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Sample records for kastel gomilica croatia

  1. Croatia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF), established in 1993, is the sole insurer in the mandatory health insurance (MHI) system that provides universal health coverage to the whole population. The ownership of secondary health care facilities is distributed between the State and the counties. The financial position of public hospitals is weak and recent reforms were aimed at improving this. The introduction of concessions in 2009 (public private partnerships whereby county governments organize tenders for the provision of specific primary health care services) allowed the counties to play a more active role in the organization, coordination and management of primary health care; most primary care practices have been privatized. The proportion of GDP spent on health by the Croatian government remains relatively low compared to western Europe, as does the per capita health expenditure. Although the share of public expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure (THE) has been decreasing, at around 82% it is still relatively high, even by European standards. The main source of the CHIFs revenue is compulsory health insurance contributions, accounting for 76% of the total revenues of the CHIF, although only about a third of the population (active workers) is liable to pay full health care contributions. Although the breadth and scope

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  3. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  4. Venomous snakebites in southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Luksić, Boris; Bradarić, Nikola; Prgomet, Sandra

    2006-03-01

    This retrospective study is based on the analysis of 542 snakebite envenomation cases in southern Croatia, which were treated in the University Hospital Split over the period of 21 years. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of venomous snakebite in southern Croatia, epidemiological and clinical features of snakebite and treatment in the region. The mean annual snakebite incidence in southern Croatia was 5.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The nose- horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) was responsible for most bites, only a small proportion being inflicted by the adder (Vipera berus). People of all ages were affected (1 - 82 year old), but the bites were more frequent in individuals older than 50 (46% of the cases) and in children and adolescents 19 year old and younger (27% of the cases). Most snakebite accidents happened in warm spring and summer months, the highest number occurring in May (22%). A majority of the victims were rural people engaged in agricultural activities. Bites on the upper limbs were more frequent (57%) than bites on the lower limbs (42%). With regard to envenomation severity, there were 15.1% minor, 40.5% mild, 26% moderate and 18% severe cases. Two victims died (0.4%). The antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb was given to virtually all patients, and complications following its administration were rare. The antivenom was used more often than it was suggested by the symptoms present. PMID:16617597

  5. Food contamination monitoring in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Capak, K; Katalenić, M; Barisin, A

    2001-06-01

    The Croatian National Institute of Public Health Implements the statistical food safety monitoring programme for foods marketed in Croatia in accordance with effective laws and regulations. Laboratories for food safety control, certified by the Ministry of Health, report their findings in quarterly notifications, using the standard forms and issue statements of compliance or non-compliance with current regulations, specifying the cause in case of the latter. This paper brings the results for the period 1993-99 as an illustration of the monitoring programme. PMID:11370304

  6. General practice in Croatia, Yugoslavia

    PubMed Central

    Skupnjak, B.; Novosel, M.

    1976-01-01

    The position and importance of general practice in the Yugoslavian Health Service is being reviewed in a study of the working conditions, the composition and relationship of the primary health care team, the workload, and the opinions of the patients in Croatia, Yugoslavia. We found that many practices had barely half the recommended equipment, that the average workload was 40 patients a day, and that many general practitioners expected others to improve their organisation rather than undertaking it themselves. Those general-practitioner teams which we rated highly were also the most popular with patients. The job satisfaction of nurses varied and was highest when the doctors in the team did not have a high need for status for themselves. We consider general practice to be of crucial importance in the total system of health care in our country and believe that general practitioners should have the same status as specialists. PMID:1003392

  7. Human hydatidosis in Dalmatia, Croatia.

    PubMed Central

    Morović, M.

    1997-01-01

    Human echinococcosis remains a very serious public health problem worldwide, although a decline in incidence has been observed in some endemic areas during the last decades. However, in some non-endemic areas an increase in new cases and new foci of animal echinococcosis were registered during the same time. In Dalmatia, a well known endemic area of hydatidosis in the most Mediterranean part of Croatia, from the mid-1950s until present a decrease of incidence of over 70% has been registered. Age, sex and occupational category specific incidence as well as lethality rate have remained the same as before. Migrations from rural to urban regions seem to be the most important parameter in the changing epidemiology of human hydatidosis in Dalmatia. PMID:9363027

  8. An Energy Overview of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-17

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Croatia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  9. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  10. Problems with drugs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vrhovac, B

    1997-01-01

    Croatia has 4.8 million inhabitants, 11,800 physicians, 2000 pharmacists, two now shareholding, pharmaceutical companies (about 6500 employees, total sales of about 350 million US dollars). There are a number of problems due to the war (GNP fell from 3800 to about 1500 US dollars), occupation of 25% of its territory, 0.5 million refugees and lack of resources (139 US dollars/capita for health, about 40 US dollars i.e. 30%!! for drugs)--about three times less than before the aggression. The drug situation is controlled with the help of: (1) donations (approximate value of 600 million US dollars since 1991 from Europe and US), (2) (essential) drug formularies--250 for outpatients, and 580 generic names for various levels of hospital use, (3) special efforts to purchase drugs of good quality at a reasonable price (a kind of tender), (4) control of prescribing (prescriptions, specialists referral) especially by GPs. A new Medicines Act is in preparation and about 1000 generic names are on the market. DRUG EDUCATION: Pharmaca: the Croatian journal of pharmacotherapy has been published since 1962, there are several Drug bulletins (one published since 1975); special chapters on clinical pharmacology in textbooks, translation of three editions of Laurence's textbook with special commentary and adaptation to local needs; ADR spontaneous and intensive monitoring (WHO programme) with a personal feedback to the reporters and regular articles on drug use in a number of periodicals. Data on drug consumption indicates that there is room for improvement of prescribing. There is an enthusiasm for 'vasoactive drugs'--after dipirydamole came oxpentifylline and antimicrobials are always overprescribed. All these problems will hopefully decrease when the war finally stops and when industry (especially tourism) starts being fruitful again. In any case the importance of teaching of pharmacotherapy at the under- and postgraduate level should be recognized. PMID:15073805

  11. Peer Evaluation of Oral Presentations in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Mirjana Matea; Sirkovic, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explore student engagement in peer evaluation activities related to giving scientific presentations in English (L2) and to investigate student attitudes towards this form of evaluation in the course Communication skills in Croatian (L1). The participants in this study were first-year students of engineering in Split, Croatia.…

  12. New records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Ivković, Marija; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New records are provided for Limoniidae and Pediciidae from Croatia, with new distribution records for species in 12 different genera. Four genera and 18 species are newly recorded for Croatia. Until now, including this data, 87 Limoniidae and eight Pediciidae have been recorded from Croatia. In this paper we confirm presence of Ormosia (Oreophila) bergrothi (Strobl, 1895) and we give the first records of Dicranota (Paradicranota) pavida (Haliday, 1833) and Molophilus (Molophilus) repentinus Starý, 1971 from Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26257567

  13. Trichinella pseudospiralis in pig from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Relja; Beck, Ana; Lucinger, Snjezana; Florijancić, Tihomir; Bosković, Ivica; Marinculić, Albert

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are species that are frequently found in domestic pigs and various sylvatic animals in Croatia. During routine trichinoscopy, non-encapsulated larvae were detected in the muscle tissue of a domestic pig. Artificial digestion revealed a larvae burden of 602 muscle larvae per gram of tissue. Tissue section analysis confirmed the presence of non-encapsulated larvae. Multiplex PCR identified the larvae as T. pseudospiralis. This observation is consistent with the reports of a local veterinary inspector who described the presence of non-encapsulated Trichinella in four individual cases over the last 2 years. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Croatia and one of very few cases of T. pseudospiralis infection described in domestic pigs. The detection of non-encapsulated larvae stresses the need for implementation of artificial digestion instead of trichinoscopy for the detection and identification of Trichinella infections. PMID:19054619

  14. Nurses in Croatia: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Kalauz, Sonja; Orlić-Šumić, Marija; Šimunec, Dragica

    2008-01-01

    In the health care system of the Republic of Croatia there are 30 000 nurses. More than 7000 of them have college or university professional qualifications. Nursing education consist of secondary vocational education followed by two cycles of university education – baccalaureate and diploma cycle. A PhD cycle, which would allow the development of scientific career for nurses, does not exist. The secondary vocational school qualifications are not recognized by the European Union educational system, requiring a necessary reform in that field. The education of nurses should be attuned with the needs of health care institutions, and nursing care should be based on modern categorization of patients, standards of nursing practice, and clearly defined spheres of responsibility. However, the Croatian Ministry of Health has not yet defined the necessary number of nurses in Croatia or their required educational level. The license for independent work for nurses is another great problem that the health care system is facing, since Croatian nurses with only vocational secondary school qualifications do not meet the requirements to be licensed. The current legislation on nursing is still only formal and not implemented on a wide scale in the health care system. Considering the new trends, nurses in Croatia should work on developing a new systematization of workplaces and more accurate assessing of the job complexity index and the ratio of personal incomes. PMID:18581608

  15. History of eradication of malaria in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gregurić Gracner, Gordana; Vucevac Bajt, Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Malaria as a disease of miasmatic origin was known of as early as in the Ancient times. The first written documents on malaria in Croatia date from the 16th century, and concern Istria. Until the end of the 16th century, malaria was spread on almost the whole territory of Croatia. The first studies of the disease were performed as early as in the 18th century. The first piece of work on malaria in Croatia "De morbo Naroniano tractatus" (on the "Neretva disease") was written by Paduan professor Giusepe Antonio Pujati (1701-1760). The term "malaria" (after the Italian mala-aria, meaning bad air) was first mentioned in the gazette "Danica Ilirska" in 1837. During the 19th century, the sanitization of malaric areas in Istria and the Neretva valley was carried out with the aim of eradication of the disease. However, the first significant results were not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century following the arrival of Dr. Robert Koch and his associates to the Islands of Brijuni. They managed to eradicate malaria by systematic quininisation of the whole population and a number of other procedures like land-improvement or population education. Robert Koch's method of eradication of malaria showed outstanding results in 1903. According to physician Mauro Gioseffi's report from 1932 there haven't been significant outbreaks of malaria since those times. PMID:12812206

  16. Nursing in Croatia: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Kalauz, Sonja; Orlic-Sumić, Marija; Simunec, Dragica

    2008-06-01

    In the health care system of the Republic of Croatia, there are 30000 nurses. More than 7000 of them have college or university professional qualifications. Nursing education consists of secondary-level vocational education followed by two cycles of university-level education--baccalaureate and diploma cycle. A PhD cycle, which would allow the development of scientific career for nurses, does not exist. The secondary-level vocational school qualifications are not recognized by the European Union educational system, requiring a necessary reform in that field. The education of nurses should be attuned with the needs of health care institutions, and nursing care should be based on modern categorization of patients, standards of nursing practice, and clearly defined responsibilities. However, the Croatian Ministry of Health has not yet defined the necessary number of nurses in Croatia or their required educational level. Licensing registered nurses is another great problem that the health care system is facing, because Croatian nurses with only secondary vocational qualifications do not meet the requirements for licensing. The current legislation on nursing is still only formal and not implemented on a wide scale in the health care system. Considering the new trends, nurses in Croatia should work on developing a new systematization of workplaces and more accurate assessment of the job complexity index and nursing salary. PMID:18581608

  17. Ochratoxin A contamination of food from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Peraica, Maja; Flajs, Dubravka; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Ivić, Dario; Cvjetković, Bogdan

    2010-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus moulds under different climatic conditions. Humans and animals are exposed to this compound mainly via ingestion of contaminated food. In Croatia, research on mycotoxins focused on OTA when the mycotoxin theory of endemic nephropathy (EN) was postulated. Ochratoxin A was more frequent and at higher concentration in foods from EN than those from the control regions. Subsequently, OTA concentrations were determined in some commodities intended for human consumption such as maize, wheat, beans and wine. Samples from all parts of Croatia were analyzed and OTA was found in all types of commodities. It was frequently found together with other mycotoxins (fumonisin B(1), fumonisin B(2) and zearalenone). In general, OTA concentration in foods from Croatia is low, but the frequency of positive samples shows considerable variations from year to year depending also on sampling location. Although low levels of OTA were found in a large proportion of analyzed food samples, its persistent co-occurrence with other significant mycotoxins should raise serious public health concerns as there interactions may be synergistic or additive in causing toxicity in humans and animals. There is need to establish control measures through which such contaminations in foods can be managed. PMID:22069674

  18. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Food from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Peraica, Maja; Flajs, Dubravka; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Ivić, Dario; Cvjetković, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus moulds under different climatic conditions. Humans and animals are exposed to this compound mainly via ingestion of contaminated food. In Croatia, research on mycotoxins focused on OTA when the mycotoxin theory of endemic nephropathy (EN) was postulated. Ochratoxin A was more frequent and at higher concentration in foods from EN than those from the control regions. Subsequently, OTA concentrations were determined in some commodities intended for human consumption such as maize, wheat, beans and wine. Samples from all parts of Croatia were analyzed and OTA was found in all types of commodities. It was frequently found together with other mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2 and zearalenone). In general, OTA concentration in foods from Croatia is low, but the frequency of positive samples shows considerable variations from year to year depending also on sampling location. Although low levels of OTA were found in a large proportion of analyzed food samples, its persistent co-occurrence with other significant mycotoxins should raise serious public health concerns as there interactions may be synergistic or additive in causing toxicity in humans and animals. There is need to establish control measures through which such contaminations in foods can be managed. PMID:22069674

  19. Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

  20. Checklist of the earthworm fauna of Croatia (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Kutuzović, Davorka Hackenberger; Kutuzović, Branimir Hackenberger

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of the Croatian earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published records and authors' personal data. This is the first checklist for Croatia only, with comprehensive information for each earthworm species regarding ecological category, habitat, distribution type and distribution in Croatia. The currently known earthworm fauna of Croatia comprises 68 species belonging to 17 genera, with Octodrilus being the species-richest genus (15 species). Chorologically these species can be allocated to 13 different types of distribution. Nineteen species are endemic of which 10 species are endemic to Croatia and 9 species are endemic to Croatia and neighbouring countries (Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and Montenegro). The endemic earthworms are distributed in the areas of higher altitudes in the Continental and Alpine biogeographic region, mostly covered with forest or autochtonous vegetation. PMID:26106671

  1. Challenges for health care development in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of the research done in this paper was to establish key challenges and perspectives for health care development in the Republic of Croatia in the next two decades. Empirical research was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews involving 49 subjects, representatives of health care professionals from both, public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). The results have shown that key challenges and problems of Croatian health care can be divided into three groups: functioning of health care systems, health care personnel, and external factors. Research has shown that key challenges related to the functioning of health care are inefficiency, financial unviability, inadequate infrastructure, and the lack of system transparency. Poor governance is another limiting factor. With regard to health care personnel, they face the problems of low salaries, which then lead to migration challenges and a potential shortage of health care personnel. The following external factors are deemed to be among the most significant challenges: ageing population, bad living habits, and an increase in the number of chronic diseases. However, problems caused by the global financial crisis and consequential macroeconomic situation must not be neglected. Guidelines for responding to challenges identified in this research are the backbone for developing a strategy for health care development in the Republic of Croatia. Long-term vision, strategy, policies, and a regulatory framework are all necessary preconditions for an efficient health care system and more quality health services. PMID:23213924

  2. [Cancer registry of laryngectomized persons in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Pavlić, Blazenka

    2014-03-01

    Cancer poses a major problem in the population of Croatia. Owing to Professor Zivko Kulcar, who founded Cancer Registry at the Institute of Public Health in 1959, statistical data on patients with malignant cancer, including information on the entire territory of the Republic of Croatia, are available. The Act on Official Statistics (Official Gazette 103/2003) and Annual Implementation Plan regulate data recording in Cancer Registry, which is performed by the County Public Health Institutes that control the volume and quality of registration, after which the information is forwarded to the Croatian National Public Health Institute. If information and statistical data are needed for public health or scientific research purposes, one should approach Cancer Registry, having previously filled out a form for aggregated or individual information. However, when requesting information about individuals having undergone laryngectomy, such information is not available. If information about individuals having undergone laryngectomy is needed, e.g., how many of such individuals there are out there, when, where and how they are treated, or their demographic characteristics, such information unfortunately is not available. Therefore, establishment of the registry of patients who have undergone laryngectomy is proposed, which would be maintained by nurses working at ENT departments. PMID:24979893

  3. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Curković, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Relja

    2009-08-01

    An epizootiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatozoonosis in a population of 924 apparently asymptomatic dogs from different regions of Croatia. DNA was isolated from canine blood and screening PCR on the 666 bp fragment of 18S rRNA revealed that 108 (11.8%) of dogs were infected. Positive samples were confirmed by partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The consensus sequences, derived from various sequence data sets, were compared with sequences of 18S ssrRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available in GenBank. The alignments revealed 106 Hepatozoon canis and two Hepatozoon sp. sequences. Among H. canis isolates, we found a certain amount of heterogeneity, while both Hepatozoon sp. isolates were identical to the Spanish isolate (Accession No. AY600625) from Clethrionomys glareolus. On the basis of eight commonly mutated nucleotide positions in the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, we divided the H. canis isolates into five groups. The results obtained indicate a higher prevalence and significance of hepatozoonosis in Croatia than previously believed and demonstrate that the organisms belonging to H. canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous. PMID:19249302

  4. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment. PMID:18982772

  5. MRSA in Croatia: prevalence and management.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and length of hospital stay. MRSA is a major pathogen in hospitals and an important pathogen in community infections with few severe and fatal cases. However, MRSA causes the majority of skin and soft tissue infections in the US. The burden of community MRSA is much smaller in Europe, but there are reports of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolated from pigs and cattle causing significant infections in the people who are connected to these farms. MRSA has been present in Croatia for more than 45 years, and it exerts a different impact on health-care infections. A remarkable increase in MRSA percentage was noted in primarily sterile samples in 2002 (37%) in comparison to 2001 (31%). This percentage remained quite high until 2008, when the first signs of a reduced trend were observed. The lowest percentage was 22% in 2012. PMID:26559874

  6. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  7. [Disposal of waste containing asbestos in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Vinko

    2009-11-01

    In order to ensure systematic disposal of asbestos waste in the whole of Croatia, its government has mandated the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund to implement emergency measures to collect and dispose of asbestos-containing construction waste. This requires a construction of 45 special disposal containers in the existing municipal waste landfills and contracting collection of asbestos-containing construction waste. By now, the Fund has disposed of 8000 m3 of asbestos cement waste, recovered five dumps with asbestos-containing construction waste, reclaimed a location contaminated by asbestos in Vranjic, and has continued to recover the land at the premises of factory Salonit in bankruptcy, which had been producing corrugated asbestos sheets before the ban. In collaboration with several non-governmental organisations, the Fund has started an educational campaign to protect the environment. PMID:20853773

  8. 78 FR 65220 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country-Croatia (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... requirements for eligible products and suppliers of Croatia (78 FR 60368). Therefore, this rule adds Croatia to... country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). Croatia joined the European Union, which is a party to the WTO GPA, on July 1, 2013. DATES: Effective October 31, 2013....

  9. Medical Informatics in Croatia – a Historical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dezelic, Gjuro; Kern, Josipa; Petrovecki, Mladen; Ilakovac, Vesna; Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira

    2014-01-01

    A historical survey of medical informatics (MI) in Croatia is presented from the beginnings in the late sixties of the 20th century to the present time. Described are MI projects, applications in clinical medicine and public health, start and development of MI research and education, beginnings of international cooperation, establishment of the Croatian Society for MI and its membership to EFMI and IMIA. The current status of computerization of the Croatian healthcare system is sketched as well as the present graduate and postgraduate study MI curricula. The information contained in the paper shows that MI in Croatia developed and still develops along with its advancement elsewhere. PMID:24648620

  10. Venomous snakebites in children in southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Vrkić, Ivana; Brizić, Ivica; Ivić, Ivo; Lukšić, Boris

    2016-03-15

    This retrospective study represents observation of 160 children and adolescents aged up to 18 years that experienced venomous snakebites in southern Croatia and were treated in the Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases in the University Hospital Centre Split from 1979 to 2013. The main purpose of this research was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, local and general complications, and received treatment. Most bites occurred during warm months, from early May to late August (80%), mostly in May and June. Upper limb bites were more frequent (59%) than lower limb bites (40%). Out of the total number of poisoned children, 24% developed local, and 25% general complications. The most common local complications were haemorrhagic blisters that occurred in 20% children, followed by compartment syndrome presented in 7.5% patients. The most dominated general complication was cranial nerve paresis or paralysis, which was identified in 11.2% patients, whereas shock symptoms were registrated in 7% children. According to severity of poisoning, 9.4% children had minor, 35% mild, 30.6% moderate, and 24.4% had severe clinical manifestation of envenomation. Only one (0.6%) child passed away because of snakebite directly on the neck. All patients received antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb, tetanus prophylaxis as well, and almost all of them received antibiotics, and a great majority of them also received corticosteroids and antihistamines. Neighter anaphylactic reaction nor serum disease were noticed in our patients after administrating antivenom. A total of 26% children underwent surgical interventions, and incision of haemorrhagic blister was the most common applied surgical treatment, which was preformed in 15.6% patients, while fasciotomy was done in 7.5% subjects. All of our surgically treated patients recovered successfully. PMID:26802624

  11. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  12. Informed consent in Croatia. A work in progress.

    PubMed

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2014-07-01

    As Croatia makes the transition from one political system and type of economy to another, there are inevitable social and political changes that have a profound affect on the healthcare system. This article charts some of the progress of change with respect to patients' rights and informed consent. PMID:24865264

  13. The Educational Program "Zajedno Jaci" (Stronger Together) in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanja, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore intercultural learning undertaken through the educational program "Stronger Together." The program "Stronger Together" was created in 1998 in order to support and educate teachers working with children in post-war regions of Croatia using intercultural education and cooperative learning as tools for addressing problems…

  14. Motivation and Personality of Preservice Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugovic, Ivana; Marusic, Iris; Ivanec, Tea Pavin; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek

    2012-01-01

    The study presents results founded upon the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale validation and the relations between personality traits and motivation for teaching in Croatia. A sample of 374 first-year preservice teachers from three universities participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of the items comprising the Croatian…

  15. Learning Wellness: A Water Exercise Class in Zagreb, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigated the dynamics of a water exercise class with older adults in Zagreb, Croatia. It focused on 3 classes of older swimmers at a community exercise center. A total of 105 participants were asked to complete a short questionnaire. The questionnaire contained items on demographics, use of free time, and…

  16. Broad Strokes of Recovery: The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifat-Mrzljak, Greta; Juros, Luka; Vizek-Vidovic, Vlasta

    2004-01-01

    For a long time after the proclamation of independence, Croatia suffered economic stagnation that negatively affected the development of science and higher education. However the turn of the millennium brought higher state investment in science and higher education, and all statistics now show a steady increase in the number of students and…

  17. Ethnic Conflict, Group Polarization, and Gender Attitudes in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunovich, Robert M.; Deitelbaum, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    We examine the sources of traditional gender attitudes during a period of social conflict and change. Using survey data from Croatia (Center for the Investigation of Transition and Civil Society, 1996; N=2,030) we explore the relationships between war-related experiences, in-group and out-group polarization, and two dimensions of gender attitudes:…

  18. Bone traumas in late antique populations from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of the analyses of traumatic bone injuries in two Late Antique (3r to 5th century AD) skeletal samples from Croatia: Zadar--located on the eastern Adriatic coast, and a composite skeletal series from continental Croatia consisting of skeletons from Osijek, Vinkovci, Strbinci, and Zmajevac. The osteological series from continental Croatia are related to settlements located on, or near the Danubian military border, while Zadar--350 km to the west, is located deep in the territory of the Roman Empire. Numerous historical sources describe barbaric incursions, as well as large battles related to civil wars during the Late Antique period in continental Croatia. Conversely, there is no mention of similar events in the Zadar region. In accordance with these data our analysis tests the hypothesis that the inhabitants of continental Croatia were exposed to greater levels of violence than those living in Zadar. Analysis of bone traumas in the two series shows a similar, relatively high prevalence of long bone fractures in both samples, with a slightly higher frequency recorded in Zadar. Both series exhibit a high frequency of cranial injuries with, once again, higher frequencies recorded in the Zadar series. Additionally, two perimortem cranial fractures (one caused by a sword, the other by a blunt object) were observed in Zadar. Some of the recorded traumas in both samples resulted from accidents, but a number of injuries clearly resulted from intentional violence of lesser intensity. Further multidisciplinary research incorporating osteological, archaeological, and historical analyses is necessary to confirm the results obtained from these samples. PMID:21874705

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years. PMID:22816210

  20. [Possibilities of governmental quality support of scientific journals in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Marusić, Matko; Marusić, Ana

    2005-01-01

    The measure of success for a scientific journal, which publishes original research, is its visibility in the international scientific community. The most comprehensive bibliographical database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, now Thomson ISI), Web of Science, indexes 13 out of 176 journals that received financial support from the Ministry of Science in 2003, and 7 of them are in the 9 divisions of the most selective ISI bibliographic database, Current Contents. Taking into account the specificities of the small scientific community, or the so-called scientific "periphery" to which Croatia belongs, we proposed a new system of financial support of scientific journals in Croatia. Such system would support all scientific journals fulfilling basic requirements of scholarly publishing, such as structure of the editorial board and office, editorial procedures and records. Indexing in professional and general bibliographic databases would be encouraged by additional financial support and continual control of the editorial work in the journals. PMID:16334734

  1. Thelazia callipaeda-first human case of thelaziosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Paradžik, Maja Tomić; Samardžić, Kristian; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Martinković, Franjo; Janjetović, Željka; Miletić-Medved, Marica

    2016-03-01

    A case of the first ocular thelaziosis in a human male patient in Croatia is presented. Thelaziosis is a zoonosis caused by the nematodes of the genus Thelazia. In all, two types of the genus have been described as causes of infection in humans, Thelazia callipaeda and Thelazia californiensis. This zoonosis, called "oriental eye worm" is very rare in humans in European countries, with high incidence in Asian countries, especially in China, Thailand, and Japan. PMID:26542130

  2. Secular trends in monthly heating and cooling demands in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvitan, Lidija; Sokol Jurković, Renata

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyzes long-term heating and cooling trends for five locations in Croatia from 1901 to 2008 to assist in the revision of Croatia's heating and cooling energy policy. Trends in monthly heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) were determined for three related temperature threshold values each and analyzed to provide insight into the influence of desired thermal comfort on the extent of changes in energy consumption. Monthly trends in the corresponding number of heating days (HD) and cooling days (CD) were also analyzed. A basic investigation of HDD, HD, CDD, and CD trends proved to be essential to the development of a complete description of important climate-related conditions that impact energy demands associated with heating and cooling. In a few cases, the dependence of the trends on the implemented temperature thresholds was rather pronounced and was reflected in great spatial and temporal variations in monthly trends. The statistical significance of the detected monthly trends illustrated a diverse range of possible impacts of climate changes on heating and cooling energy consumption both across and within three main climate regions in Croatia (continental, mountainous, and maritime). It is confirmed that the applied monthly scale for analyses is suitable for assessing heating and cooling practices.

  3. Massacre over civilians during the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnar, Alan; Stemberga, Valter; Cuculić, Drazen; Coklo, Miran; Cućić, Tamara; Dobi-Babić, Renata

    2005-12-01

    The 1991-1995 War for independence of Croatia was a cruel armed conflict, provoked by the conquering aspirations of the "Yugoslav Federal Army" under Serbian command and Serbian terrorists. It took place on the territory of the Republic of Croatia and gave rise to a mass destruction of civilian and sacral buildings and civilian massacres. Here we present three representative cases as an example of the massacre over civilians that happened in the vicinity of Vrhovine, in northwestern Croatia. Seven civilians were taken from their homes in the village of Dabar, exposed to unprecedented, savage torture and cruel execution. Forensic medicine experts revealed that victims were beaten with blunt objects, probably the butt end of rifles or high boots, stabbed with sharp objects as they were dying, and finally killed by gunshots. Their dead bodies were mutilated by cutting auricles and exposed to post-mortem humiliation. Events at Vrhovine have all the characteristics of crimes against humanity and inapprehensible breaches of the Geneva Convention at the very end of 20th century. PMID:16417196

  4. [Continuing medical education in Croatia and the European Union].

    PubMed

    Drazancić, A

    2000-01-01

    The Continuing Medical Education (CME), with attention to other forms of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in Croatia and the today endeavors in the European Union, are presented. In European Union the formal CME is in its starting. The "European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education" (EACCME) of the UEMS is established, which has formulated the principles of continuing education, the credit hours and their realizing, that would enable the mutual recognition of education in all European countries. In Croatia the starting of CME was at beginning of the 20th century, when the professional societies of Croatian Medical Association were founded. CPD was almost exclusively connected to activities of "Andrija Stampar" School of Public Health, to the School of Medicine in Zagreb and partly in Rijeka, which established a great number of postgraduate studies. The CME i.e. the courses of education were tightly connected to activities of the Croatian Medical Association, of its professional societies and its Academy of Medical Sciences, but also to activities of School of Medicine in Zagreb and Rijeka, and recently in Split and Osijek. Since 1995 the third partner, the Croatian Medical Chamber joined too. The number of CME meetings during 1998 is presented. The approximate calculation for needed annual courses of CME for all medical specialties in Croatia is presented. The formation of the National Authority for CME is suggested, in which all the interested institutions should be represented. PMID:11210822

  5. Demonstration of Usutu virus antibodies in horses, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Ljubo; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Listes, Eddy; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Listes, Irena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    We report the first serological evidence of Usutu virus (USUV) infection in horses in Croatia. During 2011, 1380 horse serum samples from healthy animals were collected from six northern Croatian counties. All samples were first screened for West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sixty-nine WNV ELISA-reactive samples were further tested for WNV antibodies by a virus neutralization assay (VN assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and USUV by a VN assay and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies by PRNT. During the same period, 306 human serum samples from patients coming for routine testing with no symptoms of acute febrile disease were tested for USUV IgG using ELISA. Reactive samples were tested for both USUV and WNV using a VN assay. USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in two of 69 WNV ELISA-reactive horse serum samples. Seropositive animals were found in two different regions of Croatia. One additional sample showed specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized USUV. Only one human sample (0.3%) was reactive to USUV antibodies in an ELISA test. In a confirmatory test, WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected, indicating cross-reactive antibodies with USUV in ELISA. The exposure to USUV was documented in two WNV ELISA-reactive horses at distant locations. These results indicate the presence of USUV in northern Croatia. PMID:23808977

  6. First evidence of bluetongue virus serotype 16 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Listes, E; Monaco, F; Labrović, A; Paladini, C; Leone, A; Di Gialleonardo, L; Cammá, C; Savini, G

    2009-07-01

    This study described the first report of BTV-16 in Croatia. Serological evidence occurred in cattle at the end of September and continued during October and November 2004. All positive animals were in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County, a region located in the southernmost part of Croatia. BTV-16 infection was also detected in goats and sheep. Apart from few cases reported in Greece between 1999 and 2000, BTV-16 has never been reported in the Balkanic peninsula before. The BTV strain was isolated from cattle blood samples and typed as BTV-16. When the S5 was sequenced, it showed 100% homology with the BTV-16 vaccine isolate produced by Ondersterpoort Biological Product (SA) and used in Italy during the 2004 BT vaccination campaign. On the other hand no complete homology was found when the same RNA segment sequence was compared with that of the homologous Italian field isolate. As no evidence of livestock movements from Italy was demonstrated, an eolic transmission of the infection through infected Culicoides was hypothesised. According to the local meteostations, in several occasions, during the 2004 summer months, the west-east breeze blew with a speed above 50 km/h from Italy towards the Dubrovnik County. It is concluded that the BTV-16 which infected Croatian livestock was similar to the homologous OBP vaccine isolate and it is likely that it was introduced from Italy into the Southern regions of Croatia through infected Culicoides carried by the wind. PMID:19376658

  7. Three new species of eriophyoid mites from grass hosts in Croatia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of grass-feeding eriophyid mites are described from Croatia: Acaralox croatiae n. sp., inhabiting purple moorgrass, Molinia coerulea (L.) Moench; Aculodes festucae n. sp., inhabiting tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.; and Aculodes sylvatici n. sp., inhabiting false brome, Br...

  8. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  9. 78 FR 70480 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country-Croatia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... waive discriminatory purchasing requirements for eligible products and supplies of Croatia (see 78 FR... (WTO GPA). On July 1, 2013, Croatia joined the European Union, which is a party to the WTO GPA. DATES.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The European Union is a party to the WTO GPA and has assumed rights...

  10. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Croatia in the European context

    PubMed Central

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Kucinar, Jasmina; Kaic, Bernard; Vilibic, Maja; Pandak, Nenad; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vranes, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence, risk factors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution in different population groups in Croatia in the context of HCV epidemiology in Europe, with the aim to gather all existing information on HCV infection in Croatia which will be used to advise upon preventive measures. It is estimated that 35000-45000 of the Croatian population is chronically infected with HCV. Like in other European countries, there have been changes in the HCV epidemiology in Croatia over the past few decades. In some risk groups (polytransfused and hemodialysis patients), a significant decrease in the HCV prevalence was observed after the introduction of routine HCV screening of blood/blood products in 1992. Injecting drug users (IDUs) still represent a group with the highest risk for HCV infection with prevalence ranging from 29% to 65%. Compared to the prevalence in the Croatian general population (0.9%), higher prevalence rates were found in prison populations (8.3%-44%), human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (15%), persons with high-risk sexual behavior (4.6%) and alcohol abusers (2.4%). Low/very low prevalence was reported in children and adolescents (0.3%) as well as in blood donors (0%-0.009%). In addition, distribution of HCV genotypes has changed due to different routes of transmission. In the general population, genotypes 1 and 3 are most widely distributed (60.4%-79.8% and 12.9%-47.9%, respectively). The similar genotype distribution is found in groups with high-risk sexual behavior. Genotype 3 is predominant in Croatian IDUs (60.5%-83.9%) while in the prison population genotypes 3 and 1 are equally distributed (52.4% and 47.6%). Data on HCV prevalence and risk factors for transmission are useful for implementation of preventive measures and HCV screening. PMID:26327756

  11. Supplemental health insurance: did Croatia miss an opportunity?

    PubMed

    Langenbrunner, John C

    2002-08-01

    Croatia continues to face a health-funding crisis. A recent supplemental health insurance law increases revenues through first increasing co-payments, then raising the payroll tax to cover those co-payments. This public finance "slight-of-hand" will not solve the system's structural issues and may worsen system performance both in terms of efficiency and equity. Should Croatia have considered private supplemental insurance as an alternative? There is a new single private supplemental health insurance market now evolving over the EU countries and into Eastern Europe. Croatians could take advantage of lowered costs due to larger risk pooling and the lower administrative overhead of mature insurance organizations. Private supplemental insurance, when designed well, can address several objectives, including a) increased revenues into the health sector; b) removal of the public burden of coverage of selected services for certain population groups; and c) encourage new management and organizational innovations into the sector. Private and multiple company insurance markets are thought to be superior in terms of consumer responsiveness; choice of benefits; adoption of new, more expensive technology; and use of private sector providers. Private sector insurers may also encourage "spillover" effects encouraging reforms with public sector insurance performance. There is already an emerging private insurance market in Croatia, but can it be expanded and properly regulated? The private insurance companies might capture as much as 30-70% of the market for certain services, such as high cost procedures, preferred providers, and hotel amenities. But the Government will need to strengthen the regulatory framework for private insurance and assure that there is adequate regulatory capacity. PMID:12187517

  12. Health care reform in Croatia: for better or for worse?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Mastilica, M

    1998-01-01

    Along with the rest of Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has begun to dismantle its long-standing socialist health care system and to replace it with a market-based approach. Marketization's advocates maintain that the market will bring efficiency and quality to the Croatian health care system. Nevertheless, data from consumer surveys and official statistics reflect the reform's hidden costs: limited access to care, heightened costs, growing inequality, and the deemphasis of preventive and proactive care in favor of costly therapeutic medicine. PMID:9702140

  13. Modelling of maize production in Croatia: present and future climate.

    PubMed

    Vučetić, V

    2011-04-01

    Maize is one of the most important agricultural crops in Croatia, and was selected for research of the effect of climate warming on yields. The Decision Support System for the Agrotechnology Transfer model (DSSAT) is one of the most utilized crop-weather models in the world, and was used in this paper for the investigation of maize growth and production in the present and future climate. The impact of present climate on maize yield was studied using DSSAT 4.0 with meteorological data from the Zagreb-Maksimir station covering the period 1949-2004. Pedological, physiological and genetic data from a 1999 field maize experiment at the same location were added. The location is representative of the continental climate in central Croatia. The linear trends of model outputs and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test indicate that the beginning of silking has advanced significantly by 1·4 days/decade since the mid-1990s, and maturity by 4·5 days/decade. It also shows a decrease in biomass by 122 kg/ha and in maize yield by 216 kg/ha in 10 years.Estimates of the sensitivity of maize growth and yield in future climates were made by changing the initial weather and CO(2) conditions of the DSSAT 4.0 model according to the different climatic scenarios for Croatia at the end of the 21st century. Changed climate suggests increases in global solar radiation, minimal temperature and maximal temperature (×1·07, 2 and 4°C, respectively), but a decrease in the amount of precipitation (×0·92), compared with weather data from the period 1949-2004. The reduction of maize yield was caused by the increase in minimal and maximal temperature and the decrease in precipitation amount, related to the present climate, is 6, 12 and 3%, respectively. A doubling of CO(2) concentration stimulates leaf assimilation, but maize yield is only 1% higher, while global solar radiation growth by 7% increases evapotranspiration by 3%. Simultaneous application of all these climate changes suggested that

  14. Modelling of maize production in Croatia: present and future climate

    PubMed Central

    VUČETIĆ, V.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Maize is one of the most important agricultural crops in Croatia, and was selected for research of the effect of climate warming on yields. The Decision Support System for the Agrotechnology Transfer model (DSSAT) is one of the most utilized crop–weather models in the world, and was used in this paper for the investigation of maize growth and production in the present and future climate. The impact of present climate on maize yield was studied using DSSAT 4.0 with meteorological data from the Zagreb–Maksimir station covering the period 1949–2004. Pedological, physiological and genetic data from a 1999 field maize experiment at the same location were added. The location is representative of the continental climate in central Croatia. The linear trends of model outputs and the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test indicate that the beginning of silking has advanced significantly by 1·4 days/decade since the mid-1990s, and maturity by 4·5 days/decade. It also shows a decrease in biomass by 122 kg/ha and in maize yield by 216 kg/ha in 10 years. Estimates of the sensitivity of maize growth and yield in future climates were made by changing the initial weather and CO2 conditions of the DSSAT 4.0 model according to the different climatic scenarios for Croatia at the end of the 21st century. Changed climate suggests increases in global solar radiation, minimal temperature and maximal temperature (×1·07, 2 and 4°C, respectively), but a decrease in the amount of precipitation (×0·92), compared with weather data from the period 1949–2004. The reduction of maize yield was caused by the increase in minimal and maximal temperature and the decrease in precipitation amount, related to the present climate, is 6, 12 and 3%, respectively. A doubling of CO2 concentration stimulates leaf assimilation, but maize yield is only 1% higher, while global solar radiation growth by 7% increases evapotranspiration by 3%. Simultaneous application of all these climate changes

  15. Technical assistance development soil management policy in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruyt, Eva; Helsen, Stefan; Hambach, Patrick; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    As from the first of July 2013, Croatia became a EU member country and therefore has to comply with all the EU-rules (the "acquis") as defined in the European Council in Copenhagen in 1993. One of the aspects of this acquis is the protection and conservation of the soil and groundwater and the remediation of contaminated sites that cause human and environmental risks. On behalf of the Department of Environment, Nature and Energy of the Flemish government together with the Public Waste Agency of Flanders(OVAM), ECOREM was assigned to carry out this study. The scope of this study therefore focuses on the aspect of soil management that can be divided into two main policies, beïng the policy for the prevention of soil contamination from new activities(1) and the policy for the management and remediation of historical soil contamination from local sources like industrial sites(2). To form a soil management policy, Croatia must start from the legal obligations enforced by the European Union. One of the European Directives regulating the monitoring and protection of soil and groundwater is the new Industrial Emission Directive ('IED' - 2010/78/EU) from the 24th of November 2010. Whereas the framework of the Directive is larger than contamination of soil , the focus of this study was limited to soil contamination only. In order to comply with the existing EU policy contributing to soil protection, the regulations in the IED, the Croatian government needs to adapt existing legislations or apply new regulations regarding soil monitoring for the industrial activities. Also other EU Directives enforce actions contributing to soil protection. Therefore, a questionnaire with different sorts of questions was sent to the different stakeholders (environmental institutes, agencies, ministries,…). The results were interpreted and allowed Ecorem, being the environmental consultant, to evaluate the gaps in the environmental and soil management policy. This study gives advice on how

  16. Physicians' strike and general mortality: Croatia's experience of 2003.

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Kujundzić-Tiljak, Mirjana; Babić-Erceg, Andrea; Coric, Tanja; Lang, Slobodan

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether the physicians' strike, which took place in Croatia in 2003, had an impact on the mortality of the population. Mortality data from the National Bureau of Statistics relating to the strike period (15 January - 14 February 2003) were selected and compared with the previous and subsequent periods of the same duration in 2001, 2002 and 2004. Of the 52,575 deaths in 2003, Croatia recorded 4,682 (8.9%, 95% Confidence interval 8.4-9.4) in the strike period from the 15th of January to the 14th of February 2003 or 1.1 deaths per 1000. No deviations of the 15th of January to the 14th of February period's share of the death total in relation to other observation periods were noted. It is impossible to associate the strike based on the figures shown in this paper with either an increase or decrease in population mortality. PMID:18041403

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to porcine parvovirus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Roić, Besi; Cajavec, Stanislav; Toncić, Josip; Madić, Josip; Lipej, Zoran; Jemersić, Lorena; Lojkić, Mirko; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko; Sostarić, Branko

    2005-10-01

    Serologic evidence of exposure to porcine parvovirus (PPV) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Croatia was investigated. Serum samples from 219 wild boars captured during 2003 from 12 different locations in the Republic of Croatia were tested by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antibodies to PPV were detected in 91 (41.6%) of tested samples and positive results were detected in wild boar from all sample locations. Adults had a significantly higher prevalence (70%) than juveniles (31%; P < 0.01). Our results indicate that wild boar populations throughout the Republic of Croatia are exposed to PPV. PMID:16456171

  18. New records of moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Croatia, with the description of Berdeniella keroveci sp.nov.

    PubMed

    Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Ivković, Marija; Klarić, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Berdeniella keroveci sp. nov. is described based on males collected in Croatia. Current knowledge of the psychodid fauna of Croatia is reviewed and new records of 16 species are presented. Short taxonomic notes on Pericoma pseudocalcilega Krek, 1972, Pneumia balkanica (Krek, 1990), Pneumia mutua (Eaton, 1893), Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) and Lepiseodina tristis (Meigen, 1810) are given. In total, 33 species of Psychodidae are known to occur in Croatia. PMID:25112736

  19. Estimation of copper intake in moderate wine consumers in croatia.

    PubMed

    Tariba, Blanka; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Pizent, Alica

    2011-09-01

    To estimate Cu exposure level from wine consumption and to assess possible health risk for moderate wine consumers, wine samples were collected from different wine-growing areas of Croatia. Median concentrations were 180 μg L-1, range (76 to 292) μg L-1, in commercial wines and 258 μg L-1, range (115 to 7600) μg L-1, in homemade wines (P>0.05). Maximum permitted level of 1000 μg L-1 was exceeded in three homemade wines. However, daily intake of Cu from wine (in the range from 0.02 mg d-1 to 1.52 mg d-1) estimated from Cu concentration in all wine samples is lower than the tolerable upper intake level of 5 mg d-1 proposed by the EU Scientific Committee on Food and does not present a risk to moderate wine consumers. PMID:21971106

  20. Knowledge and attitudes towards sun protection in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Vurnek Zivković, Maja; Dediol, Iva; Zeljko Penavić, Jasna; Simić, Dubravka

    2010-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer; the World Health Organization estimates that more than 2 million cases of skin cancer are being diagnosed each year worldwide. Excessive sun exposure and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are the major avoidable risk factors for skin cancer, including melanoma. Sun protection can be achieved through behavioral modification, social changes and environmental changes: regular use of sunscreen, wearing hats and protective clothes, staying in the shade, creating shade by planting trees or constructing canopies, practicing work and sport activities during the time of the day when the sun is not the strongest and many others. The aim of this paper was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes about sun protection and sun behavior patterns in Croatia, as well as the perception of melanoma among general population. Our results indicate relatively good sun behavior patterns among our participants and their mostly correct perception of melanoma. PMID:20402310

  1. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation. PMID:24888560

  2. Project Northland in Croatia: results and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    West, Bernadette; Abatemarco, Diane; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A; Zec, Vezna; Russo, Andrea; Milic, Ranko

    2008-01-01

    As part of an international public health partnership formed in 2001 we assessed the impact of Project Northland in Croatia--an adolescent alcohol school-based prevention intervention implemented in Split--on students. The curriculum was implemented in 13 randomly selected schools with another 13 schools serving as controls. The evaluation included quantitative and qualitative methods, using pre/post-tests to compare intervention and controls and follow-up focus groups with parents and teachers. Quantitative data showed the intervention was more successful in changing attitudes in the first two years, but had less impact on older students. Qualitative data suggest benefits from the program overall. Given the intervention was successful in the earlier grades it should be initiated earlier to have a greater impact. Challenges and lessons learned are offered. PMID:18592807

  3. Stable isotope composition of the meteoric precipitation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hunjak, Tamara; Lutz, Hans O; Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana

    2013-01-01

    The precipitation is the input into the water system. Its stable isotope composition has to be known for the proper use and management of water resources. Croatia is not well represented in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, and the geomorphology of the country causes specific local conditions. Therefore, at the Stable Isotope Laboratory (SILab), Rijeka, we monitor the stable isotope composition (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of precipitation. Since δ(18)O and δ(2)H are well correlated, we concentrate the discussion on the δ(18)O distribution. Together with GNIP, our database contains 40 stations in Croatia and in the neighbouring countries. Their different latitudes, longitudes and altitudes give information of great detail, including the influence of the topographic structure on the precipitation in the south-eastern part of Europe, as well as the complex interplay of the different climate conditions in the area. Within a few hundred kilometres, the stable isotope values display a significant change from the maritime character in the south (mean δ(18)O around-6 to-8‰) to the continental behaviour in the north (mean δ(18)O around-8 to-11‰). Depending on the location, the mean δ(18)O values vary with altitude at a rate of approximately-0.2‰/100 m and-0.4‰/100 m, respectively. Also the deuterium excess has been found to depend on location and altitude. The data are being used to construct a δ(18)O map for the entire area. PMID:23937110

  4. Impact of heat waves on mortality in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat waves present an increased risk, but in very long heat waves the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.

  5. National consumption of opioid and nonopioid analgesics in Croatia: 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    Krnic, Darko; Anic-Matic, Andrea; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Draganic, Pero; Zezelic, Sasa; Puljak, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Background The increased consumption of analgesics has been documented worldwide during the last 2 decades. The aim of the study was to examine the trends in opioid and nonopioid analgesic consumption in Croatia between 2007 and 2013. Methods Data on opioid consumption were extracted from the database of the national authority. All opioid and nonopioid analgesics were included in the analysis. Data were presented as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Adequacy of opioid consumption was calculated using adequacy of consumption measure. Results During the examined 7-year period, the total consumption and total cost of all analgesics in Croatia showed continuous increase. In the M01A group (anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroids), ibuprofen had an exponential increasing trend, and in 2011, it overtook diclofenac consumption. Ibuprofen and diclofenac had the highest consumption also in the M02A group of topical products for joint and muscular pain. Tramadol was by far the most consumed type of opioids (N02A group) and paracetamol in the group of other analgesics and antipyretics (N02B). The adequacy of consumption measure value was 0.19, indicating that Croatia is a country with a low opioid consumption. Conclusion Between 2007 and 2013, both consumption of analgesics and their cost in Croatia had an increasing trend. Comparisons with data from other countries, based on the published literature, indicate that analgesic consumption in Croatia is still relatively low. Calculation of the adequacy of opioid consumption indicated that Croatia is a country with low opioid consumption. Further studies are necessary for establishing whether current analgesic consumption in Croatia corresponds to patient needs. PMID:26357478

  6. [Regional characteristics of arterial hypertension in adult population of Croatia].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Hrabak-Zerjavić, Vlasta; Ivicević Uhernik, Ana

    2007-06-01

    Data collected in the Croatian Health Survey launched in 2003 by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare were analyzed. The survey included a regionally stratified random sample. Using the method of structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height and weight), data were collected on 9,070 subjects aged >18. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was calculated from two measurements. Inclusion criteria in the group of subjects with elevated blood pressure were the subject's reporting taking antihypertensive medication and/or mean systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg, and/or mean diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg. Descriptive analysis was done on figures yielded by use of the SPSS software. Subjects with elevated blood pressure accounted for 44.2% (95%CI=42.61-45.85) of study population, with a h gher rate in male (45.6%; 95%= 43.14-48.06) and lower in female subjects (43.0%; 95%CI=41.46-44.55). Croatia was estimated to have 1,538,982 inhabitants with high blood pressure (748,072 males and 790,910 females). The proportion of individuals with elevated blood pressure was highest (78.9%; 95%CI=76.9-81.0; CV=1.32) in the 65 age group, followed by 35-64 age group 46.9% (95% CI=44.8-41.0; CV=2.3), and lowest rate (13.8%; 95%CI=11.1-16.6; CV=10.2) in the 18-34 age group. Regional distribution of high blood pressure was as follows: central Croatia 46.4% (95%CI=42.9-49.9; CV= 3.8), south 45.3% (95%CI= 40.9-49.7; CV=. 5.0), City of Zagreb 44.7% (95%CI= 40.9-48.5; CV= 4.3), east 44.2% (95%CI=40.5-47.8; CV=4.2), north 43.0% (95%CI=40.9-49.7; CV= 5.0), and west 40.5% (95%CI= 36.0-45.0; CV= 5.7). In the female group aged 35-64, regional distribution was as follows: east 52.3% (95%CI=46.0-58.7; CV=6.2), central Croatia 45.4% (95%CI=40.3-50.5; CV=5.7), City of Zagreb 43.5 (95%CI=38.1-48.9; CV=6.4), south 40.7% (95%CI=37.4-44, 0; CV=4.1), north 39.3% (95% CI=33.7-44.8; CV=7.2), and west 35.1% (95%CI=26.1-44.2; CV= 13.1). Differences

  7. Geochemistry of topsoil in kindergarten playgrounds in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šparica Miko, M.; Miko, S.; Hasan, O.; Mesić, S.; Bukovec, D.; Hruškova, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical mapping based on analysis of urban topsoil (0-5 cm) and deeper soil horizons (40-50 cm) in kindergarten playgrounds has been carried out in Zagreb. In two geochemical studies performed by sampling on a regular grids (1x1 km2) it was determined that the soils in the Old Town and industrial area have elevated concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Zn). The high soil heavy metal concentrations are decreasing toward the outer parts of the city, similar to patterns observed in many other cities in Europe. Since the youngest children are exposed to topsoil in playgrounds, an evaluation of heavy metal pollution for 150 kindergarten and 50 public playground topsoil was made. During the study aqua regia (ISO 11464) soil extracts were analyzed for 42 major and trace elements. Urban soil pollution in each city is specific depending on pollution sources and the geochemical signature of the local lithology. Based on the calculated enrichment factors for heavy metals and the regional geochemical baseline values for northwestern Croatia the following elements were found in concentrations that can be attributed to pollution: Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu. Also elevated concentrations Sb, Ag, Zn and Cd at some of the locations indicate anthropogenic influences. Other elements considered as potentially toxic (As, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Tl) have concentrations within the established regional soil baselines and can be considered as lithogenic. Guidance values for heavy metals in soils for kindergarten playground soils have not been established in Croatia so the quality criteria for soils in playgrounds of Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used as well as calculated enrichment factors were used to evaluate the degree of soil pollution. It was determined that based on the composite soil data 21 locations should be assessed with follow up studies to determine the need for remediation. In Zagreb, only 5 of the 64 kindergartens sampled had an elevated dust lead level. Paint chips taken from

  8. Prevalence of Erectile and Ejaculatory Difficulties among Men in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Bajić, Žarko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence and risk factors of erectile difficulties and rapid ejaculation in men in Croatia. Method We surveyed 615 of 888 contacted men aged 35-84 years. The mean age of participants was 54 ± 12 years. College-educated respondents and the respondents from large cities were slightly overrepresented in the sample. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in June and July 2004 by 63 trained interviewers. The questionnaire used in interviews was created for commercial purposes and had not been validated before. Results Out of 615 men who were sexually active in the preceding month and gave the valid answers to the questions on erectile difficulties and rapid ejaculation, 130 suffered from erectile or ejaculatory difficulties. Men who had been sexually active the month before the interview and gave the valid answers to the questions on sexual difficulties reported having erectile difficulties more often (77 out of 615) than rapid ejaculation (57 out of 601). Additional 26.8% (165 out of 615) and 26.3% (158 out of 601) men were classified as being at risk for erectile difficulties and rapid ejaculation, respectively. The prevalence of erectile difficulties varied from 5.8% in the 35-39 age group to 30% in the 70-79 age group. The association between age and rapid ejaculation was curvilinear, ie, U-shaped. Rates of rapid ejaculation were highest in the youngest (15.7%) and the oldest (12.5%) age groups. Older age (odds ratios [OR], 6.2-10.3), overweight (OR, 3.3-4.2), alcohol (OR, 0.3-0.4), intense physical activity (OR, 0.3), traditional attitudes about sexuality (OR, 2.8), and discussing sex with one’s partner (OR, 0.1-0.3) were associated with erectile difficulties. Education (OR, 0.1-0.3), being overweight (OR, 22.0) or obese (OR, 20.1), alcohol consumption (OR, 0.2-0.3), stress and anxiety (OR, 10.8-12.5), holding traditional attitudes (OR, 2.8) and moderate physical activity (OR, 0.1) were factors associated with rapid

  9. Introduction of Participatory Conservation in Croatia, Residents' Perceptions: A Case Study from the Istrian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  10. The changing pattern of poisoning with psychoactive drugs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Macan, J; Turk, R; Plavec, D; Bosan-Kilibarda, I

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency of poisoning with psychoactive drugs (benzodiazepines, antidepressants and neuroleptics) over the last 15 years in Croatia. The analysis was based on poisoning incidents reported over the phone (hot line) to the Zagreb Poison Control Center and included two periods: 1985-1991 (period I) and 1992-1999 (period II). The data were analysed separately for children and adults. Each phone call was counted as one poisoning incident. Child poisoning with neuroleptics was significantly higher in period II than in period I and so was the adult poisoning with antidepressants, amytriptyline, and combined psychoactive drugs. The frequency of total psychoactive drug poisoning was significantly higher in adults than in children in both periods. From 1992, the frequency of adult poisoning with antidepressants considerably increased as one of the many consequences of war-related stress. The results indicate a need for careful psychiatric evaluation and more critical use of antidepressants in affected individuals. PMID:11276965

  11. Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prohic, E.; Hausberger, G.; Davis, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin -Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin -Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Bone porosity and longevity in early medieval Southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bečić, Kristijan; Jandrić Bečić, Darija; Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Zekić Tomaš, Sandra; Anterić, Ivana; Bašić, Zeljana

    2014-03-01

    Porosity of the skull and skeletal remains, especially of the orbital roof, are one of the most frequent pathological findings on ancient human skeletal remains. There are several presumed causes of this condition and anthropologists consider skull porosities as a marker of physical and nutritional stress. A total of 115 graves were discovered at the early-medieval graveyard near Zadar (Croatia) that contained 128 partially preserved skeletons. Average estimated age at death was 37.2 ± 12.6 years for men, 31.9 ± 13.9 for women, and 5.3 ± 3.6 years for subadults. Pathological bone porosity was analysed. Cribra orbitalia was observed on 21 skulls (28.7%), signs of temporal porosity were noticed on six skulls and signs of subperiosteal bleeding on three skulls. Nineteen skulls had bone porosities in other areas. There was a significant difference (p = 0.039) in achieved age of adults with and without cribra orbitalia as those with cribra orbitalia lived on average 8.1 years longer. The bone porosity was probably caused by malnutrition that might have had a beneficial effect on longevity of adults, similar to effects of restricted food intake on extending lifespan through epigenetic signatures influencing gene expression. PMID:24219154

  13. The newest findings on Red Lake (Dinaric karst of Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrić, Ivo; Jukić, Branimir

    2014-05-01

    Red Lake in the Dinaric karst (Croatia) is of the deepest karst lakes in the world. Even so, through the history of Red Lake's research there were many controversies in the conclusions and the theories concerning its genesis, geomorphology and hydrology. This work has for a goal to present the newest research results won with the help of emerging technologies based on LiDAR and SoNAR methods. The measurements took place during September 2013. New generation of equipment developed to advance the geoscientific research has been deployed during the field work and the gathered data enabled the analysis which led to a new understanding of the lake's morphology. Some of the results confirmed already known and well documented features of Red Lake whereas others disputed widely accepted assumptions in the scientific community and general public. The objective of this paper is also groundwork for further research in the field of karst hydrology and a new insight on local and regional scale.

  14. Mercury in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) organs in Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Spirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Crnić, Andreja Prevendar

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the concentrations of total mercury were analyzed in the pheasant organs (liver, kidney, brain and muscle) that live freely in an area that was exposed to elevated levels of mercury as a result of industrial activity (mercury contaminated natural gas production and processing which began in 1980). The range of the median mercury concentration values (wet weight) in pheasant organs in Podravina, Croatia were 0.0004-0.024, 0.0001-0.034, 0.0002-0.016 and 0.0001-0.025 μg/g for liver, kidney, brain, and muscle, respectively. Results of these studies confirms that in the study area in the observed period there was no significant mercury contamination which can be linked to anthropogenic activities (hydrocarbon production)‥ On the contrary, systematic measurements demonstrate a small but constant (barely noticeable) decline in mercury concentrations in pheasant's organs. Primarily, this is the result of the significant improvement in the technological process which involves the removal of mercury from the natural gas that was designed and implemented in 1993. However, due to the need for reliable control of mercury contaminated natural gas production and the importance for better understanding of long-term exposure to low levels of mercury, and assessment of their possible harmful effects on the environment, human and animal health, research will be continued. PMID:23379943

  15. Regional differences in the prevalence of arterial hypertension in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Kern, Josipa; Babić-Erceg, Andrea; Ivicević-Uhernik, Ana; Vuletić, Silvije

    2009-04-01

    This paper analyzes the Croatian Adult Health Survey data, collected in 2003 with a total of 9,070 respondents aged 18+. Based on an average of two measurements, respondents with the mean systolic arterial pressure > or = 140 mmHg or mean diastolic pressure > or = 90 mmHg were classified as hypertensive. The data for men and women were analyzed separately, according to regions. Prevalence of hypertension in men was 40.5% (95% confidence interval CI 37.9-43.01; coefficient of variability CV = 3.2), women 34.9% (95% CI 33.2-36.7; CV 2.5). There were no significant differences in regional prevalence in men, except in the Northern and Eastern region. In women we did not detect any significant regional difference. Non-controlled arterial hypertension is an important public health problem in all monitored regions of Croatia. Raising awareness about the problem, early detection and encouraging the population to adhere to the therapy for elevated arterial pressure, in addition to a healthy life style, are important for successful control and harm reduction. PMID:19563141

  16. [First online continuing tele-education in gastroenterology in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Pulanić, Roland; Iveković, Hrvoje; Pulanić, Drazen; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Ostojić, Rajko; Premuzić, Marina; Lepoglavec, Zeljko

    2003-01-01

    The expansion and popularity of the Internet created the expansion of tele-medicine, with tele-education as its important part. Such on-line distance learning is especially important for diseases being in the focus of public health interest, as diseases of the gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary and pancreatic system due to their frequency. Therefore, in this study is shown the "TIGEL project of tele-interventional gastroenterology" that was launched in May 2001 at the Center for Interventional Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, University Department of Medicine, Zagreb University Hospital Center. The project includes creation of a web site at the server of the Zagreb University School of Medicine (www.mef.hr/edumed/gastro/index.html), and among the most important goals of the project is continuous medical tele-education in gastroenterology. Beside description of the project, one of the founders of continuous on-line medical education in Croatia, this work describes many advantages but also some still unsolved questions considering medical tele-education, a very promising but still developing way of education. PMID:15038219

  17. First Epigravettian Ceramic Figurines from Europe (Vela Spila, Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    Farbstein, Rebecca; Radić, Dinko; Brajković, Dejana; Miracle, Preston T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent finds of 36 ceramic artifacts from the archaeological site of Vela Spila, Croatia, offer the first evidence of ceramic figurative art in late Upper Palaeolithic Europe, c. 17,500–15,000 years before present (BP). The size and diversity of this artistic ceramic assemblage indicate the emergence of a social tradition, rather than more ephemeral experimentation with a new material. Vela Spila ceramics offer compelling technological and stylistic comparisons with the only other evidence of a developed Palaeolithic ceramic tradition found at the sites of Pavlov I and Dolní Věstonice I, in the Czech Republic, c. 31,000–27,000 cal BP. Because of the 10,000-year gap between the two assemblages, the Vela Spila ceramics are interpreted as evidence of an independent invention of this technology. Consequently, these artifacts provide evidence of a new social context in which ceramics developed and were used to make art in the Upper Palaeolithic. PMID:22848495

  18. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  19. Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosy, Caroline; Zaninovic, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in Croatia. The Adriatic coast is a popular travel destination for tourists, especially during the summer months. During their activities, tourists are affected by atmospheric conditions and therefore by weather and climate. Therefore, it is important to have reliable information about thermal conditions as well as their impacts on human beings. Here, the climate tourism potential of Croatia is presented and quantified on the basis of three selected stations in different climatic regions. The physiologically equivalent temperature is used for analysis as well as other climatic parameters relevant for tourism and recreation. The results already point to hot conditions for outdoor activities in summer during afternoons, especially along the coast but also for continental regions, resulting in a reduction of the climate tourism potential. In the future, this trend looks set to increase, possibly leading to a changing tourism sector in Croatia requiring adaptation and new strategies.

  20. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign. PMID:24851633

  1. First case of Q fever endocarditis in Croatia and a short review.

    PubMed

    Zekanović, Drazen; Morović, Miro; Borcilo, Marina Nekić; Rode, Oktavija Daković

    2010-09-01

    We present a 70-year-old man from Dalmatia, Croatia, with a history of prolonged high fever diagnosed as Q fever endocarditis. As far as we know, this is the first case of chronic Q fever in Croatia. The treatment was started as for culture-negative endocarditis, but was without clinical response. After significantly high anti-phase I IgG plus IgA antibodies titers to Coxiella burnetii were shown, the initial treatment with doxycycline was changed and ciprofloxacin was started with good clinical response. PMID:20977118

  2. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  3. Dew and rain water collection in the Dalmatian Coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk, I.

    2009-06-01

    Passive dew harvesting and rainwater collection requires a very small financial investment but can exploit a free, clean (outside urban/industrial zones) and inexhaustible source of water. This study investigates the relative contributions of dew and rain water in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. In addition, we evaluate the utility of transforming abandoned roof rain collectors ("impluviums") to collect dew water too. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 and October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m 2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data (air temperature and relative humidity, cloud cover, windspeed and direction). Maximum yields were 0.41 mm in Zadar and 0.6 mm in Komiža. The mean yearly cumulative dew yields were found to be 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). Because of its physical setting, Komiža represents a poor location for dew collection. However, during the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. Refurbishing the abandoned impluviums to permit dew collection could then provide useful supplementary water, especially during the dry season. As an example, the 1300 m 2 impluvium at Pod\\vspilje near Komiža could provide, in addition to rain water, 14,000 L dew water per year.

  4. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m(3)) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m(3). Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration. PMID:22410823

  5. Larger benthic foraminifera of the Paleogene Promina Beds (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosovic, V.; Mrinjek, E.; Drobne, K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to add more information about complex origin of Promina Beds (traditionally interpreted as Paleogene molasse of Dinarides), two sections (Lišani Ostrovački and Ostrovica, Central Dalmatia, Croatia) have been studied in detail. Sampled carbonate sequences contain predominantly coralline red algae, larger benthic foraminifera and corals. Based on sedimentary textures, nummulitid (Nummulites s.str and Asterigerina sp.) test shapes and the associated skeletal components, altogether three types of the Middle Eocene (Lutetian to Bartonian) facies were recognized. The Ostrovica section is composed of alternating couples of marly limestones and marls, several decimeters thick with great lateral continuity. Two facies which vertically alternate are recognized as Nummulites - Asterigerina facies, where patchily dispersed large, robust and party reworked larger benthic foraminifera constitute 20% and small bioclasts (fomaniniferal fragments and whole tests less than 3 mm in diameters) 10% of rock volume and, Coral - Red algal facies with coral fragments of solitary and colonial taxa up to 1 cm in size constitute 5 - 40%, red algae 15 - 60% and lager benthic foraminifera up to 5% of rock volume. The textural and compositional differences among the facies suggest rhythmic exchanges of conditions that characterize shallower part of the mesophotic zone with abundant nummulithoclasts with deeper mesophotic, lime mud-dominated settings where nummulitids with the flat tests, coralline red algae and scleractinian corals are common. The scleractinian corals (comprising up to 20% of rock volume) encrusted by foraminifera (Acervulina, Haddonia and nubeculariids) or coralline red algae and foraminiferal assemblage made of orthophragminid and nummulitid tests scattered in matrix, are distributed uniformly throughout the studied Lišani Ostrovački section. In the central part of section, wavy to smooth thin (< 1 mm) crusts (laminas) alternating with encrusted corals occur. The

  6. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  7. Teaching Classification To Fit a Modern and Sustainable LIS Curriculum: The Case of Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavic, Aida

    Library classification at the Croatian library school of the Department of Information Sciences, University of Zagreb (Croatia) has an important place in the department's curriculum. This is due to the fact that classification is the most important indexing language in Croatian libraries and documentation centers and services, and its role has not…

  8. Action Research as a Tool of Professional Development of Advisers and Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim; Milovic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Whilst educational action research is not unknown in Croatia, its use is not widespread. In part, this might be because action research assumes a high level of autonomy for practitioner-researchers, and a constructivist view of knowledge, neither of which are traditional characteristics of the Croatian system. This article reports on a capacity…

  9. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  10. Investigating Parents' Attitudes towards Digital Technology Use in Early Childhood: A Case Study from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikelic Preradovic, Nives; Lešin, Gordana; Šagud, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate perceptions of parents in Croatia towards advantages and disadvantages of computer use in general as well as their children's computer use and to reveal parents' concerns and opinions about digital technology (DT) education in kindergarten. The paper reports on research findings from one of the large public…

  11. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  12. Historical and contemporary population genetics of the invasive western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lemic, D; Mikac, K M; Bažok, R

    2013-08-01

    Classical population genetic analyses were used to investigate populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Croatia in 1996 and 2009. The number of alleles was low in both 1996 and 2009; however, more alleles were found in the putative populations surveyed in 2009. Croatia had only 51% of the alleles recorded from the United States and 69% from Europe. However, 10 private (unique) alleles were found in Croatia, which were not found previously in Europe. Most populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, although no linkage disequilibrium was found. Low to no genetic differentiation was found between population pairwise comparisons in 1996, with a greater level of differentiation found between populations sampled in 2009. Using the program STRUCTURE, a single genetic cluster was found for populations sampled in 1996 and 2009. However, two genetic clusters were detected when the 1996 and 2009 data were combined, indicating significant temporal differentiation. Isolation by distance pattern of gene flow characterized populations sampled in 2009 only when the most distant population of Ogulin (the head of the expansion front) was included in the analysis. When Ogluin was excluded from the 2009 analysis no isolation by distance pattern was found. The possible impact that control practices have had on the population genetics of D. v. virgifera in Croatia from 1996 to 2009 are discussed in light of the temporal genetics differences found. PMID:23905746

  13. Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery. (SK)

  14. Mental Health Consequences in Men Exposed to Sexual Abuse during the War in Croatia and Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero

    2010-01-01

    In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the…

  15. A Language Academy by Any Other Name(s): The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Keith; Peti-Stantic, Anita

    2011-01-01

    There are three main institutions in Croatia today that are actively engaged in language management activities on the national level: The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, The Council for the Norms of the Croatian Standard Language, and the Institute for the Croatian Language and Linguistics. Their efforts are focused on establishing the…

  16. Creating an Intercultural Learning Opportunity: Zagreb, Croatia and Plattsburgh, New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountcastle, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2009 I embarked on a teaching experiment in which I joined an online SUNY-Plattsburgh class taking my Anthropology of Human Rights course with a conventional class at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, where I was a visiting professor teaching the same course. My motivations were several, but prominent among them was to test the…

  17. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  18. Building a Team of Passionate Callers to Enrich Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojsic, Jasenka; Magzan, Masa

    2010-01-01

    This article is about a group of eight people joined by a common idea--a strong call to enrich education in Croatia so that it motivates leadership and empowers children. Through use of philosophy and methodology of Appreciative Inquiry, this informal group of people has gradually developed into the core team of a potential national movement.…

  19. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  20. Modelling soil properties in a crop field located in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunovic, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Millan, Mesic; Percin, Aleksandra; Zgorelec, Zeljka

    2016-04-01

    Development of tillage activities had negative effects on soil quality as destruction of soil horizons, compacting and aggregates destruction, increasing soil erosion and loss of organic matter. For a better management in order to mitigate the effects of intensive soil management in land degradation it is fundamental to map the spatial distribution of soil properties (Brevik et al., 2016). The understanding the distribution of the variables in space is very important for a sustainable management, in order to identify areas that need a potential intervention and decrease the economic losses (Galiati et al., 2016). The objective of this work is study the spatial distribution of some topsoil properties as clay, fine silt, coarse silt, fine sand, coarse sand, penetration resistance, moisture and organic matter in a crop field located in Croatia. A grid with 275x25 (625 m2) was designed and a total of 48 samples were collected. Previous to data modelling, data normality was checked using the Shapiro wilk-test. As in previous cases (Pereira et al., 2015), data did not followed the normal distribution, even after a logarithmic (Log), square-root, and box cox transformation. Thus, for modeling proposes, we used the log transformed data, since was the closest to the normality. In order to identify groups among the variables we applied a principal component analysis (PCA), based on the correlation matrix. On average clay content was 15.47% (±3.23), fine silt 24.24% (±4.08), coarse silt 35.34% (±3.12), fine sand 20.93% (±4.68), coarse sand 4.02% (±1.69), penetration resistance 0.66 MPa (±0.28), organic matter 1.51% (±0.25) and soil moisture 32.04% (±3.27). The results showed that the PCA identified three factors explained at least one of the variables. The first factor had high positive loadings in soil clay, fine silt and organic matter and a high negative loading in fine sand. The second factor had high positive loadings in coarse sand and moisture and a high

  1. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Extreme Soil Temperature in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja

    2015-04-01

    In terms of taking the temperature of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil temperature started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain temperature series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term temperature series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of extreme soil temperatures, which are not real extreme values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil temperature, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the variability of the surface maximal soil temperature on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil temperature. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil temperature in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the

  2. Freshwater and brackish bryozoan species of Croatia (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata, Phylactolaemata) and their genetic identification.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Novosel, Maja; Koletić, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater and brackish species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata class. Twelve species of bryozoans were recorded and morphologically determined at eight locations in the Black Sea and the Adriatic basin in Croatia. Twelve species of Bryozoa have been listed in the taxonomic index for Croatia (Conopeum seurati, Lophopus crystallinus Paludicella articulata, Cristatella mucedo, Fredericella sultana, Hyalinella punctata, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella emarginata, Plumatella fruticosa, Plumatella fungosa, Plumatella geimermassardi and Plumatella repens). For the purposes of gene identification of recorded species, molecular markers for nuclear 18S and 28S genes, ITS2 region and mitochondrial COI gene were amplified. Genetic identifications of morphologically determined bryozoan species were confirmed using highly similar sequences local alignment analysis. Proliferation of freshwater bryozoan species over long distances with the help of the vector animals was confirmed by defining haplotypes on the base of 18S, 28S and ITS2 sequences associated with the Black Sea-Mediterranean waterfowl flyway. PMID:26624355

  3. Usage of Alternative, Environmentally Acceptable Materials—Experience from Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišić, I.; Zagvozda, M.; Dimter, S.

    2015-11-01

    The concept of sustainability should be the main guiding principle in the construction industry today. It mandates conservation of natural resources and thus lower impact on the environment. In road construction, part of construction industry that consumes largest quantities of natural materials, sustainable building and maintenance of roads is possible trough application of secondary materials. Usage of industrial and construction waste presents energy, ecologically and financially effective alternative. Republic of Croatia, even as a new member of the European Union, still lags behind the well-established practices of the application of alternative materials in different European countries. The reasons for this can be found in the current legal and technical regulations for alternative materials. In this paper, the existing regulations for alternative materials and the impact they have on the application of these materials in practice in the region of eastern Croatia will be shown.

  4. Awareness and Use of Evidence-based Medicine Databases and Cochrane Library Among Physicians in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Katarina; Mirić, Dino; Jurin, Ana; Vukojević, Katarina; Aljinović, Jure; Čarić, Ana; Marinović Guić, Maja; Poljičanin, Ana; Košta, Vana; Rako, Dalibora; Marušić, Ana; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess awareness and use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) databases and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study with a telephone survey was performed among 573 physicians (88.6% response rate from 647 contacted physicians) from family practice and 4 major university hospital centers in Croatia. The main outcome measures were physicians' awareness of The Cochrane Collaboration, awareness and use of The Cochrane Library, access to EBM databases, and access to internet at work. Results Overall, 54% of respondents said they had access to EBM databases, but when asked which databases they used, they named mostly non-EBM databases. The question on the highest level of evidence in EBM was correctly answered by 53% respondents, 30% heard of The Cochrane Collaboration, and 34% heard about The Cochrane Library. They obtained information about The Cochrane Library mostly from colleagues and research articles, whereas the information about EBM was gained mainly during continuous medical education. There were more respondents who thought The Cochrane Library could help them in practice (58%) than those who heard about The Cochrane Library (30%). Only 20% of the respondents heard about the initiative for the establishment of the Croatian branch of The Cochrane Collaboration. Family physicians had significantly lower level of awareness, knowledge, and use of EBM and The Cochrane Library than physicians from university hospitals. Conclusion There is low awareness about EBM and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia, which creates a need for educational interventions about EBM for the benefit of health care in Croatia. PMID:20401959

  5. Schizophrenia in Croatia: interregional differences in prevalence and a comment on constant incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Folnegović, Z; Folnegović-Smalc, V

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine why differences exist in schizophrenia prevalence and risk in some areas of Croatia, when schizophrenia incidence rates do not appear to vary. DESIGN--Areas differing by schizophrenia admission rates in patients born in 1953 and admitted by the age of 31 years are compared using a number of indicators relating both to general population characteristics and to those of schizophrenic cases in these populations. SETTING--The study covers the whole of Croatia (4,601,469 inhabitants, 1981 census). SUBJECTS--By the age of 31 years, out of 80,445 individuals born in Croatia in 1953, 464 were admitted for and diagnosed as having schizophrenia. MAIN RESULTS--Admission risk rates are higher in those parts of Croatia where emigration rates are high and lower where immigration rates are high. There is also a positive correlation with schizophrenia prevalence and manic depressive psychosis rates. There is a negative correlation with age of onset of schizophrenia and with schizophrenic reproduction rates. In the study areas, hospital incidence rates are not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS--Economic migration and negative selection in the domestic population are likely to be the most significant factors leading to differences in schizophrenia prevalence. The approximately equal incidence rates in the population, with different prevalence and admission risks, are linked to differences in the disease onset among schizophrenics with a positive family history for this condition. In other words, these patients, when part of the population with a greater prevalence and a greater hereditary loading, experience the onset more often at an earlier age. Thus they have a lower reproduction rate than in a population with a lower prevalence and a lower hereditary loading. Thus incidence rates in populations with different prevalences and different hereditary loads are maintained roughly equal over generations. Images PMID:1645081

  6. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. Methods 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. Results The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10–19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Conclusions Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation. PMID:26376183

  7. [Succinylcholine use by anesthesiologists in Croatia--is it really abandoned?].

    PubMed

    Carev, Mladen; Karanović, Nenad; Ujević, Ante; Kardum, Goran; Cengić, Vesna; Funck, Natasha; Culić, Natasa; Racić, Goran; Dogas, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to establish the prevalence of succinylcholine use among Croatian anesthesiologists in adult elective and emergency surgery, as well as in pediatric surgery, regarding gender, position, working place, and working experience of physicians. The anesthesiologists were expected to express their personal opinions regarding the drug, as well as experienced side effects in their own clinical practice. A total of 125 anesthesiologists (out of 590 in Croatia) from both university and county hospitals in Croatia anonymously filled out the questionnaire regarding the use of succinylcholine (Appendix 1). The questionnaire was structured to assess the use of succinylcholine in adult elective and emergency surgery, and in pediatric anesthesia, to obtain the reasons for the preference or rejection of succinylcholine, and information about observed side effects. The differences in use regarding gender, position, working place, and working experience were tested using chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Vast majority (approximately 70%) of anesthesiologists in Croatia still use succinylcholine. The percentages of anesthesiologists that never use succinylcholine in adult elective, adult emergency and pediatric surgery were 20%, 6%, and 31%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the use of succinylcholine regarding position, working place, and working experience, but male anesthesiologists used it less frequently in pediatric anesthesia compared with their female colleagues (chi2 = 5.08; p = 0.02). Forty-two per cent never experienced a complication from the drug use. The most frequently reported side effects were bradycardias (67%) and myalgias (54%), followed by prolonged blockade (33%), and allergy (33%). Asystole was reported by 10% of the respondents. In conclusion, succinylcholine is still widely used by anesthesiologists in Croatia. The majority of surveyed physicians were aware of its possible dangerous

  8. Differences in the Fitness Levels of Urban and Rural Middle School Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Dario; Bernstein, Eve R.; Podnar, Hrvoje; Vozzolo, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that suburban youth are more fit than urban youth in Croatia. Method: Differences (p < 0.05) in fitness levels and motor abilities of 9,164 (F = 4,671, M = 4,493) Croatian children (age range: 11-14 years) from urban (F = 1,380, M = 1,268), mixed rural-urban (F = 274, M = 289), and rural (F = 3017, M = 2936) areas were…

  9. The presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on large pig breeding farms in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Habrun, Boris; Račić, Ivana; Beck, Relja; Budimir, Ana; Benić, Miroslav; Kompes, Gordan; Spičić, Silvio; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2011-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged worldwide and have become resistant to a variety of antibiotics. MRSA colonisation in pigs was first reported from the Netherlands in 2005, where pigs were implicated as a source of human MRSA infections (Voss et al., 2005). This paper presents the first report on the presence of MRSA on large pig breeding farms in Croatia, together with the determination of the mecA gene, the results of spa typing and susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. Dust samples (7-11 per farm) were collected from eight large pig farms in Croatia. Of the total 68 swabs, the mecA gene was detected in 24 isolates growing on the MRSA agar. All isolates were resistant to oxacillin, tetracycline and streptomycin, and susceptible only to vancomycin, while 92% of the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Genotyping of the MRSA strains was performed by spa typing, and revealed t011 (n = 17), t034 (n = 5) and t1451 (n = 2). The results presented here predict that MRSA is present on a large number of pig farms in Croatia. PMID:22079702

  10. Association among Education Level, Occupation Status, and Consanguinity in Tunisia and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kerkeni, Emna; Monastiri, Kamel; Saket, Besma; Rudan, Diana; Zgaga, Lina; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between education level, occupation status (a proxy for socio-economic status), and consanguinity in 2 large data sets from Tunisia and Croatia countries with different attitudes toward consanguinity. Methods The sample of 1016 students, attending 5 university institutions in Monastir, Tunisia, were interviewed about the educational level and occupation status of their parents and the degree of parental relatedness. In Croatia, a sample of 1001 examinees from 9 isolated island populations was interviewed about their own educational level, occupation status, and consanguinity. Results Prevalence of consanguinity (offspring of second cousins or closer) among 1016 Tunisian students was 20.1%, and 9.3% among 1001 Croatian isolates. In Tunisia, the association between consanguinity and both parental degree of education and parental occupation status was highly significant in women (P<0.001), but not significant in men. In Croatia, no statistically significant associations were noted, although there was a consistent trend of increased prevalence of consanguinity with lower education level or occupation status in both genders, but more pronounced in women. Conclusion Association between education level, socio-economic status, and consanguinity needs to be taken into account in inbreeding studies in human populations. The relationship may be specific for each studied population and highly dependent on the cultural context. It is generally more pronounced among women in most settings. PMID:16912991

  11. Serological, Bacteriological, and Molecular Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Domestic Animals in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Špičić, Silvio; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Račić, Ivana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Cvetnić, Željko

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present the surveillance data on Brucella melitensis, B. suis, and B. ovis infection in cattle, sheep, goats, and swine in Croatia obtained in 2008 by serological, bacteriological, and molecular methods for diagnostics of brucellosis in domestic animals. Methods We serologically tested 42 785 cattle serums, 22 686 sheep and goat serums, and 28 520 swine serums using the Rose Bengal test, complement fixation test, and various immunosorbent assays. We also tested 10 173 ram blood samples for B. ovis infection using the complement fixation test. Bacteriological examination was conducted on 214 samples collected from 34 serologically positive animals. Different molecular methods were employed in the identification and typing of 20 isolates from the samples. Results B. melitensis biovar (bv.) 3 was confirmed with different identification methods in 2 flocks in 2 Croatian counties and B. suis bv. 2 in 3 herds in 3 counties. B. melitensis in cows was confirmed for the first time in Croatia. Infection with B. ovis was serologically confirmed in 202 rams in 12 counties. Conclusions In 2008, the size of the brucellosis-affected area in Croatia and the efficiency of detection and prevention of brucellosis in sheep, goats, and swine were satisfactory. Infection with B. melitensis in cattle was confirmed for the first time and possible links for infection in humans were detected. More efficient measures for suppression and control of ovine epididymitis are required and a new strategy may be necessary for complete eradication of this disease. PMID:20718085

  12. Can Croatia join Europe as competitive knowledge-based society by 2010?

    PubMed

    Petrovecki, Mladen; Paar, Vladimir; Primorac, Dragan

    2006-12-01

    The 21st century has brought important changes in the paradigms of economic development, one of them being a shift toward recognizing knowledge and information as the most valuable commodities of today. The European Union (EU) has been working hard to become the most competitive knowledge-based society in the world, and Croatia, an EU candidate country, has been faced with a similar task. To establish itself as one of the best knowledge-based country in the Eastern European region over the next 4 years, Croatia realized it has to create an education and science system correspondent with European standards and sensitive to labor market needs. For that purpose, the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (MSES) has created and started implementing a complex strategy, consisting of the following key components: the reform of education system in accordance with the Bologna Declaration; stimulation of scientific production by supporting national and international research projects; reversing the "brain drain" into "brain gain" and strengthening the links between science and technology; and informatization of the whole education and science system. In this comprehensive report, we describe the implementation of these measures, whose coordination with the EU goals presents a challenge, as well as an opportunity for Croatia to become a knowledge-based society by 2010. PMID:17167853

  13. Serologic evidence of Leptospira spp. serovars in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slavica, Alen; Konjevic, Dean; Huber, Duro; Milas, Zoran; Turk, Nenad; Sindicic, Magda; Severin, Kresimir; Dezdek, Danko; Masek, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples from 52 free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) collected in Croatia over a period of 10 yr (1998-2007) were tested by microscopic agglutination test for specific antibodies (Ab) to 12 Leptospira spp. pathogenic serovars. At titers ranging from 1:100 to 1:2,000, 19 samples (36.5%) were Abpositive to at least one serovar. Antibodies for 10 Leptospira spp. serovars were detected: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, Sejroe, Canicola, Poi, Hardjo, Ballum, Saxkoebing, Pomona, and Grippotyphosa. In comparison to previous reports, the prevalence of Ab to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae (52.6%) was significantly higher. Other common serovars were Australis (47.4%) and Sejroe (42.1%). High Ab titers for serovars Canicola (1:500) and Grippotyphosa (1:1,000) were detected for the first time in free-ranging bears from Croatia. A significant correlation between the age of the bears and detection of Ab to Leptospira spp. serovars suggested the presence of pathogenic agents in the natural habitats, whereas increasing trends of Ab prevalence for specific serovars (Icter-ohaemorrhagiae, Australis, and Sejroe) confirmed cohabitation of bears with rats and other small terrestrial mammals on garbage dumps and at bear feeding stations. To prevent cohabitation of bears and rodents, improvements in Croatian waste treatment, big game management, and rodent control programs are strongly recommended, especially in Lika and Gorski Kotar, regions that have high-quality natural habitats for brown bears in Croatia. PMID:20090039

  14. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Croatia: regulation of the profession.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Topic, Elizabeta; Cvoriscec, Dubravka; Cepelak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity exists across Europe in the definition of the profession of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine and also in academic background of specialists in this discipline. This article provides an overview of the standards of education and training of laboratory professionals and quality regulations in Croatia. Clinical chemistry in Croatia is almost exclusively practiced by medical biochemists. Although term Medical biochemist often relates to medical doctors in other European countries, in Croatia medical biochemists are not medical doctors, but university degree professionals who are qualified scientifically. Practicing the medical biochemistry is regulated by The Health Care Law, The Law of the Medical Biochemistry Profession and The Law of the State and Private Health Insurance. According to the law, only medical biochemists are entitled to run and work in the medical biochemistry laboratory. University degree is earned after the 5 years of the studies. Register for medical biochemists is kept by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. Licensing is mandatory, valid for 6 years and regulated by the government (Law on the Health Care, 1993). Vocational training for medical biochemists lasts 44 months and is regulated by the national regulatory document issued by the Ministry of Health. Accreditation is not mandatory and is provided by an independent, non-commercial national accreditation body. The profession has interdisciplinary character and a level of required competence and skills comparable to other European countries. PMID:22141201

  15. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-02-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. PMID:26711522

  16. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the old institutionalized people in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Nevajda, Branimir; Havelka-Mestrović, Ana; Bilić, Morana; Nevajda, Andreja Podvez; Romić, Dominik; Vuletić, Vladimira; Cukljek, Snjezana; Sicaja, Mario; Bocina, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MeS) is defined by a cluster of abnormalities comprising obesity, hypertension, carbohydrate intolerance and dyslipidemia. MeS increases the risk of developing various diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral angiopathy and type 2 diabetes. In our study, the subjects were 561 persons, residents of 11 homes for the elderly in Zagreb, Croatia. There were 160 men (28.5%) and 401 women (71.5%), aged from 56 to 96 years (the average being 79 years). Physical examination was conducted, which included blood pressure measurement, and body height and weight. Blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Along with other biochemical parameters, the levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol (LDL, HDL-C) were also measured. The results have shown the prevalence of MeS in the elderly instutionalised people to be in the range of 20.8%, according to WHO criteria. The most common MeS component was hypertension, and it was significantly more frequent in women than in men; also, the elevated triglyceride levels were more often found in women; the difference between men and women was also statistically significant. MeS is a serious and growing health problem not only in Croatia but worldwide as well. Further studies are needed to verify the prevalence of MeS in Croatia, as it is a major risk for CVD and many other severe diseases. PMID:23697274

  17. Characterisation of pseudorabies virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Keros, Tomislav; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Dežđek, Danko; Jemeršić, Lorena; Roić, Besi; Bedeković, Tomislav

    2014-12-01

    Serological data imply that pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) is present in domestic pigs and wild boars in Croatia. Therefore, this study included testing of brain tissue samples collected from 200 domestic pigs and 105 wild boars originating from seventeen districts of Croatia. The presence of pseudorabies virus (PrV) DNA was confirmed in samples originating from six domestic pigs (3%) and one wild boar (0.95%). Positive samples were sequenced and analysed on the basis of a gC genome fragment. PrV strains have shown to be genetically identical and they are strongly related to some representative strains in the relatively heterogeneous Clade A. The results clearly show that PrV is still circulating among the domestic pig population in Croatia. Furthermore, the presence of pseudorabies virus in wild boars underlines the importance of this species as a PrV reservoir. Continued surveillance is necessary to track the viral spread in order to achieve final eradication of the disease. PMID:25410393

  18. Multiple criteria approach to site selection of radioactive waste disposal facility in the Republic of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, A.; Skanata, D.

    1995-12-31

    Site selection approach to radioactive waste disposal facility, which is under way in Croatia, is presented in the paper. This approach is based on application of certain relevant terrestrial and technical criteria in the site selection process. Basic documentation used for this purpose are regional planning documents prepared by the Regional Planning Institute of Croatia. The basic result of research described in the paper is the proposal of several potential areas which are suitable for siting a radioactive waste repository. All relevant conclusions are based on both data groups -- generic and on-field experienced (measured). Out of a dozen potential areas, four have been chosen as representative by the authors. The presented comparative analysis was made by means of the VISA II computer code, developed by the V. Belton and SPV Software Products. The code was donated to the APO by the IAEA. The main objective of the paper is to initiate and facilitate further discussions on possible ways of evaluation and comparison of potential areas for sitting of radioactive waste repository in this country, as well as to provide additional contributions to the current site selection process in the Republic of Croatia.

  19. Can Croatia Join Europe as Competitive Knowledge-based Society by 2010?

    PubMed Central

    Petrovečki, Mladen; Paar, Vladimir; Primorac, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The 21st century has brought important changes in the paradigms of economic development, one of them being a shift toward recognizing knowledge and information as the most important factors of today. The European Union (EU) has been working hard to become the most competitive knowledge-based society in the world, and Croatia, an EU candidate country, has been faced with a similar task. To establish itself as one of the best knowledge-based country in the Eastern European region over the next four years, Croatia realized it has to create an education and science system correspondent with European standards and sensitive to labor market needs. For that purpose, the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (MSES) has created and started implementing a complex strategy, consisting of the following key components: the reform of education system in accordance with the Bologna Declaration; stimulation of scientific production by supporting national and international research projects; reversing the “brain drain” into “brain gain” and strengthening the links between science and technology; and informatization of the whole education and science system. In this comprehensive report, we describe the implementation of these measures, whose coordination with the EU goals presents a challenge, as well as an opportunity for Croatia to become a knowledge-based society by 2010. PMID:17167853

  20. Crveno jezero - the biggest sinkhole in Dinaric Karst (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.

    2012-04-01

    fascinating and has been measured on a number of occasions. Valuable and interesting data about the lake depth, as presented by academician Milivoj Petrik in 1955, show that the lake is about 250 meters deep, which discouraged any attempts to dive to the bottom of the lake. During the 5th International Congress of Speleology held in Stuttgart in Germany, Croatian cavers and speleologists have tried to add the Red Lake to the list of deepest pits in the world, as its real depth amounted to 518 meters at the time. However, the response of the documentation committee was that the depth had not been duly documented, that no man has been at such depth etc., although in reality it is a real pit one half of which is filled with water. In late 1970's and early 1980's the speleodiving activities rapidly gathered momentum in all parts of the world and it is in this period that deepest dives were made at the source called Fontaine de Vaucluse. At that time, a special underwater vehicle, the so called "Speleonaut", attained (without crew) the depth of 315 meters. Similar vehicle called Hyball descended down to the depth of 165 meters in Hranicke propasti in Czech Republic. These speleological structures are therefore considered as sufficiently documented and, as such, they have been added to the list of the world's deepest water structures. In 1980's speleodiving has became an increasingly popular cave exploration method in Croatia. Thus, the decision was made to contact the world's best speleodivers and invite them to investigate the Red Lake. In 1981, during their stay in the USA, Dr. Mladen Garašić contacted Mr. Jochan Hassenmayer who was at that time the best speleodiver of the world. However, because of political climate that prevailed in that period, Mr. Hassenmayer finally decided not to come to our country. In an unfortunate turn of events, this diver was later affected with a permanent disability. In the course of 1989 and 1990, Dr. Garašić established contact with Mr. Sheck

  1. Genus Neelus Folsom, 1896 (Hexapoda, Collembola) reveals its diversity in cave habitats: two new species from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Lukić, Marko; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Neelus Folsom, 1896, N. cvitanovici sp. nov. and N. lackovici sp. nov., are described from caves of Croatia. N. lackovici sp. nov. exhibit marked troglomorphic features such as extremely elongated ungua and antennae, larger body among others. Descriptions are completed with comparative tables for chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for the congeners and identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Neelus species in Croatian caves are added. Threats of troglobiotic Neelus species in Croatia are discussed. PMID:27394325

  2. Trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Croatia, 1988 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Mateja; Samaržija, Miroslav; Jakopović, Marko; Kuliš, Tomislav; Znaor, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To describe and interpret lung cancer incidence and mortality trends in Croatia between 1988 and 2008. Methods Incidence data on lung cancer for the period 1988-2008 were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry, while mortality data were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Population estimates for Croatia were obtained from the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. We also calculated and analyzed age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. To describe time incidence and mortality trends, we used joinpoint regression analysis. Results Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in men decreased significantly in all age groups younger than 70 years. Age-standardized incidence rates in men decreased significantly by -1.3% annually. Joinpoint analysis of mortality in men identified three trends, and average annual percent change (AAPC) decreased significantly by -1.1%. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in women increased significantly in all age groups older than 40 years and decreased in younger women (30-39- years). Age-standardized incidence rates increased significantly by 1.7% annually. Joinpoint analysis of age-standardized mortality rates in women identified two trends, and AAPC increased significantly by 1.9%. Conclusion Despite the overall decreasing trend, Croatia is still among the European countries with the highest male lung cancer incidence and mortality. Although the incidence trend in women is increasing, their age standardized incidence rates are still 5-fold lower than in men. These trends follow the observed decrease and increase in the prevalence of male and female smokers, respectively. These findings indicate the need for further introduction of smoking prevention and cessation policies targeting younger population, particularly women. PMID:22522986

  3. Population data for 17 short tandem repeat loci on Y chromosome in northern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gršković, Branka; Mršić, Gordan; Polašek, Ozren; Vrdoljak, Andro; Merkaš, Siniša; Anđelinović, Simun

    2011-03-01

    Human Y-short tandem repeats (STRs) are tandem repeat arrays of two to seven base pair units on non-recombining region (NRY) of the human Y chromosome. Studies on Y-STR are interesting in both population genetics and forensics. The aim of this study was to investigate the population genetic properties of 17 STR loci on Y chromosome in the northern Croatia region. We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analysis collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre "Ivan Vučetić". A total of 220 unrelated healthy men from northern Croatia were selected for the purpose of this study. Genomic DNA was extracted using Chelex procedure from FTA(®) cards. Y-chromosomal STRs were determined using the AmpFISTR Yfiler PCR amplification kit. The haplotype frequencies were determined by direct counting and analyzed using Arlequin 3.1 and analysis of molecular variance calculated with the Y chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool. A total of 210 haplotypes were identified, 200 of which were unique. Total haplotype diversity was 0.995. Locus diversity varied from 0.331 for DYS392 to 0.783 for DYS385 locus. Allele frequencies diversity was 0.662. Discrimination capacity was 95.7%. The use of European minimal haplotype set indicated the most resemblance of this population to the Croatian capital of Zagreb, with modest resemblance to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Hungary. This article provides the first overview of the Y chromosome STR variability in northern Croatia, thus providing the referent point for any future forensic and genetic epidemiology efforts in this region. PMID:20859689

  4. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self

  5. Analysis of 12 X-chromosomal markers in the population of central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnjac, Josip; Ozretić, Petar; Merkaš, Siniša; Ratko, Martina; Lozančić, Mateja; Rožić, Sara; Špoljarić, Daniel; Korolija, Marina; Popović, Maja; Mršić, Gordan

    2016-07-01

    Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit is a commercially available set that allows simultaneous PCR amplification of 12 X-STR markers belonging to four linkage groups (LG). To assess the forensic efficiency of these markers for the population of central Croatia and consequent applicability in routine forensic casework, DNA from 200 blood samples of unrelated donors (100 female and 100 male) was amplified by Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Statistical computations based on allele and haplotype frequencies for LG1 - LG4 were performed using Arlequin 3.5 software and on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org. In female samples, all X-STR markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The most informative marker for central Croatia population was DXS10135 with polymorphism information content (PIC) 0.9296. The least polymorphic locus was DXS8378 (PIC=0.6363). Power of discrimination (PD) varied from 0.6968 to 0.9336 in male and from 0.8476 to 0.9916 in female samples. Combined PD exceeded 0.999999999 in both men and women. In male samples, linkage disequilibrium (LD) test revealed significant association (P=0.0000) of one marker pair in LG4 and two marker pairs in LG3. Portion of observed haplotypes in the number of possible haplotypes varied from 2.86% to 7.47% across all LGs. LG1 was the most informative with haplotype diversity (H) 0.9972. High PD of all analyzed markers exhibited for central Croatia population confirms suitability of Investigator® Argus X-12 for forensic pertinence. Moreover, results of this study will be included in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 12 X-STR loci, which is necessary for the correct interpretation of the forensic casework results. PMID:27497338

  6. Analysis of 8 X-chromosomal markers in the population of central Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Gršković, Branka; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Popović, Maja; Primorac, Dragan; Mršić, Gordan

    2013-01-01

    Aim To analyze 8 X-linked short tandem repeat (STR) markers in the population of central Croatia and to evaluate their forensic efficiency. Methods We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analyses, collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre ‘‘Ivan Vučetić.’’ Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR amplification kit was used for typing the data of 99 unrelated healthy women and 78 men from central Croatia. Haplotype frequencies were calculated only in male samples. Arlequin 3.5 software was used to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), observed and expected heterozygosity. Power of discrimination (PD) for men and women, polymorphism information content (PIC), power of exclusion, and mean exclusion chance for deficiency cases, normal trios, and duos were determined using online database ChrX-STR.org. Results In female samples, deviations from HWE (P = 0.006) for each locus were not found. LD test performed both on female and male samples revealed no significant association between markers (P = 0.002). DXS10135 was the most polymorphic locus (PIC = 0.931). PD varied from 0.692 to 0.935 in male and from 0.845 to 0.992 in female samples. Combined PD reached 99.999999% in men and 99.9999999999% in women. Conclusion Performed analyses revealed that the studied marker set contained polymorphic markers with high power of discrimination. We can conclude that Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR kit is suitable for application in the population of central Croatia. Results of this study, together with collected allele and haplotype frequencies, are the first step in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 8 X-STR loci. PMID:23771754

  7. Patient radiation doses in the most common interventional cardiology procedures in Croatia: first results.

    PubMed

    Brnić, Z; Krpan, T; Faj, D; Kubelka, D; Ramac, J Popić; Posedel, D; Steiner, R; Vidjak, V; Brnić, V; Visković, K; Baraban, V

    2010-02-01

    Apart from its benefits, the interventional cardiology (IC) is known to generate high radiation doses to patients and medical staff involved. The European Union Medical Exposures Directive 97/43/Euroatom strongly recommend patient dosimetry in interventional radiology, including IC. IC patient radiation doses in four representative IC rooms in Croatia were investigated. Setting reference levels for these procedures have difficulties due to the large difference in procedure complexity. Nevertheless, it is important that some guideline values are available as a benchmark to guide the operators during these potentially high-dose procedures. Local and national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed as a guidance. A total of 138 diagnostic (coronary angiography, CA) and 151 therapeutic (PTCA, stenting) procedures were included. Patient irradiation was measured in terms of kerma-area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine-frames (F). KAP was recorded using calibrated KAP-meters. DRLs of KAP, FT and F were calculated as third quartile values rounded up to the integer. Skin doses were assessed on a selected sample of high skin dose procedures, using radiochromic films, and peak skin doses (PSD) were presented. A relative large range of doses in IC was detected. National DRLs were proposed as follows: 32 Gy cm(2), 6.6 min and 610 frames for CA and 72 Gy cm(2), 19 min and 1270 frames for PTCA. PSD <1 Gy were measured in 72 % and PSD >2 Gy in 8 % of selected patients. Measuring the patient doses in radiological procedures is required by law, but rarely implemented in Croatia. The doses recorded in the study are acceptable when compared with the literature, but optimisation is possible. The preliminary DRL values proposed may be used as a guideline for local departments, and should be a basis for radiation reduction measures and quality assurance programmes in IC in Croatia. PMID:19880413

  8. BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF HEALTH TOURISM SERVICE PROVIDERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Vrkljan, Sanela; Hendija, Zvjezdana

    2016-03-01

    Health tourism can be generally divided into medical, health spa and wellness tourism. Health spa tourism services are provided in special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts, and include under medical supervision controlled use of natural healing factors and physical therapy in order to improve and preserve health. There are 13 special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia. Most of them are financed through the state budget and lesser by sale on the market. More than half of their accommodation capacity is offered for sale on the market while the rest is under contract with the Croatian Health Insurance Fund. Domestic overnights are several times higher than foreign overnights. The aim of this study was to analyze business performance of special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia in relation to the sources of financing and the structure of service users. The assumption was that those who are more market-oriented achieve better business performance. In proving these assumptions, an empirical research was conducted and the assumptions were tested. A positive correlation was proven in tested indicators of business performance of the analyzed service providers of health-spa tourism with a higher amount of overnight stays realized through sales on the market in relation to total overnight stays, with a greater share of foreign overnights in total of overnights and with a higher share of realized revenue on the market out of total revenue. The results of the research show that special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts that are more market-oriented are more successful in their business performance. These findings are important for planning the health and tourism policies in countries like Croatia. PMID:27333722

  9. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia – Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. Methods The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. Results There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (P < 0.001), and in 50.0% VTE was the main cause of death. Estimated incidence of VTE in Croatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Conclusion Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden. PMID:26718761

  10. A Multifaceted Approach to Revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grgurić, Josip; Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Pavičić Bošnjak, Anita; Stanojević, Milan

    2016-08-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in Croatia in 1993. By 1998, 15 of 34 maternity facilities were designated "Baby-Friendly." Introduction of hospital bags, violating the International Code of the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, led to a standstill in the BFHI. The aim of this article is to describe the successful reintroduction of the BFHI in Croatia between 2007 and 2015. After hospital bags were abolished in 2007, UNICEF Croatia undertook an assessment of BFHI implementation. All maternity facilities were invited by UNICEF and the Ministry of Health to join the renewed BFHI. UNICEF materials were translated and training for trainers, assessors, coordinators, and hospital staff held. By June 2015, 30 of 32 (94%) maternity facilities, providing care to 89% of newborns, were Baby-Friendly. Nine maternity hospitals have been renovated and 2 new hospitals have been built. Exclusive breastfeeding rates have risen 16% at 0 to 2 months (from 51% in 2007 to 67% in 2014) and 14% at 3 to 5 months (from 32% in 2007 to 46% in 2014). Fourteen "Breastfeeding-Friendly" primary care practices have been designated, 166 breastfeeding support groups are in operation, criteria for Mother-Friendly care are being piloted in 2 maternity facilities, and "Ten Steps in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" are being introduced. The BFHI provides an excellent opportunity for revitalizing breastfeeding protection, promotion, and support in all settings. Recognition and support of the BFHI by the Croatian government was crucial for implementing the BFHI, whereas the marketing practices of the breast milk substitutes industry are an ongoing challenge. PMID:27121238

  11. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  12. Web-Based Systems Development: Analysis and Comparison of Practices in Croatia and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Vukovac, Dijana Plantak

    The “dot.com” hysteria which sparked fears of a “Web crisis” a decade ago has long subsided and firms established in the 1990 s now have mature development processes in place. This chapter presents a timely re-assessment of the state of Web development practices, comparing data gathered in Croatia and Ireland. Given the growth in popularity of “agile” methods in the past few years, a secondary objective of this research was to analyse the extent to which Web development practices are guided by or otherwise consistent with the underlying principles of agile development.

  13. Characterization and source apportionment of fine particulate sources at Rijeka, Croatia from 2013 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Stelcer, Eduard; Orlić, Ivica; Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Cohen, David

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 daily aerosol samples were collected in Rijeka, Croatia during period from 6th August 2013 to 29th January 2015. In total, 259 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed by PIXE and PIGE techniques to give information on 21 elements from Na to Pb. Additionally, black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method. Results were statistically evaluated using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Eight major pollution sources: auto, smoke, secondary sulfates, heavy oil combustion, sea spray, road dust, industry iron and soil dust were identified together with their relative contributions in total PM2.5 pollution.

  14. New and interesting species of the genus Bryaxis Kugelann, 1794 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlaváč, Peter

    2016-01-01

    New data on the genus Bryaxis Kugelann, 1974 from Croatia are presented. Two new species, Bryaxis bedeki sp. nov. and Bryaxis biokovensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Bryaxis issensis (J. Müller, 1909) is redescribed based on six males collected at the type locality, in the cave Špilja kod Vlore on the island of Vis, and the aedeagus of this species is figured for the first time. New distributional data of Bryaxis scapularis (Reitter, 1881), Bryaxis crepsensis crepsensis (J. Müller, 1947), Bryaxis stolzi (Machulka, 1932), and Bryaxis erichsonii erichsonii (Kiesenwetter, 1849) are also provided. PMID:27470840

  15. Survey for Hantaviruses, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, and Rickettsia spp. in Small Rodents in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunoflourescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava–Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas. PMID:24866325

  16. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship. PMID:24331881

  17. Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

  18. Factors affecting sex ratio at birth in Croatia 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Pavic, Dario

    2012-05-01

    This investigation aims to contribute to the existing literature on demographic and ecological factors affecting the sex ratio at birth, by analysing the births in Croatia from 1998 to 2008. Data from birth certificates for all Croatian births for the investigated period (n=420,256) were used to establish the link between parental ages, birth order, region of birth, parental occupation and parental education level, and sex of the child. The χ² test and t-test were used to assess the significance of each of the factors, along with multiple logistic regression to control for possible confounding effects. The results suggest that a joint higher age of both parents significantly lowers the sex ratio at birth. There is also a regional variation in sex ratio at birth, the lowest value being in Central Croatia and the highest in the City of Zagreb. Changes in the reproductive physiology of older parents are most probably responsible for the lower sex ratio, although the limited sample size warns against widespread generalizations. The causes of the regional variation in sex ratio at birth are most likely the different regional levels of obesity and physical inactivity. PMID:22225622

  19. Current practice variations in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Mahnik, Alan; Mahnik, Silvija; Dimnjakovic, Damjan; Curic, Stjepan; Smoljanovic, Tomislav; Bojanic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate current preferences and opinions on the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in Croatia. METHODS: The survey was conducted using a questionnaire which was sent by e-mail to all 189 members of the Croatian Orthopaedic and Traumatology Association. Only respondents who had performed at least one ACL reconstruction during 2011 were asked to fill out the questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirty nine surgeons responded to the survey. Nearly all participants (95%) used semitendinosus/gracilis tendon autograft for reconstruction and only 5% used bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. No other graft type had been used. The accessory anteromedial portal was preferred over the transtibial approach (67% vs 33%). Suspensory fixation was the most common graft fixation method (62%) for the femoral side, followed by the cross-pin (33%) and bioabsorbable interference screw (5%). Almost all respondents (97%) used a bioabsorbable interference screw for tibial side graft fixation. CONCLUSION: The results show that ACL reconstruction surgery in Croatia is in step with the recommendations from latest world literature. PMID:24147268

  20. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  1. Molecular survey of Babesia microti in wild rodents in central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Relja; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snježana; Mrljak, Vladimir; Margaletić, Josip; Habrun, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Babesia divergens and B. divergens-like organisms are the main causative agents of human babesiosis in Europe. Recently, the first case of human infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in Germany, implicating the presence of zoonotic isolates. To estimate the presence of zoonotic B. microti in Croatia we analyzed 120 small wild mammals that serve as its reservoir by polymerase chain reaction. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) were both found to be infected with prevalence of 16.2%. Sequence analysis of the portion of 18S rDNA gene demonstrated that six polymerase chain reaction-positive samples, detected in both rodent species, were identical to that of the human Jena/Germany strain (EF413181). The other two isolates were identical to the nonzoonotic Munich strain (AB071177). The results of this study indicate the presence of zoonotic B. microti in A. flavicollis and M. glareolus in Croatia and a potential risk for human health. PMID:20553109

  2. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus. PMID:20646832

  3. Lead and cadmium content in human milk from the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Frkovic, A.; Kras, M.; Alebic-Juretic, A.

    1997-01-01

    Though occupational exposure to toxic metals (lead, cadmium) is well documented, harmful effects of environmental exposure to lower levels of these two metals is still under investigation. Most toxic metals are emitted by human activities and the atmosphere is the main transport route for these elements. According to some authors, 332 358 t of lead and 7570 t of cadmium were emitted in the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in 1983. The principle source of lead is traffic, e.g. leaded petrol, still widely used in Croatia, as well as coal combustion, iron and steal production. Volcanic activity, zinc production and waste incineration are the main sources of cadmium. Recent study indicates that traffic could also be the main source of cadmium found along busy streets. Chronic lead exposure at low levels is associated with adverse health effects especially in fetus and young children. This study examines lead and cadmium levels in breast milk from nursing women living in the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnić, Sanja; Beck, Relja; Listeš, Eddy; Lojkić, Ivana; Savini, Giovanni; Roić, Besi

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Insect species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) to susceptible hosts. The infection is present in the Mediterranean region. Recently, it has also been reported in Central, Western, and Northern Europe where BTV‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. In the meantime, BTV‑14 has appeared in the North‑Eastern part of Europe. In the present study, BTV serotype 16 (BTV‑16) was detected by virus neutralisation (VNT)‑assay and real‑time reverse transcription‑PCR (rRT‑PCR) in 1 antelope and BTV‑1 in 3 of 10 Oryx antelopes (Oryx leucoryx) imported in Croatia from the Sultanate of Oman. No BTV vectors were collected during the antelope quarantine on the Veliki Brijun Island. Also, no BTV antibodies were detected in sheep, cattle, and deer on the Island. Entomological studies did not reveal any new vector species that may have been introduced with the infected antelopes on their transportation. It was the first time that BTV was demonstrated in animals imported in Croatia. It involved BTV‑1, which had never been demonstrated before and BTV‑16, which had been previously recorded in domestic ruminants. PMID:26129665

  5. Genetic diversity among human parainfluenza virus type 2 isolated in Croatia between 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Šantak, Maja; Slović, Anamarija; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Mlinarić Galinović, Gordana; Forčić, Dubravko

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics and evolution of the human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) in Croatia, and also globally, are largely unknown. Most HPIV2 infections are treated symptomatically outside the hospital setting. Thus, the diagnosis is missing making it difficult to follow the genetic variation and evolution of the HPIV2. This study explores hospitalized HPIV2 cases in Croatia during 4-year period (2011-2014). Most cases in this period were reported in October or November (68.75%) and most of patients were under 2 years of age (81.25%). For molecular analyses, we used the F and HN gene sequences and showed that although both regions are equally suitable for phylogenetic analyses it would be advantageous to use regions longer than 2 kb for HPIV2 analyses of isolates which are spatially and temporally closely related. We show here that the dominant cluster in this area was cluster G3 while only one strain isolated in this period was positioned in the distant cluster G1a. Further monitoring of the HPIV2 will determine whether cluster G3 will remain dominant or it will be overruled by cluster G1a. This will be important for the surveillance of virus circulation in population and significance of the viral infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1733-1741, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004845

  6. Sexual torture of men in Croatia and other conflict situations: an open secret.

    PubMed

    Oosterhoff, Pauline; Zwanikken, Prisca; Ketting, Evert

    2004-05-01

    Sexual torture constitutes any act of sexual violence which qualifies as torture. Public awareness of the widespread use of sexual torture as a weapon of war greatly increased after the war in the former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. Sexual torture has serious mental, physical and sexual health consequences. Attention to date has focused more on the sexual torture of women than of men, partly due to gender stereotypes. This paper describes the circumstances in which sexual torture occurs, its causes and consequences, and the development of international law addressing it. It presents data from a study in 2000 in Croatia, where the number of men who were sexually tortured appears to have been substantial. Based on in-depth interviews with 16 health professionals and data from the medical records of three centres providing care to refugees and victims of torture, the study found evidence of rape and other forced sexual acts, full or partial castration, genital beatings and electroshock. Few men admit being sexually tortured or seek help, and professionals may fail to recognise cases. Few perpetrators have been prosecuted, mainly due to lack of political will. The silence that envelopes sexual torture of men in the aftermath of the war in Croatia stands in strange contrast to the public nature of the crimes themselves. PMID:15242212

  7. Application of the Cobb-Douglas Model to the Use of Information Resources by Industry in Croatia, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarc, J.; Svarc, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Cobb-Douglas model applied to value added as a function of labor, capital, purchases of information services, and purchases of other input is used to investigate the use of information by the industrial sector of Croatia, Yugoslavia. It is concluded that less than an optimal amount of information resources is being used. (13 references)…

  8. Proceeding of the International Scientific Colloquium: MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (How to Teach and Learn Mathematics) (Osijek, Croatia, April 13, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the Organisational Committee of the international scientific colloquium Mathematics and Children is to encourage additional scientific research in the field of mathematics teaching in Croatia. The development of science and education is a part of a long-term Education Sector Development Plan 2005-2010. Following the example of…

  9. Anaesthesiology activities in Croatia from the first ether narcosis in Zadar in 1847 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    This is a short review of the historical development of anaesthesiology and intensive care in Croatia from its beginning to recent days (2008). Five months after the first public demonstration of ether anaesthesia in the USA, Ivan Bettini followed with the first ether anaesthesia in Zadar, on 13 March 1847. In the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the following doctors wrote about performing anaesthesia: Miroslav Čačković (in 1896), Dragutin Schwarz, Edo Šlajmer, Milan Crljenak, Antun Medanić, BoŽidar Lavrić, Simo Mučalov, Josip Vodenhal, Ante Drešćik, Radoslav Akerman, and Đurđa Klaić. The first endotracheal anaesthesia, was induced by Dr Risto Ivanovski at the military hospital in Zagreb in 1948. Croatian anaesthesiology started to develop in 1950 with the introduction of a one-year postgraduate course in Copenhagen, within the framework of a WHO programme, intended for underdeveloped and developing countries and overseen by the WHO Centre for Anaesthesiology. Croatian physicians attending this course were Andrija Longhino, Jagoda Bolčić Wickerhauser, Miroslav Hromadko, Mara Biondić, and Vlasta Lederer. The first specialists in anaesthesiology in Croatia were urđa Klaić, Ljubomir Ribarić, and Jagoda Bolčić Wickerhauser. In Zagreb, the first postgraduate courses in anaesthesiology were held in 1953, 1955, and 1957. In 2007, the anaesthesiology service in Croatia consisted of three Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinics, three Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Departments, 11 Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Units, 13 Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Services, and eight Anaesthesiology Units within Surgery Departments. It included 481 specialists in anaesthesiology and resuscitation and 172 general physicians specialising in anaesthesiology and resuscitation (totalling 653 in December 2007). This means that one specialist serviced 9,140 people, that is, 6,730 if we include GPs undergoing specialist training

  10. The endemic mollusks reveal history of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia in NW Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandic, Oleg; Kurečić, Tomislav; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fossil mollusk record of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia settled in the southern Pannonian Basin. The samples originate from Vukomeričke gorice, a low hill-range situated north of the Kupa River in the area between the towns of Zagreb, Sisak and Karlovac in NW Croatia. Representing the SW margin of the Lake Slavonia the freshwater deposits alternate there with the alluvial series, providing altogether about 400-m-thick, Pliocene continental succession, known in literature by informal name Paludina beds (acc. to a junior synonym of Viviparus). The endemic fauna of the Lake Slavonia became particularly well-known in the late 19th century after Melchior Neumayr demonstrated that the gradual evolutionary change of the mollusk phenotypes toward more complex morphology represents a function of adaptation to environmental change in the paleolake. Even Charles Darwin commented that result as by far the best case which I have ever met with, showing the direct influence of the conditions of life on the organization. The deposition in the Lake Slavonia (~4.5 to ~1.8 Ma) coincides with the Pliocene Climate Optimum (PCO), but captures also the transition into the Pleistocene climate marked by the initial Ice Age pulse at 2.59 Ma. The increase of polar temperatures resulted during PCO in a significant melting of the ice caps leading to a global sea level rise tentatively getting up to 25 m higher than today. Coincidence of the climate and geodynamic settings in southeastern Europe provided conditions supporting extended settlement of lacustrine environments including Lake Slavonia, Lake Kosovo, Lake Transylvania and Lake Dacia, all characterized by explosive adaptive radiations of viviparid snails. In particular, the latter adaptive radiations resulted in the regional phylostratigraphy of Lake Slavonia Viviparus species enabling excellent stratigraphic control for the investigated deposits. Hence, based on this evidence, the

  11. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  12. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  13. Self-help, mutual aid and chronic patients' clubs in Croatia, Yugoslavia: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    Kulcar, Z

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the clubs for patients with hypertension which have operated effectively in parts of Croatia and Slovenia (Yugoslavia) for more than 15 years, with many thousands of patients enrolling voluntarily. Based on the principle of self-help, yet involving the regular participation of members of a patient's own primary health team, they increase compliance with long-term treatment regimens and improve the quality of life. Such programmes are capable of reducing the amount of time devoted by a medical practitioner while increasing the effectiveness of treatments. If they are to succeed, it is essential to ensure regular club meetings, social activities and encouragement to each individual member to find a role and to continue attending for as long as possible. A new life style and consequent benefits to health are obtained only through long membership. PMID:2041007

  14. Development of a Model for Planning Specialist Education of Medical Doctors in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Relić, Danko

    2016-01-01

    Development of a model for simulation of the needed number of specialists of different specialties in the Republic of Croatia by the year 2035 based on the expected changes in size and age structure of population and experts' estimates of the needs. The model will be implemented in the form of a computer program based on the estimated most potent predictors. The developed model will be used as a tool for the simulation of different scenarios for specialist education combined with other factors like migration flows, changes in retirement age and skill mixing in order to compare different possibilities and options for the renewal of the Croatian healthcare personnel. Results will enable the development of recommendations for decision making and the adoption of a rational plan of referral to specialist training. Indirectly, developed model will be useful for needs assessment and simulation and planning of workforce renewal of other health professionals and for other countries. PMID:27577497

  15. Forecasting ozone concentrations in the east of Croatia using nonparametric Neural Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač-Andrić, Elvira; Sheta, Alaa; Faris, Hossam; Gajdošik, Martina Šrajer

    2016-07-01

    Ozone is one of the most significant secondary pollutants with numerous negative effects on human health and environment including plants and vegetation. Therefore, more effort is made recently by governments and associations to predict ozone concentrations which could help in establishing better plans and regulation for environment protection. In this study, we use two Artificial Neural Network based approaches (MPL and RBF) to develop, for the first time, accurate ozone prediction models, one for urban and another one for rural area in the eastern part of Croatia. The evaluation of actual against the predicted ozone concentrations revealed that MLP and RBF models are very competitive for the training and testing data in the case of Kopački Rit area whereas in the case of Osijek city, MLP shows better evaluation results with 9% improvement in the correlation coefficient. Furthermore, subsequent feature selection process has improved the prediction power of RBF network.

  16. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Croatia and France.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Jerkovic, Igor; Masotti, Véronique; Milos, Mladen; Mastelic, Josip; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Viano, Josette

    2003-02-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of two populations of Artemisia absinthium, from France and from Croatia, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of A. absinthium of French origin contain (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenyl acetate as major components while the oils of Croatian A. absinthium contain mainly (Z)-epoxyocimene and beta-thujone. Analysis of oils before and after anthesis showed some quantitative differences. Analysis of separated leaves and flowering heads showed only few differences among these organs. As they contain no thujone, antimicrobial screening was performed on samples of French origin and showed that A. absinthium oil inhibited the growth of both tested yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri). PMID:12624823

  17. Is burnout in family physicians in Croatia related to interpersonal quality of care?

    PubMed

    Ožvačić Adžić, Zlata; Katić, Milica; Kern, Josipa; Soler, Jean Karl; Cerovečki, Venija; Polašek, Ozren

    2013-06-01

    The impact of physician burnout on the quality of patient care is unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of burnout in family physicians in Croatia and its association with physician and practice characteristics, and patient enablement as a consultation outcome measure. Hundred and twenty-five out of 350 family physicians responded to our invitation to participate in the study. They were asked to collect data from 50 consecutive consultations with their adult patients who had to provide information on patient enablement (Patient Enablement Instrument). Physicians themselves provided their demographic and professional data, including workload, job satisfaction, consultation length, and burnout [Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS)]. MBI-HSS scores were analysed in three dimensions: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). Of the responding physicians, 42.4% scored high for EE burnout, 16.0% for DP, and 15.2% for PA. Multiple regression analysis showed that low job satisfaction and more patients per day predicted high EE scores. Low job satisfaction, working more years at a current workplace, and younger age predicted high DP scores. Lack of engagement in education and academic work, shorter consultations, and working more years at current workplace predicted low PA scores, respectively (P<0.05 for each). Burnout is common among family physicians in Croatia yet burnout in our physicians was not associated with patient enablement, suggesting that it did not affect the quality of interpersonal care. Job satisfaction, participation in educational or academic activities and sufficient consultation time seem to reduce the likelihood of burnout. PMID:23819934

  18. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure. PMID:26351197

  19. Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Southern Croatia: Impact of Sensitization to Ambrosia elatior

    PubMed Central

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n = 56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Results Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median±interquartile range, 50 ± 11 vs 7 ± 4; P<0.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (median±interquartile range, 12 ± 2 vs 0 ± 0; P<0.001). Conclusion A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia. PMID:17309141

  20. Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Susić, Mato; Brozović, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipović; Milenović, Aleksandar; Strinović, Davor; Brkić, Hrvoje; Pandurić, Dragana Gabrić

    2014-03-01

    In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits. PMID:24851626

  1. Scientometric analysis of anthropology in the Republic of Croatia for the period of 1980-1996.

    PubMed

    Bencetic Klaić, Z; Klaić, B

    1997-06-01

    Anthropologists from the Republic of Croatia have published 254 scientific papers in the period from 1980-1996, that are included in the secondary publication Social Science Citation Index. Scientists working in the scientific subfield anthropology participate with approximately 2% in the overall scientific output of the Republic of Croatia. Thirty-six international articles were published (14.2% of the total number), while the rest of 218 papers were published solely by domestic authors. An average anthropological paper is published by 3.06 authors, and approximately one-third of all articles by a single author. The major part of scientific papers (237 articles or 93.3%), Croatian anthropologists have published in a domestic primary scientific journal Collegium Antropologicum. All scientific papers together obtained 380 citations or 1.5 citations per article. The citation of articles is approximately 60% above the expected average for the respective journals. Published international papers had 6.6 citations, while articles by domestic authors had 0.65 citation per paper. Anthropological scientific papers obtained 154 independent citations and participate with 40.5% in the total number of citations. In the first five years after publishing, 166 articles (65.4% of the total number) were not cited, while the world's average for the scientific subfield anthropology was greater, 79.5% uncited articles. Only 19.4% of international papers and 72.9% of domestic papers were not cited in this five-year period. Based on scientometric indicators of a scientific output, that is, the number of published papers, partial scientific contribution, i.e., partial authorship, and scientific influence, i.e. number of citations, a method for the evaluation of scientific papers and their authors has been suggested in this paper. PMID:9225525

  2. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Čadež, Neža; Uroić, Ksenija; Miljković, Marija; Tolinački, Maja; Doušova, Petra; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Raspor, Peter; Topisirović, Ljubiša; Golić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Materials and Methods: Twelve yeast strains isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evaluated. Results: The results revealed that two strains of Kluyvereomyces lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM 2453 grew above one log unit (Δ log CFU/ml) in the complex colonic medium during 24 h of cultivation, while Torulaspora delbrueckii ZIM 2460 was the most resistant isolate in chemically-simulated conditions of gastric juice and upper intestinal tract. It was demonstrated that the strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM2441 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIM 2415 were highly adhesive to Caco-2 cells, while strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and Debaryomyces hansenii ZIM 2415 exhibit the highest adhesion percentage to HT29-MTX cells. All strains significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased the proliferation of GALT cells, suggesting the possible strain-specific immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Conclusion: The dairy yeast isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties, particularly the strain K. lactis ZIM 2408, which appears to be the best probiotic candidate in terms of all three criteria. Taking into account their immunomodulatory potential, the yeast isolates could be further tested for specific probiotic applications and eventually included in functional food formulated for patients suffering from diseases associated with an increased inflammatory status. PMID:26401378

  3. [Is the management of migraine and tension headache in Croatia satisfactory?].

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Vlasta Vuković

    2013-12-01

    According to the epidemiological study conducted in Croatia, 15% of the population suffer from migraine, 20.6% from tension-type headache and 2.4% from chronic headache. Although migraine is a frequent primary headache and poses a major problem to both the affected individuals and the society, it is considered that migraine is underdiagnosed. The study revealed half of patients with headache and even 36.3% of respondents with migraine to have never visited a doctor. Migraine and tension-type headache are not satisfactorily treated; in the study, one-quarter of the respondents were fully satisfied with the treatment of their headaches, approximately half were partially satisfied, one-fifth were mostly unsatisfied, and 10% were completely unsatisfied. It should be noted that specific therapy for migraine attacks, i.e. triptans, are available on the market and can be administered for moderate and severe headache attacks. Triptans are prescribed rarely, not only in Croatia but also in the world, although studies have shown that the use of triptans increases productivity at work and improves the quality of life in migraineurs. Prophylaxis may significantly improve the quality of life; the Croatian epidemiological study showed only 14% of respondents with migraine to have ever used prophylactic therapy. Considering that migraine is an 'expensive disorder', appropriate treatment of patients with migraine will decrease the costs that include visits to general practitioners, emergency departments and cost of hospitalization. Even indirect costs will decrease as well, including the costs caused by absenteeism from work and costs caused by reduced efficiency at work. It is necessary to educate the population about migraine and therapeutic options. Lack of time, unrecognized patients and insufficient knowledge about current treatment of migraine and other primary headaches are probably the reasons why patients do not receive appropriate therapy. Continuous campaigns, which

  4. Accumulated Metals and Metallothionein Expression in Organs of Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) Within Natural Gas Fields of Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Milin, Čedomila

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact of natural gas facility near Molve (Podravina, Croatia) was assessed using hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as biomonitors. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the environment lead to their accumulation in different tissues of hares. The authors have tested accumulation and distribution of several metals in hare liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. The accumulation of copper in hare liver and kidneys with concomitant decrease of zinc was observed in animals from Podravina region as opposed to the control group of animals (Island Krk, Croatia). Secondly, the expression of metallothioneins was assessed because of their crucial role in metal homeostasis. Observed elevation of metallothionein expression in tested organs emphasizes the possible prolonged negative effects of heavy metals in the surroundings as well as a state of oxidative stress in animals. Further monitoring of the area is necessary for better control of hydrocarbon processing to diminish the possible negative environmental effects. PMID:24965325

  5. Working group for trichinellosis--a way of systematic prevention, control and eradication of trichinellosis in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Balić, Davor; Marinculić, Albert; Krešić, Kata; Barić, Josip; Periškić, Marin; Škrivanko, Mario; Kovač, Zlatko; Krznarić, Marko

    2015-03-01

    At the end of the last century, human trichinellosis was an important public health problem in the eastern parts of Croatia. Moreover, the majority of clinically infected people were registered in Vukovar-Srijem County (up to 60% of all human cases registered in Croatia). Also, 95% of all Trichinella positive swine carcasses originated from Vukovar-Srijem County. Beside the health threat, trichinellosis implied not only notable economic expenses but also threatened to endanger traditional way of life and eating habits. In order to reduce all negative consequences of the disease, a multidisciplinary Working group for trichinellosis was founded. The group consisted of scientists and experts from different fields of work, who helped and significantly contributed to minimizing the threats of trichinellosis as well as to maintaining and preserving the method of traditional processing and consumption of swine meat. The members, the methods and the results of the Working group activities will be discussed in this paper. PMID:26040102

  6. Application of multi-criteria decision-making on strategic municipal solid waste management in Dalmatia, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vego, Goran; Kucar-Dragicević, Savka; Koprivanac, Natalija

    2008-11-01

    The efficiency of providing a waste management system in the coastal part of Croatia consisting of four Dalmatian counties has been modelled. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. The analysis covered two levels; first, the potential number of waste management centres resulting from possible inter-county cooperation; and second, the relative merits of siting of waste management centres in the coastal or hinterland zone was evaluated. The problem was analysed according to several criteria; and ecological, economic, social and functional criteria sets were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods were shown to be efficient tools for analysing the problem considered. Such an approach provided new insights to waste management planning at the strategic level, and gave a reason for rethinking some of the existing strategic waste management documents in Croatia. PMID:18032019

  7. Changes in the organizational structure of public health nurse service in the Republic of Croatia 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Bendeković, Zvonimir; Simić, Dobrislav; Gladović, Ana; Kovačić, Luka

    2014-12-01

    Since 1996, after the privatization of primary health care, public health nurse (PHN) in Croatia remained employed within the health center, mainly responsible for the preventive care of the inhabitants from defined catchment's area. Before that time they were part of general practice teams. The main aim of the study was to investigate what are the trends in the organizational structure of PHN service in Croatia, from 1995-2012. The main source was the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks. The obtained results shows that they are college educated and mostly in full-time jobs. The important findings are the lack of nurses and theirs regional differences. In highly demanding societies, with growing numbers of elderly, mental, social and economic problems, it will be worthy to consider the lower standard then 5 100 inhabitants per one PHN. Also, it should be taken into account to invest into the lowering of regional disparities. PMID:25643533

  8. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  9. Seed-borne fungi and ochratoxin A contamination of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Domijan, A-M; Peraica, M; Zlender, V; Cvjetković, B; Jurjević, Z; Topolovec-Pintarić, S; Ivić, D

    2005-03-01

    The study was designed to identify seed-borne fungi on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in 13 counties of the Republic of Croatia and their association with ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Bean samples (N=45) were collected in Croatia in 2001 shortly after the harvest and were stored at -20 degrees C for mycological and mycotoxin analyses. The most common fungi isolated were Cladosporium spp. (98%) Alternaria spp. (75%), Aspergillus spp. (73%), Rhizopus spp. (73%), Penicillium spp. (69%), Fusarium spp. (38%), Botrytis spp. (27%), Trichothecium spp. (24%), and Chaetomium spp. (18%). OTA was found only in samples contaminated with Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. Using HPLC (detection limit 0.25 microg/kg), OTA was found in 17 out of 45 samples (38%), and the mean concentration in positive samples was 0.41+/-0.21 microg OTA/kg. Beans from south Croatia (Adriatic coast) were OTA-free and the least mould-infected, while the mean OTA concentration and mould infection of samples from other regions were similar. The OTA contamination of beans in our country is low. Although beans are not severely contaminated with OTA, their consumption may contribute to the exposure to OTA from other commodities. PMID:15680678

  10. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma. PMID:26244830

  11. The international flow of cultural capital and an American anthropologist's experiences doing ethnography in Croatia: the insider/outsider question.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B C

    1998-12-01

    This essay is a discussion of the author's changing perspectives of his anthropological research in Croatia which comes about through the postmodern critique of theorectical paradigms as well as the fact that financial and cultural globalization has changed the subject of our research. Added to the globalization process and the international flow of cultural capital in Croatia are the recent events of the collapse of a modernism experiment in Marxism and the emergence of ethnic nationalism. The complexity of these current postmodern trends in theorectical anthropology, combined with complex current historical processes on top of a very complex history in Croatia, raise real questions about whether or not the outsider anthropologist can textualize the cultural situation here. But, a question still remains as to whether the insider anthropologist/ethnologist can textualize a cultural situation that is difficult to draw parameters around because of the international flow of cultural capital, e.g., are the younger generation really focused on localized ethnic nationalism or is this now a situation that is so internationalized that our former assumptions about local place make no longer make sense? PMID:9887619

  12. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in Croatia: detection and characterisation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    PubMed

    Lipej, Z; Segalés, J; Toplak, I; Sostarić, B; Roić, Besi; Lojkić, M; Hostnik, P; Grom, J; Barlic-Maganja, Darja; Zarković, Kamelija; Oraić, D

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Croatia, and to determine the epizootiological, clinical and pathomorphological features of the disease. During a systematic health monitoring programme conducted in the period from January 2002 to June 2003, PMWS was suspected on eight different pig-producing farms in Croatia. The diagnosis of PMWS met all three key criteria: the presence of compatible clinical signs, the presence of the characteristic microscopic lymphoid lesions, and the detection of PCV2 within the lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by in situ hybridisation (ISH). Moreover, PCV2 DNA from swine tissues was extracted and sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis of 4 Croatian PCV2 strains showed close relationship to PCV2 strains isolated in Slovenia, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, China and Hungary. PCV2 was also demonstrated by electron microscopy in the lymph node of an affected animal. This is the first demonstration of PMWS in Croatia based on all scientifically accepted diagnostic criteria. PMID:16156133

  13. Psychosocial adjustment to sex reassignment surgery: a qualitative examination and personal experiences of six transsexual persons in croatia.

    PubMed

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Lauri Korajlija, Anita; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  14. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Croatia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of tuberculosis. A number of studies have addressed the issue of risk factors for tuberculosis development. Croatia is a European country with an incidence rate of 14/100 000 which is slowly decreasing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and biological risk factors for tuberculosis in Croatia in comparison to other high-income, low-incidence European countries. Methods A total of 300 tuberculosis patients were matched for age, sex and county of residence to 300 controls randomly selected from general practitioners’ registers. They were interviewed and their medical records were evaluated for variables broadly described as potential risk factors. Results In multiple logistic regression, the following factors were significant: parents born in a particular neighbouring county (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (OR = 3.90, 95% CI 2.01-7.58), the lowest level of education (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.39-8.50), poor household equipment (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 1.51-14.76), unemployment (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.18-6.16), contact with tuberculosis (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.27-3.77), former (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.19-4.33) and current smoking habits (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.36), diabetes (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.05-5.38), a malignant disease (OR = 5.79, 95% CI 1.49-22.42), being underweight in the previous year (OR = 13.57, 95% CI 1.21-152.38). Conclusion In our study, the identified risk groups for tuberculosis reflect a complex interaction between socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle and non-communicable diseases. Interventions focused on poverty will undoubtedly be useful, but not sufficient. Tuberculosis control would benefit from a combination of broad public health activities aimed at the prevention and control of risky lifestyles and non-communicable diseases, interventions outside the health sector, and efforts to constantly

  15. Hazard assessment of landslide and debris flow in the Rjeina river valley, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Watanabe, Naoki; Marui, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The Rječina River extends approximately 18.7km long and flows into the Adriatic Sea at the center of Rijeka City, Croatia. Landslide, debris flow and rockfall are main geohazards in the middle part of the Rječina river basin. The zone between the Valići reservoir dam and the Pasac Bridge is particularly the most unstable and hazardous area in the river basin. The Grohovo landslide in the middle part of the river basin is located on the valley's slope facing southwest and situated at just downstream of the Valići dam. This landslide is the largest active landslide along the Adriatic Sea coast in Croatia. Assuming that serious heavy rainfall or earthquake occurs, it is most likely to occur two types of geohazard event. One scenario is that the debris deposited on the Grohovo landslide will move down to the channel of the Rječina River and dam up the river course. Another scenario is that the slope deposits on the landslide will be mixed with water and subsequently turn into a debris flow reaching to Rijeka City. We simulate both two cases of the formation of landslide-dam and the occurrence of debris-flow by two integrated models using GIS to represent the dynamic process across 3D terrains. In the case of the formation of landslide-dam, it is assumed that slope deposits will move downhill after failing along a shear zone. GIS-based revised Hovland's 3D limit equilibrium model is used to simulate the movement and stoppage of the slope deposits to form landslide-dam. The 3D factor of safety will be calculated step by step during the sliding process simulation. Stoppage is defined by the factor of safety much greater than one and the velocity equal to zero. The simulation result shows that the height of the landslide-dam will be nine meters. In case of debris flow, the mixture of slope deposits and water will be differentiated from landslide by fluid-like deformation of the mobilized material. GIS-based depth-averaged 2D numerical model is used to predict the

  16. Early Results of Recently Introduced Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding Procedure for Morbid Obesity in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Franjic, B. D.; Glavan, E.; Bekavac-Beslin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Morbid obesity is a growing medical problem that has become of epidemic proportions. Various dietary and pharmaceutical approaches do not obtain acceptable long-term results. Surgery, however, especially gastric restriction, represents a viable therapeutic solution. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m2 or >35 kg/m2 with at least one severe comorbidity are considered morbidly obese and generally qualify for weight-loss surgery. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is currently the most commonly performed procedure, because it is minimally invasive, does not cause metabolic complications, is completely reversible, and is adjustable. In Croatia, the first LAGB was performed in May 2004 at Clinical Hospital “Sestre Milosrdnice.” The aim of this report is to illustrate a newly performed surgical treatment and its results for morbid obesity in Croatia. Methods: Within a 12-month period, the adjustable gastric band was implanted in 15 morbidly obese patients (female, 8; male, 7; mean age, 46.67 years; range, 26 –59 years). The so-called “pars flaccida” technique was used. Results: One operation required conversion to laparotomy due to a gastric lesion, and 1 laparoscopy operation was terminated due to massive postoperative adhesions. The average duration of surgery was 90±30 minutes. Mean length of stay was 4.9 days (range, 3–9). An average BMI at the time of surgery was 52.21 kg/m2 (range, 45.29 to 61.59; mean body weight was 155.58 kg (range, 127 to 204). Throughout 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups, an average of 18.71%, 25.06%, 34.37%, 41.23%, and 47.32% of excessive weight loss (EWL) was observed. Good tolerance and a low complication rate were noted. Conclusion: LAGB resulted in good early results and a low complication rate. LAGB appears to be a quality surgical procedure for the management of morbid obesity. PMID:17575750

  17. Construction of the bridge in the cavern in the Vrata tunnel (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Sasa Kovacevic, Meho; Juric-Kacunic, Danijela

    2010-05-01

    In the Dinaric karst system in Croatia some 11500 speleological objects have been explored so far, more than 1000 of which were discovered during construction works. Such speleological objects without natural entrance on the terrain surface (which are called "caverns") have been discovered on the construction sites of the highways. Over the past twenty years they have been systematically investigated and treated. A special kind of remediation was conducted in the cavern's large hall of the "Vrata" tunnel on the Zagreb - Rijeka highway. Due to size, shape, cavern's position and hydrogeological parameters (fissured and karstified aquifers) within the karst system it was necessary to design and construct a 58 m bridge over the cavern. In addition, the cavern's vault had to be reinforced and stabilized, as the overburden was very thin. The beam-and -stringer grid with special anchors was used. The cavern's rehabilitation in the "Vrata" tunnel was a unique undertaking, and the bridge (without piers) is the cavern's longest bridge in the world. A speleological object of large dimensions was discovered in the "Vrata"tunnel's right tube on the Rijeka-Zagreb highway. Speleological, geotechnical, engineering geological and hydrogeological investigation works were carried out for the purpose of preservation the speleological object (cavern). On the basis of classification results of rock masses and conducted numerical analyses the support system for the cavern's vault stabilization was selected. The support system's elements include the beam-and-stringer grid constructed on the terrain's surface above the cavern, tendons and geotechnical anchors. To ensure stability of the speleological object, and to conduct the backward numerical analyses the measurement of vertical deformations from the terrain's surface along the rock's mass by means of sliding micrometers was undertaken. Backward numerical analyses combined with geotechnical measurements enable safer and more rational

  18. Heavy metals and acidic components in total deposited matter in Sibenik and National Park Kornati, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cacković, Mirjana; Kalinić, Natasa; Vadjić, Vladimira; Pehnec, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of 6 years (1999-2004) of monitoring acidic components (fluoride, chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium, thallium) in total deposited matter (TDM) in the town of Sibenik and the National Park Kornati, Croatia, in order to determine their levels, spatial and temporal variations, and possible emission source. Bulk deposition samples were collected using the Bergerhoff samplers. TDM matter was determined gravimetrically. Acidic anions were analyzed using ion chromatography. Metallic components were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that the levels of measured pollutants were relatively low compared to those reported in other investigations. Statistical analysis indicates that the measured pollutants originate from several sources such as resuspended soil, industry, road dust, traffic, and secondary aerosols as the most important. The levels of TDM show a slightly increasing trend at all sampling sites. A significant increasing trend in the levels of nitrate and sulfate in TDM could be the consequence of increasing traffic activity and urbanization. The significant increasing trend in the ratio between nitrate and sulfate in TDM indicates that the nitrate and sulfate relative contribution to acidification is increasing. The level of heavy metals in TDM was in order of lead > thallium > cadmium at all sampling sites with slightly decreasing trend. PMID:18414927

  19. Radiological characterization of tap waters in Croatia and the age dependent dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Rožmarić, Martina; Rogić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Barišić, Delko; Planinšek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in tap waters, originating from various geological regions of Croatia, were determined. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (238)U≈(234)U>(228)Ra≈(210)Pb>(226)Ra≈(210)Po. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual internal doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for infants, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each population group were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different age groups but for each group the lowest contribution was found for (226)Ra and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:24997928

  20. Physicians’ interpersonal relationships and professional standing seen through the eyes of the general public in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ćurković, Marko; Milošević, Milan; Borovečki, Ana; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical professionalism, as a cornerstone of medicine’s social contract with society, demands physicians adhere to high professional standards while placing public interest ahead of self-interest. This study’s objective was to investigate perceptions of the basic elements of medical professionalism related to physicians’ interpersonal relationships and their professional standing in the view of the broader public. Methods A field survey was conducted using an independently created questionnaire on a nationally representative three-stage probabilistic sample of 1,008 Croatian citizens. By including weights, the sample became nationally representative in terms of sex, age, education, and regional representation. The survey was carried out from April 17 to May 13, 2012. Results The Croatian public recognizes the importance of collaboration among physicians, but their everyday experiences tell a different story, in which almost half of the respondents evaluated physicians’ collaboration as being mediocre, poor, or nonexistent. The perception of physicians’ priorities and their primary interests, where every sixth respondent believes physicians always or almost always puts their own interest in front of that of the patients, as well as the perception of their inadequate adherence to professional standards, is indicative of a disillusioned stance of the public toward the medical profession in Croatia. Conclusion This research offered insight into findings that can have a profound and long-lasting effect on a health care delivery process if they are not further analyzed and rectified. PMID:25210442

  1. Genetic evidence for tula virus in Microtus arvalis and Microtus agrestis populations in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Scharninghausen, Jerrold J; Pfeffer, Martin; Meyer, Hermann; Davis, Donald S; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Faulde, Michael

    2002-01-01

    To determine the threat of hantavirus infection to U.S. Forces, small mammals were sampled from training areas within Croatia. Of the 152 samples, 20 were positive for Tula virus (TUL), 12 common voles (Microtus arvalis) and eight field voles (Microtus agrestis). Sequences from M. agrestis were found in five and sequences from M. arvalis were found in six of seven sequence groups. The high percentage of the same TUL sequences in M. agrestis and M. arvalis suggests the co-occurrence of this virus in both Microtus species is not an accident. If M. agrestis field voles were accidentally infected with TUL, the percentage of polymerase chain reaction-positive animals should be lower than that of M. arvalis. Because the infection rate in M. arvalis (11.8%) was less than half of that found in M. agrestis (27.6%), it is unlikely that the predominance of positive M. agrestis could be due to accidental exposure. It is much more likely that the Croatian virus is circulating between both rodent species. PMID:12656127

  2. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trond; Baranov, Viktor; Hagenlund, Linn Katrine; Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes "Metriocnemini" and "Orthocladiini". Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe "Metriocnemini". Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. PMID:27119557

  3. Novel locus for fibrinogen in 3' region of LEPR gene in island population of Vis (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Tomas, Željka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Barešić, Ana; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Narančić, Nina Smolej

    2014-11-01

    Leptin, a possible mediator between energy homeostasis, inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), acts via leptin receptors. We investigated association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) with several CVD risk factors: body mass index, waist circumference (WC), serum lipids, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels. Thirty-one SNPs in and near LEPR gene were analyzed in 986 inhabitants of the island of Vis, Croatia and 29 SNPs in the inland sample (N=499). We assessed linkage disequilibrium (LD), SNP and haplotype associations with the selected phenotypes. rs4291477 significantly associated with fibrinogen (P=0.003) and rs7539471 marginally significantly with high-density lipoprotein (P=0.004), but only in the Vis sample, while rs10493384 marginally significantly associated with triglyceride levels (P=0.006) in the inland sample. SNPs were grouped into eight LD blocks in Vis and in seven blocks in the inland population. Haplotype A-C-A-A-G-A in block 5 in Vis (rs1782754, rs1171269, rs1022981, rs6673324, rs3790426, rs10493380) and haplotype A-A-A-A in block 4 in the inland data (rs1782754, rs1022981, rs6673324, rs1137100) were nominally associated with WC, P=7.085 × 10(-22) (adjusted P=0.0979) and P=5.496 × 10(-144) (adjusted P=0.1062), respectively. PMID:25296580

  4. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  5. Environmental impact of historical harbour city Zadar (Croatia) on the composition of marine sediments and soils.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Kralik, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sediment samples and soils along the coast line of the Adriatic Sea were sampled along a transect near the coast line at Zadar/Croatia, ranging from north-western suburbs via the historical centre and the industrial area to south-east suburbs. The sediments were dominated by carbonates and clay minerals, and contaminations with Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn-TOC (total organic carbon) at the historical centre and the industrial site were detected, as well as P and Mo input at the mouth of a small creek, probably from agriculture. No trends between the composition of surface and subsurface sea sediments were seen. At the historic harbour site, total element concentrations versus grain size showed a minimum in the fine silt fraction for most of the elements analysed. The soil samples behind the shoreline were not carbonaceous, but dominated by Fe-Al- oxides, some contained high levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sn-Zn. Surprisingly, high TOC values within the soils might be assigned to human impacts, not to humus. Contrary to data from street dust samples from Seoul city/Korea, which were measured within our laboratory at the same time, Pt-Ir-Au were at ambient levels due to the limited use of catalysts in cars in the Zadar area at the time of sampling. PMID:21830135

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. PMID:24562053

  7. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11 680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11 680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. Results The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P < 0.001) and intraoral incisions (P < 0.001) were performed among male patients, whereas significantly more alveolectomies and apicoectomies were performed among female patients (P < 0.001). A greater prevalence of periodontal disease was found in patients residing in Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. Conclusion The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients’ awareness of the importance of oral health. PMID:23444246

  8. Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Simić, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

    2012-01-01

    The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

  9. Occurrence of an Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Similar to a Clinical Isolate in Paleosol from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Durn, Goran; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Kovacic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections are considered to be caused exclusively by contamination and transmission in hospital environments. The natural habitats of clinically important multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. remain to be defined. In this paper, we report an incidental finding of a viable multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, related to clinical isolates, in acid paleosol from Croatia. The environmental isolate of A. baumannii showed 87% similarity to a clinical isolate originating from a hospital in this geographic area and was resistant to gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. In paleosol, the isolate was able to survive a low pH (3.37), desiccation, and a high temperature (50°C). The probable source of A. baumannii in paleosol is illegally disposed waste of external origin situated in the abandoned quarry near the sampling site. The bacteria could have been leached from waste by storm water and thus infiltrated the paleosol. PMID:24584245

  10. Perinatal Health Statistics as the Basis for Perinatal Quality Assessment in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, Urelija; Filipović-Grčić, Boris; Đelmiš, Josip; Glivetić, Tatjana; Juras, Josip; Mustapić, Željka; Grizelj, Ruža

    2015-01-01

    Context. Perinatal mortality indicators are considered the most important measures of perinatal outcome. The indicators reliability depends on births and deaths reporting and recording. Many publications focus on perinatal deaths underreporting and misclassification, disabling proper international comparisons. Objective. Description of perinatal health care quality assessment key indicators in Croatia. Methods. Retrospective review of reports from all maternities from 2001 to 2014. Results. According to reporting criteria for birth weight ≥500 g, perinatal mortality (PNM) was reduced by 31%, fetal mortality (FM) by 32%, and early neonatal mortality (ENM) by 29%. According to reporting criteria for ≥1000 g, PNM was reduced by 43%, FM by 36%, and ENM by 54%. PNM in ≥22 weeks' (wks) gestational age (GA) was reduced by 28%, FM by 30%, and ENM by 26%. The proportion of FM at 32–36 wks GA and at term was the highest between all GA subgroups, as opposed to ENM with the highest proportion in 22–27 wks GA. Through the period, the maternal mortality ratio varied from 2.4 to 14.3/100,000 live births. The process indicators have been increased in number by more than half since 2001, the caesarean deliveries from 11.9% in 2001 to 19.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The comprehensive perinatal health monitoring represents the basis for the perinatal quality assessment. PMID:26693484

  11. Characteristics of hepatitis C infection in injecting drug users in Zadar County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Sonicki, Zdenko; Zekanović, Drazen

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine additional risk factors that could increase the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection among injecting drug users (IDU). The study included 327 heroin addicts registered in Zadar County, Croatia. The participants were divided into two groups according to their HCV status. HCV-positive and HCV-negative study participants were compared. HCV-positive group started injecting heroin at earlier age (median 18.5 years) than HCV-negative group (median 20.0 years) (p = 0.032) and had been injecting heroin for a significantly longer period (median 5 years vs. median 4 years, respectively; p < 0.001). IDUs in HCV-positive group shared their injecting equipment significantly more often than IDUs in HCV-negative group (p < 0.001; chi2 = 32.7). The main reasons for starting drugs were curiosity, psychological reasons (depression and/or neurosis), and peer or partner pressure in HCV-positive group, and fun, curiosity, and peer pressure in HCV-negative group (p = 0.051; chi2 = 23.6). Earlier onset of heroin use, longer heroin use, sharing injection equipment, curiosity, and psychological problems as reasons for starting drugs were associated with higher prevalence of HCV infection among injecting heroin users in Zadar County. PMID:18982740

  12. Long-term investigations of radioactive matter in the air of Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franic, Zdenko; Marovic, Gordana; Sencar, Jasminka

    2008-09-01

    Investigations on the distribution and fate of naturally occurring, nuclear-weapons-produced, and reactor-released radionuclides in the city of Zagreb, Coatia, have been conducted as part of the monitoring program for radioactive contamination of the human environment in Croatia since the early 1960s. This paper describes long-term investigations of man-made 137Cs and naturally occurring 7Be in the city of Zagreb after the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl nuclear accident caused a major increase in 137Cs activity concentrations only in 1986, which quickly decreased over the next few years to pre-Chernobyl values. The observed mean residence time for 137Cs in the air during the post-Chernobyl period from January 1987 to December 1990 was estimated to be 1.0 year. During this period, the observed mean residence time for 137Cs in fallout was estimated to be 0.9 years. The mean 7Be activity concentration in the air from 1987 to 2004 was (5.4 ± 2.8) × 10 - 3 Bq m - 3 . The measured 7Be activity concentrations showed seasonal behavior with the highest usually measured in July. Despite the constant presence of radioactive matter in the Zagreb air during the observational period, activity concentration values never exceeded legal limits. Consequently, 137Cs doses incurred by inhaling contaminated air after the Chernobyl accident were very small.

  13. Radioactivity in the Mediterranean flora of the Kaštela Bay, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Skoko, B; Marović, G; Babić, D

    2014-09-01

    This study refers to background activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (208)Tl, (40)K, and (137)Cs in soil and plants of the Kaštela Bay, Croatia and related plant-soil concentration ratios (CR's). Fourteen different Mediterranean plant species growing in natural conditions have been included and were divided into three major plant groups (grasses and herbs, shrub, tree). Radionuclide activity concentrations were determined by means of high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, and organic matter content) were also analysed. CR ranges were within one order of magnitude for (40)K (10(-2)-10(-1)), (238)U, and (226)Ra (10(-3)-10(-2)), and two orders of magnitude for (232)Th, (208)Tl, and (137)Cs (10(-4)-10(-2)). There was no statistical difference between the plant groups in radionuclide uptake. Overall statistical analyses indicated a moderate negative relationship between soil concentrations and CR values, and no relationship with soil parameters, except a negative one for (137)Cs. Comparison with literature showed more agreement with studies that were done in the Mediterranean than with ICRP and IAEA databases. Our data not only describe the natural radioactivity of the Bay, but also create a dataset that could be relevant for further radioecological assessments of the Kaštela Bay. PMID:24769388

  14. First outbreak of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease in humans, Croatia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Pandak, Nenad; Peric, Ljiljana; Barbic, Ljubo; Listes, Eddy; Cvitkovic, Ante; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Between September 6 and 21, 2012, seven human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive infection were laboratory confirmed in Croatia. The median patient age was 62 years (range 48-77). Five patients presented with meningoencephalitis and two patients with meningoencephalitis followed by acute flaccid paralysis. Four of them had an underlying disease (hypertension). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WNV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies of low avidity were detected in six patients, whereas one showed only IgM antibodies. All samples were confirmed using plaque-reduction neutralization and microneutralization tests. Five patients recovered fully. Before human cases were reported, acute asymptomatic WNV infection was demonstrated by detection of IgM antibodies in sentinel horses. Moreover, an increased WNV IgG seropositivity in horses was detected in counties where human cases occurred. Adulticidal and larvicidal treatments were administered immediately in the respective places of residence. The end of the warm season contributed to the fact that there were no new cases of WNV disease recorded. PMID:24283515

  15. Earthquake history of the Republic of Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albini, P.; Rovida, A.; Locati, M.

    2009-12-01

    Among the towns constellating the Dalmatian coast, Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia), stands out, both because of its location in the middle of the Eastern Adriatic coast and its long-lasting, independent history of a Modern Age town and its small coastal territory. An important intelligence crossroads, squeezed as it was in between powerful and influential neighbours, such as the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice, in its history (1358-1808) the Republic of Ragusa did experience heavily damaging earthquakes. We narrate the story of these earthquakes, which were recorded in the historical documentation of the Republic (today stored at the State Archives of Dubrovnik - Drzavni arhiv u Dubrovniku) as well as in documents from officers of other Mediterranean countries and letters of individuals. Of special note is the 6 April 1667 earthquake, which inflicted a permanent scar on the Republic. The earthquake's direct effects and their consequences caused a serious financial crisis, so critical that it took over 50 years for Ragusa to recover. This large earthquake is reappraised on the basis of newly investigated sources, and effects of the damage within the city walls are detailed. A seismic history of Ragusa is finally proposed, supported by full-text coeval records.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the flavonoids in raw propolis from northern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Bakmaz, Marina; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-03-01

    Spectrometric analyses of flavonoids in twenty propolis samples, collected from ten different geographic localities in northern Croatia using two complementary methods, are reported. Flavones and flavonols were determined using aluminum chloride and expressed as quercetine equivalent while flavanones were determined using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and expressed as naringenin. Contents of flavones and flavonols were similar for most samples and ranged from 2 to 2.3%, except for one sample with a concentration of 1.3% and one sample in which it was not possible to detect flavones and flavonols. The content of flavanones in propolis samples is very variable. 55% of samples contained flavanones between 15 and 24% and 45% of samples between 4 and 14%. Total levels of flavonoids in raw propolis samples ranged between 5 and 26%; for the majority of samples (75%), the total level of flavonoids ranged between 15 and 25.9%. The high variability of flavanone concentration will affect the biological activity of propolis preparations. PMID:15050046

  17. Heavy metals and metalloid content in vegetables and soil collected from the gardens of Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Puntarić, Eda; Puntarić, Ida; Mayer, Dijana; Bosnir, Jasna; Lasić, Dario; Jergović, Matijana; Klarić, Ivana; Vidosavljević, Marina; Krivdić, Ivancica

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in green leafy vegetables and soil in the urban area of Zagreb, Croatia and to determine if there is a connection between the contamination of soil and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables and soil samples were taken from the gardens located in the outskirts of the city. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; showing that average concentrations of metals and metalloids in vegetables and in soil, regardless of the location of sampling were below the maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The analysis determined that metal concentrations in only nine vegetable samples (9%) were above maximum allowed values prescribed by national and European legislation (three with higher concentrations of Pb, one with a higher concentration of Cd and five with higher concentrations of Hg). Concentrations of contaminants present in the analysed samples, in general, are lower than the ones published in similar studies. The final distribution and concentration of contaminants in vegetables of Zagreb, besides industry and traffic, is affected by the dominant wind direction. PMID:24308243

  18. Terrestrial Biodiversity Analyses in Dalmatia (Croatia): A Complementary Approach Using Diversity and Rarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelaska, Sven D.; Nikolić, Toni; Šerić Jelaska, Lucija; Kušan, Vladimir; Peternel, Hrvoje; Gužvica, Goran; Major, Zoran

    2010-03-01

    Here we present the methodology used for terrestrial biodiversity analysis and site selection in Phase B of the UNDP/GEF COAST project. The analysis was focused on the problem of biodiversity evaluation in four Croatian counties stretching from sea level to the highest mountain in Croatia. Data on habitats, vascular flora, and fauna (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, ground beetles, and underground invertebrates) were collected and analyzed for each of the four counties. Emphasis was given to the richness of endangered species and the rarity of endemic species. Based on the spatial analyses of habitat, fauna, and flora data, four to six areas were selected from each county and ranked according to their biodiversity importance. Overlap between areas important for richness and those important for rarity was highest for data on flora (65.5%) and lowest for data on fauna (16.7%). When different data sets were compared, the lowest overlap was between flora and fauna (17.1%) and largest between fauna and habitats (23.9%). Simultaneous overlap among all three data sets was found in just 6.5% of the overall selected areas. These results suggest that less specific data, with respect to taxa threat status, could better serve as surrogate data in estimating overall biodiversity. In summary, this analysis has demonstrated that Dalmatia is a region with a high overall biodiversity that is important in a broader European context.

  19. Cult of St. Blasius, patron saint of throat sufferers and of otolaryngologists, in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Skrobonja, Ante; Muzur, Amir; Jurdana, Stanko

    2005-03-01

    In the introductory part presented is a short hagiography of St. Blasius, and the legend of miraculous healing of a child in whose throat a bone had stuck, threatening to choke the child. Thanks to that legend, St. Blasius has become the traditional patron of the laryngeal diseases, and, since recently, the patron of the otolaryngologists, too. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the cult of St. Blasius, which is present in Croatia since the 10th century until present. Venerated all over the country, St. Blasius has been "elected" the heavenly protector of 10 parish communities, as well as of the city and the dioceses of Dubrovnik. Beside pilgrimage and prayers, among many traditional forms of folk piety, a ritual called "grlicenje" has been preserved-a curative and preventive blessing of the throat with crossed candles on the Saint's Day. In more recent times, the same day has been remembered among Croatian otolaryngologists and the societies of laryngectomized persons, who chose St. Blasius for their patron, too. PMID:15733587

  20. Chemical composition and genotoxicity assessment of sanitary landfill leachate from Rovinj, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2012-04-01

    Chemical analysis and an in vitro approach were performed to assess elemental composition and genotoxic effects of the samples of landfill leachate taken from Lokva Vidotto sanitary landfill the official landfill for Rovinj town, Croatia. Two samples of landfill leachate were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate macro, micro and trace elements by atomic absorption spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and colorimetry. Genotoxicity of sanitary landfill leachate was evaluated in human lymphocytes by the use of the micronucleus test and comet assay. Samples were characterized with relatively low concentrations of heavy metals while organic component level exceeded upper permissible limit up to 39 times. Observed genotoxic effects should be connected with high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, which exceeded permissible limit up to 180 times. Leachate samples of both sanitary landfills increased the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Increase of DNA damage in human lymphocytes was also detected by virtue of measuring comet assay parameters. All parameters showed statistically significant difference compared to negative control. Increased micronucleus and comet assay parameters indicate that both samples of sanitary landfill leachate are genotoxic and could pose environmental and human health risk if discharged to an aquatic environment. PMID:22177983

  1. Carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, Croatia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hrenovic, Jasna; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Kazazic, Snjezana; Kovacic, Ana; Ganjto, Marin; Tonkic, Marija

    2016-04-14

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging hospital pathogen. Whereas A. baumannii isolated from patients or hospitals has been reported, there are few data regarding propagation of viable A. baumannii in the natural environment. This study investigates the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of viable A. baumannii in municipal wastewater and its persistence through the wastewater treatment process. A total of 21 A. baumannii isolates were recovered at a secondary type of municipal wastewater treatment plant in Zagreb, Croatia: 15 from raw influent wastewater and six from final effluent. All isolates were carbapenem- and multidrug-resistant. Among 14 isolates tested for blaOXA genes, all harboured the constitutive blaOXA-51-like gene, while the acquired blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-40-like genes were found in 10 and three isolates respectively. Six A. baumannii isolates recovered from effluent wastewater multiplied and survived in sterilised effluent wastewater up to 50 days. These findings support the idea that multidrug-resistant A. baumannii can occur and have the ability to survive in the environment. PMID:27105318

  2. Comparison between XRF and IBA techniques in analysis of fine aerosols collected in Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Mandić, Luka; Orlić, Ivica; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David D.

    2014-10-01

    The new system for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been installed at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA) at the University of Rijeka. Currently the key application of this new XRF system is in the field of environmental science, i.e. in the analysis of fine airborne particles. In this work, results of initial multi-elemental analysis of PM2.5 fraction is reported for the first time in the region of Rijeka, Croatia. Sampling was performed at the Rijeka City center, during a continuous 9-day period in February/March 2012. All samples were collected on stretched Teflon filters in 12 h periods. To check the reliability of the new XRF system, results of XRF analysis are compared with the results obtained by the well-established Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) laboratory at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The concentrations of H, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. In addition, black carbon was determined by Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Very good agreement between XRF and IBA techniques is obtained for all elements detected by both techniques. Elemental concentrations were correlated with the traffic volume and wind speed and direction. The summary of our findings is presented and discussed in this paper.

  3. Redefinition of gestational diabetes mellitus: implications for laboratory practice in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lovrencić, Marijana Vucić; Honović, Lorena; Kralik, Sasa; Matica, Jasminka; Prasek, Manja; Pape-Medvidović, Edita; Ivanisević, Marina; Delmis, Josip

    2013-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes has become a very challenging task in prenatal care worldwide. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has recently issued recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. These recommendations, the first to provide harmonised, evidence-based criteria for the diagnosis and classification of diabetes in pregnancy, are currently being discussed and accepted worldwide by the relevant authorities. As the acceptance of the proposed criteria has major implications for both clinical and laboratory settings, a concerted action towards necessary changes in practice has to be carefully planned and adjusted to national health-care specificities. IADPSG criteria have been strongly advocated by the Croatian Perinatology Society, resulting in a new strategy for the detection and diagnosis of hyperglycaemic disorders in pregnancy. To address the respective laboratory requirements, in April 2012, the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists appointed a Working Group to provide a standardised procedure for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes, applicable to all laboratories involved in prenatal care, in both primary and specialised health-care facilities. In this paper we discuss key laboratory-related issues regarding succesful implementation of the IADPSG criteria in Croatia. PMID:23457760

  4. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    PubMed

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy. PMID:22615201

  5. The recent health reform in Croatia: true reforms or just a fundraising exercise?

    PubMed

    Svaljek, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Croatia's most recent reform of the healthcare system was implemented in 2008. The aim of the reform was to enhance financial stability of the system by introducing additional sources of financing, as well as increase the efficiency of the system by reducing sick pay transfers to households, rationalising spending on pharmaceuticals, restructuring hospitals etc. This paper attempts to assess the success of the 2008 healthcare system reform in reaching financial stability and sustainability, and to evaluate the effects of the reform on equity in funding the system. It takes into account the fact that the reform coincided with a severe economic crisis and decline in the overall living standard of Croatian citizens. The paper shows that the reform ended up being expansionary and thus impaired the necessary fiscal adjustment. Finally, it is argued that in circumstances of declining disposable incomes, increased co-payments aimed at the financial stabilisation of the health system made health services less affordable and could have had detrimental effects on equity in the utilisation of health care. PMID:24138731

  6. Natural radionuclides in bottled drinking waters produced in Croatia and their contribution to radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Rožmarić, Martina; Rogić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Strok, Marko

    2012-10-15

    Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in all Croatian bottled drinking natural spring and natural mineral water products, commercially available on the market, were determined. The samples originated from various geological regions of Croatia. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (234)U>(238)U>(226)Ra>(228)Ra>(210)Pb>(210)Po and (226)Ra>(228)Ra>(234)U>(238)U>(210)Pb>(210)Po for natural spring and mineral waters, respectively. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual effective ingestion doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for children from 7 to 12 years of age, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each type of water, as well as for each population group, were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1 mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to the European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different water types and within each water type, as well as between different age groups, where the lowest contribution was found for uranium isotopes and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:22906977

  7. Redefinition of gestational diabetes mellitus: implications for laboratory practice in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Lovrenčić, Marijana Vučić; Honović, Lorena; Kralik, Saša; Matica, Jasminka; Prašek, Manja; Pape-Medvidović, Edita; Ivanišević, Marina; Đelmiš, Josip

    2013-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes has become a very challenging task in prenatal care worldwide. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has recently issued recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. These recommendations, the first to provide harmonised, evidence-based criteria for the diagnosis and classification of diabetes in pregnancy, are currently being discussed and accepted worldwide by the relevant authorities. As the acceptance of the proposed criteria has major implications for both clinical and laboratory settings, a concerted action towards necessary changes in practice has to be carefully planned and adjusted to national health-care specificities. IADPSG criteria have been strongly advocated by the Croatian Perinatology Society, resulting in a new strategy for the detection and diagnosis of hyperglycaemic disorders in pregnancy. To address the respective laboratory requirements, in April 2012, the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists appointed a Working Group to provide a standardised procedure for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes, applicable to all laboratories involved in prenatal care, in both primary and specialised health-care facilities. In this paper we discuss key laboratory-related issues regarding succesful implementation of the IADPSG criteria in Croatia. PMID:23457760

  8. Low permeability Neogene lithofacies in Northern Croatia as potential unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvić, Tomislav; Sučić, Antonija; Cvetković, Marko; Resanović, Filip; Velić, Josipa

    2014-06-01

    We present two examples of describing low permeability Neogene clastic lithofacies to outline unconventional hydrocarbon lithofacies. Both examples were selected from the Drava Depression, the largest macrostructure of the Pannonian Basin System located in Croatia. The first example is the Beničanci Field, the largest Croatian hydrocarbon reservoir discovered in Badenian coarse-grained clastics that consists mostly of breccia. The definition of low permeability lithofacies is related to the margins of the existing reservoir, where the reservoir lithology changed into a transitional one, which is mainly depicted by the marlitic sandstones. However, calculation of the POS (probability of success of new hydrocarbons) shows critical geological categories where probabilities are lower than those in the viable reservoir with proven reserves. Potential new hydrocarbon volumes are located in the structural margins, along the oil-water contact, with a POS of 9.375%. These potential reserves in those areas can be classified as probable. A second example was the Cremušina Structure, where a hydrocarbon reservoir was not proven, but where the entire structure has been transferred onto regional migration pathways. The Lower Pontian lithology is described from well logs as fine-grained sandstones with large sections of silty or marly clastics. As a result, the average porosity is low for conventional reservoir classification (10.57%). However, it is still an interesting case for consideration as a potentially unconventional reservoir, such as the "tight" sandstones.

  9. Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n., a new species from the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group from Croatia (Insecta, Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) with molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes on the group

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Szivák, Ildikó; Pauls, Steffen U.; Bálint, Miklós; Delić, Antun; Vučković, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new autumnal caddisfly species Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n. from 8 localities in the Banovina region of Croatia. We also present molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes (emergence, sex ratio and seasonal dynamics) on the new species and discuss the distribution of Chaetopteryx species in general and the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group in particular. Based on Bayesian phylogenetic analysis Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi was separated from the clade containing the other subspecies of Chaetopteryx rugulosa. Thus the subspecies Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi is here raised to species level, Chaetopteryx schmidi, as it was described originally. We further present distribution data on rare species in the genus Chaetopteryx in Croatia. PMID:23950680

  10. Psychological Consequences of Rape on Women in 1991-1995 War in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9 ± 2.4 months after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n = 65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n = 58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n = 40), and suicidal ideas (n = 25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). Conclusion War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning. PMID:16489699

  11. Implications of the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union for Croatian health care system.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The Republic of Croatia's accession to the European Union (EU) will affect all segments of economy and society, including the health care system. The aim of this paper is to establish the potential effects of joining the EU on Croatian health care, as well as to assess its readiness to enter this regional economic integration. The paper identifies potential areas of impact of EU accession on Croatian health care and analyzes the results of the conducted empirical research. In this research, a method of in-depth interviews was applied on a sample of 49 subjects; health professionals from public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). Once Croatia joins the EU, it will face: new rules and priorities in line with the current European health strategy; the possibilities of drawing funds from European cohesion funds; labour migrations; new guidelines on patient safety and mobility. From the aspect of harmonising national regulations with EU regulations in the area of health care, Croatian system can be assessed as ready to enter the EU. Croatia's accession to the EU can result in a better information flow, growth of competitiveness of Croatian health care system, enhanced quality, inflow of EU funds, development of health tourism, but also in increased migration of health care professionals, and potential increase in the cost of health care services. Functioning within the EU framework might result in adaptation to the EU standards, but it could also result in the concentration of staff and institutions in larger cities. PMID:23213925

  12. Body Image and Weight Control among Adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States in the Context of Global Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Petronyte, Gintare; Sumskas, Linas; Kuzman, Marina; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare body image and weight control behavior among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States (US), the countries with striking contrasts in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents. Method The study was carried out according to the methodology of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children collaborative survey. Nationally-representative samples of students, aged 13 and 15, were surveyed in Lithuania (3778 respondents), Croatia (2946 respondents), and the US (3546 respondents) in the 2001/2002 school year. Results In all three countries, girls perceived themselves as being “too fat” more frequently than boys (37.0% vs 19.7%, P<0.001, z test). The prevalence of this perception increased with age among girls (32.7% vs 41.1%, P<0.001, z test) and decreased among boys (21.4% vs 17.9%, P = 0.005, z test). Lithuanian adolescents were least likely to perceive themselves as “too fat;” this perception was significantly more frequent in Croatia and the US (24.2%, 27.5%, and 34.3%, respectively; P<0.001, χ2 test). With the exception of 15-year-old Lithuanian boys, in all respondents the proportion of adolescents with body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile who perceived themselves as “too fat” was significantly higher (up to 3.13 times among 15-year-old US girls) than the proportion of adolescents with BMI ≤15th percentile who perceived themselves as “too thin.” The highest proportion of overweight boys and girls on a diet or doing something else to lose weight was found in the US. Boys in Lithuania were most likely to be satisfied with their weight regardless of their weight status. Conclusion Perceived body image and weight control behavior differ among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the US. Cross-cultural, age, and sex influences moderate body image and weight control behavior in underweight and overweight adolescents. PMID:18461679

  13. Traditional CVD risk factors and socio-economic deprivation in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narancic, Nina Smolej; Salihović, Marijana Pericić; Klarić, Irena Martinović; Barbalić, Maja; Starcević, Boris; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Janićijević, Branka

    2008-09-01

    Researches into health inequalities consistently show disadvantages in health status, morbidity and mortality for various ethnic minority groups. Current knowledge about prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mainly derives from studies carried out in populations of European origin while the evidences involving Roma population are scarce. Roma, an ethnic minority of northern Indian origin, live in many countries throughout the world and are well known for preserved traditions and resistance to assimilation. They are most often marginalized economically, spatially, politically and in terms of culture. In order to assess the health status and health-related lifestyle attributes, a multidisciplinary anthropological and epidemiological community-based study was carried out including a total of 423 members of the Bayash Roma minority population living in two regions of Croatia (144 men and 279 women, aged 18-84 yrs). Hypertension (HT) was found in 24.8% Bayash Roma (21.5% men and 26.5% women) using standard diagnostic criteria (i.e. BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive therapy). The prevalence increases from 5.9% in the age group 18-34 yrs; 35.0% in the age group 35-64 yrs, and 51.4% in the age group 65+ yrs. The prevalence of hypertension in the Bayash Roma is almost half of the magnitude of what is usually reported for the general population of Croatia. It is also lower when compared with other European populations and this finding is not due to comparatively younger average age of the Bayash sample. The significant association of hypertension with age and BMI was confirmed in this study and the importance of non-traditional SES-related CVD risk factors was highlighted. Smoking is a part of traditional Roma life-style and with 70% of smokers almost the entire population is equally exposed to this risk factor in their family environment. Since homogenously distributed, this risk factor did not show to be a significant predictor of hypertension. The

  14. Chromosome damage and cancer risk in the workplace: the example of cytogenetic surveillance in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Fucić, Aleksandra; Znaor, Ariana; Strnad, Marija; van der Hel, Olga; Aleksandrov, Anastasija; Miskov, Snjezana; Grah, Josip; Sedlar, Miljenko; Jazbec, Ana Marija; Ceppi, Marcello; Vermeulen, Roel; Boffetta, Paolo; Norppa, Hannu; Bonassi, Stefano

    2007-07-30

    The use of cytogenetic assays in the surveillance of populations occupationally exposed to genotoxic carcinogens originates from the assumption that chromosomal alterations might be causally involved in early stages of carcinogenesis. Historical cohort studies have since 1990s consistently reported an association between the level of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy subjects and the risk of cancer. Only in few cases, have these results been transformed into a regulatory tool for improving occupational safety. The cytogenetic surveillance program adopted for more than two decades in the Republic of Croatia is one of these few examples. Croatian workers exposed to genotoxic agents were systematically screened for CA, to identify occupational settings needing a priority intervention. Significant increases of mean CA frequency were observed in groups exposed to ionizing radiation, chemical agents, and mixed exposures when compared with a group of unexposed referents. CA data on 736 men and 584 women, monitored between 1987 and 2000, have been associated with cancer incidence. Although the small size of the cohort did not allow for reaching statistical significance, the medium tertile of the CA frequency distribution was associated with a doubling of cancer incidence rate ratio (IRR=2.40; 95% CI 0.85-6.77) when compared with the lowest tertile. For chromosome-type CA, IRR was non-significantly increased for both the medium (IRR 1.53, 95% CI 0.58-3.99) and high categories (IRR 1.69; 95% CI 0.61-4.72). Recommendations for future strategies comprise the inclusion of predictive biomarkers in surveillance programs, the definition of a regulatory framework, and their possible use for the identification of individual risk profiles. PMID:17651925

  15. New discoveries and interpretations of hominid fossils and artifacts from Vindija Cave, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ahern, James C M; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja; Janković, Ivor; Smith, Fred H

    2004-01-01

    Beginning with excavations during the 1970s, Vindija Cave (Croatia) has yielded significant Middle and Upper Paleolithic fossil and archaeological finds. We report on seven recently identified hominid fossils, a newly associated partial hominid cranial vault from level G(3), nine possible bone retouchers, and a revised interpretation of the Mousterian artifact assemblage from the site. This new information reinforces our knowledge of the complex biocultural phenomena revealed in unit G and earlier deposits at Vindija. Six of the new hominid fossils derive from stratigraphic units G and I, while one lacks exact provenience. All specimens preserving diagnostic anatomy are from Neandertals. One of the postcranial remains, a radius fragment which exhibits Neandertal-like anatomy, comes from level G(1)and is congruent with the previously established association of Neandertals with an early Upper Paleolithic industry at the site. The partial cranial vault represents the most complete Neandertal from Vindija. The possible retouchers derive from unit G. Our analysis of these artifacts suggests that both percussion and pressure techniques may have been used by Neandertals in the final stage of tool production (retouching). This paper also presents a revision of the artifact analysis for late Mousterian level G(3). We separated raw materials into two main groups due to the differing ways that the materials fracture and the differing morphology of the debitage. The use of raw material in level G(3)is different from earlier Middle Paleolithic levels at Vindija. This indicates that the G(3)late Neandertals were making choices regarding source material somewhat more like the Upper Paleolithic people at the site. When interpreted within a larger regional framework, the Vindija archaeological and hominid fossil remains demonstrate a complex, mosaic pattern of biocultural change in the Late Pleistocene of south-central Europe. PMID:14698684

  16. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of the Pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in the Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galović, Lidija

    2016-03-01

    In the Eastern Croatia impressive loess-paleosol successions up to 30 m thick are exposed. In the Zmajevac I section three paleosols are intercalated in loess while in the Zmajevac, Erdut and Šarengrad sections there are four paleosols are intercalated in loess. IRSL age estimates of 17.8 ± 1.9 and 217 ± 22 ka. In all investigated sections, alluvial sediments are intercalated in the loess deposits, indicating periods of fluvial activity. Strongly abraded typical aeolian spherical grains characterized by pitted well-rounded surface that was developed during transportation have original crystal surface almost destroyed. Surface of quartz grains preserves micro textures characteristic for all transport medias that it has been exposed to. However, muscovite grain surface enable successful distinguishing if the last transport was by wind or by aquatic media. Characteristic of all horizons with muscovite as a dominant mineral is recent settling of organisms. Beside the Danube, Drava and Sava River flood plains, part of the analyzed sediments also originates from regional Tertiary sediments which are rich in granite (as a muscovite-bearing rock), indicating the local influence. Enrichment of pyroxenes in the Šarengrad section points to the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone as its source of origin eroded by the Sava River southern tributaries. Šarengrad section is the southernmost among the analyzed sections and the southern edge of the Carpathian Basin. Thus, beside the Alpine region, the mineral composition is influenced by minerals from the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone in Bosnia. Warming periods are not represented just by paleosols, but also with laminated alluvial sediments.

  17. Urban-rural differences in a population-based breast cancer screening program in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Stamenić, Valerija; Strnad, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate urban-rural differences in the distribution of risk factors for breast cancer. Methods We analyzed the data from the first round of the “Mamma” population based-screening program conducted in Croatia between 2007 and 2009 and self-reported questionnaire results for 924 patients with histologically verified breast cancer. Reproductive and anthropometric characteristics, family history of breast cancer, history of breast disease, and prior breast screening history were compared between participants from the city of Zagreb (n = 270) and participants from 13 counties with more than 50% of rural inhabitants (n = 654). Results The screen-detected breast cancer rate was 4.5 per 1000 mammographies in rural counties and 4.6 in the city of Zagreb, while the participation rate was 61% in rural counties and 59% in Zagreb. Women from Zagreb had significantly more characteristics associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (P < 0.001 in all cases): no pregnancies (15% vs 7%), late age of first pregnancy (≥30 years) (10% vs 4%), and the most recent mammogram conducted 2-3 years ago (32% vs 14%). Women from rural counties were more often obese (41% vs 28%) and had early age of first live birth (<20 years) (20% vs 7%, P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion Identification of rural-urban differences in mammography use and their causes at the population level can be useful in designing and implementing interventions targeted at the reduction of inequalities and modifiable risk factors. PMID:21328724

  18. Fluviokarst and classical karst: Examples from the Dinarics (Krk Island, Northern Adriatic, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benac, Čedomir; Juračić, Mladen; Matičec, Dubravko; Ružić, Igor; Pikelj, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    In order to contribute to the debate on the role of fluvial erosion in the shaping of karst, two nearby areas with different karstic landscapes were compared. Areas A and B are located relatively close to each other on the southern side of the Krk Island (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Both areas are composed of similar limestone with a very high CaCO3 content. Area A is a typical doline or polygonal type ("classical") of karst with numerous dolines (up to 57/km2) covered with terra rossa (red soil) and Mediterranean maquis shrubland. Dolines are located in zones which correspond to the strike of the main geological structures. Dry karstic valleys are visible only on gently inclined coastal slopes bordering the karstic plateau. In contrast, area B is typical of a bare karst landscape with a strong (palaeo)fluvial imprint. The dolines are absent, and the bedrock is only sporadically covered with terra rossa. Palaeogene marls have been observed in a few elongated depressions and in the coastal zone of area B. Along steep coastal slopes, valleys (up to 460 m/km2) are cut into the carbonates. The traces of episodic surface flows are visible in some of these valleys, in contrast to the valleys in area A. Remnants of a disrupted ancient fluvial network are clearly visible on the elevated karstic plateau in area B. Differences in the recent morphology are attributed mainly to varying thicknesses of the Palaeogene impermeable marly cover, and the intensity of tectonics in the two areas.

  19. Porcine astrovirus viremia and high genetic variability in pigs on large holdings in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Starešina, Vilim; Jemeršić, Lorena

    2013-03-01

    Astroviruses are emerging viral agents, primarily enteropathogenic in mammals, but recently have been acknowledged to have extra-intestinal implications in humans and mink. Porcine astrovirus is thought to be widely distributed and highly prevalent among pigs, nevertheless its clinical significance remains doubtful as it can be detected in diarrheic as well as in healthy pigs. Recent reports imply the immense genetic variability among porcine astrovirus strains with five distinct lineages being characterized so far. Herein, we report porcine astrovirus circulation in the blood of healthy pigs in different age categories bred on two large industrial holdings in Croatia, with viral RNA seroprevalence of 3.89%. These are the first extra-intestinal findings of astrovirus in pigs, indicating a more complex pathogenesis than previously thought. Partial polymerase sequences of serum-derived strains provisionally clustered into porcine astrovirus lineages 2 and 4, sharing high genetic identity with previously described porcine astrovirus strains. The results were supported by detecting porcine astrovirus strains in composite fecal samples, regardless of pig category or holding tested. Phylogenetic analysis of derived strains suggested the presence of porcine astrovirus lineages previously detected in pig sera with an additional highly genetically divergent lineage 5, reported for the first time in Europe. Moreover, the existence of possible sub lineages should not be excluded. The results obtained in the present study, contribute to knowledge of porcine astrovirus pathogenesis; even though it's possible clinical significance remains unclear. High fecal prevalence accompanied with vast genetic diversity on a relatively confined area, underscores the importance of pigs as porcine astrovirus reservoirs with eventual recombination events as a possible outcome. PMID:23313832

  20. Health insurance in Croatia: dynamics and politics of balancing revenues and expenditures.

    PubMed

    Voncina, Luka; Kehler, Jenni; Evetovits, Tamas; Bagat, Mario

    2010-04-01

    Since 2002, the Croatian social health insurance system has undergone substantial reforms, initiated for the most part with the aim of addressing the perpetual financial deficits of the state health insurance fund. While the reforms focussed heavily on increasing the inflow of private funds into the health care system, underlying inefficiencies contributing significantly to poor financial performance have been largely ignored. Furthermore, contrary to demographic trends and developments in social health insurance schemes in other countries, funding health care became even more dependent on its main collection mechanism-payroll tax-and consequently on the employment ratio and wage level. Little effort has been made to diversify the revenue base or to increase the efficiency of revenue collection. Like other countries, Croatia is facing difficulties in adjusting its 'Bismarck' system to its changing demographic and socioeconomic context. Instead of targetting a comprehensive effort at improving revenue collection and limitating unnecessary expenditure and system inefficiencies, simplified approaches to balance the budget have been implemented at a high price to users and with limited effect. As a result, the Croatian health insurance system now offers a lower level of financial protection, while still facing the problem of spending more than can be collected through the current mix of revenue collection mechanisms. The authors suggest that, in order to meet the sustainability requirement of the health financing system, measures affecting both revenue and expenditure should be considered and implemented. On the revenue collection side, the Croatian government must make further efforts to improve collection from the informally employed to broaden the base of contributing members; equally important is the diversification of revenue sources by increasing transfers from general taxation revenues. On the expenditure side, exploring inefficiencies of the delivery system can

  1. Contribution of Forensic Anthropology to Identification Process in Croatia: Examples of Victims Recovered in Wells

    PubMed Central

    Šlaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovečki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta

    2007-01-01

    Aim To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. Methods From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Results Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n = 37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Conclusion Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells. PMID:17696305

  2. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters. PMID:22728801

  3. Repeat HIV Testing at Voluntary Testing and Counseling Centers in Croatia: Successful HIV Prevention or Failure to Modify Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Matković Puljić, Vlatka; Kosanović Ličina, Mirjana Lana; Kavić, Marija; Nemeth Blažić, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing plays a critical role in preventing the spread of the virus and identifying infected individuals in need of care. Voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTs) not only conduct testing but they also provide counseling. Since a proportion of people who test negative for HIV on their previous visit will return for retesting, the frequency of retesting and the characteristics of those who retest may provide insights into the efficacy of testing and counseling strategies. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study of 1,482 VCT clients in Croatia in 2010, 44.3% had been tested for HIV before. The rate of repeat HIV testing is lower in Croatia than in other countries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) clients, those with three or more sexual partners in the last 12 months, consistent condom users with steady partners, and intravenous drug users were more likely to be repeat testers. This finding suggests that clients presenting for repeat HIV testing are those who self-identify as being at a higher risk of infection. Our data showed that testing positive for HIV was not associated with repeat testing. However, the effects of repeat testing on HIV epidemiology needs to be explored. PMID:24705595

  4. Origin of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from swine affected by PCV2-associated diseases in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novosel, D; Tuboly, T; Csagola, A; Lorincz, M; Cubric-Curik, V; Jungic, A; Curik, I; Segalés, J; Cortey, M; Lipej, Z

    2014-04-26

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes some of the most significant economic losses in pig production. Several multisystemic syndromes have been attributed to PCV2 infection, which are known as PCV2-associated diseases (PCVDs). This study investigated the origin and evolution of PCV2 sequences in domestic pigs and wild boars affected by PCVDs in Croatia. Viral sequences were recovered from three wild boars diagnosed with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD), 63 fetuses positive for PCV2 DNA as determined by PCR, 14 domestic pigs affected with PCV2-SD (displaying severe interstitial nephritis) and five domestic pigs with proliferative and necrotising pneumonia. Seventeen complete PCV2 genomes were recovered. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on median-joining phylogenetic networks, amino acid alignments and principal coordinate analysis were performed using complete genomes, as well as complete and partial ORF sequences for ORF1 and ORF2. Two of the 17 PCV2 sequences belonged to PCV2a, 14 to PCV2b and one was unclustered. PCV2b was the predominant genotype in Croatia and has been linked to international trade as a route of introduction. Correlation between particular viral strains with PCVDs is lacking. PMID:24591478

  5. Trace metals in the environment and population as possible long term consequence of war in Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Puntarić, Dinko; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Jergović, Matijana; Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Puntarić, Ida; Vidosavljević, Marina

    2014-09-01

    War in Croatia resulted with a significant release of contaminants into the environment as a result of the use of combat assets, mainly conventional, mostly aimed at civilian targets. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of metals and metalloids in the soils, water, plants (Taraxacum officinale), serum, urine and hair of the inhabitants in eastern Croatia. Overall results show minor abnormalities in presence of some trace metals in soil (As, Hg, Pb, Sb), water (As, Fe) and dandelion leaves (As) in some locations. Compared with soil samples from areas exposed to low intensity combat activity soil samples from areas exposed to heavy fighting had higher concentrations of As, Hg and Pb than allowed by national legislation for ecologic farming. Drinking water with the exceptions of the concentrations of Fe, As and Mn was in accordance with national legislation. Examinees from Dalj had mean hair Sb level 10-19x higher then examinees from any other location. However, when these data are correlated through methods of principal component analysis, presence of trace metals in some war affected areas can be followed from soil, through plants up to population proving that intense combat activities over small area leave metal presence that can be followed even 15 years after the war. PMID:25507359

  6. Trace metals in the environment and population as possible long term consequence of war in Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Puntarić, Dinko; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Jergović, Matijana; Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Puntarić, Ida; Vidosavljević, Marina

    2014-09-01

    War in Croatia resulted with a significant release of contaminants into the environment as a result of the use of combat assets, mainly conventional, mostly aimed at civilian targets. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of metals and metalloids in the soils, water, plants (Taraxacum officinale), serum, urine and hair of the inhabitants in eastern Croatia. Overall results show minor abnormalities in presence of some trace metals in soil (As, Hg, Pb, Sb), water (As, Fe) and dandelion leaves (As) in some locations. Compared with soil samples from areas exposed to low intensity combat activity soil samples from areas exposed to heavy fighting had higher concentrations of As, Hg and Pb than allowed by national legislation for ecologic farming. Drinking water with the exceptions of the concentrations of Fe, As and Mn was in accordance with national legislation. Examinees from Dalj had mean hair Sb level 10-19x higher then examinees from any other location. However, when these data are correlated through methods of principal component analysis, presence of trace metals in some war affected areas can be followed from soil, through plants up to population proving that intense combat activities over small area leave metal presence that can be followed even 15 years after the war. PMID:25420375

  7. The International Scientific Colloquium MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (The Math Teacher) = Treci medunarodni znanstveni skup MATEMATIKA I DIJETE (Ucitelj matematike) (3rd, Osijek, Croatia, March 18, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In the monograph The Math Teacher (following the Third International Scientific Colloquium Mathematics and Children in 2011), the term "teacher" designates a person who teaches mathematics, and the context of each article reveals whether this implies the teacher at a pre-school institution, a school or a university instructor. In Croatia, much…

  8. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian... YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND... and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb...

  9. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina controlled by... YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND... Bosnia and Herzegovina controlled by Bosnian Serb forces. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a...

  10. Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E in Selected Population Groups in Croatia: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vilibic-Cavlek, T; Vilibic, M; Kolaric, B; Jemersic, L; Kucinar, J; Barbic, L; Bagaric, A; Stevanovic, V; Tabain, I; Sviben, M; Jukic, V; Mlinaric-Galinovic, G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E has become an emerging infection in many European countries. We analysed the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in selected population groups in Croatia. Overall HEV IgG seropositivity was 5.6%, while 1.9% participants showed IgM antibodies suggestive of recent infection. No IgM-positive sample was positive for HEV RNA. HEV IgG antibodies were most prevalent in alcohol abusers (8.9%) and war veterans (8.6%), compared with 6.1% among injecting drug users and 2.7% in healthcare professionals. No individual with high-risk sexual behaviour tested HEV seropositive. HEV IgG positivity increased significantly with age from 1.8% to 2.3% in individuals younger than 40 years to 11.3% in individuals older than 50 years (P = 0.023). The mean age of HEV-positive participants was significantly higher than that of HEV-negative participants (50.9 ± 11.8 years versus 41.2 ± 11.8 years, P = 0.008). Seroprevalence rates were significantly higher in residents of suburban and rural areas compared with residents of urban areas (14.5% versus 2.5%, P = 0.003). Additionally, an increasing prevalence of HEV IgG antibodies was observed from 1.8% in participants living in families with two household members to 12.1% in those living with more than four members (P = 0.046). Gender, marital status, educational level, sexual orientation, source of drinking water, history of blood transfusions, surgical procedures, tattooing and travelling were not associated with HEV seroprevalence. Logistic regression showed that living in suburban/rural areas was the main risk factor for HEV seropositivity (OR = 6.67; 95%CI = 1.89-25.0; AOR = 7.14, 95%CI = 1.89-25.0). PMID:26776465

  11. Family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness in adolescents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tripković, Mara; Francisković, Tanja; Grgić, Neda; Ercegović, Nela; Graovac, Mirjana; Zecević, Iva

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research is to look into the roles of families' social situation and cohesion in adolescent auto-aggressiveness in Croatia. The research was conducted on a sample of Zagreb high school students which encompassed 701 pupils of both genders aged 14-19. The basic demographic data were obtained using the Structured Demographic and Family Data Questionnaire. Auto-aggressiveness was tested using a section of the Report on Youth Aged 11-18 and the Scale of Auto-destructiveness--SAD, whereas the family cohesion was tested with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales FACES III. The obtained results show differences according to the gender: girls are more prone to auto-aggressiveness than boys (t = -3.385, df = 565, p = 0.001) and girls more often show symptoms of destructiveness (t = -3.809, df = 637, p < 0.001) and anxiety (t = -6.562, df = 640, p < 0.001), while boys show pronounced aggressiveness (t = 2.655, df = 653, p = 0.008). Significant family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness are parents' marital status (chi2 = 18.039, df = 4, p = 0.001), their financial situation (F(2.548) = 4.604, p = 0.010), alcoholic father (chi2 = 9.270, df = 2, p = 0.010), mentally ill mother (t = 5.264, df = 541, p < 0.001), as well as mentally ill father (t = 4.744, df = 529, p < 0.001), and corporal punishment by mother (F(2.542) = 8.132, p < 0.001) or father (F(2.530) = 5.341, p = 0.005). Adolescents from split families show more auto-aggressiveness. Family cohesion appears to be considerably associated with auto-aggressiveness and the adolescents that see their families as less cohesive have more mental problems (chi2 = 29.98, df = 2, p < 0.001). There is a connection between auto-destructive behavior in adolescents and family factors. Knowledge of family's social situation and cohesion may help understand, prevent and treat auto-aggressiveness in adolescents. PMID:24611318

  12. Geomorphological map as a tool for visualisation of geodiversity - example from Cave Park Grabovaca (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzjak, Nenad; Bocic, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen

    2014-05-01

    Cave Park Grabovaca is located near Perusic in Lika region (central Croatia). It was established in 2006 at the area of 5.95 km2 (protection category: significant landscape). The main task is management and protection of Samograd, Medina and Amidzina caves that were declared as geomorphological monuments, and 6 other caves located close to each other. Owing to the central geographic location in Croatian Dinaric karst area, good traffic connections between central Europe and tourist centres of the Adriatic coast, preserved nature and easy accessible karst features typical for the Dinaric Karst, it has good potential to develop as an research, educational and tourist centre. In 2013. Cave Park management and the Department of Geography (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science) established a core team that started to develop the project of Geoeducational centre (GEC) with following goals: exploration-evaluation-presentation-education. According to the accepted strategy, the first step in the project process is to enlarge the area and change the protection category. During the consultation process team members take into account protection, environmental, local economy, tourism and local population issues and proposed that protected area should be increased to 52,2 km2. This enlargement provides more efficient protection, greater geodiversity and biodiversity by occupying geotope, biotope, and landscape units typical for the whole Lika karst region. The next step was inventorying, evaluation, analysis and visualisation of geological, geomorphological and speleological phenomena. This 2 year task was made in cooperation between Croatian Geomorphological Society, Department of Geography, Speleological Society Karlovac and Caving Club Samobor. The inventory was made using field-work mapping and geotagged photographs, cave mapping and DEM analysis. It resulted in GIS oriented geodatabase consisting of geomorphological forms, processes and cave inventory. From those data

  13. Distribution of trace metals in anchialine caves of Adriatic Sea, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuculić, Vlado; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Željko; Mlakar, Marina

    2011-11-01

    This study presents results of the first comprehensive research on ecotoxic trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) in aquatic anchialine ecosystems. Data show the influence of hydrological and geological characteristics on trace metals in highly stratified anchialine water columns. Distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in two anchialine water bodies, Bjejajka Cave and Lenga Pit in the Mljet National park, Croatia were investigated seasonally from 2006 to 2010. Behaviour and concentrations of dissolved and total trace metals in stratified water columns and metal contents in sediment, carbonate rocks and soil of the anchialine environment were evaluated. Trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in both anchialine water columns were significantly elevated compared to adjacent seawater. Zn and Cu concentrations were the highest in the Lenga Pit water column and sediment. Elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cu in Bjejajka Cave were mainly terrigenous. Significantly elevated concentrations of cadmium (up to 0.3 μg L -1) were found in the water column of Bjejajka cave, almost two orders of magnitude higher compared to nearby surface seawater. Laboratory analysis revealed that bat guano was the major source of cadmium in Bjejajka Cave. Cadmium levels in Lenga Pit, which lacks accumulations of bat guano, were 20-fold lower. Moreover, low metal amounts in carbonate rocks in both caves, combined with mineral leaching experiments, revealed that carbonates play a minor role as a source of metals in both water columns. We observed two types of vertical distribution pattern of cadmium in the stratified anchialine Bjejajka Cave water column. At lower salinities, non-conservative behaviour was characterized by strong desorption and enrichment of dissolved phase while, at salinities above 20, Cd behaved conservatively and its dissolved concentration decreased. Conservative behaviour of Cu, Pb, Zn and DOC was observed throughout the water column. After heavy rains, Cd

  14. [The Journal of Slavonian Physicians (Glasnik druztva Slavonskih Liecnika), the journal of the medical society in Croatia 1877-1878].

    PubMed

    Belicza, Biserka; Tucak, Antun

    2003-01-01

    If we discuss chronological appearance of medical journals as official gazettes of medical associations in this part of the world and Europe, then Glasnik druztva slavonskih liecnika (Glasnik DSL) is the first and the oldest medical journal of this kind in Croatia, whose first number is dated January 1, 1877, and the last December 1, 1878. It is the gazette of the Slavonian Medical Association in Osiek (DSL in Osiek), a professional medical association founded in 1874, which today marks its activity as the Croatian Medical Association--Osijek Branch (HLZ). Our goal was to investigate the key determinants of its appearance in the context of the role and contribution of Slavonian physicians in the promotion and development of Croatian medical literature, particularly medical periodicals in the 19th century. The conclusions we reached are based on the knowledge acquired during previous investigations on the history of medical associations and development of professional medical periodicals in Croatia and Slavonia in the 19th century, and on the historical material and preserved documentation of DSL in Osiek, HLZ in Zagreb, and Glasnik DSL from the beginning of 1874 through 1878. Basic determinants of the appearance and relatively short duration of the monthly periodical Glasnik DSL are highlighted, with the emphasis on: 1) events preceding its publication, including initiatives of physicians in Slavonia for the development of Croatian medical terminology, professional medical publications, particularly medical journals from the middle of the 19th century through 1876; 2) circumstances accompanying the publication of the journal Glasnik DSL in the period from January 1, 1877 through 1878; 3) events contributing to making decision on discontinuation of its publishing. The results are presented in several separate chapters which offer new scientific knowledge about the history of the medical Journal Glasnik DSL, and about the role of Slavonian physicians and DSL in Osiek

  15. Accreditation of medical laboratories in Croatia--experiences of the Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital "Merkur", Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata; Nazor, Aida; Perkov, Sonja; Surina, Branka; Kardum-Paro, Mirjana Mariana; Siftar, Zoran; Sikirica, Mirjana; Sokolić, Ivica; Ozvald, Ivan; Vidas, Zeljko

    2010-03-01

    Since 2003 when the international norm for implementation of quality management in medical laboratories (EN ISO 15189, Medical laboratories--Particular requirements for quality and competence) was established and accepted, accreditation has become practical, generally accepted method of quality management and confirmation of technical competence of medical laboratories in the whole world. This norm has been translated into Croatian and accepted by the Croatian Institute for Norms as Croatian norm. Accreditation is carried out on voluntary basis by the Croatian Accreditation Agency that has up to now accredited two clinical medical biochemical laboratories in the Republic of Croatia. Advantages of accredited laboratory lie in its documented management system, constant improvement and training, reliability of test results, establishing users' trust in laboratory services, test results comparability and interlaboratory (international) test results acceptance by adopting the concept of metrological traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:20437640

  16. Variations in mugwort (Artemisia spp.) airborne pollen concentrations at three sites in central Croatia, in period from 2002 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Culig, Josip

    2006-12-01

    In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of September with the highest concentrations in August. The percentage of the total pollen count ranged from 0.52% to 0.92%. The intradiurnal peak occurred between 10 a.m. and 12 a.m. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlations between higher air temperature and high pollen concentration as well as high precipitation and low pollen concentration. Results of this study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Artemisia pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:17243566

  17. Phylogenetic characterisation of feline immunodeficiency virus in naturally infected cats in Croatia indicates additional heterogeneity of subtype B in Europe.

    PubMed

    Perharić, Matko; Biđin, Marina; Starešina, Vilim; Milas, Zoran; Turk, Nenad; Štritof, Zrinka; Hađina, Suzana; Habuš, Josipa; Stevanović, Vladimir; Mojčec-Perko, Vesna; Kovač, Snježana; Martinković, Krešimir; Barbić, Ljubo

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed on 29 domestic cats with a variety of clinical signs, possibly related to FIV infection. Blood samples were tested by a rapid immunochromatographic (ICA) procedure for detection of FIV antibodies. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a portion of the proviral gag gene. All 11 positive PCR products were sequenced and compared with previously reported FIV sequences. Croatian proviral isolates that could be amplified were clustered within subtype B, and additional heterogeneity was confirmed by the formation of three separate clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of circulating strains in Croatia and in southeast Europe is necessary to improve diagnostic methods and selection of the appropriate vaccinal strains. PMID:27318929

  18. A variant of the Southern German clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Budimir, A; Deurenberg, R H; Bosnjak, Z; Stobberingh, E E; Cetkovic, H; Kalenic, S

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and molecular epidemiology of clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered in 24 hospitals in 20 cities in Croatia from October to December 2004. A total of 1815 consecutive S. aureus isolates were recovered, 248 of which were MRSA. The MRSA isolates were analysed using spa typing, multilocus sequence typing and SCCmec typing. Furthermore, the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was determined as a genetic marker for community-associated MRSA. The MRSA prevalence was 14%. Ninety-six per cent of the MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 95% to clindamycin and azithromycin, 94% to gentamicin, and 93% to erythromycin. The majority of the MRSA isolates (78%) was associated with the ST111-MRSA-I clone. In addition, various other endemic MRSA clones were observed, such as the ST247-MRSA-I (4%), the ST45-MRSA-IV (2%), the ST5-MRSA-I (2%), the ST239-MRSA-III (2%), the ST5-MRSA-II (1%), the ST8-MRSA-IV (1%) and the ST5-MRSA-IV (<1%) clones. Furthermore, we observed one PVL-negative ST80-MRSA-IV isolate. Four PVL-positive MRSA isolates were found, associated with ST8-MRSA-IV, ST80-MRSA-IV and ST80-MRSA-I. The ST111-MRSA-I clone was predominant in Croatia. Future surveillance studies of MRSA are important to elucidate whether changes in the clonal distribution of MRSA will occur, and if the minor endemic MRSA clones observed in the present study will replace the ST111-MRSA-I clone on a large scale. PMID:19732087

  19. Test and evaluation of Japanese GPR-EMI dual sensor systems at Benkovac test site in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Furuta, K.; Pavković, Nikola

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental design and the evaluation result of a trial that were carried out from 1 February to 9 March 2006 using real PMA-1A and PMA-2 landmines at the Benkovac test site in Croatia. The objective of the Croatia- Japan joint trial is to evaluate dual sensor systems, which use both ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductive (EMI) sensors. A comparative trial was also carried out by Croatian deminers using an existing EMI sensor, i.e., a metal detector (MD). The trial aims at evaluating differences in performance between dual sensors and MDs, especially in terms of discrimination of landmines from metal fragments and extension of detectable range in the depth direction. Devices evaluated here are 4 prototypes of anti-personnel landmine detection systems developed under a project of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), the supervising authority of which is the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The prototypes provide operators with subsurface images, and final decision whether a shadow in the image is a real landmine or not is left to the operator. This is similar to the way that medical doctors find cancer by reading CT images. Since operators' pre-knowledge of locations of buried targets significantly influences the test result, three test lanes, which have 3 different kinds of soils, have been designed to be suitable for blind tests. The result showed that the dual sensor systems have a potential to discriminate landmines from metal fragments and that probability of detection for small targets in mineralized soils can be improved by using GPR.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals. PMID:26002287

  1. Primary healthcare information system--the cornerstone for the next generation healthcare sector in Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Koncar, Miroslav; Gvozdanović, Darko

    2006-01-01

    At no time in the history of medicine has the growth in knowledge and technologies been so profound [Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2001. ISBN 0-309-07280-8]. However, healthcare delivery systems today are not able to keep up with the pace. Studies have shown that it takes an average of about 17 years for new knowledge generated by randomized trials to be incorporated into practice [B. Andrew, S. Boren, Managing clinical knowledge for health care improvement, in: Yearbook of Medical Informatics, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 2000, pp. 65-70]. It is safe to say that today healthcare systems "have the data, but not information". In order to provide highest quality patient care, Republic of Croatia has started the process of introducing enterprise information systems to support business processes in the healthcare domain. Two major requirements are in focus: to provide efficient healthcare related data management in support of decision-making processes; and to support continuous process of healthcare resources spending optimization. The first initiated project refers to Primary Healthcare Information System (PHCIS) that provides domain of primary care with state-of-the-art enterprise information system that connects General Practitioners, Pediatricians and Gynecologists offices with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and Public Health Institute. In the years to come, PHCIS will serve as the main integration platform for connecting all other stakeholders and levels of healthcare (e.g. hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories) into single enterprise healthcare network. This article gives an overview of PHCIS, explains challenges that were faced in designing and implementing the system, and elaborates PHCIS role as the cornerstone for the next generation healthcare provisioning in Republic of Croatia. PMID:16213189

  2. Physical and chemical properties of dew and rain water in the Dalmatian coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Lekouch, I.; Muselli, M.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, I.; Sojat, V.

    2010-07-01

    The possibility to use dew water as a supplementary source of water is evaluated in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. The relative contributions of dew and rain water and their chemical quality is estimated. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 to October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data. Maximum yields were 0.41 mm (Zadar) and 0.6 mm (Komiža). The mean yearly cumulative yields were 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). During the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. The chemical properties of dew water versus rain water were analyzed during three years (2004 - 2006) in Zadar. The corresponding parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions (HCO3-,Cl-, SO42-,NO3-), major cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). The mean pH and EC values were comparable for dew and rain water, pH = 6.7 (dew) and pH = 6.35 (rain), EC = 195.5 microS cm-1 (dew) and EC = 178.1 microS cm-1 (rain). The ratio (SO42- + NO3-) / (Ca2+ + Mg2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of both dew and rain water. Both dew and rain water exhibited low mineralization. The analysis of the major ions showed that the concentration of cations is high compared to that of anions (presumably NO2-,HCOO- and CH3COO- non-measured ions), with Ca2+, Na+ and Mg2+ the main ions. In order to discriminate between the marine and non-marine origin of ions, the sea-salt fraction (SSF) was calculated by taking Na+ as a reference. The small SSF value in dew suggests a considerable

  3. Results from stable isotope investigations of river waters in Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, H.; Frančišković-Bilinski, S.; Rank, D.; Stadler, P.; Bilinski, H.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation (GNIP), revealing an approximate vertical d O-18 gradient of -0,30‰ per 100 m, as reported by Vreča et al. (2006). In addition, this stable isotope data for the GNIP station Zavižan predominantly indicates precipitation from the Adriatic coast, in contrary to the GNIP station Zagreb, the precipitation of which is more influenced by continental air masses. Due to the lack of local precipitation isotope data in the Kupa drainage basin it is not possible to directly analyse the modification of the isotopic signature and its temporal variation in river waters. To sum up, the isotopic composition of river waters in the Kupa Basin is controlled by two factors: the mean altitude of the recharge areas, and differences in the isotope composition of air moisture of more maritime or more continental influence. Along with use for hydrological investigations, the presented isotope data set can serve as a base line of isotope data for assessing future climate impacts within the Kupa Basin, such as temperature changes and change of precipitation distribution. Vreča, P., Bronić, I. K., Horvatinčić, N., Baresić, J. (2006): Isotopic characteristics of precipitation in Slovenia and Croatia: Comparison of continental and marine stations.- Journal of Hydrology, 330, 457-469.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria in a University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Dogas, Varja; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Radic, Marina; Tonkic, Marija

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Centre (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19

  5. [Founding and activity of the Society of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slovenia as reported in the newspapers from 1874 to 1875].

    PubMed

    Belicza, Biserka; Buklijas, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the first active year of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, today's Croatian Medical Association, (from February 26, 1874 until the annual assembly held on June 31, 1875), based upon the articles published in Zagreb daily newspapers Obzor and Narodne novine and a Zadar newspaper--Narodni list. The writings of these newspapers are situated in the spatial and temporal context based on data from secondary literature and Austrian daily newspapers. These articles were employed as historical sources, which we used to find answers to following questions: How did the Croatian public accept the foundation of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia? What did the public expect and what duties was this Association to fulfill according to the public? Finally, how did the public evaluate the results of the Association's work at the end of its first year of existence? The foundation of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia coincided with numerous initiatives on the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy level. Goal of these initiatives was to create a well ramified network of physicians' organisations that were to deal with issues related to the social status of physicians, such as fees for their professional services, retirement funds, pensions for family members etc. The first official "Rules of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia" from May 1874, puts promotion of scientific medicine and health improvement before the interests of the medical profession status. Croatian public expected that the newly founded Association would engage itself in matters such as improving medical practice, eradicating diseases, promoting foundation of a medical school in Zagreb, counselling political bodies on the health-related issues, and so on. Based on the newspaper articles, especially ones published at the end of the first year of the Associations' existence

  6. Phylogenetic comparison of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains detected in domestic pigs until 2008 and in 2012 in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been present for the last 2 decades in Croatia, causing large economical losses in the pig production. The clinical features of the infections are mostly manifested by the development of respiratory problems, weight loss and poor growth performance, as well as reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Even though the infections are continuously recognized in some regions in Croatia, the heterogeneity of the detected viral strains from 2012 has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to compare virus strains of PCV2 and PRRSV detected until 2008 in Croatia with strains isolated in 2012 to gain a better epidemiological understanding of these two infections. Results PCV2 and PRRSV strains detected in 2012 in fattening pigs from regions where these two diseases have been previously described were compared to strains that have been detected in the same regions within the past two decades. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating PCV2 and PRRSV strains are distantly related to the previously described Croatian viral strains. However, when compared to known isolates from the GenBank a high genetic identity of PRRSV isolates with isolates from Hungary, Denmark and the Netherlands was found. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that even though PCV2 and PRRSV are constantly present in the investigated regions in Croatia, the viral strains found in 2012 genetically differ from those detected in earlier years. This indicates that new entries into the pig population appeared with regard to both infections, probably as a result of pig trade. PMID:24839544

  7. Emigration-related attitudes of the final year medical students in Croatia: a cross-sectional study at the dawn of the EU accession

    PubMed Central

    Kolčić, Ivana; Čikeš, Mihaela; Boban, Kristina; Bućan, Jasna; Likić, Robert; Ćurić, Goran; Đogaš, Zoran; Polašek, Ozren

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the emigration-related attitudes of final year medical students in Croatia at the dawn of the EU accession in 2013. Methods All final-year medical students at four Croatian medical schools (Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, and Osijek) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey on emigration attitudes. Results Among 260 respondents (response rate 61%), 90 students (35%) reported readiness for permanent emigration, expecting better quality of life (N = 22, 31%), better health care organization (N = 17, 24%), more professional challenges (N = 10, 14%), or simply to get a job (N = 8, 11%), while the least common expectation were greater earnings (N = 7, 10%). The most common target countries were Germany (N = 36, 40%), USA and Canada (N = 15, 17%), and UK (N = 10, 11%). In a multivariate analysis, readiness for permanent emigration was associated with an interest in undertaking a temporary training abroad (odds ratio [OR] 6.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-16.72), while the belief that the preferred specialty could be obtained in Croatia appeared protective against emigration (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59). Conclusion Despite shortages of health care workers in Croatia, the percentage of students with emigration propensity was rather high. Prevalent negative perception of the Croatian health care and recent Croatian accession to the EU pose a threat of losing newly graduated physicians to EU countries. PMID:25358878

  8. Unexpected sudden death due to recreational swimming and diving in men in Croatia in a 14-year period.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Zijad; Duraković, Marjeta Misigoj; Skavić, Josip; Gojanović, Marija Definis

    2012-06-01

    The article deals with 17 sudden deaths which occurred during recreational swimming and diving in men in Croatia in a 14-year period: from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2011. The sample is taken out from the total number of 61 sudden deaths in men during or immediately after sport or recreational exercise. Included are also sudden deaths of 8 foreigners spending holidays at the Croatian Adriatic Coast. In all of them forensic medicine autopsy was done. Thirteen males from Croatia died during recreational swimming. Three of them were aged 15-29 yrs: one had signs of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the second suffered from chronic myopericarditis with left ventricular aneurysm, and the third had cardiomegaly and blood alcohol level of 1.7 per thousand. Five were aged 30-64 yrs: four of them have suffered from coronary atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy of 15-18-18-22 mm, and one with left ventricular hypertrophy drowned suddenly, probably because of malignant ventricular arrhythmia. The fifth suffered stroke and drowned. Five elderly men, aged 65-85 yrs, have suffered from coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis or myocardial scars, and three of them had left ventricular hypertrophy of 19 mm. Four males died during recreational diving. One aged 26yrs drowned, at autopsy he had left ventricular hypertrophy of 17 mm. Three males were middle-aged: two had coronary atherosclerosis, two of them had a severe degree of coronary atherosclerosis and one had coronary atherosclerosis of medium degree but with myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy of 18 mm. Seven male foreigners died, five of them during swimming: two aged 30-64 and two aged 65-85. They all have had coronary atherosclerosis: one of them had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall, and one hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as well. One middle-aged and one elderly man died during diving, and both had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall. One elderly foreign

  9. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results

  10. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    PubMed

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (<3-mm fraction) was carelessly deposited in gardens, forests, and into a sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future