocks (proved by results of conglomerate test), probably caused by combination of elevated temperature and fluids migration, may be assigned to a burial-related processes that affected the rocks before the final uplift of the Dinarides. Characteristic remanent magnetization is apparently similar to the Permian direction for Gondwana (shallow inclination with NNW declination), expected for Velebit Mt. coordinates. Paradoxically, this orientation is observed within the almost vertically dipping beds, i.e. before a correction for the tilt. We explain this coincidence assuming syn-folding, Cretaceous-Paleogene remagnetization of the rocks at their subhorizontal position (ca. 30°S) followed by tilting, understood as a rotation of the beds along the horizontal, E-W trending axis to almost vertical, present-day position. A final geometry of the rocks under study was attained probably at the wane of the main uplift phase in Oligocene/Early Miocene. Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, grant no. N N307 475238.

  5. Genome-wide Association Study of Biochemical Traits in Korčula Island, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Lauc, Gordan; Janković, Stipan; Rotim, Krešimir; Vatavuk, Zoran; Benčić, Goran; Đogaš, Zoran; Boraska, Vesna; Torlak, Vesela; Sušac, Jelena; Zobić, Ivana; Rudan, Diana; Pulanić, Dražen; Modun, Darko; Mudnić, Ivana; Gunjača, Grgo; Budimir, Danijela; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify genetic variants underlying biochemical traits – total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, albumin, and fibrinogen, in a genome-wide association study in an isolated population where rare variants of larger effect may be more easily identified. Methods The study included 944 adult inhabitants of the island of Korčula, as a part of a larger DNA-based genetic epidemiological study in 2007. Biochemical measurements were performed in a single laboratory with stringent internal and external quality control procedures. Examinees were genotyped using Human Hap370CNV chip by Illumina, with a genome-wide scan containing 346 027 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Results A total of 31 SNPs were associated with 7 investigated traits at the level of P < 1.00 × 10−5. Nine of SNPs implicated the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid regulation (P = 4.10 × 10−6-2.58 × 10−12), as previously found in other populations. All 22 remaining associations fell into the P = 1.00 × 10−5-1.00 × 10−6 significance range. One of them replicated the association between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and HDL, and 7 associations were more than 100 kilobases away from the closest known gene. Nearby SNPs, rs4767631 and rs10444502, in gene kinase suppressor of ras 2 (KSR2) on chromosome 12 were associated with LDL cholesterol levels, and rs10444502 in the same gene with total cholesterol levels. Similarly, rs2839619 in gene PBX/knotted 1 homeobox 1 (PKNOX1) on chromosome 21 was associated with total and LDL cholesterol levels. The remaining 9 findings implied possible associations between phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene and total cholesterol; USP46, RAP1GDS1, and ZCCHC16 genes and triglycerides; BCAT1 and SLC14A2 genes and albumin; and NR3C2, GRIK2, and PCSK2 genes and fibrinogen. Conclusion Although this study was underpowered for most of the reported associations to reach formal threshold of genome-wide significance under the assumption of independent multiple testing, replications of previous findings and consistency of association between the identified variants and more than one studied trait make such findings interesting for further functional follow-up studies. Changed allele frequencies in isolate population may contribute to identifying variants that would not be easily identified in much larger samples in outbred populations. PMID:19260141

  6. Diversity of Babesia and Theileria species in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Relja; Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Ana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Cacciò, Simone M

    2009-06-01

    Babesiosis, the disease caused by tick-borne hematozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, is particularly common in dogs, and is caused by several "large" species of Babesia, as well as by an increasing number of "small" species of Babesia, some of which appear to be more closely related to members of the genus Theileria. In this work, blood samples were collected from 848 randomly selected, asymptomatic dogs and from 81 symptomatic dogs, microscopically positive for Babesia, and characterised by PCR and sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssrRNA gene. A prevalence of 3.42% (29 of 848) was found in asymptomatic dogs and sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis canis in 20 dogs (69%), Babesia gibsoni in six dogs (21%), Babesia canis vogeli in two dogs (7%) and Theileria annae in one dog (3%). In the group of symptomatic dogs, which were all positive by PCR, B. canis canis was the predominant species (78 dogs, or 96%), followed by single infections with B. canis vogeli, Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Our study has confirmed that dogs are infected with a wide range of both large and small piroplasm species and subspecies, including B. caballi and T. equi, two parasites usually found in horses. The detection of the pathogenic species B. canis canis and B. gibsoni in asymptomatic dogs indicates that the relationship between parasite species/subspecies and clinical signs of infection in dogs deserves further investigation. Finally, the identities of the tick vectors transmitting T. annae and B. caballi remain to be elucidated. PMID:19367832

  7. Preliminary interpretations of syn- and posttectonic palaeomagnetism of Jurassic sediments from Velebit Mts (Karst Dinarides, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Tomasz; Lewandowski, Marek; Vlahović, Igor; Velić, Ivo; Sidorczuk, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    Velebit Mts, a part of the Adria Microplate, belonged to a NE margin of Gondwana during the Carboniferous and Permian. While Permian is characterised by clastics, post-Permian sedimentation is dominated by a thick sequence of carbonate rocks. Today, the entire sequence, representing a stratigraphic range from Carboniferous to Recent, is in places more than 10,000 m thick. The Early to Late Jurrasic deposits (limestones in seven sites, reduction spots' limestones in one site and mudstones in one site) along the transect in Mali Halan in the southern part of the Velebit Mt. were studied using palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements. Strata in the whole transect dips moderately to SW. Magnetic susceptibility of diamagnetic carbonates is not affected by heating up to 400-500°C. SIRM(T) experiments revealed low temperature (Tub<400°C) Ti poor magnetite and some hematite phase in fresh samples. Heating in air results in excessive growth of new magnetite phase above 600°C. Thermal and AF treatment were performed and were more successful for the Lower Jurassic sites with stronger NRM. It resulted in separation of two ChRM components: "L" with Tub up to 200-250°C and "M" with Tub up to 400-475°C or two coercivity spectra (very soft and harder) in most successfully demagnetized samples. In some samples only soft/LT component was recorded. "M" component for the Lower and Middle Jurassic sites (345/30 in situ) correlates well with results of Marton (2008) for Early Jurassic grainstones in the same area. The tilt corrected data for "M" component fall close to Middle Jurassic segment for APWP for Africa. However site means for " M" component are distributed along the small circle with subhorizontal WNW trending axis. That may be interpreted as pre- to syntectonic remenance recorded during the regional folding. Such mechanism is consistent with paleomagnetic results for remagnetized Permian clastic sediments in Velebit Mts. (Crne Grede and Kosna localities, Lewandowski et al., 2012, AGU Fall Meeting, GP21A-1136). "L" component (of lower accuracy) for Lower/Middle Jurassic sites (in situ) falls close to the Tertiary segment of APWP for Africa as well indicating its post-tectonic secondary origin. For Upper Jurassic sites with lower NRM intensity "L" component seems to be post-tectonic but results for "M" component need to be yet discussed. AMS results for sites are not consistent between sites due to varying contribution of ferro- and diamagnetic phases to magnetic susceptibility in each site.

  8. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Culig, Josip; Zaninović, Ksenija; Mitić, Bozena; Vukusić, Ivan

    2004-05-01

    The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase, especially in large cities and industrial areas. Therefore, monitoring of airborne pollen types and concentrations during the pollen season is of the utmost medical importance. The research reported in this paper aims to determine the beginning, course and end of the pollen season for the plants in the City of Zagreb, to identify allergenic plants, and to assess the variation in airborne pollen concentration as a function of temperature and precipitation changes for the year 2002. A volumetric Hirst sampler was used for airborne pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification x400). In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified. Birch pollen predominated in spring, the highest concentrations being recorded in February and March. Grass pollen prevailed in May and June, and pollen of herbaceous plants of the genus Urtica (nettle) and of ambrosia in July, August and September. Air temperature was mostly higher or considerably higher than the annual average in those months, which resulted in a many days with high and very high airborne pollen concentrations. The exception was April, when these concentrations were lower because of high levels of precipitation. This also held for the first half of August and the second half of September. Pollen-sensitive individuals were at high risk from February till October because of the high airborne pollen concentrations, which only showed a transient decrease when the temperature fell or there was precipitation. PMID:14770305

  9. Diurnal variation in airborne pollen concentrations of the selected taxa in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Toth, Ivan; Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Vojniković, Bozo

    2011-09-01

    The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase. The knowledge of diurnal distribution and abundance of allergenic pollen types, their patterns and response to source position and weather is useful to correlate hay fever symptoms with the presence of allergenic pollen in the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to determine diurnal distribution of total airborne pollen, pollen of particular allergenic taxa, possible variation in diurnal pollen distribution at measuring sites placed at different heights, and effect of some meteorological parameters on airborne pollen concentrations. A 7-day Hirst-type volumetric pollen trap was used for pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification x400). Total pollen of all plant taxa (Ambrosia sp., Betula sp., Cupressaceae, Urticaceae, Poaceae, Quercus sp., Fraxinus sp., Alnus sp., Corylus sp., Populus sp., Pinus sp., Picea sp.) observed showed a regular diurnal distribution at both sampling sites in both study years, with a rise in the pollen concentration recorded after 4.00 a.m. and 6.00 a.m., respectively. The peak pollen concentration occurred between 12.00 a.m. and 4.00 p.m., and the lowest diurnal pollen concentrations were recorded overnight. About 50% of the 24-h pollen concentration were released to the atmosphere between 10.00 a.m. and 4.00 p.m. The timing and size of diurnal peaks were closely related to high temperature, low humidity and south-west maximum wind direction. PMID:22220402

  10. Incidence of Betulaceae pollen and pollinosis in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Milanović, Sanja Musić; Hrga, Ivana; Mileta, Tatjana; Culig, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Pollen allergy is characterized by seasonal allergic manifestations affecting patients during the plant pollen season. The aim of this study was to analyze the Betulaceae pollen pattern in Zagreb (2002-2005) and to determine the incidence of sensitization to these pollen types in patients with seasonal respiratory allergy. Twenty-four-hour pollen counts were carried out using volumetric procedure. Skin prick test were performed on a total of 864 patients aged 18-80< in Zagreb between 2 January-31 December 2004. Pollen of the representatives of the family Betulaceae accounted for a significant proportion of total pollen (34% on an average), predominated by Betula pollen and considerably lower proportion of Alnus sp. and Corylus sp. pollen. Alder and hazel pollen first occurred in the air in February throughout the study period. The highest airborne pollen concentration of these taxa was recorded in February and March. The birch pollen season generally peaked in April. Only 2.67% of patients showed birch pollen monosensitization. The proportion of patients with polysensitization to Betulaceae pollen was considerably greater (12.88%), whereas polysensitization to Betulaceae, Poaceae and Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the highest proportion of patients (26.23%). According to age, the highest and lowest rate of allergy was recorded in the 31-50 and >51 age groups, respectively (46.22% vs 23.12%). Female predominance was observed across all age groups. The patients with monosensitization to birch pollen had the most severe symptoms in April. In the patients with poylsensitization to alder, hazel and birch pollen who developed cross-reaction, initial symptoms occurred as early as February, with abrupt exacerbation in March and April. The most severe condition was observed in the patients allergic to birch, hazel, alder, grass and ragweed pollen, with symptoms present throughout the year and exacerbation in spring and late summer months. PMID:17655183

  11. Prevalence of the pathogen Aphanomyces astaci in freshwater crayfish populations in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ivana; Jelić, Mišel; Klobučar, Goran; Delpy, Mylène; Delaunay, Carine; Grandjean, Frederic

    2016-02-11

    The Oomycete Aphanomyces astaci is an obligate crayfish parasite that co-evolved with American crayfish species, and they therefore generally live in a balanced relationship. On the contrary, European native crayfish are highly susceptible to A. astaci, and infestation with it causes development of the lethal disease termed crayfish plague. Until now, 5 A. astaci strains have been described from the freshwater crayfish present in Europe. In this study we aimed to investigate the occurrence of the pathogen A. astaci in Croatian native and non-native crayfish populations, as well as to genotype established strains using microsatellite markers and obtain information on the pathogen's epidemiology. Our results showed that the pathogen is widespread in both native and non-native crayfish populations. Agent level, when positive, in non-native crayfish was generally low; in native species it was higher. Genotyping from microsatellites proved the presence of the B (Ps) strain in non-native species (Pacifastacus leniusculus), while the A (As) strain was detected from viable native species (Astacus astacus and Austropotamobius torrentium) that are distributed in areas lacking non-native crayfish. The genotype from A. torrentium differed from a typical A (As) by 1 allele. Strain B (Ps) was identified in native Astacus leptodactylus from the population that co-occurs with P. leniuscuslus. Interestingly, in 1 A. leptodactylus population both A (As) and B (Ps) strains were present. PMID:26865234

  12. Consumer Pride and Consumption-Based Family Rituals: A Field Study in Zagreb, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sredl, Katherine Christina

    2009-01-01

    Consumer emotions are rarely examined from a phenomenological perspective, with few exceptions. Moreover, consumer pride is overlooked as an influence on the marketplace practices of consumers. In spite of the lack of theoretical development on consumer pride, it clearly drives consumption: take, for instance, consumers who use goods to…

  13. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds and trace metals along the Eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia) using Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Kljaković-Gaspić, Zorana; Herceg-Romanić, Snjezana; Kozul, Darija; Veza, Jere

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the results of monitoring trace organic contaminants (17 PCBs and 7 OCPs) and 6 trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the coastal waters of the eastern Adriatic in 2006 using Mytilus galloprovincialis as indicator species. OCPs were found in all samples (0.07-14.3 ng g(-1)d.wt.), while in positive samples concentrations of PCBs ranged between 0.16 and 20.5 ng g(-1)d.wt. The α-HCH/γ-HCH and DDE/DDT ratios indicated recent input of γ-HCH and DDT. Spatial distributions of HCB, PCBs, DDTs and Hg were significantly correlated with population density. Although elevated concentrations of all trace metals and organic contaminants were recorded in the densely populated and industrialized areas, overall data point to relatively low level of contamination of the eastern Adriatic coast. Evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels suggested that there is no health risk for moderate shellfish consumers. PMID:20696441

  14. Metal contamination recorded in the sediment of the semi-closed Bakar Bay (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Cukrov, N; Frančišković-Bilinski, S; Bogner, D

    2014-04-01

    This study presents metal levels in the sediments of the Bakar Bay, with its main goal to evaluate recent anthropogenic influence, as well as over previous decades. Sediment profiles at 7 sampling points were taken. Chemical contents in bulk sediment were obtained using ICP, ICP-MS, and AAS methodologies, and 20 most significant elements were presented. Concentrations of selected elements were evaluated by factor statistical analyses to identify their source. Also, metal enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index were calculated, and spatial distribution maps for three sediment layers were constructed. Measured metal concentrations in sediment were compared with concentrations in other sediments from the Adriatic Sea. In addition, a set of sediment quality guidelines were also applied in order to predict the probability of adverse biological effects on the benthic community: This was found not to be very serious. Factor analysis clearly demonstrates the segregation between metals of natural origin resulted from soil and bedrock weathering (Li, Al, Cr, Sc), and with two anthropogenic sources originating from the city of Bakar and bulk cargo terminal (Hg, Pb, Zn, Ag, Sn, and Fe). Mercury (max 0.65 μg g(-1)) is found to be the heaviest contaminant, followed by lead (max 71.5 μg g(-1)), copper (89.3 μg g(-1)), and zinc (156 μg g(-1)). However, this study shows that Bakar Bay is considerably less polluted with toxic metals than it was believed. PMID:23975553

  15. Contemporary Teaching: Collection of Scientific Papers. International Scientific Colloquium (Osijek, Croatia, December 5-6, 2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peko, Andelka, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the new century, education of students faces an ambitious task, namely to realize the vision in which an individuals and institutions, all around the world, appreciate learning, not only as means of accomplishing an aim, but as an aim itself. To pursue the realization of that aim, Department for Educational and Psychological…

  16. Dental health in antique population of Vinkovci - Cibalae in Croatia (3rd-5th century).

    PubMed

    Peko, Dunja; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Roman city Cibalae (Vinkovci) - the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens was a very well developed urban ares in the late antique what was evidenced by numerous archaeological findings. The aim of this paper is to get insight in dental health of antique population of Cibalae. One hundred individuals with 2041 teeth dated to 3rd - 5th century AD have been analyzed for caries, antemortem tooth loss, periapical diseases and tooth wear. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss was 4.3% in males, 5.2% in females. Prevalence of caries per tooth was 8.4% in males, 7.0% in females. Compared to other Croatian antique sites, ancient inhabitants of Roman Cibalae had rather good dental health with low caries prevalence and no gender differences. Statistically significant difference was found between males in females in the prevalence of periapical lesions and degree of tooth wear. Periapical lesions were found only in males. PMID:27598951

  17. Patterns of game animal attacks on hunters in Croatia over a 13-year period.

    PubMed

    Sprem, Nikica; Skavić, Petar; Krupec, Ivan; Budor, Ivica

    2013-09-01

    Hunter-game animal conflicts are occasionally reported from various parts of the world. This case series comprises all 7 game animal attacks on hunters reported to the Croatian Hunting Association over a period of 13 years (1999-2011), covering the entire Croatian territorial area. Seasonally, attacks occurred most frequently in the winter time, when the hunting season is at its peak. The most common attacking animal, representing 5 of 7 cases (71.4%), was the wild boar, and the majority of the attacks happened in the morning. All of our victims were male, with an average age of 51 years (range 26 to 69 years). Six victims sustained a bite wound or wounds and 1 was rammed by the animal. Almost all of our patients (5 of 7, with one unknown) recovered completely and without significant complications. PMID:23870764

  18. Community Structure of Aquatic Insects in the Karstic Jadro River in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Rađa, Biljana; Šantić, Mate

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the aquatic insect community in the longitudinal gradient and temporal scales of the Jadro River. The river was sampled for a period of ten years (2000–2010), four times per year through the various seasons, along the river course. Sampling stations were selected in the upper, middle, and downstream parts of the river. A total of 21,852 specimens of aquatic insects belonging to six orders were obtained. The species determination confirmed 27 different species in the river. The data were analyzed by the multivariate methodologies of correspondence analysis and cluster analysis (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) using the similarity index of Morosita for all ten years. Canonical correspondence analysis was applied to the data to check which of the mesured physicochemical variables significantly explained community variation. According to those data, significant variables for the upper station were water temperature and dissolved oxygen, and chlorides was the significant variable for the lower stations. PMID:25373201

  19. How well are pregnant women in Croatia informed about the oral glucose tolerance test?

    PubMed Central

    Kocijancic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical errors still constitute the largest source of errors in laboratory work. Proper patient preparation and patient’s knowledge about a particular procedure affects its accuracy and reliability. We hypothesized that most of pregnant women are not well enough informed about the proper procedure for the OGTT. The aims of this study were to investigate: (i) how well pregnant women are informed about the OGTT; (ii) the most common way to inform pregnant women about OGTT and (iii) whether pregnant women’s level of knowledge about the OGTT differ regarding source of information. Materials and methods The anonymous questionnaire was conducted across the country in 23 Croatian primary and secondary healthcare centres. The questionnaire contained 9 questions on certain demographic data and familiarity with OGTT procedure. All 343 participants filled the questionnaire before the first blood draw. Results 42% of the participants demonstrated high and 38% adequate level of knowledge about the OGTT procedure. Majority of participants were informed about the procedure by gynaecologist (56%). The level of knowledge differed among participants with different sources of information (P = 0.030). Further analysis showed that the level of knowledge was lower in pregnant women having received information from their gynaecologist compared to pregnant women who received information from the laboratory staff. Conclusions In general, pregnant women are familiar with OGTT procedure, main source of information about the OGTT procedure is their gynaecologist, but the level of knowledge was higher in women who received information about the OGTT procedure from the laboratory staff. PMID:26110035

  20. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants. PMID:23286393

  1. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in Zadar County, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Mazzi, Antun; Skitarelić, Neven; Misulić, Josko; Vuletić, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most common respiratory allergens in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in the County of Zadar. The study included 671 patients with pollen allergy; 61 % were male and 39 % female. 53.5 % were children aged from 4 to 14 years and 46.5 % adolescents and adults from 15 to 59 years. We took their case history, clinically examined them, and tested using the skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test. Hypersensitivity to Olea europea pollen was confirmed in 8.8 % patients with pollen allergy. Among them, the most prevalent symptom was rhinitis (58 %). Most hypersensitive patients were urban residents. Only 3 % patients lived on an island. Judging by available data, our findings show the lowest hypersensitivity to olive pollen in the Mediterranean. A comparison with our two earlier studies did not show any fluctuation in this kind of hypersensitivity. PMID:20587396

  2. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of inflammatory bowel disease in Zadar County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klarin, Ivo; Majnarić, Ljiljana; Jovanović, Zeljko; Nakić, Dario; Vcev, Ivan; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Results of the retrospective, population-based study, 2000-2010, on inflammatory bowel disease, ulceratice colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), from Zadar County, have been presented and compared with world experience and comparative data from Primorsko-Goranska and Vukovarsko-Srijemska Counties. The average incidence rates (per 100 000) were 8.2 and 8.4, for UC and CD, respectively. Prevalence rates, at the end of the follow up, were 133.9 for UC and 111 for CD. Constant increase in the incidence rates for both, UC and CD, have been recorded, for CD more prominently in the second part of the follow up, 2006-2010. Prevalence rates have being continuosly rased for both diseases, data for UC exceeding that for CD. Results of data comparison among the counties contribute in favour to the hypothesis of Zadar County as a rapidly developing area and strongly argue against the existence of the North-South gradient between Vukovarsko-Srijemska and Zadar Counties. PMID:24611329

  3. Available potential energy of the daily coastal circulation at Zadar (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trošić, T.; Šinik, N.; Trošić, Ž.

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of the sea breeze speed on the basis of its energy. Energetics of the sea breeze can be studied by means of the available potential energy (APE). Part of this energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of the sea breeze. Some similarity exists between the large scale processes of the circulation and the small coastal air circulation due to the fact that both circulations are triggered by the same physics, i.e., solenoidal activity of the baroclinic atmosphere. To evaluate the sea breeze speed, APE was calculated by use of the Lorenz’s equation (1955), and which is possible if the coastal circulation is considered to be a closed system in a hydrostatic equilibrium. For calculations and verifications hourly sea-surface temperatures, near-ground air temperatures and wind speed measurements, as well as the radio-sounding measurements at 12 UTC were used at the Zadar station (ϕ = 44° 08' N, λ = 15° 13' E), which is situated in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast. Two days with an undisturbed sea breeze circulation were extracted using the methods for minimizing other atmospheric influences. Calculated hourly near ground sea breeze speeds obtained in this way were higher than the measured ones. With the assumption that some of the APE is transformed into the kinetic energy it is possible to obtain characteristic speed of the developed sea breeze with small discrepancies to the near-ground measurements. If 6.6% of the mean daily near ground APE was taken to be transformed to the mean daily kinetic sea breeze energy on the 29th and 4.2% on the 30th September 2002, the best agreement was obtained with the mean daily measured near ground sea breeze speed. This range of values can be attributed to inability to extract precise values for the lapse-rate needed in the APE sea breeze calculations. Results show similarities to the general circulation of the atmosphere, since about 10% of the APE is transformed to the kinetic energy of the sea breeze. On the other hand calculated wind speed at the lower branch of the borderline coastal circulation was not dependent on the integral value of the APE over the land, but on its value at the near-ground level.

  4. Tunnelled haemodialysis catheter and haemodialysis outcomes: a retrospective cohort study in Zagreb, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Pašara, Vedran; Maksimović, Bojana; Gunjača, Mihaela; Mihovilović, Karlo; Lončar, Andrea; Kudumija, Boris; Žabić, Igor; Knotek, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies have reported that the tunnelled dialysis catheter (TDC) is associated with inferior haemodialysis (HD) patient survival, in comparison with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Since many cofactors may also affect survival of HD patients, it is unclear whether the greater risk for survival arises from TDC per se, or from associated conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine, in a multivariate analysis, the long-term outcome of HD patients, with respect to vascular access (VA). Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants This retrospective cohort study included all 156 patients with a TDC admitted at University Hospital Merkur, from 2010 to 2012. The control group consisted of 97 patients dialysed via AVF. The groups were matched according to dialysis unit and time of VA placement. The site of choice for the placement of the TDC was the right jugular vein. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to assess patient survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine independent variables associated with patient survival. Primary outcome measures Patient survival with respect to VA. Results The cumulative 1-year survival of patients who were dialysed exclusively via TDC was 86.4% and of those who were dialysed exclusively via AVF, survival was 97.1% (p=0.002). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, male sex and older age were independently negatively associated with the survival of HD patients, while shorter HD vintage before the creation of the observed VA, hypertensive renal disease and glomerulonephritis were positively associated with survival. TDC was an independent risk factor for survival of HD patients (HR 23.0, 95% CI 6.2 to 85.3). Conclusion TDC may be an independent negative risk factor for HD patient survival. PMID:27188801

  5. Volatile organic compounds from Centaurium erythraea Rafn (Croatia) and the antimicrobial potential of its essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Gašo-Sokač, Dajana; Pavlović, Hrvoje; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Petrović, Ivana; Kovač, Spomenka

    2012-01-01

    GC and MS were used for the analysis of Croatian Centaurium erythraea Rafn essential oil (obtained by hydrodistillation) and headspace (applying headspace solid-phase microextraction). The headspace contained numerous monoterpene hydrocarbons (the major ones were terpinene-4-ol, methone, p-cymene, γ-terpinene and limonene). Oxygenated monoterpenes were present in the headspace and oil, while 1,8-cineole, bornyl acetate and verbenone were present only in the headspace. High headspace percentages of toluene and naphthalene were found, followed by hemimellitene. Lot of similarities were observed with Serbian C. erythraea oil [neophytadiene (1.4%), thymol (2.6%), carvacrol (6.1%) and hexadecanoic acid (5.7%)], but different features were also noted such as the presence of menthol, menthone and phytone. The oil fractionation enabled identification of other minor compounds not found in total oil such as norisoprenoides, alk-1-enes or chromolaenin. The essential oil showed antimicrobial potential on Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. On the other hand, no antibacterial activity of the oil was observed on Pseudomonas fluorescens and Lysteria monocytogenes. PMID:22349896

  6. The extent of middle Pleistocene ice cap in the coastal Dinaric Mountains of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanac, Tihomir; Marjanac, Ljerka

    2016-05-01

    Solitary limestone blocks and groups of blocks occur on Risnjak and Velebit Mountains and on the northern Adriatic islands of Krk and Rab. Previous researchers have interpreted some of these as a) erratic blocks, b) corrosional remnants, or c) rockfalls. We have studied their mode of occurrence and composition, and revised previous interpretations of their origin in the light of transport mechanism and depositional processes. After analyzing the context of the block positions and the physical processes responsible for their emplacement, and taking into account their sedimentological context (their association with glaciogenic sediments), we herein propose a glacial origin for most of these blocks. However, some blocks are indeed shaped by sub-soil corrosion, as evidenced by their structure. The interpreted erratic blocks on the inner northern Adriatic Sea islands document the presence of middle Pleistocene glaciation of Dinaric Mountains though not its maximal extent, which is still unclear as the ice terminus was in the area that is inundated by postglacial rise of Adriatic Sea. The reconstructed ice cap area, which extended along the coastal mountains from Risnjak Mt. to south Velebit Mt. and across the range from Lika Polje to Rab Island, is conservatively estimated to be 5400 km2.

  7. Divers' deaths in Split-Dalmatian County, Croatia (cases study, 1994-2004).

    PubMed

    Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Bresković, Toni; Sutlović, Davorka; Petri, Nadan

    2007-01-01

    The circumstances which lead to divers' death in Split-Dalmatian County in eleven-year period (1994-2004) were analyzed. The data were extracted from the files of autopsy reports of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Split University Hospital and School of Medicine, and the police reports of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Split-Dalmatian County. A total of 31 cases were found during the study period. The number of diving deaths didn't vary significantly through the years 1994-1999 but it increased after year 2000, mostly as a result of domestic and foreign tourists who practiced diving during their summer vacation. The average age of victims was 37.65 years. Of the 31 cases, 13 (41.9%) were apnoea (skin) divers and rest of them (18; 58.1%) were scuba divers. The leading activity of the apnoea divers was underwater fishing, while the majority of scuba divers were in recreational diving. The major cause of death was drowning. The circumstances which had led to the death remained unknown in most cases, mainly due to inexistence of proper criminal investigation. PMID:18350983

  8. Ownership and Use of New Media by Teachers in Rural and Urban Areas of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolovcan, Tomislav; Toplak, Tea; Matijevic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The development and use of new media in the class emphasizes independent learning based on the activities of the students, constructivist learning and student-centred lessons in general. Using new media in the class does not prompt more efficient learning and teaching in itself, but can initiate the learning processes by didactically shaping the…

  9. Parental Perception, Prevalence and Primary Care Physicians’ Knowledge on Childhood Food Allergy in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Voskresensky Baricic, Tamara; Catipovic, Marija; Cetinic, Erina L.; Krmek, Vlado; Horvat, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy in children is increasing and the perception of food allergy among parents is even more common. In a questionnaire-based study of 702 children aged 6 to 48 months in four primary care settings, the aim was to determine the prevalence of perception vs. proven food allergy, parental anxiety and general pediatrician knowledge of food allergy. In 95/702 children (13.5%) parentally-reported food was associated reactions. IgE and/or skin prick test (SPT) and/or an open provocation test were performed in 48 (6.8%) and allergy was proven in 38 (5.4%) children. Discrepancy between parental perception and proven allergy is significant (p < 0.001), especially for food other than milk, egg and peanut (p < 0.001). Allergy to milk was the most common. Allergy to peanut was significantly more common in children ≥2 years (p < 0.05). Severe reactions occurred in 5/95 (5.2%) of all children and in 5/38 (13.1%) of allergic children, in 3/5 caused by peanut. Parents of children with proven allergy do not experience high degree of anxiety. The perception of food allergy among general pediatricians is limited, and in children with severe reactions precautionary measures and information to parents were insufficient. Parents and general pediatricians need additional education in food allergy. PMID:27417365

  10. Display Modes of Personal Ornaments in the Upper Palaeolithic Sites of Istria, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cvitkušić, Barbara; Komšo, Darko

    2015-06-01

    In the attempt to understand culture and social behavior of prehistoric populations, findings of personal ornaments are of particular interest. Personal ornaments in their formal expressions (marine shells and snails, river snails, animal teeth, modified animal bones etc.) not only point to an universal idea of decoration and aesthetic sensibility, but may also reveal contact zones and communication paths. Perforated animal teeth, mostly deer canines, reveal us not only symbolic, but also some important sociocultural aspects of behavior of prehistoric populations. In order to test whether there are universals in display modes and materials used in this region, we will use the finds of personal ornaments from the Upper Paleolithic strata from five Istrian sites: Ljubićeva cave, Pupićina cave, Romualdova cave, Šandalja II, and Vešanska cave. PMID:26753470

  11. Exposure of Children to Sexual Content on the Internet in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flander, Gordana Buljan; Cosic, Ivana; Profaca, Bruna

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of children and youth exposure to sexual content and inappropriate sexual questions on the Internet; and to identify emotional and behavioral reactions of children after such exposures. Methods: Sample of the study included 2,880 of children and youth aged 10-16 who identified themselves as Internet users.…

  12. Detection and characterisation of hepatitis E virus in naturally infected swine in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipej, Zoran; Novosel, Dinko; Vojta, Lea; Roić, Besi; Simpraga, Miljenko; Vojta, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E is a viral zoonotic disease infecting swine worldwide. Since pigs represent a likely animal reservoir for the hepatitis E virus, the epidemiology of naturally occurring hepatitis E was investigated in Croatian swine herds. Nearly all tested animals were seropositive for antibodies against the hepatitis E virus (55/60, 91.7%). Active infection was detected in all age groups by RT-PCR of viral RNA in serum (8/60, 13.3%) and bile samples (3/37, 8.1%), which was further confirmed by histopathological findings of characteristic lesions in the livers of the infected animals. Three new strains of hepatitis E virus were isolated from Croatian pig herds. Phylogenetic analysis using median-joining networks clustered those Croatian strains with isolates from various parts of the world, indicating their likely origin in international trade. Similarity to human isolates implies a zoonotic potential of Croatian strains, which raises a public health concern, especially in the light of the high prevalence of hepatitis E in the herds studied. PMID:23974940

  13. An Easy A or a Question of Belief: Pupil Attitudes to Catholic Religious Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokic, Boris; Hargreaves, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a mixed model research that, as the first of its kind, aimed to determine the nature of, and underlying factors influencing, Croatian elementary pupils' attitudes towards confessional Catholic religious education (RE). Analyses of the questionnaire responses of the eighth-grade pupils from the stratified…

  14. Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir

    2012-12-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite. PMID:23334041

  15. Wildlife-vehicle collisions in Croatia--a hazard for humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Sprem, Nikica; Duduković, Dejan; Keros, Tomislav; Konjević, Dean

    2013-06-01

    Wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) have increased and now there is a world-wide problem related to significant mortality of wildlife, habitat fragmentation, change in behavior and even disappearance of local endangered populations. Along with these deleterious effects on wildlife, WVC can also result in injuries and deaths of humans. During the three-year monitoring, a total of 7,495 wildlife-vehicle collisions were recorded, including mainly roe deer (73%), while other species were less frequently affected (wild boar--9%; brown hare--5%; and red deer and pheasant each with 4%). Incidence of wildlife-vehicle collisions were observed according to territorial distribution, seasonal and daily occurrence and type of road (total and per 1 km). PMID:23941001

  16. The extent of middle Pleistocene ice cap in the coastal Dinaric Mountains of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanac, Tihomir; Marjanac, Ljerka

    2016-05-01

    Solitary limestone blocks and groups of blocks occur on Risnjak and Velebit Mountains and on the northern Adriatic islands of Krk and Rab. Previous researchers have interpreted some of these as a) erratic blocks, b) corrosional remnants, or c) rockfalls. We have studied their mode of occurrence and composition, and revised previous interpretations of their origin in the light of transport mechanism and depositional processes. After analyzing the context of the block positions and the physical processes responsible for their emplacement, and taking into account their sedimentological context (their association with glaciogenic sediments), we herein propose a glacial origin for most of these blocks. However, some blocks are indeed shaped by sub-soil corrosion, as evidenced by their structure. The interpreted erratic blocks on the inner northern Adriatic Sea islands document the presence of middle Pleistocene glaciation of Dinaric Mountains though not its maximal extent, which is still unclear as the ice terminus was in the area that is inundated by postglacial rise of Adriatic Sea. The reconstructed ice cap area, which extended along the coastal mountains from Risnjak Mt. to south Velebit Mt. and across the range from Lika Polje to Rab Island, is conservatively estimated to be 5400 km2.

  17. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%. PMID:22397265

  18. The instrumentally recorded fall of the Križevci meteorite, Croatia, February 4, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, J.; Spurný, P.; Šegon, D.; Andreić, Ž.; Kac, J.; Korlević, K.; Atanackov, J.; Kladnik, G.; Mucke, H.; Vida, D.; Novoselnik, F.

    2015-07-01

    The Križevci H6 meteorite was recovered on the basis of fireball data obtained by the cameras of the Croatian Meteor Network. The fireball, which occurred on February 4, 2011, 23:20:40 UT, was also observed by meteor cameras in Slovenia and by the Autonomous Fireball Observatory in Martinsberg, Austria, which belongs to the European Fireball Network. Here, we present detailed data on fireball trajectory, velocity, deceleration, light curve, and orbit. We also modeled the atmospheric fragmentation of the meteoroid on the basis of the light curve and deceleration. The initial mass of the meteoroid was between 25-100 kg, most probably about 50 kg. Severe fragmentation occurred at heights of approximately 60 and 31 km, under dynamic pressures of 0.1 and 3 MPa, respectively. The peak absolute magnitude of -13.7 was reached during the second severe fragmentation event. The recovered 291 g meteorite was probably the only fragment with a terminal mass exceeding 100 g. The orbit had a low inclination of 0.6 degrees, perihelion distance 0.74 AU, and semimajor axis 1.54 AU. Križevci can be ranked among the 10 best documented meteorite falls.

  19. Indoor smoking bans in Bulgaria, Croatia, Northern Cyprus, Romania and Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Muilenburg, J L; Burdell, A

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes towards attempts to limit second-hand smoke (SHS) in five Eastern European nations. Methods The data consist of a Eurobarometer (64.3) survey distributed from November to December 2005. Logistic regression was employed to investigate support levels for indoor smoking bans across the five political units. Results Across nations, there is more support for smoking bans in offices and indoor work spaces and indoor public space as opposed to restaurants and bars and pubs. Personal smoking behaviours are linked strongly with the smoking bans. Most importantly, it is specific knowledge about the health dangers of smoking which fosters support for indoor smoking bans. Conclusion Policy implications suggest that government and the media must disseminate accurate information about the harm of smoking to broader segments of the population to gain support for policies that affect the dangers of SHS in these nations. PMID:20675690

  20. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.; Janeković, I.

    2014-12-01

    The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind - ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast) and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed) when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  1. [Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Croatia: incidence of infection in human and wild animal reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Borcić, B; Turković, B; Aleraj, B; Tvrtković, N

    1991-01-01

    On the territory of Lika and Gorski Kotar a group of 300 forest workers and 260 persons from the general population were screened for Hantavirus antibodies (by the indirect immunofluorescence test). In the first group of examenees a mean of 1.6% were found positive, ranging from 0% (Gospić) to 3.2% (Ogulin). In the second groups a mean of 5.4% were positive, ranging from 4.4 to 8.9% (Delnice and Slunj, respectively). It is concluded that the Hantavirus infection rate in our natural foci of HFRS is higher than officially registered. Screening of micromammals for the presence of Hantavirus in their organs (lungs), using the direct immunofluorescence test, was undertaken on three locations: Planina Gornja (hillsides of the mountain Medvednica), a case of HFRS having been registered there previously, and Plitvicka Jezera and Velika Gorica (village of Kobilić) selected because of two previous epidemics of HFRS (1967 and 1989, respectively). On the first location, all 126 animals examined (10 different species) were Hantavirus negative. On the second location, 9 of the 165 animals examined (three species) were Hantavirus positive (5.4%), namely 6 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and three yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). On the third location, where 141 animals was caught and examined (7 different species), 7 animals were positive (4.9%): 3 striped field mice (A. agrarius), 3 wood mice (A. sylvaticus) and 1 bank vole (Cl. glareolus). The findings suggest that in our natural foci of HFRS the circulation of the Hantavirus is sustained by several species of micromammals. PMID:1688294

  2. Incidence of hepatitis C virus RNA in anti-HCV negative plasma pools in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Forcić, D; Zgorelec, R; Branović, K; Kosutić-Gulija, T; Santak, M; Mazuran, R

    2001-06-01

    The risks of transmitting viral infection by blood and products derived from plasma have long been known and still remain an area of concern. Blood banks and transfusion centres are faced with the imminent introduction of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) of plasma pools as used by the plasma industry. In this paper, we show a part of our results of a validation study of an in-house method for routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in plasma pools and the results of testing 2,718 anti-HCV negative plasma pools for the presence of HCV RNA. The European Committee for Proprietary Medical Products (CPMP) recommended that from 1 July 1999, only batches derived from plasma pools tested and found non-reactive for HCV RNA, using validated test methods of suitable sensitivity and specificity, should be batch released by authorities. The quality and efficiency of NAT detection of HCV RNA is among others influenced by the efficacy of RNA isolation, the primer selection and the use of control samples. Using modern molecular biology techniques (sensitive and specific in-house amplification methods for detection of HCV RNA and automated sequencing), we analysed samples of plasma pools from different Croatian transfusion centres. By detection of HCV RNA in an NIBSC working reagent (genotype 3) and a Pelispy HCV RNA run control (genotype 1) we determined a high reproducibility and sensitivity (below 100 International Units (IU)/ml) for our in-house method. By direct sequencing PCR cDNAs we proved the specificity of the test system and the possibility of determining the HCV genotype when the method was used for PCR screening of HCV RNA in single donations. Of 2,718 anti-HCV negative plasma pools we have found that 2.1$ were HCV RNA positive. Results of our investigation confirm the necessity of testing HCV RNA in plasma pools to further increase the safety of human plasma-derived drugs. PMID:11791702

  3. Tylosin content in meat and honey samples over a two-year period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolanović, Božica S; Bilandžić, Nina; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Durđica

    2014-01-01

    A total of 646 meat and 96 honey samples were examined over a 2-year period for the presence of tylosin residues. ELISA method used was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. The CCβ values were 32.1 µg kg⁻¹ in muscle and 24.4 µg kg⁻¹ in honey. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 66.4-118.6%, with a coefficient of variation between 12.6% and 18.6%. All the investigated samples showed no presence of tylosin. Calculated estimated daily intakes show exposure levels lower than the acceptable daily intakes set by World Health Organization. PMID:24063615

  4. [Railway medical hygiene and health protection system in Croatia between 1945 and 1953].

    PubMed

    Lajnert, Sinisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system of medical hygiene and health care adopted by the Croatian section of Yugoslav Railways in the aftermath of World War Two until 1953, based on archival information. In 1945, the human resources section of the Railway Administration in Zagreb included the Department of Social Welfare with offices that managed health insurance in cases of illness and accidents, workers' pension fund, and sanitary care‥ On 19 June 1947, the regional railway executive board established a medical section within the so called Secretariat and appointed Dr Marijan Derkos as its head. On 3 July 1948, central and regional healthcare offices for traffic staff were established to manage and oversee the activities of health institutions providing services for railway workers. The seat of the regional office in Zagreb was in Grgurova street. After the dismantlement of the central healthcare office in charge of railway health institutions in 1953, regional boards established new institutions, that were now self-financed. PMID:25310611

  5. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Čulig, Josip; Zaninović, Ksenija; Mitić, Božena; Vukušić, Ivan

    . The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase, especially in large cities and industrial areas. Therefore, monitoring of airborne pollen types and concentrations during the pollen season is of the utmost medical importance. The research reported in this paper aims to determine the beginning, course and end of the pollen season for the plants in the City of Zagreb, to identify allergenic plants, and to assess the variation in airborne pollen concentration as a function of temperature and precipitation changes for the year 2002. A volumetric Hirst sampler was used for airborne pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification ×400). In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified. Birch pollen predominated in spring, the highest concentrations being recorded in February and March. Grass pollen prevailed in May and June, and pollen of herbaceous plants of the genus Urtica (nettle) and of ambrosia in July, August and September. Air temperature was mostly higher or considerably higher than the annual average in those months, which resulted in a many days with high and very high airborne pollen concentrations. The exception was April, when these concentrations were lower because of high levels of precipitation. This also held for the first half of August and the second half of September. Pollen-sensitive individuals were at high risk from February till October because of the high airborne pollen concentrations, which only showed a transient decrease when the temperature fell or there was precipitation.

  6. When and How Does Europe Matter? Higher Education Policy Change in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study underlying this article investigates the factors under which European policy initiatives with respect to higher education (HE), such as the Bologna Process, lead to policy change at the national level. In theoretical terms, it uses institutionalist approaches to the Europeanization of public policy developed in the fields of comparative…

  7. Organ donation from a patient with bacterial meningoencephalitis -- the first case in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gopcević, Aleksandar; Gavranović, Zeljka; Pavlović, Milan

    2011-06-01

    The growing number of patients with terminal organ failure waiting for transplantation and the limited number of available organs demand that explantation teams see brain-dead patients with infectious diseases such as bacterial meningoencephalitis as potential donors, although until recently organ explantation from such donors has been contraindicated. This paper presents the first case of successful organ explantation from a donor with confirmed bacterial meningoencephalitis in our country. In this previously healthy patient (only with mild arterial hypertension in personal history), bacterial meningoencephalitis caused fulminant worsening and he deteriorated from mild disorder of consciousness (GCS 12) to brain death within only 24 hours. After the transplantation of organs was performed (heart, kidneys, liver and corneas were explanted), antibiotic therapy was continued in all organ recipients and two days after the transplantation none of the recipients showed any signs of infectious complications. This paper proves that this type of patients should also be treated as potential donors, under condition of appropriate microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic therapy and sustained hemodynamic stability, which should enlarge the number of organs available for transplantation. PMID:22263393

  8. The Long-Term Effects of War Experiences on Children's Depression in the Republic of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The aim of the study was to investigate whether different levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys and girls could be predicted on the basis of war experiences, perceived available social support (instrumental support, support to self-esteem, belonging and acceptance) and extraversion. Methods:: The sample consisted of…

  9. Mineralogical discrimination of the pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in Srijem and Baranja, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galović, Lidija; Peh, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Previous investigations of the mineralogical composition of loess sections (loess, loess-like sediments, paleosols, alluvial intercalations) in the Carpathian Basin have concluded that the Danube River is the dominant control on the loessitic parent material. These investigations also identify a significant role for the Danube's tributaries in creating local variations. The north-south alignment of these sections forms a transect from the central part of the Carpathian Basin to its southern edge. In this work, the mineral origin of loess sediments was identified by using the multivariate statistical method of discriminant function analysis. Two models were constructed based on the modal composition as the suite of predictor (independent) variables: one is using geographic location as the a priori grouping criterion (SECTION); another employing the difference between the sampling media (LITHOLOGY). Both of the examined discriminant models demonstrate the existence of the mixing zones. The Erdut section is a clear mixture of the mineralogies at the other studied locations, while loesses appear generally intermediate in mineralogy between alluvium and paleosol. The main rationale for the observed difference in modal composition between the Šarengrad and other analyzed sections is the proximity of the Šarengrad section to the Sava River floodplain and Dinaric Ophiolite Zone (DOZ), both important source areas for aeolian sediments in the southern edge of the Carpathian Basin that transport material from the Central Bosnian Mountains unit of DOZ. Chemically, the most resistant heavy minerals together with opaque minerals are exclusively associated with paleosols, being typical products of geochemical pedogenic processes.

  10. 75 FR 63242 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Junior Faculty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan..., Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Montenegro,...

  11. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... deleted, and the following countries would be added to the remaining list: Bosnia, Croatia, Czech Republic... following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark,...

  12. 31 CFR 585.509 - Trading in certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading in certain pre-sanctions... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 585.509 Trading in..., and Macedonia authorized. (a) All transactions by U.S. persons involving secondary market trading...

  13. Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetism of the Miocene intramontane Pag and Drniš-Sinj basins, External Dinarides (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emő; Pavelić, Davor; Vranjković, Alan; Ćosović, Vlasta

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents palaeomagnetic results from the Miocene offshore Pag and the twin onshore (Drniš-Sinj) basins. Earlier magnetostratigraphic results were published from both basins, which documented that the lake sediments were good targets for palaeomagnetism. From the Pag basin, we sampled the oldest and youngest segments of the 1200 m long Crnika section and obtained statistically different palaeomagnetic directions from the two parts. During a repeated visit to the section it was revealed that modern gravity-driven creeping can account for this, i.e. the results from the Pag basin should be rejected from regional tectonic interpretation. The overall-mean palaeomagnetic direction for the Drniš-Sinj basin has excellent statistical parameters, its high quality is further supported by positive regional fold/tilt and reversal tests, based on seven geographically distributed localities. The results suggests 13-20° CCW rotation with respect to Africa and 21-27° with respect to stable Europe, during the last 15 million years. As the External Dinarides are the loci of a complicated network of Miocene and even younger tectonic zones, we cannot export the observed rotation for the whole unit, but consider our results as one step in obtaining robust kinematic constraints for the post-Oligocene tectonic history of the External Dinarides.

  14. Temperature as tracer of the hydraulic dynamic of an anchialine cave (coastal submerged cave) of Krka Estuary (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    A series of temperature, conductivity and water level loggers were used to characterize the hydraulic dynamic of a submerged cave (anchialine cave) in Krka Estuary. Litno Cave is a sub-horizontal gallery, less than 5 m in diameter and one meter below sea level. Apart from some sections that contain occasional air pockets under the ceiling, the cave is completely flooded. Outflow discharge through the cave is continuous during the year (>30 l/s). During several months vertical temperature profiles were measured in three locations inside the cave at 20, 60 and 100 m from the cave entrance, whereas another vertical profile was set in the estuary in front of the cave. Thermometers from the estuary measured thermal gradients to characterize position and evolution of the thermocline up to a depth of 3.5 m. Tides measured in the estuary are synchronous to those recorded in the cave and their amplitudes (20 to 40 cm in the estuary) are the same or smaller depending on cave outflow discharge. Records of cave water temperature show a non-linear response to tides due to the vertical displacement of the thermocline. During neap tides the thermocline was located in the aquifer below the cave, whereas during spring tides only thermometers in the top meter of the cave were not affected by the thermocline vertical displacement. After the first significant rains of the hydrological year, the freshwater contribution increased the cave outflow discharge by one order of magnitude. Thus, conductivity decreased in response to rains from 16000 ±1000 μS/cm to <700 μS/cm at the bottom of the cave. Under these conditions variability of cave water temperature was less than 0.1 °C, although a 0.4 °C long-term variability was recorded. These data shows that the discharge of freshwater to the estuary determines the dynamic of this submerged cave, limiting the influence of estuarine water intrusion in the coastal aquifer and the impact of tides. This research shows that temperature is a powerful tracer of the dynamic of this coastal cave. This proxy provides valuable information on the freshwater discharge to the subterranean estuary and the influence of tides on the costal aquifer. This research was funded by the NEWFELPRO programme under the Grant Agreement n°71, Vrulja Project.

  15. Marine historical ecology at the Brijuni Islands, Croatia: preliminary results from down-core changes of foraminiferal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovic, Jelena; Cosovic, Vlasta; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The Late Holocene in the northern Adriatic is characterized by the eustatic peak of the sea-level rise, followed by the equilibrium between the regional tectonic subsidence and hydro-isostatic emergence and relatively stable sea level for a few thousand years. During this period the area experienced changes in sedimentation rate, food/oxygen availability in the benthic ecosystem and eutrophication with seasonal hypoxic and anoxic events. In order to reconstruct the marine paleoecology in the Brijuni Islands area during this period, a multidisciplinary study was carried out, including geochemical (TOC, trace metals, carbonate content), micropaleontological analyses (benthic foraminifera) and dating of sediments and mollusc shells. The principal aim of this study is to observe the effects of ecological shifts on foraminiferal assemblages during the Late Holocene. One core of 1.5 m length was taken at a sampling station south of Veli Brijuni Island, located within a marine protected area with no fishing/dredging pressure (Croatian national park). The core was sliced into smaller subsamples, and four sediment fractions of each subsample (63, 125, 250 and 500 µm) were analyzed for standard properties of the foraminiferal community (species richness, faunal composition, biodiversity indices), in comparison with relevant physical and geochemical properties of the sediment. The results concerning changes in foraminiferal species composition and abundance point to differences within the core: surface sediments are dominated by suspension feeders (Planorbulina mediterranensis, Lobatula lobatula, Cibicides variabilis, Cibicides refulgens), whereas deposit feeders (genera Textularia, Siphonaperta, Adelosina, Trioculina) appear in higher abundances at approximately 30 cm of the sediment depth and dominate down-core. Species richness in the first 30 cm is lower (10 to 34 species per sample) in comparison to the middle part of the core (39 to 53 species), and decreases again at 100 cm to 25 to 42 species per sample. Diversity indices follow the pattern of species richness and point to normal marine conditions. Similarity indices rise with core depth. The radiometric dating of the sediments together with carbon-calibrated amino acid- racemisation of mollusc shells from selected species will help to determine the timing of major ecological changes.

  16. Droughts, dry spells, low water levels and their environmental-social consequences in late medieval Hungary (and Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Nikolic, Zrinka

    2016-04-01

    Based on medieval, contemporary evidence, in the presentation 14th-15th-century droughts, dry spells and documented low water-level events of large rivers (e.g. Danube, Tisza) and their detected environmental and social consequences are discussed in more detail, with special emphasis on the years of 1361-1364, 1393-1394, 1440, the early 1540s, 1474, 1479-1480 and 1494. The poster presentation is centred around the following topics: - magnitude, intensity and frequency of droughts and dry spells (in comparison with famous 18th-19th-century drought periods); - provide information (and a comparison) on Central European parallels; - other natural hazards combined with drought and dry spells (e.g. convective events); - the relationship of multiannual water-deficits and locust invasions, their intensity and documented further impacts; - the consequences of droughts, dry spells and low water levels on society, with special emphasis on food production (e.g. bad harvests, grazing permissions, high prices, threatening food shortage), transportation problems (esp. salt transportation), military defence (Ottoman Turkish attacks) and their further social effects (e.g. land-ownership debates; royal intervention and export prohibition).

  17. Establishing an Institutional Framework for an E-learning Implementation--Experiences from the University of Rijeka, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuvic-Butorac, Marta; Nebic, Zoran; Nemcanin, Damir; Mikac, Tonci; Lucin, Pero

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the need of transforming the university structure, processes, and programs according to the Bologna reform, and in order to become more flexible and more responsive to the environment, the University of Rijeka management decided to enable e-learning implementation as an institutional, strategically planned operation. The manuscript…

  18. First cases of human Usutu virus neuroinvasive infection in Croatia, August-September 2013: clinical and laboratory features.

    PubMed

    Santini, Marija; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Barsic, Bruno; Barbic, Ljubo; Savic, Vladimir; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Listes, Eddy; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    Few reports of human Usutu virus (USUV) infection have been reported to date. We describe the first three patients with USUV neuroinvasive infection in Zagreb and its surroundings from 30 August to 7 September 2013 during a West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak. Patients were aged 29, 56, and 61 years. The two older patients had several comorbidities (arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus). All patients presented with meningitis and meningoencephalitis closely resembling WNV neuroinvasive disease. The main clinical features in all patients were headache, fever, nuchal rigidity, hand tremor, and hyperreflexia. Neuroimaging studies were normal and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed diffusely slow activity. The 29 years old, a previously healthy female patient, was deeply somnolent and disoriented for 4 days. Her recovery was slow and even 10 weeks after disease onset, she had memory and speech-fluency difficulties. The other two patients recovered promptly. USUV IgG antibodies were detected in all patients by ELISA with seroconversion documented in two of them. Titers of USUV-neutralizing antibodies were 10, 80, and 10, respectively. Because USUV and WNV share many clinical characteristics, USUV infection could be misdiagnosed as WNV. Testing for USUV should be considered in all suspected cases of meningoencephalitis, especially in areas where both viruses cocirculate. PMID:25361698

  19. Trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni) in sediment of the submarine pit Dragon ear (Soline Bay, Rogoznica, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Bogner, Danijela; Ujević, Ivana

    2009-08-01

    Vertical profiles of trace metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni) concentrations, organic matter content, carbonate content and granulometric composition were determined in two sediment cores from the submarine pit Dragon Ear (Middle Adriatic). Concentrations of the analyzed metals (Cd: 0.06-0.12 mg kg-1, Pb: 28.5-67.3 mg kg-1, Zn: 17.0-65.4 mg kg-1, Cu: 21.1-51.9 mg kg-1, Ni: 27.8-40.2 mg kg-1) were in usual range for Adriatic carbonate marine sediments. Nevertheless, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and especially Pb in the upper layer of sediments (top 12 cm) were higher than in bottom layer, while Cd and Ni concentration profiles were uniform. Regression analysis and principal component analysis were used to interpret distribution of trace metals, organic matter and carbonate content in sediment cores. Results of both analysis showed that concentrations of all trace metals in the core below the entrance to the pit were significantly positively correlated with organic matter and negatively correlated with carbonate, while in the core more distant from the entrance only Pb showed significant positive correlation with organic matter. Obtained results indicated that, except for lead which was enriched in surface sediment, in the time of sampling (before the building of the nautical marina) investigated area belonged to unpolluted areas.

  20. The impact of multiple anthropogenic contaminants on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Bituh, Tomislav; Žužul, Silva; Dvoršćak, Marija; Fingler, Sanja; Jurasović, Jasna; Klinčić, Darija; Marović, Gordana; Orct, Tatjana; Rinkovec, Jasmina; Stipičević, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the terrestrial environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park (PLNP) was investigated through the analysis of three groups of major contaminants (persistent organochlorine pollutants including 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), trace elements/heavy metals (6 major and 23 trace constituents), and anthropogenic radionuclides ((90)Sr, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs)) in three terrestrial compartments (soil, air, and bioindicators of air contamination) during 2011-2013. The correlation coefficients of element mass fractions with soil properties indicated that total Fe and Al minerals, soil organic matter (OM), and organic carbon (OC) content affected the mass fractions of most trace elements in the topsoils. The annual and spatial distributions of heavy metals in total deposited matter (TDM) indicated that the metals came from natural sources and long-range transfer of particulate matter. The PCB and OCP levels found in soil and conifer needles corresponded to global environmental pollution levels by persistent organic pollutants and represented the lower end of the mass fraction ranges reported in the relevant literature. Analyses of anthropogenic radionuclides in bioindicators (conifer needles, lichens, and mosses) showed low but measurable activity concentrations of (134)Cs (for the first time after the Chernobyl accident), which indicated origin from the March 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. Our overall results indicated that human activity inside or near the PLNP had no significant impact either on contaminant spread by air or on their content in topsoils. PMID:26661963

  1. Secondary stroke in patients with polytrauma and traumatic brain injury treated in an Intensive Care Unit, Karlovac General Hospital, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Belavić, M; Jančić, E; Mišković, P; Brozović-Krijan, A; Bakota, B; Žunić, J

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is divided into primary and secondary brain injury. Primary brain injury occurs at the time of injury and is the direct consequence of kinetic energy acting on the brain tissue. Secondary brain injury occurs several hours or days after primary brain injury and is the result of factors including shock, systemic hypotension, hypoxia, hypothermia or hyperthermia, intracranial hypertension, cerebral oedema, intracranial bleeding or inflammation. The aim of this retrospective analysis of a prospective database was to determine the prevalence of secondary stroke and stroke-related mortality, causes of secondary stroke, treatment and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. This study included patients with TBI with or without other injuries who were hospitalised in a general ICU over a five-year period. The following parameters were assessed: demographics (age, sex), scores (Glasgow Coma Score, APACHE II, SOFA), secondary stroke (prevalence, time of occurrence after primary brain injury, causes of stroke and associated mortality), length of stay in the ICU and hospital, vital parameters (state of consciousness, cardiac function, respiration, circulation, thermoregulation, diuresis) and laboratory values (leukocytes, C-reactive protein [CRP], blood glucose, blood gas analysis, urea, creatinine). Medical data were analysed for 306 patients with TBI (median age 56 years, range 18-93 years) who were treated in the general ICU. Secondary stroke occurred in 23 patients (7.5%), 10 of whom died, which gives a mortality rate of 43.4%. Three patients were excluded as the cause of the injury was missile trauma. The study data indicate that inflammation is the most important cause of secondary insults. Levels of CRP were elevated in 65% of patients with secondary brain injury; leukocytosis was present in 87% of these patients, and blood glucose was elevated in 73%. The lungs and urinary tract were the most common sites of infection. In conclusion, elevated inflammatory markers (white blood cell count and CRP) and hyperglycaemia are associated with secondary brain injury. The lack of routine use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring may explain the high mortality rate and the occurrence of secondary stroke in patients with TBI. PMID:26620118

  2. Characterization of the Gacka River basin karst aquifer (Croatia): hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium-based mean residence times.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Nur N; Lutz, Hans O; Hunjak, Tamara; Mance, Diana; Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana

    2014-07-15

    The Gacka River basin aquifer is a highly-developed karst system, located in the Croatian Dinarides. It is mostly composed of permeable Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks, and clastic sedimentary rocks of Paleogene age. Gacka River provides high quality water for the town of Otočac and several villages; together with the neighboring Lika River, the water is used for the Hydroelectric Power Plant at Senj on the coast. About 10 perennial and over 20 seasonal springs are located at 450 to 460 ma.s.l. (above sea level). Three major springs (Pećina, Majerovo and Tonkovića) provide 57% of the mean annual river flow. Similarities between the average groundwater temperatures as well as between the average specific electrical conductivity values (9.0°C-328 μS/cm, 9.6°C-350 μS/cm and 8.9°C-312 μS/cm) of the springs imply that they are fed from aquifers with similar mean residence times (MRTs). The mean δ(18)O contents of Majerovo, Tonkovića, and Pećina are around -10.1‰, -9.2‰ and -8.9‰, respectively, revealing differences in the mean recharge area elevations. Compared to the temporal amplitude of the(18)O signal of precipitation, the (18)O signal variations of the springs are substantially attenuated because the recharges occurring at different times are well mixed within the aquifers. This indicates MRTs of more than just a few years. The average tritium contents of Pećina, Majerovo and Tonkovića are 5.48 TU, 6.13 TU and 6.17 TU, respectively. Serially connected exponential-plug type unsteady lumped-parameter models run on an annual time scale resulted in rather satisfactory matches between the observed and calculated tritium contents for all studied springs. The models revealed similar MRTs (and corresponding reservoir volumes) for Pećina, Tonkovića and Majerovo of 12 years (470 Mm(3)), 12 years (1,190 Mm(3)), and 12.2 years (1,210 Mm(3)), respectively. Plug flow conditions dominate in about 90% of the total aquifer volumes. PMID:24784749

  3. Seasonal distribution of organic matter and copper under stratified conditions in a karstic, marine, sulfide rich environment (Rogoznica Lake, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavšić, Marta; Ciglenečki, Irena; Strmečki, Slađana; Bura-Nakić, Elvira

    2011-04-01

    Closed, isolated small systems, as the representatives of a "unique-environmental feature", are valuable natural laboratories for studying different biogeochemical processes. The saline Rogoznica Lake ("Dragon Eye"), situated on the Eastern Adriatic coast is such a system (10 276 m 2, 15 m deep) typical of many stratified, sulfide rich water bodies. The depth of mixolimnion changes seasonally and it is greatly influenced by meteorological conditions, i.e. temperature and rainfall. Vertical mixing usually occurs during winter when cold, oxygen-rich water from the surface sinks downwards. In 2009 we monitored seasonal distribution and variation of copper complexing capacity (L T), related apparent stability constants (K app), concentration of Cu 2+ ions, surfactant activity (SAS), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and reduced sulfur species (RSS). Our results have shown that L T is increasing with depth up to 8 m depth, while the concentrations of copper ions decrease with the depth due to the higher amount of RSS species in deeper layers. The values of log K app are also decreasing with depth as a consequence of a competition of organic ligands and sulfide ions for binding Cu. Below 8 m depth the presence of high amounts of RSS (˜1 mM) influences the electrochemical measuring of copper ion and L T determination, contributing to the copper ion binding.

  4. Military casualties in Baranja and east Slavonia during the first 9 months of the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ropac, D; Milas, J

    1999-09-01

    The total number of Croatian Army soldiers killed in the period from the beginning of July 1991 until the end of March 1992 was 487. The number of severely wounded was 1,160, and 1,141 soldiers were slightly wounded. The ratio of the killed to wounded was 1:5, except in the municipality of Osijek, where it was 1:2.5. The number of casualties increased continually and culminated during November 1991, the period of fiercest fighting in this territory, followed by a gradual decrease. The most common mechanism of injury was explosives, which were responsible for almost half of all casualties (47.9%). An equal number of soldiers were killed by explosives and infantry weapons (46.4% and 44.9%, respectively). Casualties caused by motor vehicle crashes are not to be ignored, especially after the cease-fire agreement. Car crashes frequently resulted in death (from 4.5%-12.4%). PMID:10495635

  5. Reinforcing of QA/QC programs in radiotherapy departments in Croatia: Results of treatment planning system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Jurković, Slaven; Švabić, Manda; Diklić, Ana; Smilović Radojčić, Đeni; Dundara, Dea; Kasabašić, Mladen; Ivković, Ana; Faj, Dario

    2013-04-01

    Implementation of advanced techniques in clinical practice can greatly improve the outcome of radiation therapy, but it also makes the process much more complex with a lot of room for errors. An important part of the quality assurance program is verification of treatment planning system (TPS). Dosimetric verifications in anthropomorphic phantom were performed in 4 centers where new systems were installed. A total of 14 tests for 2 photon energies and multigrid superposition algorithms were conducted using the CMS XiO TPS. Evaluation criteria as specified in the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Reports Series (IAEA TRS) 430 were employed. Results of measurements are grouped according to the placement of the measuring point and the beam energy. The majority of differences between calculated and measured doses in the water-equivalent part of the phantom were in tolerance. Significantly more out-of-tolerance values were observed in “nonwater-equivalent” parts of the phantom, especially for higher-energy photon beams. This survey was done as a part of continuous effort to build up awareness of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) importance in the Croatian radiotherapy community. Understanding the limitations of different parts of the various systems used in radiation therapy can systematically improve quality as well.

  6. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products. PMID:25329397

  7. Reinforcing of QA/QC programs in radiotherapy departments in Croatia: results of treatment planning system verification.

    PubMed

    Jurković, Slaven; Svabić, Manda; Diklić, Ana; Smilović Radojčić, Deni; Dundara, Dea; Kasabašić, Mladen; Ivković, Ana; Faj, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of advanced techniques in clinical practice can greatly improve the outcome of radiation therapy, but it also makes the process much more complex with a lot of room for errors. An important part of the quality assurance program is verification of treatment planning system (TPS). Dosimetric verifications in anthropomorphic phantom were performed in 4 centers where new systems were installed. A total of 14 tests for 2 photon energies and multigrid superposition algorithms were conducted using the CMS XiO TPS. Evaluation criteria as specified in the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Reports Series (IAEA TRS) 430 were employed. Results of measurements are grouped according to the placement of the measuring point and the beam energy. The majority of differences between calculated and measured doses in the water-equivalent part of the phantom were in tolerance. Significantly more out-of-tolerance values were observed in "nonwater-equivalent" parts of the phantom, especially for higher-energy photon beams. This survey was done as a part of continuous effort to build up awareness of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) importance in the Croatian radiotherapy community. Understanding the limitations of different parts of the various systems used in radiation therapy can systematically improve quality as well. PMID:23246197

  8. Influence of Urbanization Level and Gross Domestic Product of Counties in Croatia on Access to Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina; Vlahušić, Andro; Bilić, Ivica; Matanić, Dubravka

    2008-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of counties’ urbanization level and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita on the access to health care. Methods Counties were divided in two groups according to the urbanization level and GDP per capita in purchasing power standards. The number of physicians per 100 000 inhabitants, the number of physicians in hospitals in four basic specialties, physicians’ workload, average duration of working week, the average number of insurants per general practice (GP) team, and the number of inhabitants covered by one internal medicine outpatient clinic were compared between predominantly urban and predominantly rural counties, and between richer and poorer counties. Our study included only GP teams and outpatients’ clinics under the contract with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance. Data on physicians were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance, the Croatian Institute for Public Health, and the Croatian Medical Chamber. Data on the contracts with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and health care services provided under these contracts were obtained from the database of the Institute, while population and gross domestic product data were obtained from the Database of the Croatian Institute for Statistics. World Health Organization Health for All Database was used for the international comparison of physician’s data. Results There was no significant difference in the total number of physicians per 100 000 inhabitants between predominantly urban and predominantly rural counties (206.9 ± 41.0 vs 175.4 ± 30.3; P = 0.067, t test) nor between richer and poorer counties (194.5 ± 49.8 vs 187.7 ± 25.3; P = 0.703, t test). However, there were significantly fewer GPs per 100 000 inhabitants in rural than urban counties (49.0 ± 5.5 vs 56.7 ± 4.6; P = 0.003, t test). GPs in rural counties had more insurants than those working in urban counties (1.749.8 ± 172.8 vs 1.540.7 ± 106.3; P = 0.004, t test). The working week of specialists in the four observed specialties in hospitals was longer than the recommended 48 hours a week. Conclusion The lack of physicians, especially in primary health care can lead to a reduced access to health care and increased workload of physicians, predominantly in rural counties, regardless of the counties’ GDP. PMID:18581617

  9. Improvement of health care for the poor in Split (southern Croatia) during the first half of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Brisky, Livia; Brisky, Tibor

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health care available for the poor citizens of Split during the first half of the 19th century. Soon after being constructed in 1797, the Civic Hospital in Split founded by the Ergovac brothers for the needs of the poor was transformed into a military hospital. Consequently, caring for this social stratum was taken over by two inadequate shelters and later by a small civic hospital situated in the Split suburb of Dobri. The year of the application of Petar Ergovac to the supreme ruler for the transformation of the hospital building established by his family from a military to a civil institution was found, as well as the correct data regarding its return to initial idea in 1821. On the basis of the archival documents kept in the Archaeological Museum in Split and in the State Archives in Zadar, the work organization of the Civic Hospital in Split and the first stage of its change from a charitable to a public health hospital institution were presented. This study revealed the aspiration of the authorities in the first half of the 19th century to improve the health system of the city of Split. PMID:22397228

  10. Sequence Types 235, 111, and 132 Predominate among Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Izdebski, Radosław; Butic, Iva; Jelic, Marko; Abram, Maja; Koscak, Iva; Baraniak, Anna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Gniadkowski, Marek; Tambic Andrasevic, Arjana

    2014-01-01

    A population analysis of 103 multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Croatian hospitals was performed. Twelve sequence types (STs) were identified, with a predominance of international clones ST235 (serotype O11 [41%]), ST111 (serotype O12 [15%]), and ST132 (serotype O6 [11%]). Overexpression of the natural AmpC cephalosporinase was common (42%), but only a few ST235 or ST111 isolates produced VIM-1 or VIM-2 metallo-β-lactamases or PER-1 or GES-7 extended-spectrum β-lactamases. PMID:25070098

  11. Geomorphological significance of the palaeodrainage network on a karst plateau: The Una-Korana plateau, Dinaric karst, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bočić, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen; Mihevc, Andrej

    2015-10-01

    Karst plateaus often have a complex geological and geomorphological history. It is widely accepted that their development requires a long period of karst denudation. This study reconstructs the palaeodrainage network of a karst plateau, analyses its properties and establishes its geomorphological significance. The main purpose of this research was to deepen our understanding of a key stage in the evolution of karst plateaus - the transition from a fluvial land surface to one dominated by karst surface processes. The study was conducted on a large part of the Una-Korana plateau, the largest plateau in the Dinaric karst. The majority of the plateau is made of carbonate rocks of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age that set the conditions for the development of the karst. We have reconstructed the palaeodrainage network based on 1:25,000 topographic maps with 10 m contours. The transition of the surface drainage network to the underground karst drainage network is still in progress, so, depending on the degree of karstification, the drainage network was divided into three categories: active, dry and relict. It was found that 90.5% of the pre-existing drainage network has undergone some degree of karstification. The active surface drainage network gradually shifted to a dry network, then to a relict network. The surface drainage network is gradually replaced by a dense network of dolines. Today, the flat and karstified inter-fluvial area is drained underground towards the main watercourses and these drain the entire region over the surface towards the Pannonian basin. This is the largest known karst palaeodrainage network in the Dinaric karst that has been reconstructed in this way.

  12. Heavy metal contents in water, sediment and fish in a karst aquatic ecosystem of the Plitvice Lakes National Park (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vukosav, Petra; Mlakar, Marina; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Zeljko; Pižeta, Ivanka; Pavlus, Natalija; Spoljarić, Ivanka; Vurnek, Maja; Brozinčević, Andrijana; Omanović, Dario

    2014-03-01

    An evaluation of the quality status of the pristine karst, tufa depositing aquatic environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park based on the analysis of heavy (ecotoxic) metals was examined for the first time. Analyses of trace metals in water, sediment and fish (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Squalius cephalus) samples were conducted either by stripping voltammetry (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) or cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg). The concentration of dissolved trace metals in water was very low revealing a pristine aquatic environment (averages were, in ng/L: 258 (Zn), 10.9 (Cd), 11.7 (Pb), 115 (Cu) and 1.22 (Hg)). Slightly enhanced concentrations of Cd (up to 50 ng/L) and Zn (up to 900 ng/L) were found in two main water springs and are considered as of natural origin. Observed downstream decrease in concentration of Cd, Zn and Cu in both water and sediments is a consequence of the self-purification process governed by the formation and settling of authigenic calcite. Anthropogenic pressure was spotted only in the Kozjak Lake: Hg concentrations in sediments were found to be up to four times higher than the baseline value, while at two locations, Pb concentrations exceeded even a probable effect concentration. The increase of Hg and Pb was not reflected on their levels in the fish tissues; however, significant correlations were found between Cd level in fish tissues (liver and muscle) and in the water/sediment compartments, while only partial correlations were estimated for Zn and Cu. A high discrepancy between values of potentially bioavailable metal fraction estimated by different modelling programs/models raised the question about the usefulness of these data as a parameter in understanding/relating the metal uptake and their levels in aquatic organism. The aquatic environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park is characterized, in general, as a clean ecosystem. PMID:24288066

  13. Is There a Need for a European-Wide Initiative on Comprehensive Sexuality Education? Reflections from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, Aleksandar Štulhofer has been involved in debates over school-based sexuality education in his country. Introduced to this sensitive and often divisive topic by several research studies on sexual risk taking in youth, he recently participated in two education-policy processes dealing with school-based health and sexuality…

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  15. Application of empirical model to predict background metal concentration in mixed carbonate-alumosilicate sediment (Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Felja, Igor; Romić, Marija; Romić, Davor; Bakić, Helena; Pikelj, Kristina; Juračić, Mladen

    2016-05-15

    A 96m long sediment core (S10-33) from the Mali Ston Channel (Adriatic Sea) showed large natural variation in carbonate share (between 1% and 95%) and concentration of elements. These variations indicate rather significant changes in fine-grained sediment that was deposited in this area during Younger Pleistocene and Holocene. Unaffected by anthropogenic influence, sediment in the core was used to determine background concentration of trace elements in sediment with various carbonate content. Here we propose a method of the normalization of trace elements to carbonate share, in order to assess natural/background concentration of metals in sediments consisting of carbonates and alumosilicates in various proportions. Six characteristic metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that were normalized to carbonate share showed very good correlation, with much higher background concentrations in alumosilicate than in carbonate end member. Simple formulas were proposed to easily determine background concentration of these elements, in coastal and shelf depositional environments with mixed carbonate-alumosilicate sediments. PMID:26975609

  16. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. PMID:25828676

  17. The Challenge of Volunteering Frequency in Croatia--Can Volunteers Contribute to the Social Capital Development Once a Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culum, Bojana; Forcic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Volunteering is one of the strongest elements of shaping democratic change within the society. It is also an essential element in citizenship development and in re-establishing a sense of community. Volunteering empowers individuals, builds solidarity, encourages participation and protects vulnerable groups against social and economic…

  18. Computer Use in Pre-School Education: The Attitudes of the Future Pre-School Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatalovic Vorkapic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    According to the relevance of teacher attitudes in the teaching process as well as to the great number of discussions among experts of pre-school education, it was interesting to examine the students of pre-school teaching about their attitudes toward the use of computer among pre-school children. The sample consisted of N = 40 students from…

  19. Impact of a grout curtain on groundwater regime in karst: the example of the Ðale reservoir (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Ognjen; Roje-Bonacci, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Construction of grout curtains in karst terrains is primarily connected with dams and reservoirs. Their role is to increase watertightness and prevent progressive erosion. In this presentation hourly continuous measurement of groundwater level in two deep piezometers near the Đale reservoir is analysed. The Đale reservoir in the Cetina River began operation in 1989. The total length of the grout curtain is 3.9 km. It spreads 120 m bellow the Đale dam. First analysed piezometer A is drilled in the interior part of the system, between the reservoir and the grout curtain, while the second one B is located in its external part. Distance between them is 200 m. In natural conditions, prior the grout curtain construction, groundwater level fluctuation in both of them was similar (practically the same). Construction of the grout curtain extremely changed groundwater behaviour in each of them. During the six month of continuous monitoring, differences between groundwater levels in them range between +19.86 m (groundwater in B is lower than in A) and -12.77 m (groundwater in A is lower than in B). During the 77% of analysed period the groundwater level in interior piezometer A is higher than the groundwater level in external piezometer B. In other 23% of analysed period the groundwater level in outside piezometer B is higher than in inside A. The construction of the grout curtain caused unnaturally high hydrostatic gradients, which can accelerate the dissolutional expansion of karst fractures. As a result, unbearable leakage of the reservoir Đale can occur over its lifetime. Careful analyses of groundwater level behaviour discover some other very important characteristics of karst underground morphology.

  20. Microbiology of healing mud (fango) from Roman thermae aquae iasae archaeological site (Varaždinske Toplice, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Mulec, Janez; Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Oarga, Andreea; Scharfen, Josef; Šestauberová, Martina

    2015-02-01

    We found well-preserved, rocky artefacts that had been buried in the healing mud (fango) for more than 1,500 years at the Roman archaeological site at Varaždinske Toplice. This Roman pool with fango sediments and artefacts is fed from hot sulphidic springs. The fango exhibited nearly neutral pH, a high level of organic C, an elevated concentration of heavy metals and a high total microbial biomass, greater than 10(8) cells per gram of dry weight. The dominant microbes, assessed by molecular profiling (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), were affiliated with Thiobacillus, Sulfuricurvum, Polaromonas, and Bdellovibrio. Polymerase chain reaction screening for microbial functional guilds revealed the presence of sulphur oxidizers and methanogens but no sulphate reducers. The dominance of four Proteobacterial classes (α-, β-, δ- and ε-Proteobacteria) was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation; Actinobacteria were less abundant. Cultivable bacteria represented up to 23.4 % of the total bacterial counts when cultivation media was enriched with fango. These bacteria represented the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Arthrobacter, Comamonas, Ewingella, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rahnella and Staphylococcus. This study showed that the heterogeneous nature of fango at neutral pH created various microniches, which largely supported microbial life based on sulphur-driven, autotrophic denitrification. PMID:25241172

  1. Identification of general characteristics, motivation, and satisfaction of internet-based medical consultation service users in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Klinar, Ivana; Balažin, Ana; Baršić, Bruno; Tiljak, Hrvoje

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify users’ reasons to look for physician consultation on the internet instead of visiting a physician and to explore their general characteristics, motivation, and satisfaction with internet medical consultation service ‘Your Questions.’ Methods Users of a free internet medical consultation service ‘Your Questions’ (www.plivazdravlje.hr) were invited to participate in a web-based survey designed to explore their general characteristics (age, sex, etc), reasons for using the service, the nature of their health problem or question, and their satisfaction with the service. Respondents were divided into two groups: users who consulted an internet physician only (Group I) and users who used internet consulting before or after visiting a physician (Group II). Results The response rate was 38% (1036/2747), with 79% female respondents. A fifth of the respondents (21%) consulted an internet physician only (Group I). Multivariate analysis revealed that the respondents in Group I were younger (median 24 vs 28 years in Group II), more interested into questions about pregnancy (odds ratio [OR], 1.984; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.203-3.272), more often embarrassed to talk to a physician in person (OR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.119-2.989), and more motivated to protect their privacy (OR, 1.727; 95% CI, 1.252-2.380). They also had greater satisfaction with the service (77% vs 60%, P < 0.001). Conclusion The factors associated with the use of internet-based medical consultation services were younger age, need for privacy protection, avoidance of embarrassment at the physician’s office, and having a question related to pregnancy. This reveals the internet medical consultation service as a useful health promotion supplement that is particularly applicable for the population of young adults. PMID:21853551

  2. Influence of war on quantitative and qualitative changes in drug-induced mortality in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana; Definis Gojanović, Marija; Vodopija, Davor; Čapkun, Vesna; Smoljanović, Ankica

    2011-01-01

    Aim To study drug-induced mortality and characteristics of overdose deaths in the war (1991-1995), pre-war (1986-1990), and post-war period (1996-2000) in Split-Dalmatia County. Methods We retrospectively searched through Databases of the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Split, the national register of death records, the archives of the Split-Dalmatia County Police, and the Register of Treated Drug Addicts of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, covering the period from 1986 to 2000, according to drug poisoning codes IX and X of the International Classification of Diseases. The indicators were statistically analyzed. Results There were 146 registered drug-induced deaths, with 136 (93%) deceased being men. The median age of all cases was 27 years (interquartile range 8). Most of them were single (70.6%), unemployed (44.6%), and secondary school graduates (69.2%). In the war period, there were 4.8 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P = 0.014), and in the post-war period there were 5.2 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P = 0.008). The most common site of death was the deceased person’s home. The toxicological analyses showed that 59 (61%) deaths were heroin related, alcohol use was found in 62 cases (42.5%), and multi-substance use was found in more than a half of the cases. In 133 (91.1%) cases, deaths were classified as unintentional, whereas 13 (8.9%) were classified as suicides. Conclusion The war, along with other risk factors, contributed to unfavorable developments related to drug abuse in Split-Dalmatia County, including the increase in the drug-induced mortality rate. PMID:21990081

  3. Social Sense and Effect of Music: Prevailing Ideology in Music Curricula in Croatia before and after Its Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magzan, Masa Bogojeva

    2009-01-01

    Approaching music from a sociological perspective, this book deals with the concept of ideology in relation to music. The focus of investigation is on the reflection of ideology and power relations in the music curriculum before and after Croatian independence. The goal of this work is to help our understanding of how and why certain musical…

  4. Healing the Wounds of War and More: An Integrative Approach to Peace--The Work of Adam Curle and Others with Mir i dobro in Zupanja, Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchels, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Examines practical implications of Curle's approach to psychological aspects of conflict and peacemaking as evidenced in the Mir i dobro project in Zupanja, taking into consideration some of the current debates concerning treatment of psychological trauma, including validity of the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and use of so-called…

  5. Results of field testing with the multisensor DEMAND and BIOSENS technologies in Croatia and Bosnia developed in the European Union's 5th framework program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, Stephen; Sachs, Juergen; Peyerl, Peter; Alli, Giovanni; Eng, Lars; Khalili, Mehrdad; Busto, Javier; Berg, Anders

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the development results for three sensor technologies: metal detector (MD) array, ultrawideband (UWB) ground penetrating radar (GPR) array and biosensor sample collection and analysis system. It provides results on explosives findings for demining and demonstrates how the false alarm rate (FAR) of the MD may be reduced while maintaining high probability of detection (PD) through a data fusion (DF) system. The relevance of the results to demining and homeland security is also provided.

  6. Evidencing the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling trace metals dynamic in a highly stratified estuary: The Krka River estuary (Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Cindrić, Ana-Marija; Garnier, Cédric; Oursel, Benjamin; Pižeta, Ivanka; Omanović, Dario

    2015-05-15

    Distributions of trace metals (TM), organic carbon, SPM and physico-chemical parameters were studied in the highly stratified Krka River estuary in winter/summer periods. The non-conservative behaviour of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in the brackish layer (plume), easily spotted due to very low inputs by the river, was mainly caused by their inputs from the pleasure boats, nautical marinas and harbour (e.g. release from antifouling paints). Contrarily, Ni and Co followed near-conservative behaviour. The extremely low SPM discharged by the river, resulted in a predominant dissolved fraction (>80%) of all TM, except Pb. Vertical scavenging, coupled with the long residence time, caused accumulation and progressive upstream increase of TM and SPM in the bottom seawater. Decrease of distribution coefficient (KD) in the brackish layer for winter period was ascribed to the change of SPM nature (terrestrial vs. biogenic), whereas a variable and increased biogenic component of SPM caused scattered KDs in summer. PMID:25752536

  7. Blooms of the potentially toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle in coastal waters of the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, Daniela; Ljubešić, Zrinka; Godrijan, Jelena; Viličić, Damir; Ujević, Ivana; Precali, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia contains more than 30 species, though most of them are discernible only on the basis of ultrastructural or genetic differences. We present a taxonomic study of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundhum, Hasle & Moestrup in the coastal waters of the northern Adriatic Sea together with domoic acid (DA) measurements on natural and breeding populations of shellfish. Sampling carried out monthly at 13 stations during 2007 showed Pseudo-nitzschia species to be present with high abundances during the entire year, forming blooms in coastal waters (reaching abundances of up to 1.2 × 10 6 cells L -1) during the late summer/early autumn, when they contributed up to 70% of the whole phytoplankton community. Ultrastructural examination provided evidence that the observed blooms were formed by the potentially toxic species P. calliantha. After the P. calliantha bloom, DA was detected at 3 stations along the north-eastern Adriatic coast with concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 1.32 μg g -1 in shellfish tissue. The distribution patterns of the species were analyzed statistically in order to explain the relationships between environmental variables and population dynamics. We here report on a mass appearance of the potentially toxic P. calliantha in the coastal waters of the northern Adriatic.

  8. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. PMID:26344461

  9. Are there future psychiatrists among medical students in Croatia? The role of premedical and medical factors on career choice in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Rojnic Kuzman, Martina; Smoljan, Mia; Lovrec, Petra; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Lydall, Greg; Farooq, Kitty; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders, a worldwide shortage of psychiatrists exists. Moreover, the number of students interested in choosing psychiatry as their future profession is low and psychiatry is frequently regarded as one of the least wanted medical specializations. We report the findings of a cross-sectional quantitative survey of final year Croatian medical students as part of the International Survey of Student Career Choice in Psychiatry (ISoSCCiP). The questionnaire consisted of three sections: socio-demographic factors, psychiatric education during medical school, and attitudes and personality characteristics. Out of 200 students, 122 completed the questionnaire (response rate 61%). The overall student evaluation of the compulsory psychiatry curriculum was 'average'. Significantly higher ratings were reported by students who attended special psychiatry teaching modules, or felt more involved in the teaching of the subject. Poor evaluation of medical school psychiatric education significantly increased the likelihood of not choosing psychiatry as a future career. The choice of psychiatry was also predicted by attitudes towards psychiatry and by personal characteristics. In conclusion, student ratings of medical school psychiatric education and involvement in teaching appear to influence choice towards psychiatry. Addressing these issues may increase the number of students motivated to pursue psychiatry as their future career choice. PMID:24032504

  10. The tectonic evolution of a critical segment of the Dinarides-Alps connection: Kinematic and geochronological inferences from the Medvednica Mountains, NE Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelder, I. E.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Tomljenović, B.; Andriessen, P. A. M.; Ducea, M. N.; Beniest, A.; Gruić, A.

    2015-09-01

    The transition zone between the Alps and Dinarides is a key area to investigate kinematic interactions of neighboring orogens with different subduction polarities. A study combining field kinematic and sedimentary data, microstructural observations, thermochronological data (Rb-Sr and fission track), and regional structures in the area of Medvednica Mountains has revealed a complex polyphase tectonic evolution. We document two novel stages of extensional exhumation. The first stage of extension took place along a Late Cretaceous detachment following the late Early Cretaceous nappe stacking, burial, and greenschist facies metamorphism. Two other shortening events that occurred during the latest Cretaceous-Oligocene were followed by a second event of extensional exhumation, characterized by asymmetric top-NE extension during the Miocene. Top-NW thrusting took place subsequently during the Pliocene inversion of the Pannonian Basin. The Cretaceous nappe burial, Late Cretaceous extension, and the Oligocene(-Earliest Miocene) contraction are events driven by the Alps evolution. In contrast, the latest Cretaceous-Eocene deformation reflects phases of Dinaridic contraction. Furthermore, the Miocene extension and subsequent inversion display kinematics similar with observations elsewhere in the Dinarides and Eastern Alps. All these processes demonstrate that the Medvednica Mountains were affected by Alpine phases of deformations to a much higher degree than previously thought. Similarly with what has been observed in other areas of contractional polarity changes, such as the Mediterranean, Black Sea, or New Guinea systems, the respective tectonic events are triggered by rheological weak zones which are critical for localizing the deformation created by both orogens.

  11. Endogean and cavernicolous Coleoptera of the Balkans. XVII. A new species of the genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae, Pterostichini) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013). PMID:27615918

  12. Identification and mapping of radon-prone areas in Croatia-preliminary results for Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties.

    PubMed

    Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Stanić, Denis; Poje, Marina; Krpan, Ivana; Mužević, Matko; Petrinec, Branko; Vuković, Branko

    2014-11-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements performed by LR 115 track etched detectors in Croatian homes during 2003-04 showed that the arithmetic means of radon concentrations in Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties were three times higher (198 Bq m(-3)) than in houses at national level (68 Bq m(-3)). Recently, indoor radon measurements in randomly selected houses were investigated. The obtained values in these new measurements have confirmed the values obtained 10 y ago (the average radon value in 225 investigated houses in this area is 223 Bq m(-3)). Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured in September and October 2012 and 2013 with the AlphaGUARD measuring system. Areas with both elevated indoor radon levels and radon in soil gas were identified (some micro locations in Korenica, Ličko Lešće, Generalski Stol, Slunj and Ogulin) and visually presented in the form of maps using the inverse distance weighting approach. PMID:24993009

  13. Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) in the analysis of historical landslide occurred in 1885 in the Rječina River Valley, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugonjić Jovančević, Sanja; Peranić, Josip; Ružić, Igor; Arbanas, Željko; Kalajžić, Duje; Benac, Čedomir

    2016-04-01

    Numerous instability phenomena have been recorded in the Rječina River Valley, near the City of Rijeka, in the past 250 years. Large landslides triggered by rainfall and floods, were registered on both sides of the Valley. Landslide inventory in the Valley was established based on recorded historical events and LiDAR imagery. The Rječina River is a typical karstic river 18.7km long, originating from the Gorski Kotar Mountains. The central part of the Valley, belongs to the dominant morphostructural unit that strikes in the northwest-southeast direction along the Rječina River. Karstified limestone rock mass is visible on the top of the slopes, while the flysch rock mass is present on the lower slopes and at the bottom of the Valley. Different types of movements can be distinguished in the area, such as the sliding of slope deposits over the flysch bedrock, rockfalls from limestone cliffs, sliding of huge rocky blocks, and active landslide on the north-eastern slope. The paper presents investigation of the dormant landslide located on the south-western slope of the Valley, which was recorded in 1870 in numerous historical descriptions. Due to intense and long-term rainfall, the landslide was reactivated in 1885, destroying and damaging houses in the eastern part of the Grohovo Village. To predict possible reactivation of the dormant landslide on the south-western side of the Valley, 2D stability back analyses were performed on the basis of landslide features, in order to approximate the position of sliding surface and landslide dimensions. The landslide topography is very steep, and the slope is covered by unstable debris material, so therefore hard to perform any terrestrial geodetic survey. Consumer-grade DJI Phantom 2 Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) was used to provide the data about the present slope topography. The landslide 3D point cloud was derived from approximately 200 photographs taken with RPAS, using structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Images were processed using the online Autodesk service "ReCap". Ground control points (GCP) collected with Total Station are identified on photorealistic point cloud and used for geo-referencing. Cloud Compare software was used for the point cloud processing. This study compared georeferenced landslide point cloud delivered from images with data acquired from laser scanning. RAPS and SfM application produced high accuracy landslide 3D point cloud, characterized by safe and quick data acquisition. Based on the adopted rock mass strength parameters, obtained from the back analysis, a stability analysis of the present slope situation was performed, and the present stability of the landslide body is determined. The unfavourable conditions and possible triggering factors such as saturation of the slope, caused by heavy rain and earthquake, were included in the analyses what enabled estimation of future landslide hazard and risk.

  14. Ten-Year Trends in the Morbidity of Diabetes Mellitus and Antidiabetic Drug Utilization in Croatia: A Study Based on Routinely Collected Data

    PubMed Central

    Topličan, Ivančica; Vrcić Keglević, Mladenka

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate trends of diabetes mellitus (DM) morbidity and antidiabetic drug utilization in Croatian primary health care (PHC) from 2005 to 2014. Method. Routinely collected morbidity data from all PHC units, presented in Croatian health-statistics yearbooks, were retrieved. Data on drug utilization were retrieved from the Annual Reports of the Croatian Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (ATC/DDD, antidiabetic, A10). Results. Total morbidity increased by 33.3% and DM increased by 65.6%, mostly in patients over age 65 (from 50% to 57%). Estimated DM prevalence in adults increased from 3.9% to 6.4%. Increased morbidity was followed by an even higher increase in drug utilization (120%). Metformin was first, with a constant increase (from 18% to 39%), followed by glimepiride, while glibenclamide use decreased. Total utilization of insulin increased even more, mostly for aspart (600%) and newly introduced glargine and detemir, while human insulin usage sharply decreased. Spending also increased, mostly for aspart (from 21% to 61% of total). Conclusions. Increased DM is followed by a higher increase in antidiabetic drug utilization; this trend will continue in the future. In Croatian PHC, metformin has primacy along with insulin analogues. PMID:27462470

  15. Leisure boating noise as a trigger for the displacement of the bottlenose dolphins of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Rako, Nikolina; Fortuna, Caterina Maria; Holcer, Draško; Mackelworth, Peter; Nimak-Wood, Maja; Pleslić, Grgur; Sebastianutto, Linda; Vilibić, Ivica; Wiemann, Annika; Picciulin, Marta

    2013-03-15

    The waters of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago are subject to intense boat traffic related to the high number of leisure boats frequenting this area during the summer tourist season. Boat noise dominates the acoustic environment of the local bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population. This study investigates the spatial and temporal change in the underwater noise levels due to intense boating, and its effect on the distribution of the bottlenose dolphins. In the period 2007-2009 sea ambient noise (SAN) was sampled across ten acoustic stations. During data collection the presence of leisure boats was recorded if they were within 2 km of the sampling station. Bottlenose dolphin spatial distribution was monitored in the same period. Results showed a strong positive correlation between high SAN levels and boat presence, particularly in the tourist season. Dolphin distribution indicated significant seasonal displacements from noisy areas characterized by the intense leisure boating. PMID:23324542

  16. The CroHort study: cardiovascular behavioral risk factors in adults, school children and adolescents, hospitalized coronary heart disease patients, and cardio rehabilitation groups in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Sanja Musić; Uhernik, Ana Ivicević; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Brborović, Ognjen; Poljicanin, Tamara; Fister, Kristina; Juresa, Vesna; Heim, Inge; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Bergovec, Mijo; Kern, Josipa; Vuletić, Silvije

    2012-01-01

    Based on repeated measurement of health behaviors the CroHort Study showed that health behavior explains a great deal more of class inequalities in mortality than observed in previous studies. These include decreasing prevalence of smoking and increase in obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The lowest prevalence of health risks was recorded among children and adolescents, followed by general adult population from the CroHort Study. Hospitalized coronary heart disease patients had higher risks prevalence than general population, while the highest prevalence of risks was recorded among patients in cardiac rehabilitation program. The higher levels of stress were associated to lower financial conditions, poorer social functioning and poorer mental health for both men and women. Higher levels of stress were also associated with heart problems, higher alcohol consumption in men while in women stress was associated to poorer general health, higher age and lower levels of education. PMID:22338783

  17. Total assemblages of benthic foraminifera from a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; preliminary results from the bays of Soline and Nin (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidović, J.; Ćosović, V.; Juračić, M.; Benac, Č.

    2012-04-01

    Eastern Adriatic shelf is mixed siliciclastic/carbonate area with a great proportion of carbonate biogenous production. This study presents analysis and comparison of total benthic foraminiferal assemblages (their composition, diversity and distribution) in surface sediments from two Eastern Adriatic shallow water bays (Soline and Nin Bay), sampled seasonally from 2006 to 2008. In order to characterize the carbonate sediment production, 62 samples along the bathymetric profiles (from 2 to 20 m) were collected by scuba diving with short PVC corers. Granulometrical analysis was done using method of wet sieving. Statistical analyses (cluster analysis, PCA) were performed using Past program. The most abundant biogenous components in different sediments from Soline Bay (muddy sandy gravel and mud) are foraminifera, followed by fragments of mollusks, gastropods, bryozoans and sea urchins. Foraminiferal assemblages are high diversified as confirmed by Shannon-Wiener index varying from 2.14 to 3.39, Fisher α index from 5.74 to 16.30 and Equitability from 0.32 to 0.72. The shallowest part of the bay is covered with the sand, consisted of high proportion of siliciclastic component and impoverished in biogenous remnants. Foraminiferal assemblages have low diversity (Shannon-Wiener index 1.36, Fisher α index 2.31 and Equitability 0.32). Throughout Nin Bay, sediments (classified as sand, muddy sand and mud) are consisted of various biogenic remnants. Foraminiferal assemblages have high biodiversity, with Shannon-Wiener index varying from 2.51 to 3.20, α-Fisher index from 7.84 to 12.64 and Equitability from 0.37 to 0.77. Statistical analyses (cluster analysis and PCA) grouped foraminifera in two major assemblages, related to sediment type. On sandy and gravely substrates, assemblage is dominated by epifaunal genera and species: Quinqueloculina sp. (6-20%), Elphidium sp. (5-16%), Neoconorbina terquemi (6-10 %) and Asterigerinata mamilla (5-7%). Infaunal species, Ammonia beccarii (5-16%), Ammonia inflata (5-36%), Ammonia tepida (6-38%) and genus Haynesina sp. (6-31%) dominate assemblages in muddy sediments. The only reworked species Aubignyna planidorso is found in the shallowest part of Soline Bay, making 20 to 65% of the assemblage.

  18. Ten-Year Trends in the Morbidity of Diabetes Mellitus and Antidiabetic Drug Utilization in Croatia: A Study Based on Routinely Collected Data.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Renata; Topličan, Ivančica; Vrcić Keglević, Mladenka

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate trends of diabetes mellitus (DM) morbidity and antidiabetic drug utilization in Croatian primary health care (PHC) from 2005 to 2014. Method. Routinely collected morbidity data from all PHC units, presented in Croatian health-statistics yearbooks, were retrieved. Data on drug utilization were retrieved from the Annual Reports of the Croatian Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (ATC/DDD, antidiabetic, A10). Results. Total morbidity increased by 33.3% and DM increased by 65.6%, mostly in patients over age 65 (from 50% to 57%). Estimated DM prevalence in adults increased from 3.9% to 6.4%. Increased morbidity was followed by an even higher increase in drug utilization (120%). Metformin was first, with a constant increase (from 18% to 39%), followed by glimepiride, while glibenclamide use decreased. Total utilization of insulin increased even more, mostly for aspart (600%) and newly introduced glargine and detemir, while human insulin usage sharply decreased. Spending also increased, mostly for aspart (from 21% to 61% of total). Conclusions. Increased DM is followed by a higher increase in antidiabetic drug utilization; this trend will continue in the future. In Croatian PHC, metformin has primacy along with insulin analogues. PMID:27462470

  19. Correlation among skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests in atopic patients from Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Lipozencić, Jasna; Zizić, Vesna; Milavec, Dinko

    2004-01-01

    The correlation of pollen allergens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and animal dender was assessed during a two-year period. Results of skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests were compared in atopic patients (AP) with the following diagnoses: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic bronchitis or asthma, allergic urticaria and angioedema. The study included total and specific IgE (in vitro) tests to allergen mixtures (grass, tree, weed) or to single allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), cat and dog fur, feather, etc. Comparison of skin prick test with total and specific IgE UniCAP immunoassay was done in 173 patients, i.e. 107 female and 66 male atopic patients aged 9-76 years. Allergies were most commonly recorded in the 25-35 age group. Total IgE ranged from 8.63 kU/l to >4000 kU/l, with specific IgE ranging from class 1 to class 5. Skin prick test showed high correlation with specific IgE for grass and weed pollen in patients with repiratory allergy (50.28%). Good correlation among all three tests was quite frequently observed. The results suggest that the study should be continued using these three tests in further cases of atopic dermatitis. PMID:15588558

  20. Realization of the Temperature Scale in the Range from 234.3 K (Hg Triple Point) to 1084.62°C (Cu Freezing Point) in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvizdic, Davor; Veliki, Tomislav; Grgec Bermanec, Lovorka

    2008-06-01

    This article describes the realization of the International Temperature Scale in the range from 234.3 K (mercury triple point) to 1084.62°C (copper freezing point) at the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FSB), University of Zagreb. The system for the realization of the ITS-90 consists of the sealed fixed-point cells (mercury triple point, water triple point and gallium melting point) and the apparatus designed for the optimal realization of open fixed-point cells which include the gallium melting point, tin freezing point, zinc freezing point, aluminum freezing point, and copper freezing point. The maintenance of the open fixed-point cells is described, including the system for filling the cells with pure argon and for maintaining the pressure during the realization.

  1. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning of discrete samples: Examples from the loess-paleosol sequence on the Island of Susak, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profe, Jörn; Wacha, Lara; Frechen, Manfred; Rolf, Christian; Brlek, Mihovil; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are recognized as valuable terrestrial environmental archives. Although LPS provide discontinuous archives, high-resolution sampling and analyzing strategies are required for a sound reconstruction of past environmental conditions. Up to now, proxies such as grain size, rock magnetic properties and calcium-carbonate content are commonly investigated at the centimeter scale, whereas the elemental as well as the mineralogical compositions are analyzed at a much coarser resolution, e.g. with 10 cm intervals or once for every lithological unit. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning of discrete powdered and homogenized samples is a new application of the XRF core-scanner technology providing a tool for fast and non-destructive qualitative measurement of the elemental composition along LPS. Tracking relative changes of the elemental distribution at the centimeter scale is considered as an important supplement to existing methods applied to LPS in order to gain a more detailed knowledge about weathering, dust provenance and sedimentation dynamics. The island of Susak, situated in the north-eastern Adriatic Sea, represents an exceptional site with Pleistocene aeolian sediments of up to 90 m thickness covering at least the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The studied sub-profiles are part of loess cliffs located directly on the coast of Susak (Bok-Bay). Therefore, this record qualifies as a test candidate for benchmarking XRF scanning of discrete samples against magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon and lithological data. The following elements are studied as proxies for weathering (K, Ca, Sr, Rb), for dust provenance (Al, Si, Ti, Zr) and for organic matter (S, Br). In addition, Fe is directly linked to magnetic susceptibility. First results indicate a general agreement between lithologically identified paleosols and element weathering indices. Fe is predominantly positively correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The Ti/Zr-ratio points to a dust provenance change along the profile, albeit other parameters such as grain size variations possibly influencing this ratio need further investigations. S and Br show no correlation with total sulphur and total organic carbon percentages that have been determined with a CNS analyzer. Consequently, S and Br are not suited as proxies for organic matter at Susak. Instead, exceptional high Br and Cl contents are obtained for the top of a paleosol located very close to the Adriatic Sea. Therefore, we hypothesize that Br and Cl variations at Susak are strongly influenced by the proximity to marine water. These initial results demonstrate the benefits of XRF scanning of discrete samples for the geochemical characterization of LPS opening up the possibility for more sophisticated LPS-based environmental reconstructions.

  2. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species ( A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature ( r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species ( A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  3. Factors influencing intensive care nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding ventilator-associated pneumonia and oral care practice in intubated patients in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Ante; Badovinac, Ana; Spalj, Stjepan; Par, Matej; Slaj, Martina; Plančak, Darije

    2014-10-01

    Adequate oral care in intubated patients may reduce occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, and oral care practice in Croatian intensive care units and influencing factors. Nurses' knowledge is insufficient; however, most of them reported positive attitude toward the importance of oral care. Performed oral hygiene measures are mostly inappropriate. There is a need to improve the knowledge of ventilator-associated pneumonia and oral care. PMID:25278406

  4. Microtectonic-assisted P-T determination on low-grade Alpine metamorphic rocks from the "Tisia Mega-Unit" of the Slavonian Mountains in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balen, Dražen; Lihter, Iva; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The internal structure of the Tisia (Tisza) Mega-Unit in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system encompasses large Alpine nappe systems brought to its present-day position by complex regional-scale movements. The Slavonian Mountains are part of the Bihor nappe system which is below the Codru and above the Mecsek nappe systems. The low-grade metamorphic schist unit of the Slavonian Mountains includes numerous rocks which were previously related to Precambrian and/or Lower Paleozoic orogeneses. However, recent studies (e.g. Balen, 2014, European Geosciences Union General Assembly, EGU 2014-6122) show that the metapelites of this unit should be attributed to the Alpine orogeny and the poorly known P-T conditions, which they experienced, should be refined. Although metapelites can be sensitive to changes of metamorphic conditions and, therefore, be suitable for the P-T estimation of metamorphic event(s), the extraction of mineral assemblages, being in equilibrium, and associated microtectonic data for particular low-grade metamorphic rocks is not straightforward. On the contrary, due to lack of suitable minerals and complex mictotectonic features, one can be faced with a severe problem concerning (dis)equilibrium. To avoid this, the observation scale in the research was set to the sub-mm level taking into account microtectonic positions of minerals. The investigated samples from the Slavonian Mountains are fine-grained schists consisting of chlorite (15-30 vol. %), white mica (15-25 vol. %), quartz (10-25 vol. %), feldspars (albite 10-15 vol. %; some K-feldspar), biotite (<5 vol. %), opaques (<5 vol. %), and accessory minerals (zircon, monazite, xenotime, apatite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, barite, parisite-(Ce), rutile). The schists show complex microtectonic fabric including well-developed foliations, pervasive folding, crenulation and cleavage. Foliations are defined by the preferred orientation of phyllosilicates and thin quartz and feldspar ribbons. Chlorite and white mica oriented along the S1 foliation are up to 50 μm long grains whereas those oriented along the S2 foliation are as large as 500 μm. Chlorite is ripidolite; potassic white mica is muscovite to phengite. Both minerals show a systematic variation in chemical composition such as higher Si contents in white mica and lower XFe in chlorite of the S1 assemblage compared to the S2 assemblage. The application of classical chlorite thermometers, based on Si, Al, Fe, and Mg contents of chlorite, and phengite gave P-T conditions of 325-350 °C around 4.6 kbar and 315-330 °C around 3.8 kbar for the S1 and S2 minerals, respectively. Constructions of pseudosections in the system MnNCKFMASHTO with PERPLEX confirmed these P-T ranges yielding 3.1-4.7 kbar and 300-360 °C based on intersections of XFe (chlorite) and Si (phengite) isopleths. The P-T range is in accordance with the critical reaction chlorite + K-feldspar = biotite + K-white mica in the presence of quartz and H2O. The presented refinement of the P-T data for the studied metapelites combined with two sets of known monazite ages (113±20 and 82±23 Ma; Balen, 2014) has a significance in clarifying details of the geodynamic evolution during the Alpine orogeny. Financial support by the Croatian Science Foundation (IP-2014-09-9541) and T. Theye's help during microprobe work is greatly acknowledged.

  5. 78 FR 70475 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-71; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). Croatia joined the European Union on July 1, 2013, which is a party to the WTO GPA. Therefore, this rule adds Croatia to the list of WTO GPA countries wherever it appears in...

  6. 73 FR 68411 - Notice and call for applications for the Environmental and Clean Energy Technologies Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-11-18

    ... Technologies Trade Mission to Croatia, Italy, and Greece, March 30 to April 5, 2009 AGENCY: International Trade... Energy Technologies Trade Mission to Croatia, Italy, and Greece, March 30 to April 5, 2009. Mission... Zagreb, Croatia; Milan, Italy; and Athens, Greece, from March 30 to April 4, 2009. All three fast...

  7. 74 FR 8503 - Notice and Call for Applications for the Environmental and Clean Energy Technologies Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-02-25

    ... Technologies Trade Mission to Croatia, Italy, and Greece, March 30 to April 4, 2009 AGENCY: International Trade... Energy Technologies Trade Mission to Croatia, Italy, and Greece, March 30 to April 4, 2009. Mission... Zagreb, Croatia; Milan, Italy; and Athens, Greece, from March 30 to April 4, 2009. All three fast...

  8. Palaeomagnetism and rock magnetism of the Permian redbeds from the Velebit Mt. (Karst Dinarides, Croatia): dating of the early Alpine tectonics in the Western Dinarides by a secondary magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Tomasz; Lewandowski, Marek; Vlahović, Igor; Velić, Ivo; Sidorczuk, Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    The studied area of the Velebit Mt., a part of the Adria microplate, belonged to a NE margin of Gondwana during the Carboniferous and Permian. While the Carboniferous to the Early Permian was characterised by deposition of clastic rocks, younger sedimentation was dominated by a thick sequence of carbonate rocks. The Lower Permian deposits of the core part of the Velebit Mt. at Košna and Crne Grede localities were investigated using palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements. The main remanence carriers were recognized as haematite with an increasing contribution of SP/SD magnetite in younger subsections. The AMS fabric with low anisotropy ratio (1-3%) is strongly oblate at Košna and weakly prolate at Crne Grede, reflecting differences in the contribution of magnetic phases. A significant remagnetization of the Permian rocks, as proved by results of a conglomerate test, probably caused by a combination of elevated temperatures and fluid migration, may be assigned to burial-related processes that affected the rocks before the final uplift of the Dinarides. Characteristic remanent magnetizations recorded in haematite are apparently similar to the Permian direction for Africa (shallow inclination with NNW declination), as expected for Velebit Mt. coordinates. Paradoxically, this orientation is observed in situ within the almost vertically dipping beds. We explain this relationship assuming a syn-folding Cretaceous remagnetization of the rocks at their subhorizontal position (ca. 30°S), in which a mean vector of the secondary remanence overlaps with the Cretaceous direction, expected for Africa at the Velebit Mt. geographical coordinates. Consequently, our results indirectly point to the Cretaceous time of incipient stages of the Dinaric tectonism, and suggest African geotectonic affinity of the Velebit rocks. No important vertical-axis rotation is implied by our results, in contrast to previously published data. The puzzling complete remagnetization carried by haematite at relatively low-to-moderate temperatures is also discussed.

  9. Elements of Teacher Communication Competence: An Examination of Skills and Knowledge to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakic-Tomic, Ljubica; Dvorski, Jasmina; Kirinic, Anamarija

    2015-01-01

    In Croatia, a radical change appeared in education in 1995. The Ministry of Education and Science of Croatia approved and funded the research project entitled "Information and communication competences of educators" that consisted of two parts: theoretical, study of the available literature on the communication competence of teachers in…

  10. 78 FR 70482 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-71; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). Croatia joined the European Union on July 1, 2013, which is a party to the WTO GPA. Therefore, this rule adds Croatia to the list of WTO GPA countries wherever it appears in the FAR, whether as a separate definition, part of...

  11. Intercultural Education: Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific Conference=Obrazovanje za interkulturalizam: Zbornik radova S.2 Medunarodne znanstvene konferencije

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peko, Andelka, Ed.; Sablic, Marija, Ed.; Jindra, Ranka, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The democratic changes that occurred in Croatia within last two decades are oriented towards European values and multi-intercultural perspectives. Let us remember that, according to the census from 1991, Croatia was inhabited with people from 27 nations, with Croats being a majority. During the Homeland war, basically a defensive war against the…

  12. Potential mechanisms to increase shrub intake and performance of small ruminants in Mediterranean shrubby ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrubby vegetation types called “maquis” and “garrigue” are widespread throughout the Mediterranean Basin, including the Adriatic littoral of Croatia. In Croatia and elsewhere, these shrublands represent traditional grazing areas and are a significant source of forage for small ruminants, particular...

  13. 31 CFR 585.312 - Government of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND... Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina or Macedonia, or in the name of any political subdivision, agency,...

  14. Sarcopenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bosnia and Herzegovina - Brazil - Bulgaria - Cameroon - Canada - Chile - China - Colombia - Costa Rica - Croatia - Cuba - Cyprus - Czech Republic - ... significant risk factor for disability in the aging population 4 . When patients suffer from both sarcopenia and ...

  15. International Osteoporosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bosnia and Herzegovina - Brazil - Bulgaria - Cameroon - Canada - Chile - China - Colombia - Costa Rica - Croatia - Cuba - Cyprus - Czech Republic - ... warn of osteoporosis threat to Asia’s growing elderly population New drugs may help increase muscle strength and ...

  16. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zadar].

    PubMed

    Maštrović, Zelimir

    2014-01-01

    Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zadar was founded on 11 October 1947. During the war time in Croatia doctors and local medical community took tremendous part in organizing health care system. PMID:25648014

  17. Calcium Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Croatia - Cuba - Cyprus - Czech Republic - Denmark - Dominican Republic - Ecuador - Egypt - Estonia - Finland - France - Georgia - Germany - Greece - Guatemala - ... Advisors Regional Representation Vision, Mission & Goals Annual Report History Find a Local Society Contact Us Partners What ...

  18. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  19. Genetic monitoring of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations on a microgeographic scale.

    PubMed

    Ivkosic, S A; Gorman, J; Lemic, D; Mikac, K M

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA genetic monitoring of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was undertaken in Croatia and Serbia from 1996 to 2011 and in the United States in 2011. The seven U.S. populations displayed the greatest allelic diversity. In Europe, the highest number of alleles was found in Rugvica, Croatia, and Surčin, Serbia, the two sites closest to international airports. The highest number of mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes was recorded from Croatia in 1996. From 2009 to 2011, haplotype diversity declined, and Croatia and Serbia had a single fixed haplotype. U.S. continuous maize locations had one haplotype, while three haplotypes were found at crop-rotated locations. Minimal temporal genetic differentiation was found within and between populations in Europe and the United States. Bayesian cluster analysis identified two genetic clusters that grouped western corn rootworm from Croatia and Serbia separately from U.S. populations; however, these clusters were not neat, and numerous U.S. individuals had both European and U.S. ancestry, suggesting bidirectional gene flow. Bottlenecks were identified within most Croatian populations sampled in 1996, only two populations in 2009, and in all populations in 2011. Bottlenecks were not identified from Serbia from 1996 to 2011 or from the United States in 2011. As suspected Serbia was identified as the geographic source of western corn rootworm in Croatia. The temporal genetic monitoring undertaken allowed a deeper understanding of the population genetics of western corn rootworm in Croatia, neighboring Serbia, and its geographic source in the United States. The data obtained can be used to inform western corn rootworm pest management strategies in Croatia and Europe. PMID:24690224

  20. Understanding Ustasa violence.

    PubMed

    Korb, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The Independent State of Croatia (1941-1945) was a multi-ethnic entity in which a range of political and military powers cooperated with and fought against one another. No less complicated were the ruling Ustaa movement and its relationship with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The persecution of the Serbs, the Jews, and the Roma in the Independent State of Croatia was marked by differences and similarities, which were reflected the decision-making process within the Ustaa leadership. Over time, this mass violence (and Ustaa decisions) moderated due to a variety of factors: the interethnic civil war, victim reactions, local factors, and the harvest. The Italians and Germans, however, also played a role in the persecution of the Serbs, Jews, and Roma in Croatia. Simplifying narratives of the Ustaa as marginal collaborationists and state-centered concepts of genocide are inadequate when it comes to explaining Ustaa violence. PMID:20941879

  1. 22nd International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radović, Iva Bogdanović; Jakšić, Milko; Fazinić, Stjepko

    2016-03-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA 2015). The conference was held in Grand Hotel 4 Opatijska Cvijeta in Opatija, Croatia, between 14th and 19th June 2015. Opatija, one of the Croatia's most famous touristic destinations, often called the pearl of the Adriatic, is celebrating this year 170 years of tourism. During the past, kings and emperors, writers, philosophers, poets and composers, but also scientists, used to stay in the town mainly built at the turn of the 20th century.

  2. New European commission regulation on variations to the terms of marketing authorization for medicinal products and its impact on Croatian legislation.

    PubMed

    Martinac, Adrijana Ilić; Tomić, Sinisa; Simicić, Mirna

    2010-09-01

    Variations introduced to medicinal product documentation must not affect the quality, efficacy, and safety of the product. Croatian Medicinal Products Act and accompanying ordinances are largely aligned with the EU regulations. The EU has now tried to simplify the issue of variations with a new Regulation, creating differences in the definition of and approach to resolving certain types of variations between Croatia and the EU. These differences could hinder the approval procedure for variations in Croatia, particularly for medicines already approved in the EU. Amending the Croatian Ordinance on medicines already authorised in the EU would be one way of maintaining the efficiency of the Croatian regulatory system. PMID:20860972

  3. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  4. Social Phenomenon of Community on Online Learning: Digital Interaction and Collaborative Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela; Magzan, Masha; Juric, Visnja

    2009-01-01

    Digital interaction in e-learning offers great opportunities for education quality improvement in both--the classical teaching combined with e-learning, and distance learning. Zagreb School of Economics & Management (ZSEM) is one of the few higher education institutions in Croatia that systematically uses e-learning in teaching. Systematically…

  5. Review on Resistance Breeding Options Targeting Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. This review intends to present the part of the EU funded Project FP6, SSA: DIABR-ACT: Harmonise the strategies for fighting Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, Croatia, coordinated the part of the DIABR-ACT project concerning “resistance breeding” and reveal the lat...

  6. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e., normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16- to 24-year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania (n=1200) was conducted in March ...

  7. Distance Learning: Practice and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Sehanovic, Jusuf; Ruzic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the European processes of integrated and homogeneous education, the paper presents the essential viewpoints and questions covering the establishment and development of "distance learning" (DL) in Republic of Croatia. It starts from the advantages of distance learning versus traditional education taking into account some…

  8. Outreach to International Campuses: Removing Barriers and Building Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mee, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), located in western New York, strives to deliver the same quality library services to its students and faculty located across the globe as those living in the Rochester area. In addition to an array of distance courses and online programs, RIT also has international campuses located in Kosovo, Croatia,…

  9. 75 FR 1020 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) Based Upon the Accession of Albania and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 738 RIN 0694-AE62 Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) Based Upon the Accession of Albania and Croatia to Formal Membership in the North...

  10. Using the Copenhagen Process to Facilitate National Qualification Framework Strategies in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Bride, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a perspective on the implications of the Lisbon Process for education and training in a selected group of partner countries of the European Union -- the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro). It presents the reflections of a…

  11. Cancer of the lung, pleura, larynx and pharynx in an area with an asbestos-cement plant.

    PubMed

    Curin, K; Sarić, M

    1995-09-01

    Data on persons who died of cancer of the respiratory tract and pharynx in a Croatian coastal area with an asbestos-cement industry were collected and analysed for the period 1970-1990. Cancer mortality data were obtained from the Cancer Registry of Croatia. By the poll method, additional data on occupation, life style (smoking, alcohol drinking), length of residence in the area, educational level and cancer mortality among the relatives were obtained. The results of the investigation showed that the mortality rates for the lung, larynx and pharynx cancers, standardized according to age, were lower in the study area than expected (data for Croatia). Standardized mortality rates for mesothelioma were higher in the area under study for both sexes (except for women in the rural part of the area) than in Croatia. Within the study area the highest mortality rates for follow-up cancers were registered in the settlement where the asbestos-cement plant was located. Some settlements in two municipalities within the area also had higher mortality rates caused by these tumours in comparison with the rest of the study area or Croatia as a whole. In the evaluation of the obtained findings possible uneven distribution of emissions from the asbestos-cement plant caused by prevailing wind and air stream direction were considered. PMID:8645115

  12. Non-Profit Child Care: A Powerful Worldwide Movement. An Exchange International Trend Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Examines nonprofit child care in the United States and its role in various other nations. Focuses on the legal status of various types of for-profit and nonprofit U.S. centers and centers in Canada, Russia, Namibia, Malaysia, Sweden, Uruguay, Croatia, Japan, Australia, Hungary, Kenya, Singapore, Lithuania, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. (KB)

  13. A Comparative Study of Croatian and Hungarian EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaljevic Djigunovic, Jelena; Nikolov, Marianne; Otto, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This comparative research aims to provide insights into how Croatian and Hungarian 8th graders' proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL) compares to one another in relation to organizational macro factors. A total of 717 14-year-old students participated in the study in two neighboring regions and towns of Croatia and Hungary examining…

  14. The Influence of Integrative Gestalt Therapy on Acquisition of Daily Life Skills and Habits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zic, Anamarija; And Others

    This study evaluated the effects of Integrative Gestalt Therapy on the intellectual aspects of social competence in 13 children, ages 7 to 11, living in Zagreb, Croatia. These children had intellectual disabilities (IQ 54 to 84) as well as psychological and/or behavior problems. Integrative Gestalt Therapy emphasizes the wholeness of a person's…

  15. The Vision of Readiness of Teacher Training Colleges for Accepting New Educational Technologies and Models on the Way to Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatkovic, Nevenka

    2005-01-01

    On the way to enter the European educational space, the Croatian higher educational system attempts to come to terms with the conclusions of the Bologna Declaration and undertake the reform of the higher education of the Republic of Croatia and introduce the ECTS points- system. Intensive activities in connection with the making of the new…

  16. Founding of Compulsory Civil Education According to the Education Acts from Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Records of education in Croatia occur very soon after the settlement of Croats in this area. It is tied to 9th century and Duke Trpimir. Initial steps of education were not legally bounded nor the school was obligatory. In the second half of the 19th century, more precisely in 1871, with the First Education Act education becomes obligatory. Using…

  17. Who Are the Supporters of Croatian Membership in the European Union and NATO? Predictive Value of Personal and National Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babarovic, Toni; Burusic, Lidija Cilic; Burusic, Josip

    2011-01-01

    Like many other Central and Eastern European countries Croatia has passed through substantial political changes and transition processes from state to liberal market economy in the last two decades. The next important step is accession to EU and NATO, and public opinion about joining these associations is divided. The aim of this study is to…

  18. Stocktaking Research on Policies for Education for Democratic Citizenship and Management of Diversity in Southeast Europe. Regional Analysis and Intervention Proposals. Regional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cameron; Baumgartl, Bernd

    This report is a contribution to the Stocktaking Research Project on national government policies within the field of education for Education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC) and the Management of Diversity (MofD) in the countries of South East Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia). The…

  19. Teachers' Attitudes toward the Integration of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kis-Glavas, Lelia; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of 194 teachers in 17 regular primary schools in the city of Zagreb (Croatia) and the surrounding area about the integration of children with intellectual or other developmental disabilities. In addition to providing demographic data, the teachers completed a 21-item questionnaire with questions that addressed:…

  20. Partially Specified Physics Problems: University Students' Attitudes and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marusic, M.; Erceg, N.; Slisko, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research we asked the fourth year students (N = 50) of a technical faculty of the University of Split (Republic of Croatia) to solve a partially specified physics problem related to gravitational force. The task for the students was to decide whether the situation described in the problem is feasible or not. Nevertheless, the formulation…

  1. Comprehension Monitoring and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

    2007-01-01

    This study explored comprehension monitoring, use of reading strategies and reading comprehension of bilingual students at different levels of perceived proficiency in Italian. The participants were bilingual fifth to eighth-grade elementary school students from four Italian schools in Rijeka, Croatia. Students' reading comprehension was assessed.…

  2. Age Differences in Personality Across the Adult Life Span: Parallels in Five Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Administered translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to adults in Germany, Italy, Portugal, Croatia, and South Korea. Found declines in neuroticism, extraversion and openness, and increases in agreeableness and conscientiousness age for both men and women. Results support hypothesis that age differences reflect universal maturational…

  3. Unemployed People in Search of a Job: Reconsidering the Role of Search Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sverko, Branimir; Galic, Zvonimir; Sersic, Darja Maslic; Galesic, Mirta

    2008-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study of unemployed persons in Croatia was used to examine the antecedents of job-seeking behavior and reemployment. A series of demographic, motivational and job-constraint variables were posited to influence job-seeking behavior, which, in turn, was hypothesized to affect (re)employment. The participants were surveyed…

  4. Qualifications at Level 5: Progressing in a Career or to Higher Education. Working Paper No 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grm, Slava Pevec; Bjørnåvold, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses qualifications at level 5 of the European qualifications framework (EQF) in 15 countries (Belgium (Flanders), the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Ireland, France, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, the United Kingdom (EWNI and Scotland) that had linked their national…

  5. Cross National Study on Pre-Service Elementary and Science Teachers' Opinions on Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šorgo, Andrej; Pipenbaher, Nataša; Šašic, Slavica Šimic; Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan; Golob, Nika; Erdogan, Mehmet; Tomažic, Iztok; Bilek, Martin; Fancovicova, Jana; Lamanauskas, Vincentas; Usak, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Cross national study on opinions on science teaching was revealed on a sample of 1799 (596 males, 1203 females) pre-service elementary and science teachers' enrolled in various departments at selected universities in Croatia, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey. Three factors explaining 43.4% of variance were extracted from a…

  6. Initiating Teachers' Action Research: Empowering Teachers' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The role of a teacher as an action researcher in Croatia is still insufficiently appreciated and promoted in initial teachers' training, school students learning and in the employed teachers' professional post-qualification development. In this country, teachers are most frequently perceived as mediators or technicians whose task is to…

  7. [Ciliary epithelium and topical decongestants: how to minimize the undesirable events?].

    PubMed

    Laberko, E L; Zlobina, N V; Radtsig, E Yu; Bogomil'sky, M R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the combination of 0.1% xylometazoline with seawater (Rinomaris, "Jadran", Croatia) on the state and functional activity of the ciliary epithelium of the nasal cavity. The results of the study confirm the safety of this treatment and the possibility of its application in routine clinical practice. PMID:25588494

  8. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  9. The Short-Run Effects of the Croatian War on Education, Employment, and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kecmanovic, Milica

    2013-01-01

    The recent war in Croatia (1991-1995) has had numerous adverse affects on the country and the economy as a whole. This article investigates the effect that the war had on the educational, employment, and earnings trajectories of the 1971 birth cohort of men. This birth cohort was very likely to be drafted into the armed forces. Using data from the…

  10. Developing Positive Attitude towards Science and Mathematics through Motivational Classroom Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Sanja; Zuvic-Butorac, Marta; Ledic, Jasminka; Milotic, Branka; Jurdana-Sepic, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a survey among school children aged 10 to 14 years, who participated in science or mathematics workshops. It particularly relates to their interest and motivation determined immediately after the workshop had finished. A total of 70 workshops were held in elementary schools of Rijeka, Croatia, involving the…

  11. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  12. Selective Archiving of Web Resources: A Study of Processing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Mirna; Buzina, Tanja; Holub, Karolina; Zajec, Jasenka; Milinovic, Miroslav; Topolscak, Nebojsa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess costs in the National and University Library of Croatia for processing Croatian web resources and the maintenance and development of the service, and to analyse the present organisation and workflow of their processing, and to propose improvements. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment period…

  13. Teacher Competence as a Basis for Teacher Education: Comparing Views of Teachers and Teacher Educators in Five Western Balkan Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Wubbels, Theo; Mainhard, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Orientation of teacher preparation toward the development of competence has recently been suggested as a worthwhile direction of change in teacher education in the Western Balkan countries. In this study, 2,354 teachers, teacher educators, and student teachers from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia responded to a…

  14. Dearth of Early Education Experience: A Significant Barrier to Educational and Social Inclusion in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovanovic, Suncica Macura; Kokic, Ivana Batarelo; Kristiansen, Selma Džemidžic; Gera, Ibolya; Ikonomi, Estevan; Kafedžic, Lejla; Milic, Tamara; Rexhaj, Xhavit; Spasovski, Ognen; Closs, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The article summarises the socio-political, cultural, economic and educational background to the Western Balkans region and outlines the wider qualitative research study that provided the data on early and pre-school educational opportunities in the seven countries involved; Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo (under United Nations…

  15. Make Books, Not War: Workshops at a Summer Camp in Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on a bookmaking project that was conducted with pre-adolescent Serbian and Bosnian girls at a summer camp outside Sarajevo, Bosnia in 2005. During this camp, children from Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia were brought together by the Global Children's Organisation to engage in a variety of activities, including conflict resolution,…

  16. Is There Anything Specific about Early School Leaving in Southeast Europe? A Review of Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugovic, Ivana; Doolan, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Studies on early school leaving (ESL) from countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia have been missing from the international early school leaving research map. As a contribution to remedying this, the article reviews research papers and strategic documents from these countries, guided by the general…

  17. Teachers for the Future: Teacher Development for Inclusive Education in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Closs, Alison; Ivosevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Teachers for the Future is a regional report that draws together and analyses research findings from a study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in seven countries in the Western Balkan region, namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. The overall…

  18. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  19. Teachers for the Future: Teacher Development for Inclusive Education in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Closs, Alison; Ivosevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Teachers for the Future is a regional report that draws together and analyses research findings from a study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in seven countries in the Western Balkans region, namely, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. The overall…

  20. 76 FR 36986 - Export Controls for High Performance Computers: Wassenaar Arrangement Agreement Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... a member of the regimes. Albania and Croatia are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty... been extended by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2010, 75 FR.... 12938, 59 FR 59099, 3 CFR, 1994 Comp., p. 950; E.O. 13020, 61 FR 54079, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 219;...