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Sample records for katangan copperbelt democratic

  1. Anhydrite pseudomorphs and the origin of stratiform Cu-Co ores in the Katangan Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Vanderhaeghen, P.; El Desouky, H.; Schneider, J.; Boyce, A.; Dewaele, S.; Cailteux, J.

    2008-07-01

    The stratiform Cu-Co ore mineralisation in the Katangan Copperbelt consists of dispersed sulphides and sulphides in nodules and lenses, which are often pseudomorphs after evaporites. Two types of pseudomorphs can be distinguished in the nodules and lenses. In type 1 examples, dolomite precipitated first and was subsequently replaced by Cu-Co sulphides and authigenic quartz, whereas in type 2 examples, authigenic quartz and Cu-Co sulphides precipitated prior to dolomite and are coarse-grained. The sulphur isotopic composition of the copper-cobalt sulphides in the type 1 pseudomorphs is between -10.3 and 3.1‰ relative to the Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite, indicating that the sulphide component was derived from bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR). The generation of {text{HCO}}_3^ - during this process caused the precipitation and replacement of anhydrite by dolomite. A second product of BSR is the generation of H2S, resulting in the precipitation of Cu-Co sulphides from the mineralising fluids. Initial sulphide precipitation occurred along the rim of the pseudomorphs and continued towards the core. Precipitation of authigenic quartz was most likely induced by a pH decrease during sulphide precipitation. Fluid inclusion data from quartz indicate the presence of a high-salinity (8-18 eq. wt.% NaCl) fluid, possibly derived from evaporated seawater which migrated through the deep subsurface. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of dolomite in type 1 nodules range between 0.71012 and 0.73576, significantly more radiogenic than the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7056-0.7087). This suggests intense interaction with siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and/or the granitic basement. The low carbon isotopic composition of the dolomite in the pseudomorphs (-7.02 and -9.93‰ relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite, V-PDB) compared to the host rock dolomite (-4.90 and +1.31‰ V-PDB) resulted from the oxidation of organic matter during BSR.

  2. Genesis of sediment-hosted stratiform copper-cobalt mineralization at Luiswishi and Kamoto, Katanga Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Desouky, Hamdy A.; Muchez, Philippe; Boyce, Adrian J.; Schneider, Jens; Cailteux, Jacques L. H.; Dewaele, Stijn; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2010-12-01

    The sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co mineralization of the Luiswishi and Kamoto deposits in the Katangan Copperbelt is hosted by the Neoproterozoic Mines Subgroup. Two main hypogene Cu-Co sulfide mineralization stages and associated gangue minerals (dolomite and quartz) are distinguished. The first is an early diagenetic, typical stratiform mineralization with fine-grained minerals, whereas the second is a multistage syn-orogenic stratiform to stratabound mineralization with coarse-grained minerals. For both stages, the main hypogene Cu-Co sulfide minerals are chalcopyrite, bornite, carrollite, and chalcocite. These minerals are in many places replaced by supergene sulfides (e.g., digenite and covellite), especially near the surface, and are completely oxidized in the weathered superficial zone and in surface outcrops, with malachite, heterogenite, chrysocolla, and azurite as the main oxidation products. The hypogene sulfides of the first Cu-Co stage display δ34S values (-10.3‰ to +3.1‰ Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT)), which partly overlap with the δ34S signature of framboidal pyrites (-28.7‰ to 4.2‰ V-CDT) and have ∆34SSO4-Sulfides in the range of 14.4‰ to 27.8‰. This fractionation is consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). The hypogene sulfides of the second Cu-Co stage display δ34S signatures that are either similar (-13.1‰ to +5.2‰ V-CDT) to the δ34S values of the sulfides of the first Cu-Co stage or comparable (+18.6‰ to +21.0‰ V-CDT) to the δ34S of Neoproterozoic seawater. This indicates that the sulfides of the second stage obtained their sulfur by both remobilization from early diagenetic sulfides and from thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The carbon (-9.9‰ to -1.4‰ Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (V-PDB)) and oxygen (-14.3‰ to -7.7‰ V-PDB) isotope signatures of dolomites associated with the first Cu-Co stage are in agreement with the interpretation that these dolomites are by-products of BSR. The carbon

  3. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  4. Genesis of sediment-hosted stratiform copper cobalt deposits, central African Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailteux, J. L. H.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Lerouge, C.; Kaputo, A. K.; Milesi, J. P.

    2005-07-01

    The Neoproterozoic central African Copperbelt is one of the greatest sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co provinces in the world, totalling 140 Mt copper and 6 Mt cobalt and including several world-class deposits (⩾10 Mt copper). The origin of Cu-Co mineralisation in this province remains speculative, with the debate centred around syngenetic-diagenetic and hydrothermal-diagenetic hypotheses. The regional distribution of metals indicates that most of the cobalt-rich copper deposits are hosted in dolomites and dolomitic shales forming allochthonous units exposed in Congo and known as Congolese facies of the Katangan sedimentary succession (average Co:Cu = 1:13). The highest Co:Cu ratio (up to 3:1) occurs in ore deposits located along the southern structural block of the Lufilian Arc. The predominantly siliciclastic Zambian facies, exposed in Zambia and in SE Congo, forms para-autochthonous sedimentary units hosting ore deposits characterized by lower a Co:Cu ratio (average 1:57). Transitional lithofacies in Zambia (e.g. Baluba, Mindola) and in Congo (e.g. Lubembe) indicate a gradual transition in the Katangan basin during the deposition of laterally correlative clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks exposed in Zambia and in Congo, and are marked by Co:Cu ratios in the range 1:15. The main Cu-Co orebodies occur at the base of the Mines/Musoshi Subgroup, which is characterized by evaporitic intertidal-supratidal sedimentary rocks. All additional lenticular orebodies known in the upper part of the Mines/Musoshi Subgroup are hosted in similar sedimentary rocks, suggesting highly favourable conditions for the ore genesis in particular sedimentary environments. Pre-lithification sedimentary structures affecting disseminated sulphides indicate that metals were deposited before compaction and consolidation of the host sediment. The ore parageneses indicate several generations of sulphides marking syngenetic, early diagenetic and late diagenetic processes. Sulphur isotopic

  5. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  6. Origin of the Nchanga copper-cobalt deposits of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Ross R.; Roberts, Stephen; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    The Zambian Copperbelt forms the southeastern part of the 900-km-long Neoproterozoic Lufilian Arc and contains one of the world’s largest accumulations of sediment-hosted stratiform copper mineralization. The Nchanga deposit is one of the most significant ore systems in the Zambian Copperbelt and contains two major economic concentrations of copper and cobalt, hosted within the Lower Roan Group of the Katangan Supergroup. A Lower Orebody (copper only) and Upper Orebody (copper and cobalt) occur towards the top of arkosic units and within the base of overlying shales. The sulfide mineralogy includes pyrite, bornite, chalcopyrite, and chalcocite, although in the Lower Orebody, sulfide phases are partially or completely replaced by malachite and copper oxides. Carrollite is the major cobalt-bearing phase and is restricted to fault-propagation fold zones within a feldspathic arenite. Hydrothermal alteration minerals include dolomite, phlogophite, sericite, rutile, quartz, tourmaline, and chlorite. Quartz veins from the mine sequence show halite-saturated fluid inclusions, ranging from ~31 to 38 wt% equivalent NaCl, with homogenisation temperatures (ThTOT) ranging between 140 and 180°C. Diagenetic pyrites in the lower orebody show distinct, relatively low δ 34S, ranging from -1 to -17‰ whereas arenite- and shale-hosted copper and cobalt sulfides reveal distinctly different δ 34S from -1 to +12‰ for the Lower Orebody and +5 to +18‰ for the Upper Orebody. There is also a clear distinction between the δ 34S mean of +12.1±3.3‰ ( n=65) for the Upper Orebody compared with +5.2±3.6‰ ( n=23) for the Lower Orebody. The δ 13C of dolomites from units above the Upper Orebody give δ 13C values of +1.4 to +2.5‰ consistent with marine carbon. However, dolomite from the shear-zones and the alteration assemblages within the Upper Orebody show more negative δ 13C values: -2.9 to -4.0‰ and -5.6 to -8.3‰, respectively. Similarly, shear zone and Upper Orebody

  7. Sedimentary genesis and lithostratigraphy of Neoproterozoic megabreccia from Mufulira, Copperbelt of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendorff, Marek

    2005-07-01

    The Lufilian arc is an orogenic belt in central Africa that extends between Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and deforms the Neoproterozoic-Lower Palaeozoic metasedimentary succession of the Katanga Supergroup. The arc contains thick bodies of fragmental rocks that include blocks reaching several kilometres in size. Some megablocks contain Cu and Cu-Co-mineralised Katangan strata. These coarse clastic rocks, called the Katangan megabreccias, have traditionally been interpreted in the DRC as tectonic breccias formed during Lufilian orogenesis due to friction underneath Katangan nappes. In mid-90th, several occurrences in Zambia have been interpreted in the same manner. Prominent among them is an occurrence at Mufulira, considered by previous workers as a ≈1000 m thick tectonic friction breccia containing a Cu-Co-mineralised megablock. This paper presents new results pertaining to the lower stratigraphic interval of the Katanga Supergroup at Mufulira and represented by the Roan Group and the succeeding Mwashya Subgroup of the Guba Group. The interval interpreted in the past as tectonic Roan megabreccia appears to be an almost intact sedimentary succession, the lower part of which consists of Roan Group carbonate rocks with siliciclastic intercalations containing several interbeds of matrix-supported conglomerate. A Cu-Co-mineralised interval is not an allochthonous block but a part of the stratigraphic succession underlain and overlain by conglomerate beds, which were considered in the past as tectonic friction breccias. The overlying megabreccia is a syn-rift sedimentary olistostrome succession that rests upon the Roan strata with a subtle local unconformity. The olistostrome succession consists of three complexes typified by matrix-supported debris-flow conglomerates with Roan clasts. Some of the conglomerate beds pass upwards to normally graded turbidite layers and are accompanied by solitary slump beds. The three conglomeratic assemblages are

  8. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  9. Democratic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W., Ed.; Beane, James A., Ed.

    This book illustrates how educators in four U.S. communities committed themselves to preparing students for the democratic way of life. In four narratives, educators directly involved in four different school-reform efforts describe how they initiated demographic practices in their educational settings. The four schools serve as reminders that…

  10. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterize heterogenite (CoO·OH) (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, C.; Vanbrabant, Y.; Goethals, H.; Thys, T.; Dupin, L.

    2011-10-01

    Natural heterogenite (CoO·OH) samples were studied by Raman microspectroscopy, electronic microprobe and Electronic BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). Raw samples and polished sections were made from 10 mines covering the Katanga copperbelt (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Four typical Raman responses have been obtained leading to investigate the laser-induced dehydroxylation of heterogenite into a Co-spinel structure. The results are also compared with EBSD patterns from oven heated heterogenite samples. A close relationship was established between the chemical substitutions of Co by mainly Cu, Ni, Mn and Al and their impact on the mineral Raman response.

  11. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterize heterogenite (CoO·OH) (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Burlet, C; Vanbrabant, Y; Goethals, H; Thys, T; Dupin, L

    2011-10-01

    Natural heterogenite (CoO·OH) samples were studied by Raman microspectroscopy, electronic microprobe and Electronic BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). Raw samples and polished sections were made from 10 mines covering the Katanga copperbelt (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Four typical Raman responses have been obtained leading to investigate the laser-induced dehydroxylation of heterogenite into a Co-spinel structure. The results are also compared with EBSD patterns from oven heated heterogenite samples. A close relationship was established between the chemical substitutions of Co by mainly Cu, Ni, Mn and Al and their impact on the mineral Raman response. PMID:21497546

  12. Evolution of Cu-Co mineralizing fluids at Nkana Mine, Central African Copperbelt, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Brems, D.; Clara, E.; De Cleyn, A.; Lammens, L.; Boyce, A.; De Muynck, D.; Mukumba, W.; Sikazwe, O.

    2010-10-01

    The Central African Copperbelt hosts numerous world class stratiform Cu-Co deposits in the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup (<880 to ± 500 Ma). These high grade deposits resulted from multiple mineralization and remobilization stages. The Nkana Cu-Co deposit in the Zambian part of the Copperbelt is such a stratiform deposit but the location of the rich ore bodies is structurally controlled, i.e. occurring in the hinge zones of tight to isoclinal folds. Late stage mineralization and/or remobilization caused this enrichment. Three major mineralization/remobilization stages have taken place during the Lufilian orogeny. They are characterized by folded layer parallel veins, highly irregular veins crosscutting the folds, and finally unfolded massive veins. An evolution in the oxygen, carbon and sulphur isotopic composition is present from the layer parallel and irregular to the massive veins. The more negative δ 18O values in the carbonates from the massive veins most likely reflect a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the ambient, metamorphic fluids. The δ 13C values range between -25‰ and -5‰ V-PDB with a trend towards less negative values in the massive veins, possibly reflecting an ongoing oxidation of organic matter in a relatively closed system. Early framboidal and massive pyrites disseminated in the host rock have distinctly negative δ 34S values, i.e. between -16‰ and -9.7‰ V-CDT. The sulphur isotopic composition increases from these early diagenetic pyrites to sulphides in the successive vein generations. The δ 34S values of the massive veins are positive and cluster between 1.3‰ and 2.0‰ V-CDT. This enrichment in heavy sulphur is interpreted as a result of the mixing of S remobilized from early sulphides, with S derived from the thermochemical reduction of sulphate. With time, the sulphur derived from TSR became more important. The Sr isotopic composition of the carbonates in all three vein generations shows a wide range between

  13. New correlations and tectonic setting of the Kalahari Copperbelt in Namibia and Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jeremie; Master, Sharad; Rankin, William; Kinnaird, Judith A.

    2014-05-01

    The Kalahari Copperbelt, a 1000 km long by up to 250 km wide NE-trending Meso- to Neoproterozoic belt occurs discontinuously from western Namibia (Sinclair Supergroup) to northern Botswana (Kgwebe Formation and Ghanzi Group) along the NW edge of the Palaeoproterozoic Kalahari Craton. Copper-silver deposits are generally stratabound and hosted in Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks that have been folded, cleaved and faulted and metamorphosed to greenschist facies during the Pan-African Damara Orogeny. Whereas the belt in western and central Namibia is relatively well exposed, eastern Namibia and most of Botswana are covered by the Cenozoic Kalahari sands, precluding direct correlations with pre-Cambrian rocks exposed in Namibia. Because of the lack of exposure and also because of paucity in age constraints on the sedimentation, linking host-rocks to the mineralisations across the international Namibia/Botswana state border has been previously hampered. In this contribution, we present an integrated multidisciplinary study in both countries based on exhaustive compilation of published zircon ages of magmatic and sedimentary rocks and thorough summary of existing lithostratigraphic descriptions that are modified by new field observations of key sedimentological features. The age of sedimentation is also constrained by recently published isotope chemostratigraphic data. The spatial continuity of newly defined lithotectonic domains below cover and across the state border was inferred using processed 50 metre resolution aeromagnetic maps. In Namibia, the Sinclair Supergroup unconformably overlaps Palaeoproterozoic graniti-gneissic basement and is marked at its base by ~1200 Ma old arc-related magmatic rocks. These rocks are overlain by a ~1100 Ma several km thick package of volcanic-plutonic bimodal continental tholeiites alternating with volcaniclastic marginal marine and/or continental sediments. This lithotectonic domain is virtually identical in age, rock-type and

  14. Attenuation of dissolved metals in neutral mine drainage in the Zambian Copperbelt.

    PubMed

    Sracek, Ondra; Filip, Jan; Mihaljevič, Martin; Kříbek, Bohdan; Majer, Vladimír; Veselovský, František

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour of metals like Cu and Co was studied in nearly neutral (pH ≥ 6.4) mine drainage seepage in a stream downgradient of a tailing dam at Chambishi site in the Copperbelt of Zambia. They are attenuated by precipitation of ferruginous ochres that incorporate significant quantities of metals. Using chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy, we show that the ochres are composed mostly of amorphous ferric hydroxide. Close to the seepage face, the total Fe content of ochres increases due to precipitation of amorphous ferric hydroxide, but total Fe in sediment decreases further downstream. The stream then flows through wetland (dambo) where the remaining fraction of metals is removed. During rainy periods, increased flow rate may result in re-suspension of ochres, increasing thus the mobility of metals. Major ions like sulphate are conservative at the start of the dry period (May), but gypsum may probably precipitate later at the end of the dry period. Sequential extractions of bulk sediments indicate that Mn behaves differently to Fe, with a trend of increasing Mn with distance from the tailing dam. There is much more Fe than Mn in residual (Aqua Regia) fraction, indicating that amorphous ferric hydroxides are transformed to more crystalline phases deeper in sediment. Environmental impact of mine drainage is relatively limited due to its neutral character. PMID:20140501

  15. Environmental monitoring of the kafue river, located in the Copperbelt, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Norrgren, L; Pettersson, U; Orn, S; Bergqvist, P

    2000-04-01

    Zambia is a country with an extensive mining industry with the majority of mines located in the Copperbelt province. Through this region of the country, the Kafue River drains and receives effluent water from mining activities as well as from other industrial point sources. In addition, production of agricultural products and pest control requires use of different pesticides in the area. Information on industrial and agricultural pollution has not been clearly identified in Zambia, and little attention has been paid to pollution control and possible impact of metals, pesticides, and other persistent compounds in the environment. The objective of this study was to introduce and to evaluate a few methodologies based on in situ bioassays for environmental assessment to promote sustainable and environmentally sound water resource management of the Kafue River. The results show that caged threespot tilapia exposed downstream of industrial points sources rapidly bioaccumulate several trace elements, i.e., Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni. These elements also occurred in much higher concentrations in water samples downstream of the industrial area compared with a locality upstream. Furthermore, the use of a semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) for passive absorption of lipophilic pollutants in the water showed relatively high concentration of several pesticides, i.e., DDT with major metabolites, PCB, and dieldrin. The present study shows that only 2 weeks of in situ studies in waters contaminated by pollutants affects in situ exposed fish and that the correlation between water and tissue concentrations was relatively good. Both trace elements and persistent organic pollutants occurred in such high concentrations that they must be considered from ecotoxicological aspects and may affect aquatic animal health. PMID:10667931

  16. Democratic Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Philip A.

    2005-01-01

    In this book Philip Woods turns his attention to issues of democracy and leadership. He has provided an eloquent, intellectually compelling and sophisticated account of a new leadership label--democratic leadership. He argues that the purpose of "democratic" leadership is to create and help sustain an environment that enables everyone who is…

  17. The Democratization of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Groves, James

    2009-01-01

    Just as the democratization of information through personal computers was a key advance of the 20th century, the democratization of production through improvements in fabrication technologies will be a pivotal development in the 21st century. Digital fabrication is the process of translating a digital design into a physical object. At one time,…

  18. Deepening Democratic Curriculum Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the longstanding argument between advocates of curriculum development and critical curriculum studies from the perspective of democratic inquiry artistry, highlighting the curriculum perspectives of Wraga (1999) and Pinar (1999). Suggests that the daily enactment of democratic inquiry artistry can help educational researchers by informing…

  19. Negotiating the Democratic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colin, Scipio A. J., III; Heaney, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Argues the case for democratic practices in adult graduate study, which include balancing and negotiating power, fostering collaboration, and enabling shared decision making. Advocates the cohort model for graduate education. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  20. Democratizing the hospital: deliberative-democratic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Dzur, Albert W

    2002-04-01

    The increased presence of moral consultants, or bioethicists, within hospitals and clinics in the last two decades has begun to raise questions about their sources of authority and norms of practice. Under pressure from critics in the social sciences, a number of bioethicists have recently raised the ideal of democratic deliberation to defend and reconstruct their place in the medical field. This article sheds light on these developments by placing bioethics in a historical context that shows an early tension between bioethicists as whistle-blowers and bioethicists as incremental reformers of medical practice. This article also develops a conceptual framework for analysis that indicates how such tensions have grown more complicated for contemporary bioethicists because they occupy a fluid and structurally ambiguous role in which there are multiple sources of normative expectations and little guidance for meeting these expectations. The liminality of the role and the overload of expectations have made bioethics vulnerable to methodological criticisms from social scientists. This article concludes that such methodological criticisms cannot address the more systemic problems of liminality and overload. The ideal of democratic deliberation, though imperfect, does address these systemic problems because it shows bioethicists how to gain guidance and share responsibility for moral consultation. PMID:12043894

  1. Democratic Citizenship Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eoh, Myung-Ha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of democratic citizenship education in Korea. Highlights the forces enhancing democratic citizenship education especially the role of the nongovernmental organizations and the Korean Educational Developmental Institute. Considers the various forces inhibiting democratic citizenship education, such as corruption in the…

  2. Democratic Citizenship Education in Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltsounis, Theodore

    1999-01-01

    Considers the forces contributing to the development of democratic citizenship education in Albania and reviews the progress that has been made. Explores the barriers to democratic citizenship education, such as the centralization in Albanian schools and the lack of resources for running a program. Ponders the future of democratic citizenship…

  3. Homegrown Democracy, Homegrown Democrats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his reflections on the political climate experienced during the pre-election season of 2004 and what he expected from "Homegrown Democracy." Denzin states that the values expected were opposite from the "homegrown democratic values of the hard-working, God-fearing people of Lake Wobegon, and…

  4. Jefferson and Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holowchak, M. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This essay is a reply to James Carpenter's "Thomas Jefferson and the Ideology of Democratic Schooling." In it, I argue that there is an apophatic strain in the essay that calls into question the motivation for the undertaking.

  5. Democratic Neutrino Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuridov, Dmitry

    2014-03-01

    I will introduce a democratic neutrino theory, which sets the absolute scale of the neutrino masses at about 0.03 eV, and has only one free parameter in contrast to 7 (9) free parameters in the conventional model of Dirac (Majorana) neutrino masses and mixing. Taking into account the incoherence and matter effects, this democratic theory agrees with the atmospheric and solar neutrino data. Moreover the results of the reactor neutrino experiments with the baselines around 100 m can be better explained. I will also discuss the predictions of this theory for low energy beta decays, magnetic moments, and neutrinoless double beta decays. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FG02-12ER41825.

  6. Reunification, democratization and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jee-Hun

    1990-06-01

    The division of the nation into two separate political entities and the later development of dependent capitalism in South Korea have created two important eductional tasks, to do with reunification and democratization. Reunification requires liberation from the influence of foreign powers involved in the national partition and the development of dependent capitalism. Reunification-oriented education emphasizes understanding foreign influences in every sphere of the people's life, understanding the true realities of the two Koreas which have developed in different ways, and overcoming anti-communist ideological obfuscation. Democratization implies the enhancement of people's participation in the exercise and control of political and economic power at every level. For this purpose people need to be educated to participate in order to prevent the abuse of highly centralized power. United and collective action by teachers is required to protect schools from the state monopoly in education and to maintain the integrity and independence of a teaching profession so that pupils can learn and practise democratic values at school.

  7. Factors facilitating and challenging access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a township in the Zambian Copperbelt: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Elizabeth; Logie, Dorothy; Masura, Mary; Gorman, Dermot; Murray, Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Antiretroviral therapy is increasingly available in African communities. We set out to gain patient perceptions on factors that facilitate and challenge access and adherence to such therapy. We carried out two semi-structured interviews 12 months apart with 40 HIV-positive people drawn from three economically deprived townships in the Copperbelt, Zambia. We also conducted a focus group of 12 of these interviewees. Availability of medication in health facilities did not automatically ensure access to those in need. A prerequisite for commencing on treatment was a positive documented HIV test result, but too few HIV testing centres, fear of family and community rejection and male domination in sexual and social decision-making prevented a number from coming forward to be tested. Once within the system of care, further barriers, such as rumours of bad side-effects, inconsistent information, high costs of drugs (at the time of the first interviews), ongoing costs of additional medical tests, overcrowded systems and overworked staff, all hindered access to receiving treatment. When taken, therapy brought side-effects, the most common being increased appetite and hunger. Yet, despite these barriers and challenges many of those on treatment reported good adherence. Immediate factors, such as seeing ill people becoming well; being supported by a friend or family member; and having a watch or clock to keep to a regular regime, were important. The increase in the number of people who were expected to die but were now looking well also shifted community attitudes. HIV/AIDS is beginning to move from a hidden terminal disease to a chronic condition that is treatable. PMID:19012078

  8. Democratic Parenting: Paradoxical Messages in Democratic Parent Education Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-01-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents…

  9. The democratization of medicine.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Gary L

    2015-11-01

    We can give patients the data, devices, education, and point of care access they need to 1) determine their genomic risk, 2) to manage their co-morbid conditions to delay CKD progression, 3) to manage the first 100 days of dialysis, 4) to differentiate the stress on the body with home versus in center dialysis, 5) to manage their 8-15 medications better, 6) to virtually access their health care professionals 24/7, and 7) to empower them to improve their clinical and financial outcomes. All of this is possible with technology and through the democratization of medicine. PMID:26677597

  10. Evolution of HIV and AIDS Programmes in an African Institution of Higher Learning: The Case of the Copperbelt University in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sanjobo, Nawa; Lukwesa, Matilda; Kaziya, Charity; Tepa, Cornwell; Puta, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Universities present the foundation for socio-economic and political development. Without structures and processes to fight HIV, there is no prospect of enhancing treatment, prevention, care and support services. Copperbelt University HIV and AIDS response was initiated in 2003 with the aim of building capacity of students and employees in HIV and AIDS. Objectives: The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the CBU HIV response has evolved over time and provide a timeline of important milestones in the development process. Method: Peer educators and counsellors conduct sensitization campaigns through one on one discussion, workshops, and drama performances, distribution of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials. Results: HIV Programme has been set up with players from policy, programme and community levels. Strategic processes, collaborations, funding, medical insurance schemes, prevention, treatment, care and support services, training of peer educators and counsellors have been established. Conclusion: Copperbelt University HIV initiative has demonstrated potential to reduce new infections in the university, and is currently expanding her programme to encompass wellness and also spearhead the integration of HIV in the university curriculum. PMID:27347269

  11. Optical network democratization.

    PubMed

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation. PMID:26809571

  12. Howard Zinn on Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps no other historian has had a more profound and revolutionary impact on American education than Howard Zinn. This is the first book devoted to his views on education and its role in a democratic society. "Howard Zinn on Democratic Education" describes what is missing from school textbooks and in classrooms--and how we move beyond these…

  13. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen’s and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl’s seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, higher democratic quality can be attributed to institutional characteristics of consensus democracy, especially proportional representation. PMID:21258634

  14. Democratic parenting: paradoxical messages in democratic parent education theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-06-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.

  15. Evidence for participation of microbial mats in the deposition of the siliciclastic ‘ore formation’ in the Copperbelt of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, H.; Druschel, G.

    2010-10-01

    The Copperbelt of Zambia is the world's largest sediment-hosted stratiform copper province, hosted in siliciclastic sediments of the Roan Group, which forms the basal part of the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic Katanga Supergroup. Much of the ore deposition occurred between 880 Ma and 780 Ma, on a rimmed platform consisting of a carbonate barrier, a lagoonal basin and tidal flats grading into sabkhas in the hinterland. Various sedimentary structures developed in the ore formation at the Mindola Open Pit mine, are herein considered to be microbially induced and are identified as microbial shrinkage cracks, wrinkle structures, mat deformation structures, petees, concentric microfaults, and microbial mat chips. The occurrence of these structures in all ore formation units at the Mindola Mine suggests microbial mats grew on the paleo-sediment surface throughout deposition of the cupriferous succession. As these structures require cohesive layers, the mats were likely of the cyanobacterial type, that grew in the well aerated intertidal to lower supratidal zones. Cyanobacterial mats typically consist of a surface layer of filamentous cyanobacteria underlain by anaerobic, heterotrophic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). A distinct sulfide mineral zonation, developed in all major deposits of the Copperbelt, ranges from barren supratidal (sabkha) sediments, through chalcocite in the lower supratidal zone, to bornite followed by chalcopyrite in the intertidal zone, and pyrite in the subtidal zone and anoxic lagoonal depotcentre. This sequence of minerals can be modelled as a paragenetic sequence of mineralization resulting from the progressive reduction of a source fluid, indicating that geochemical conditions of ore formation, at least, are produced by the activity of SRB.

  16. Democratizing the world health organization.

    PubMed

    van de Pas, R; van Schaik, L G

    2014-02-01

    A progressive erosion of the democratic space appears as one of the emerging challenges in global health today. Such delimitation of the political interplay has a particularly evident impact on the unique public interest function of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper aims to identify some obstacles for a truly democratic functioning of the UN specialized agency for health. The development of civil society's engagement with the WHO, including in the current reform proposals, is described. The paper also analyses how today's financing of the WHO--primarily through multi-bi financing mechanisms--risks to choke the agency's role in global health. Democratizing the public debate on global health, and therefore the role of the WHO, requires a debate on its future role and engagement at the country level. This desirable process can only be linked to national debates on public health, and the re-definition of health as a primary political and societal concern. PMID:24417900

  17. When Democratic Evaluation Doesn't Seem Democratic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin

    1991-01-01

    A case study illustrates the ways in which local reactions to a program evaluation directly threaten its validity, and shows that not all participants in a qualitative evaluation study understand or defer to the commitments of democratic evaluation. Ethical concerns in program evaluation are considered. (SLD)

  18. Democratization of Learning through Thematic Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medellu, Christophil S.; Lumingkewas, S.; Walangitan, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of research on learning democratization in Sangihe. This study is the first year of a five-year plan. Long-term goal of this research is to create the democratic science learning in schools. Democratic learning model was developed through thematic assignment, involving the participation of parents and…

  19. Democratic Governance and Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruan, Joseph, A., Jr.; Cook, Malcolm

    Two hundred fifty-five students in grades 2 through 6 and 51 teachers participated in structured interviews to assess how democratic governance was practiced in their classrooms. Teachers also completed the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI), which measures orientation toward control of pupils. Findings showed that students do not want to rule…

  20. Making Educational Accountability More Democratic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Educational accountability is a fundamental right of citizens in a democratic society serving the public interest. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 holds states, school districts, public officials, educators, parents, and students accountable through auditable performance standards. At the same time, the lack of discussion about how to decide…

  1. Democratic Education and Critical Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Tony; Pearl, Art

    2000-01-01

    Makes the case for democratic education, criticizing critical pedagogy for its absence of a coherent, testable theory, lack of understanding of democracy, and inapplicability to the reality of classroom experiences. The paper presents six attributes of democracy that are generally recognized and applies them to education, adding a seventh that…

  2. Introducing Children to Democratic Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Janet; Brophy, Jere

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have been studying children's knowledge, thinking, and attitudes about government for several decades. However, the studies focusing on elementary students, and especially primary students, have little or nothing to say about children's ideas about democracy or democratic government. That is because children at these ages have not yet…

  3. How Democratic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of democracy and the Constitution. "Democracy and the Constitution" (Gordon S. Wood) looks at the popular and democratic rhetoric used to justify the federalist system in the late 1700's. "Decent,…

  4. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by…

  5. Surprisingly contrasting metal distribution and fractionation patterns in copper smelter-affected tropical soils in forested and grassland areas (Mufulira, Zambian Copperbelt).

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Konečný, Ladislav; Kovářová, Lucie; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sebek, Ondřej; Kříbek, Bohdan; Majer, Vladimír; Veselovský, František; Penížek, Vít; Vaněk, Aleš; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2014-03-01

    Six soil profiles located near Mufulira (Zambian Copperbelt) were studied to evaluate and compare the extent of environmental pollution of Cu-ore mining and smelting in both forested and grassland areas. The highest metal concentrations were detected in the uppermost soil layers with the following maxima: Co 45.8 mg kg(-1), Cu 8,980 mg kg(-1), Pb 41.6 mg kg(-1), and Zn 97.0 mg kg(-1). Numerous anthropogenic metal-bearing particles were detected in the most polluted soil layers. The spherical smelter-derived particles were mainly composed of covellite (CuS) and chalcocite (Cu2S), while the angular mining-derived particles were mostly composed of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). Additionally, Fe-Cu oxide particles predominantly corresponding to tenorite (CuO) and delafossite (Cu(1+)Fe(3+)O2), along with hydrated Fe-oxides corresponding to secondary weathering products, were detected. In contrast to smelter-affected soils in temperate climates, where forest soils are significantly more enriched in metals than tilled soils due to high canopy interception, our data indicate a higher proportion of metal-bearing anthropogenic particles and higher metal concentrations in soils from unforested sites. This phenomenon is probably related to the more frequent and intense bushfires in forested areas, leading to the mobilization of pollutants contained in the biomass-rich surface soils back into the atmosphere. PMID:24365587

  6. Deliberative Teaching: Effects on Students' Democratic Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Klas

    2015-01-01

    Since the early-2000s, deliberative democratic theory has influenced the debate on teaching. Proponents of deliberation in education have argued that deliberative communication as a teaching model enhances both subject knowledge and democratic virtues among students. However, empirical support for this assumption is weak. The aim of this article…

  7. Democratic Teaching: An Incomplete Job Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of public education in democratic states is almost beyond dispute. Too often, though, discussions of democratic education focus solely on policies and systems, forgetting the individual teachers who are ultimately responsible for educating future citizens. This paper attempts to illustrate just how complex and significant the role…

  8. The Democratic Process: Promises and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragaw, Donald, Ed.

    When the Berlin Wall (East Germany) came down, it symbolically foretold the end of the Soviet Union domination of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This resource guide examines the process toward democratization occurring in those regions. The guide updates the available classroom material on the democratic process. It is divided into three…

  9. On the Development of Democratic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Jerry M.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the end of the Cold War does not necessarily mean the triumph of democracy. Presents contemporary interpretations of the democratic concepts of liberty, equality, and fraternity. Asserts that responsible action in a democratic society requires continued reflection about values education. (CFR)

  10. Education for Democratic Citizenship and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    Embedded in political scientists' research findings are three propositions for educators: (1) democracy needs democrats; (2) democrats are created through citizenship education programs emphasizing conflict resolution skills, respect for human rights, good neighborliness and respect for pluralism; and (3) there appears to be a correlation between…

  11. Conceptualizing Education Policy in Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Although theorists and policy makers agree that schooling should be democratic, what this exactly means often varies. This article establishes a conceptual model for analyzing education policy in democratic societies, based on the key concepts of equality, diversity, participation, choice, and cohesion. The model facilitates the design,…

  12. Democrats Seek Education Department "Recovery Czar"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    As congressional Democrats declared last week that federal efforts to help Gulf Coast schools with hurricane recovery aren't working, school officials from the region hit by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita last year urged lawmakers to provide more regulatory flexibility and more money. On April 26, 2006, House Democrats released a report criticizing…

  13. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.

  14. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  15. Seven Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a debate on educational issues among Democratic presidential candidates Paul Simon, Albert Gore, Joseph Biden, Jesse Jackson, Bruce Babbitt, Richard Gephart, and Michael Dukakis. (BJV)

  16. Democratic Bodies: Exemplary Practice and Democratic Education in a K-5 Dance Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights a K-5 dance artist-in-residence as a form of democratic and exemplary dance education that ignited collaboration, promoted equity, fostered student autonomy, and demonstrated rigor in school curriculum. Through examining observation, interview, and performance-based data and calling upon critical, democratic education…

  17. Democratic Citizenship, Education and Friendship Revisited: In Defence of Democratic Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2008-01-01

    Literature about the significance of cultivating democratic citizenship education in universities abounds. However, very little has been said about the importance of friendship in sustaining democratic communities. In this article I argue for a complementary view of friendship based on mutuality and love--with reference to the seminal ideas of…

  18. Scientific citizenship in a democratic society.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Vilhjálmur

    2013-11-01

    Using the example of the sociological analysis of biological citizenship and literacy, it is argued that a merely descriptive analysis of these phenomena does not capture their distinctive normative features. While such a description realistically demonstrates how citizens respond to and are shaped by biotechnology and biomedical discourse, it provides no critique of the forces moulding the citizen-consumer. Ideas of active citizenship fuel the search for forms of public engagement in the spirit of deliberative democracy. While these attempts are guided by an important vision of policy making in democratic society, they are beset with several practical difficulties. It is argued that the discussion of deliberative practices has focused too much on direct participation of citizens in various dialogical events and its impact on policy and decision making. This approach ignores other important aspects of deliberative democratic theory, emphasizing public accountability and trustworthiness of democratic institutions. PMID:23825245

  19. [Democratization of homes for the aged].

    PubMed

    Turksma, L

    1981-11-01

    The Dutch Central Advisory Committee on Homes for the Aged has now published a commentary on government propositions regarding democratization in these homes. The Committee, while in general agreeing with those propositions, regrets the delay since 1976, and pleads for a more gradual perspective for the influence of the inmates. The independence of inmates' boards should be better implemented. The progress of democratization should be closely followed by evaluative research and experimented with. The present writer indicates a lack of socio-psychological approaches in the commentary. PMID:7308881

  20. The Promotion of Democratic Behavior and the Role of Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Khan, Irfanullah; Khan, Ahmad Ali; Jan, Farooq; Ahmad, Riaz; Rauf, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    This study is conducted to measure the influence of social media over the democratic behavior of the students. Social media is the main component of political participation in democratic societies and the study of democratic behavior is a highly specialized sub-field in political and social science. The study was concerned with the reasons that to…

  1. Saving Democratic Education from Itself: Why We Need Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2013-01-01

    We need homeschooling to save education in a liberal democracy from taking a religious form--what I call Democratic Education. Democratic Education emerges when the democratic identity and narrative become elevated to the highest priority when thinking about educating human beings. This elevation becomes particularly dangerous when other…

  2. Democratic Learning in U.S. Career Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amanda; Hyslop-Margison, Emery; Taylor, Josh

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes various U.S. career education programs through a democratic learning framework that adopts three foundational principles: 1) Democratic career education respects student rationality by encouraging student critique and evaluation of course material; 2) Democratic career education includes alternative perspectives on vocationally…

  3. Fanaticism and Schooling in the Democratic State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the problem of a democratic state facing multiple educational reform movements and establishes an outer boundary for what forms of school initiatives ought to be permissible. Included are claims of certain fundamentalist parents and the racialist "Christian Identity" religion that undergirds much of the militia movement. (GR)

  4. Democrats' K-12 Views Differ, Subtly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.; Klein, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the presidential campaign, the leading Democrats have been speaking from a similar script on education--until this month, when U.S. Senator Barack Obama of Illinois suggested that he could be persuaded to support private school vouchers. "If there was any argument for vouchers, it was "Let's see if the experiment works"," Sen. Obama…

  5. Art Education and a Democratic Citizenry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegesmund, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The first purpose of Art Education in public schools, articulated in the eighteenth century, was the ability to shape an imaginatively responsible, empathetic, democratic citizenry; this remains an aim for today, which is hard to achieve. This article explores the continuing tension between this original goal and other versions of Art Education,…

  6. Democratizing Evaluation: Meanings and Methods from Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Johnson, Trav D.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the results of an instrumental case study to identify issues connected to evaluation participation and its representation and the role of the internal evaluator in democratic, deliberative evaluation. Identified direct participation and participation by representation, sanctioned or unsanctioned representation, and extrinsic and intrinsic…

  7. School Board Election Structure and Democratic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Plank, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Policies governing the organization and timing of school elections affect democratic representation in school decision making. Some argue that school board elections should be consolidated with general municipal elections on the grounds that this will increase participation and representation, but little empirical work addresses the consequences…

  8. The Democratic Curriculum: Concept and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Dewey continues to offer arguments that remain powerful on the need to break down the divisions between "academic" and "vocational" in terms of his specific theory of knowledge. Dewey's writings are used to argue that a democratic curriculum needs to challenge such divisions to encompass the many forms of knowledge…

  9. 'Democratic Leadership'--A Contradiction in Terms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Draws on a range of country contexts to shed light on the ways in which the practice of leadership is shaped by national aspirations. Examines whether there is a set of ideas, arrangements, and activities that appear to sustain new forms of leadership that support democracy, or whether democratic leadership of schools is a chimera. (Contains 29…

  10. Journal Editorship: Mentoring, Democratic, and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay builds on a review of studies in education. Journal editorship is explored from the mentoring, democratic, and international perspectives. Trends are examined within the publishing culture around these three editorial functions. Theoretical groundwork is provided for exploring contemporary journal editorship and its challenges and…

  11. Taking a Democratic Stance toward Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traugh, Cecelia

    2009-01-01

    One of the major priorities that should guide teacher education programs in preparing teachers for their work in a democratic society is to develop a commitment to knowledge that embraces complexity and to place this knowledge into competition with the mainstream vision, which results from a deep reliance on standardized testing and controls much…

  12. Democratic Participation and the Body Politic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Drawing partial contrasts with Deweyan and poststructuralist approaches, this essay develops an account of democratic participation based upon the work of Stanley Cavell. In particular it explores Cavell's reading of the celebrated treatment of the theme of the body politic in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. The discussion examines what it is that…

  13. Democratic Theorizing: From Noun to Participle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Saville

    2005-01-01

    What is the relationship between theory and design in evaluation pretending to be "democratic?" When do we feel able to relinquish elements of intellectual control over evaluation? If not in qualitative versus quantitative tendencies, where lie key value divisions in evaluation? To elicit the views of two leading United Kingdom-based theorists of…

  14. Democratic Ethics, Politics, and Education: Aristotle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    1993-01-01

    In our modernized, changing, and dissatisfied society, values and ideologies have split into two extremes (nihilistic postmodernism and totalitarianism/fundamentalism) antagonistic to developing democratic life ways requiring rational discourse and agreement based on mutual respect. Aristotle tried to elaborate how to act well to achieve a good…

  15. Democratic Nation-Building in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoodie, Nic, Ed.; Liebenberg, Ian, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays by 50 eminent experts/analysts representing a broad range of ideological perspectives and interest groups. Its aim is to contribute to the process of democratic nation-building and the creation of a culture of tolerance by educating South Africans about the intricacies of community reconciliation and…

  16. A Code of Ethics for Democratic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Ricardo; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Democratic leadership rests on sacred values, awareness, judgement, motivation and courage. Four turning points in a 38-year school administrator's career revealed decision-making in problematic moments stemmed from values in a personal and professional code of ethics. Reflection on practice and theory added vocabulary and understanding to make…

  17. A Democratic Framework for Educational Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Educational theorists frequently invoke rights claims to express their views about educational justice and authority. But the unyielding nature of rights claims presents a significant quandary in democratic contexts, given the tension between rights claims and majoritarian democracy. Educational theorists have given limited attention to this…

  18. The School and the Democratic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    The purpose of the conference was to explore how schools can prepare students to function in a democratic society beset by unprededented demands, complexities, and inconsistencies between theory and practice. Educational reform was the long-range goal, the short-term goal being the extension of dialogue in large and small school districts leading…

  19. Dilemmas in Democratic Evaluation: Politics and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin

    Evaluation affects the people who participate and the situation studied, and there is no guarantee that the effects will be democratic, constructive, or equitable. A case study illustrates that even the most scrupulous attention to ethical principles and procedures for the release of information cannot always protect the interests of participants…

  20. Democratic Values: What the Schools Should Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, R. Freeman

    If students are to fulfill their obligations and rights as U.S. citizens they must develop the ability to make careful judgements, based on a reasoned historical perspective and a meaningful conception of the basic democratic values underlying citizenship in our constitutional order. To this end, an agenda of 12 core civic values that are…

  1. Theorizing Democratic Education from a Senian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCesare, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature and general interest in the intersection between the capabilities approach (CA) and education, little work has been done so far to theorize democratic education from a CA perspective. This essay attempts to do so by, first, getting clear about the theory of democracy that has emerged from Amartya Sen's…

  2. Democratic Education: In through the out Door

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapper, Michael; Downey, C. Aiden; Hauger, Simon; Riggan, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Democratic education, the idea that all members of a school community play meaningful roles in determining what is learned and how, has occupied a stable if marginal place in American educational discourse over the last century. Despite a continued interest in democracy as both a means and ends of schooling, schools of education have struggled to…

  3. Creating Better Schools through Democratic School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Diosdado M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of implementing democratic school leadership via advisory school councils in Philippine public secondary schools. Through an experiment with empirical surveys and interviews, this study reveals that the experimental group had higher levels of commitment, empowerment and trust compared with the control group after one…

  4. Towards Democratic Leadership: Co-principal Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Marian

    2003-01-01

    A case study of a New Zealand primary school coprincipalship describes the impact of some intergroup misunderstandings and struggles over power. Concludes that building a democratic school community requires a set of considerations and practices different from those promoted within a market-managerial approach. (Contains 7 notes and 51…

  5. Development of Democratic Teacher Behavior Scale (DTBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özcan, Gülsen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop an instrument that could be used to measure democratic teacher behavior in a valid and reliable manner. The research was carried out in fall semester 2014 to 2015 with a total of 500 high school students recruited from four different schools. Expert opinions were obtained to determine the scale's content validity and…

  6. Leadership Education Priorities for a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the priorities for leadership education in a democratic society is a complex, challenging responsibility, not a task to be taken lightly. It is complex on one level in that to be a leader in schools "today is to understand a profoundly human as well as a professional responsibility." It is challenging on another level in that preparing…

  7. A Critical Ethnography of Democratic Music Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this critical ethnography was to investigate how music educators can approach the development of students' music listening abilities democratically in order to deepen students' musical understandings and, by teaching through music, create pathways for student-teacher transactions that are inclusive, educative, ethical and…

  8. The Potential for Deliberative Democratic Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.; Howe, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The values of aggregative democracy have dominated much of civic education as its values reflect the realities of the American political system. We argue that deliberative democratic theory better addresses the moral and epistemological demands of democracy when compared to aggregative democracy. It better attends to protecting citizens' autonomy…

  9. Desert, Liberalism and Justice in Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsson, Olafur Pall

    2012-01-01

    Liberal democratic education, as advocated in recent accounts of citizenship education or civic education, is often seen as incompatible with moral education or character education rooted in specific views regarding the virtues. This contrast relies on well established philosophical differences between liberal views of justice and democracy, on…

  10. Democratic Pedagogy and the Discourse of Containment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popen, Shari

    2002-01-01

    Discusses application of a discourse of containment in pedagogical practice, asserting that this discourse limits democratic possibilities in the classroom. Analyzes the stakes in political struggles over control of the production of meaning within the classroom, examining the mythologized version of Rosa Parks' story and the current agenda of…

  11. Reconceptualizing Geography as Democratic Global Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William; Heilman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Geography education typically appears in school curricula in a didactic or disciplinary manner. Yet, both the didactic and the disciplinary approach to geography education lack a serious engagement with society, politics, and power, or democratic theory. We suggest, from Dewey, that most students, the social studies, and indeed society…

  12. Democrats Air Dueling Ideas on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Democrats are almost certain to leave their convention in Denver united behind Senator Barack Obama of Illinois as their nominee for president. However, it is less likely that they will settle an intraparty disagreement over the most pressing question in K-12 education policy: How much can the public expect of schools? The stark differences…

  13. Democratizing English as an International Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Marc

    The aim of this paper is threefold. The first section shows how the political uses of language engendered by both western-style liberalism on the one hand and various forms of nationalism on the other lead to the negation of democratic ideals. Because of the current international situation, political aspects of language are receiving more and more…

  14. Democratic neutrino mixing and radiative corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-Zhong

    2001-03-01

    The renormalization effect on a specific ansatz of lepton mass matrices, arising naturally from the breaking of flavor democracy for charged leptons and that of mass degeneracy for light neutrinos, is studied from a superhigh energy scale M0~1013 GeV to the electroweak scale in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that the democratic neutrino mixing pattern obtained from this ansatz may in general be unstable against radiative corrections. With the help of similar flavor symmetries we prescribe a slightly different scheme of lepton mass matrices at the scale M0, from which the democratic mixing pattern of lepton flavors can be achieved, after radiative corrections, at the experimentally accessible scales.

  15. Education and the Democratic Person: Towards a Political Conception of Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Ever since the Enlightenment, there has been a strong tendency in educational theory and practice to think of education as the "production" of a subject with particular qualities, most notably the quality of rationality. This way of thinking has deeply influenced the theory and practice of democratic education and has led to an…

  16. Democratic Experience and the Democratic Challenge: A Historical and Comparative Citizenship Education Study of Scandinavian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberkind, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    In Scandinavian schools, there is a significant tradition for creating a democratic context of experience; this tradition is gradually being challenged by new political and economic movements and increasing focus on tests, assessments, knowledge, and skills. The purpose of this study is to analyze and discuss the status of the current context of…

  17. Decentralization, democratization, and health: the Philippine experiment.

    PubMed

    Langran, Irene V

    2011-01-01

    In 1991, the Philippines joined a growing list of countries that reformed health planning through decentralization. Reformers viewed decentralization as a tool that would solve multiple problems, leading to more meaningful democracy and more effective health planning. Today, nearly two decades after the passage of decentralization legislation, questions about the effectiveness of the reforms persist. Inadequate financing, inequity, and a lack of meaningful participation remain challenges, in many ways mirroring broader weaknesses of Philippine democracy. These concerns pose questions regarding the nature of contemporary decentralization, democratization, and health planning and whether these three strategies are indeed mutually enforcing. PMID:22073430

  18. Media Literacy: A Central Component of Democratic Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Susie; Brocato, Kay; Hopper, Peggy F.; Sanders, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Educators from Europe, Latin America, and the United States convened to explore issues inherent in democratic citizenship. Media literacy, a central component of democratic citizenship, was studied in depth. Data from the camp were examined for evidence of the participants' understandings of media literacy and how it might be taught. Results…

  19. Bush energy policy may fuel Democratic challenger in '92

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1991-03-18

    This article describes President Bush's energy policy and the conflict with the Democrats. The plan calls for more domestic oil production from offshore oil drilling, from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and from new nuclear power plants. Little mention is made of increasing energy conservation. Democrats hope the issue will give them at least some indication of the mood of the electorate.

  20. Democratic Practices in Education: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Art, Ed.; Pryor, Caroline R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents the findings of eleven teacher educators as they examine the meaning of democracy and its application to classroom practice. There is a shared belief among all contributors to this volume: that incorporating democratic practice into teacher education is an essential requirement to introducing democratic practices in K-12…

  1. Deweyan Democratic Agency and School Math: Beyond Constructivism and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemhagen, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Kurt Stemhagen reconstructs mathematics education in light of Dewey's democratic theory and his ideas about mathematics and mathematics education. The resulting democratic philosophy and pedagogy of mathematics education emphasizes agency and the connections between mathematics and students' social experiences. Stemhagen considers…

  2. A Developmental Model for Educational Planning: Democratic Rationalities and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Michael; Johnson, Jerry; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Democratic Planning (DDP) model frames educational planning as a process that extends beyond the immediate focus of a particular planning effort to acknowledge and cultivate the potential of all members of the organization to fulfill their roles as active participants in the democratic life of the organization. The DDP model…

  3. Educating for Participation: Democratic Life and Performative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radaelli, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    A democratic life is a form of associated living that requires people to participate in a pluralistic dialogue in different spheres of the civic society: government, community, and work. Higher education classes have a leading role in preparing students for participation in a democratic society; however, more could be done, in particular focusing…

  4. Barriers that Prevent the Achievement of Inclusive Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo; Corvalan, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive education inherently involves the inclusion of all citizens in a democratic society. Based on this view, questions emerge with respect to equality and integration in educational systems. Although inclusion should be viewed as a requirement in a democratic society, along with the integration in schools of students from different social…

  5. "Thinking (and Teaching) Democratically": A Defense of Ideologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Nancy S.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains there is a positive correlation between the study of ideologies and democracy, stressing that political theorists should teach political ideologies. Examines the current debate over the study of ideologies and the history of ideology. Suggests ways studying ideologies teaches students democratic values, and defines democratic thinking as…

  6. Democratic Theory and the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between democratic political theory and the reality of linguistic diversity in contemporary political communities. After suggesting a distinction between "liberal" and "participatory" democratic theories, and asserting that there have been fruitful explorations of linguistic diversity in…

  7. Service-Learning: A Catalyst for Constructing Democratic Progressive Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlotta, Lori E.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that higher education's traditional "closed" communities contrast sharply with democratic progressive ones that are more inclusive, empowering, and diverse. Drawing on feminism and postmodernism, demonstrates why service-learning is well suited to connect relational, experiential, and constructive epistemologies with democratic progressive…

  8. Democratic Leadership in the Classroom: Theory into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    This paper suggests that for students to become accustomed to democratic habits of thought and conduct, they must continually practice them throughout the course of their school career. The daily interaction between the teacher and the pupil can influence the formation of attitudes and habits essential to democratic citizenship. For teachers, the…

  9. A Delphi Study: The Characteristics of Democratic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, H. Eylem; Erden, Münire

    2014-01-01

    The authors aim to identify characteristics of democratic schools. The Delphi technique used in this study is based on attaining a consensus among a group of experts over 3 rounds with 22 experts from 9 countries participating in the first round. By the end of the third round, 339 items referring to democratic school characteristics were…

  10. Ontario's Guidance and Career Education Program: A Democratic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; McKerracher, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This article applies a democratic learning conceptual framework to an analysis of the Ontario (Canada) Guidance and Career Education program. Although the program respects some principles of democratic learning, it fails to explicitly recognise the distinction between social and natural reality. As a result, student agency and democratic…

  11. Democratic Dams: School Governance and Habermas's Public Sphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David

    1997-01-01

    The governance of Canadian schools is undergoing change. Provincial ministries of education are pursuing contradictory policy initiatives: local school boards are being consolidated to become more "efficient," and individual schools are developing school councils to become more "democratic." This paper applies Jurgen Habermas's democratic theory…

  12. Democratic School Turnarounds: Pursuing Equity and Learning from Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    the report "Democratic School Turnarounds" considers the democratic tensions inherent in the federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) policy's market-based school reforms and critiques the research base that many of these reforms are based on. It concludes with a set of recommendations that re-center the purposes of public education…

  13. Democratic Schooling and Citizenship Education: What Does the Research Reveal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    This paper examines four major research studies spanning approximately 45 years which provide solid evidence that democratic schooling is possible and is an extremely important factor in the education of young citizens for a democratic society. The objectives, methodology, limitations, and results of each study are examined. From the studies, the…

  14. Neoliberal Ideology and Democratic Learning. A Response to "Challenging Freedom: Neoliberalism and the Erosion of Democratic Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James; Ramirez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    In "Challenging Freedom: Neoliberalism and the Erosion of Democratic Education," the author suggests that the presumed decline of democratic learning in public schooling follows from two primary forces: (a) the metaphysical implications of Cartesian psychophysical dualism that support an ontological understanding of the self as distinct…

  15. Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Bak, Per

    1995-05-01

    We introduce a simple ``toy'' brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ``critical'' state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught.

  16. The Pope's encyclical as a call for democratic social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Anabela

    2015-10-01

    The climate change encyclical represents a decisive democratic act. It calls on citizens to challenge dominant politics, power, and consumer culture in the name of tackling one of the world's great socio-environmental issues.

  17. Democratic Politics and the Culture of American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merelman, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses arguments about the "hidden curriculum" of the schools and outlines the conflict between democratic politics and "the basic shape of schooling." Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036. (IRT)

  18. Peru's troubled return to democratic government.

    PubMed

    Malloy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary Peru is a society beset by a host of social, economic, and political problems. In the postwar period Peru has become a paradigm for the phenomena of rapid population growth, internal migration, hyperurbanization, and socioeconomic marginality. These phenomena converged to create the "barriada," a huge squatter settlement brought into being ordinarily by huge invasions of vacant lands in the outskirts of Lima. It is this great and growing marginal mass that weighs so heavily on the city and the country's economy. Their sheer numbers strain the city's resources and capacity to delivery services such as waste disposal. The central reality of the barriada is grinding poverty, which in turn manifests itself in street crime and a general and growing sense of personal insecurity that pervades Lima. For years now the Peruvian economy has been unable to absorb this growing marginal mass productively. There is massive unemployment and underemployment. As in so many cases in contemporary Peru, action to solve 1 problem may simply generate another, possibly more serious elsewhere. This is the essence of the conundrum that awaited Francisco Belaunde Terry when he assumed the presidency in June 1980 as the head of Peru's 1st democratically elected government in over 12 years. The Belaunde government's market-oriented approach to political economy is an adaptation to a more general trend. Essentially, the transition from military authoritarian rule to civil democratic rule between 1978-80 was very smooth. For the present, power was assumed by political forces committed in broad terms to the underlying socioeconomic system rather than to revolutionary transformations. A fundamental aspect of the context was the shift away from populism and toward capital concentration. The negative impact of this shift on the income levels of the majority was exacerbated by the economic crisis of the late 1970s and by the terms of an International Monetary Fund agreement. The

  19. Democrats and Republicans Can Be Differentiated from Their Faces

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Nicholas O.; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals' faces communicate a great deal of information about them. Although some of this information tends to be perceptually obvious (such as race and sex), much of it is perceptually ambiguous, without clear or obvious visual cues. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we found that individuals' political affiliations could be accurately discerned from their faces. In Study 1, perceivers were able to accurately distinguish whether U.S. Senate candidates were either Democrats or Republicans based on photos of their faces. Study 2 showed that these effects extended to Democrat and Republican college students, based on their senior yearbook photos. Study 3 then showed that these judgments were related to differences in perceived traits among the Democrat and Republican faces. Republicans were perceived as more powerful than Democrats. Moreover, as individual targets were perceived to be more powerful, they were more likely to be perceived as Republicans by others. Similarly, as individual targets were perceived to be warmer, they were more likely to be perceived as Democrats. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that perceivers' beliefs about who is a Democrat and Republican may be based on perceptions of traits stereotypically associated with the two political parties and that, indeed, the guidance of these stereotypes may lead to categorizations of others' political affiliations at rates significantly more accurate than chance guessing. PMID:20090906

  20. Hierarchical majorana neutrinos from democratic mass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Masaki J. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we obtain the light neutrino masses and mixings consistent with the experiments, in the democratic texture approach. The essential ansatz is that νRi are assumed to transform as "right-handed fields" 2R +1R under the S3L ×S3R symmetry. The symmetry breaking terms are assumed to be diagonal and hierarchical. This setup only allows the normal hierarchy of the neutrino mass, and excludes both of inverted hierarchical and degenerated neutrinos. Although the neutrino sector has nine free parameters, several predictions are obtained at the leading order. When we neglect the smallest parameters ζν and ζR, all components of the mixing matrix UPMNS are expressed by the masses of light neutrinos and charged leptons. From the consistency between predicted and observed UPMNS, we obtain the lightest neutrino masses m1 = (1.1 → 1.4) meV, and the effective mass for the double beta decay ≃ 4.5 meV.

  1. Energy technology and American democratic values

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Today, the benefits of liberal democracy have increasingly been cast into doubt. The debate over alternative energy policies illustrates the problems associated with liberal democracy. For many, it is the realization that energy choices and the selection of social and political values amount to much the same thing. Simply put, energy policy decisions, and the concomitant energy technologies, carry implications of an ethical, social and political nature. The argument of the social and political effects of energy technology flows from the more general thesis that all forms of technological practice condition social and political relations. That is, technological systems, beyond performing the specific functions for which they were designed, act upon and influence social and political arrangements. Seen in this light, energy technologies are as important to the promotion and preservation of this country's political values as are its institutions and laws. Further, there is evidence to suggest that this country's cherished democratic value of freedom is slowly being eclipsed by the values attendant to corporate capitalism and its singular pursuit of growth. It is this dominance of economic values over political values which provides the environment within which the technological debate is waged. Ultimately, tracing the historic linkage between property and liberty, it is concluded that the preservation of our freedom require new thinking regarding the present configuration of ownership patterns. The questions surrounding energy policy serve to illuminate these concerns.

  2. Struggling for the Soul of the Nation: Educational Policy, Democratic Leadership, and Radical Democracy in Neoliberal Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Two conditions are crucial in preparing radical democratic leaders for a democratic society. In this article, the author argues against instrumental rationality and for radical democratic leaders with a critical perspective in education and schools.

  3. How Personal Is the Political? Democratic Revolution and Fertility Decline

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Amy Kate

    2010-01-01

    Existing theory has identified the capacity of political revolutions to effect change in a variety of social institutions, although relationships between revolution and many institutions remain unexplored. Using historical data from 22 European and four diaspora countries, I examine the temporal relationship between timing of revolution and onset of fertility decline. I hypothesize that specific kinds of revolutionary events affect fertility by engendering ideological changes in popular understandings of the individual’s relationship to society, and ultimately the legitimacy of couples’ authority over their reproductive capacities. Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolution – but not institutionalized democratic structures – predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline. PMID:19999826

  4. Misplaced Priorities: Gutmann's Democratic Theory, Children's Autonomy, and Sex Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corngold, Josh

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a critique of the "democratic state of education" proposed by Amy Gutmann in her influential book "Democratic Education". In the democratic state of education, educational authority is shared among the state, parents and educational professionals; and educational objectives are geared toward equipping future citizens to…

  5. Finding Autonomy in Activity: Development and Validation of a Democratic Classroom Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Eun Hye; Glassman, Michael; Kim, Yunhwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper developed a Democratic Classroom Survey to measure students' perceived democratic environment of the classroom. Perceived democratic environment is one of the most important variables for understanding classroom activity and indeed any type of group activity, but actually measuring perceptions in an objective manner has been…

  6. Democratic Teacher Education: Programs, Processes, Problems, and Prospects. SUNY Series, Democracy and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, John M., Ed.

    This book focuses on the creative work and struggles of democratic teacher educators. After "Introduction: The Talk and the Walk of Democratic Teacher Education" (John M. Novak), the book is organized in three sections. Section I, "Programs," includes: (1) "The Institute for Democracy in Education: Supporting Democratic Teachers" (George Wood);…

  7. Conducting Democratic Class Meetings. School Violence and Conflict Programs, Paper Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercoal, Paul

    Students need democratic models operating in their daily lives and opportunities to exercise their democratic rights and responsibilities. From 1995-1997 an action research project studied the effect "Judicious Discipline," a democratic citizenship model for school and classroom management, had on students, educators, and parents. "Judicious…

  8. Democratic Leadership by Managing Meetings for Effective Group Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mary; Forest, Robert

    Instrumental to successful democratic leadership is the use of committees to solve management problems. In democratic leadership, a leader encourages participation and uses a guidance approach to direct a group toward consensus. This document offers leaders guidelines in effective democratic management of meetings. The authors first discuss the…

  9. "Democratic" Collaboration for School Turnaround in Southern Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the democratic nature of collaboration and related principal influences in one successful Southern Arizona elementary school in a changing demographic and border context in the US Southwest and where the principal did not share the same ethnic identity/cultural background.…

  10. Civic Writing in Education for Democratic Citizenship. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    Civic writing is an intellectual skill that is needed for effective and responsible participation in civil society and government. This Digest examines the concept of civic writing, identifies its purposes in democratic citizenship, and discusses how to teach it. Civic writing includes formal legal writing (speeches, petitions, resolutions),…

  11. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the need…

  12. The Need for Media Education in Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential for media and technology to act as a democratizing force and the challenges to democracy posed by partisanship and the explosion of political media spending, media education and the preparation of active citizens in schools is virtually nonexistent. This essay presents the case for revitalizing media education for the age of…

  13. Educational Change under Autocratic Democratic Governments: The Case of Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    This paper presents findings of a study that: (1) contrasts the educational change strategies of a military/autocratic government (1976-83) and a civilian/democratic government (1983-93) in Argentina; and (2) identifies the major consequences of these strategies. The military regime attempted to produce its version of effectiveness and efficiency…

  14. Educational Conservatism and Democratic Citizenship in Hannah Arendt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaila, Ramona; Popescu, Gheorghe H.; Nica, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to gain a deeper understanding of Arendt's educational philosophy, her perspective of political involvement as a kind of political education, and natality as the fundamental nature of education. The current study has extended past research by elucidating Arendt's view of participatory democratic politics, her…

  15. Character Development and Critical Democratic Education in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario, Canada's new character education policy is analyzed to determine how it supports and undermines critical democratic commitments to diversity, dialogue, equity, critical mindedness, and social justice. While policies are always open to interpretation, recent reform policies requiring evidence of continual improvement in students' academic…

  16. Beginning Teacher Standards for Physical Education: Promoting a Democratic Ideal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chroinin, D. Ni; Tormey, R.; O'Sullivan, M.

    2012-01-01

    The framing of teaching standards within restrictive managerial or collaborative democratic ideologies impacts significantly on initial teacher education. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore teacher educators' (n = 13) perspectives on beginning teacher standards for physical education teacher education in Ireland. Teacher educators…

  17. Democratic Citizenship in Textbooks in Spanish Primary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Lopez Atxurra, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses how textbooks deal with the issues of education for democratic citizenship encompassed within the European framework and Spanish educational reforms. The sample comprised the 24 individual texts in social science, natural science, and technology for 6-12-year-olds. This paper delimits and defines the six themes for analysis:…

  18. Military Power in a Democratic Society. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarlengo, F. John

    This unit focuses on the classic problem of the place of military power in a democratic society. Early sections examine the relationship between civil and military authority as developed in colonial America and written into the Constitution. The second half of the unit invites consideration of the relevance and workability of the earlier tradition…

  19. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  20. Civic Engagement in Teacher Education: A Commitment to Democratic Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heafner, Tina L.

    2011-01-01

    Civic engagement draws on the concepts of American democratic ideals such that society's interests are promulgated through the education of its citizenry. Ideas come to fruition in the form of community action, voting, involvement in the political process, and public discourse for promoting the commonwealth. Engendering in youth the commitment to…

  1. Critical Pedagogy and Democratic Education: Possibilities for Cross-Pollination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing the literature on critical pedagogy (CP) and democratic education (DE) reveals that very little has been written comparing the two (Knight and Pearl in Urban Rev 32(2):197-226, 2000). After reading the Urban Review article by Knight and Pearl (2000)--the only publication explicitly comparing the two approaches to education--I was…

  2. The Irreversible Process of University "Democratization": The Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mogens N.

    1988-01-01

    The Danish experience with university democratization suggests that the process is irreversible and that its progress is determined by how the initial change was begun two decades ago. It is also proposed that government attempts to intervene and revoke traditional institutional autonomy threaten to invalidate the progress made. (Author/MSE)

  3. Latino Demographics, Democratic Individuality, and Educational Accountability: A Pragmatist's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Aleman, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    In an era of heightened teacher and school accountability, what are the implications of standards-based reform for individual Latino children and their democratic self-realization? The educational demography of the fastest-growing and largest ethnic group in the United States suggests that the future of Latino self-realization is in jeopardy.…

  4. Civic Multicultural Competence: Searching for Common Ground in Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Lane, Jonathan; Howard, Tyrone C.; Halagao, Patricia Espiritu

    2007-01-01

    During the past several decades, multicultural education has become an integral part of the social studies as a means to authentically prepare students for living in an inclusive and democratic society. Topics traditionally omitted, such as race, ethnicity, culture, social class, and gender, are now included. Yet, while multicultural education has…

  5. As Democrats Take Over More States, College Leaders Grow Optimistic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the Democratic victories that have raised expectations on college campuses in part because a number of the gubernatorial candidates, including Deval L. Patrick, emphasized themes of access and affordability in their campaigns. Mr. Patrick, the governor-elect of Massachusetts, traveled to the University of…

  6. Whole School Meetings and the Development of Radical Democratic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Serious re-examination of participatory traditions of democracy is long overdue. Iconically central to such traditions of democratic education is the practice of whole School Meetings. More usually associated with radical work within the private sector, School Meetings are here explored in detail through two examples from publicly funded…

  7. The Preparation Challenge: Democratic Administration in Schools and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Ralph R.

    This paper proposes a model of a democratic paradigm for educational researchers and practitioners. It attempts to explore the kinds of thinking that would be required to create such a system, to determine what principles and curriculum theories are involved and how they would work. It seeks to relate this model to the new National Council for…

  8. Democratic School Leadership Reforms in Kenya: Cultural and Historical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwan, Julius; Anderson, Lesley; Bennett, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    In this article we discuss students', teachers' and school principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership reforms in Kenya. The article is based on a study that was conducted in two phases. In phase one (conducted between September and December 2007), interviews were undertaken with 12 school principals in which understandings of…

  9. Democratization "from Below" and Popular Culture: Teachers from Chiapas, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Susan

    1996-01-01

    In the early 1980s, public school teachers in Chiapas, Mexico, organized themselves in a dissident mass movement aimed at democratizing their participation in union affairs and restructuring the relations of domination and subordination affecting their work lives. Macro-level analysis focuses on union corruption situated within an authoritarian…

  10. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  11. Ella Flagg Young: Pioneer of Democratic School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, L. Dean; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1998-01-01

    Ella Flagg Young was the first woman superintendent of a large-city school system (Chicago, 1909-15) and the first woman president of the National Education Association (1910). A colleague of Dewey, Young pioneered democratic administrative practices in a scientific management era and organized school councils to give teachers a greater voice in…

  12. Unalienated Recognition as a Feature of Democratic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The current era of standards and accountability in U.S. public schooling narrows recognition and assessment to an almost exclusive focus on the production of test scores as legitimate markers of student achievement. This climate prevents rather than encourages democratic forms of exchange within and across social worlds. Via a case study of one…

  13. Democratic Citizenship Education in Albania: A Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhamo, Milika; Gjuraj, Tonin; Myteberi, Fatmira; Sinani, Marjana; Kaltsounis, Theodore

    This manual traces the emergence of democracy in Albania from the end of the Communist system in 1990. It deals with the concepts and practices of democratic citizenship education and emphasizes the role of education in developing and sustaining democracy. The manual is to assist educators to put together the knowledge and skills they possess with…

  14. Affinity through Mathematical Activity: Cultivating Democratic Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta-Irving, Tesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrates how a broader view of what shapes affinity is ideologically and practically linked to creating democratic learning communities. Specifically, the author explores how a teacher employed complex instruction (an equity pedagogy) with her ethnically and racially diverse students in the "lowest track"…

  15. Framing Successful School Leadership as a Moral and Democratic Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Møller, Jorunn

    2005-01-01

    The article aims at exploring what counts as successful leadership and what the key questions in exploring successful school leadership across countries should be. A main argument is that successful leadership is a contestable concept, and I argue for framing school leadership as a moral and democratic enterprise, which implies a need to protect…

  16. Democratizing Children's Computation: Learning Computational Science as Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Amy Voss; Sengupta, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Amy Voss Farris and Pratim Sengupta argue that a democratic approach to children's computing education in a science class must focus on the "aesthetics" of children's experience. In "Democracy and Education," Dewey links "democracy" with a distinctive understanding of "experience." For Dewey,…

  17. Elementary Students Represent Classroom Democratic Citizenship Experiences via Photos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Kelley, Lynn Allison; Minear, Andrea K.; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Students in 80 kindergarten to grade six classrooms photographed and captioned experiences in class which they identified as examples of democratic citizenship education. With the assistance of a teacher candidate placed in their classroom for a semester, students chose and captioned five of the photographs they considered to best represent…

  18. Reconstructing Deweyan Democratic Education for a Globalizing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jessica Ching-Sze

    2009-01-01

    As democratic citizenship education gains importance worldwide, one wonders whether common civic education practices in the United States, such as mock elections, are adequate models for other countries, or whether they fall short of realizing the goal of promoting democracy in different regions and cultures. Despite various controversies, one…

  19. Virtue, Liberty, and Discipline: Fostering the Democratic Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covaleskie, John F.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, John F. Covaleskie considers a threefold question: (1) what is the nature of the sort of liberty that enables one to live as a free person, but also bound by the requirements of democratic citizenship; (2) what is the nature of the virtues that make this sort of person possible; and (3) what is the nature of the educational…

  20. Relationship between Power Distance and Autocratic-Democratic Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ali Riza

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between power distance and autocratic and democratic tendencies. Participants in the study were research assistants pursuing graduate degrees in the Sciences and Social Sciences Institutes of Balikesir University and prospective teachers pursuing undergraduate teaching degrees at Necatibey Education…

  1. Citizenship Education Reconsidered in the Era of Democratic Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drissi, Sihem

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that citizenship education is essential to establish a culture of democratic practices and national commitment in Tunisia. The growing demands for and debates about democratisation and political participation from the mass citizenry, along with an increased pressure from civil society, go beyond the legalistic definition of…

  2. Democratic Community Initiatives: The Case of Overscheduled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jared R.; Doherty, William J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a democratic citizen model of community organizing for mobilizing and partnering with families, using the overscheduling of children as a case example. We provide an overview of the growing body of research on this aspect of family time, describe the difference between a citizen model and program models for working with families, give…

  3. The "Local" Fetish as Reproductive Praxis in Democratic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical conceptualization of the local as the preferential spatial domain for democratic participation and learning. It critiques the ideological nature of educational theory that bifurcates the local from the "the global" through the application of the Marxist concept of "fetish". The argument…

  4. Pedagogy in Common: Democratic Education in the Global Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lissovoy, Noah

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the increasingly transnational organization of society, culture, and communication, this article develops a conceptualization of the global common as a basic condition of interrelation and shared experience, and describes contemporary political efforts to fully democratize this condition. The article demonstrates the implications…

  5. States, Societies, and Sociologists: Democratizing Knowledge from above and below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John

    2009-01-01

    In his presidential address, Jess Gilbert argues that big states, in alliance with social scientists, can work to democratize society. He points to two fascinating examples--the involvement of rural sociologists with local citizens for policy planning in the New Deal and similarly their role in the Farm Security Administration's Resettlement…

  6. Critical Literacy for Democratic Learning in Career Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Pinto, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we explore the models of literacy conveyed by contemporary secondary career education policies, programs, and imperatives in the province of Ontario. The Ontario career education policies we reviewed uniformly advance a functional and socially reproductive model of literacy that undermines the democratic agency of learners. In…

  7. The Building of Democratic Organizations: An Embryological Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferata, Gail Lee

    1982-01-01

    Patterns of bureaucratization and democratization in voluntary organizations may be explained by four principles of embryology: (1) the irreversibility of embryological development, (2) the canalization or branching of developmental pathways, (3) the induction of developmental change by the interaction of internal stimuli, and (4) the…

  8. Steps on the Way to a Democratic School Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knab, Doris

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that the constitution or structure of schools should be democratic to foster democracy. Discusses the value of parents' voices in decision making, but warns of the tendency toward bureaucracy. Argues that structural indexes must be formulated so that they can be transformed into instructional processes by a coupling of…

  9. A. S. Neill on Democratic Authority: A Lesson from Summerhill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the views of A. S. Neill on democracy in school administration. Explains the reasoning behind Neill's arrangement of community-based decision making. Questions how democratic England's Summerhill School was in view of Neill's authority. Suggests giving children the right to participate in community government as an educationally…

  10. Support for Democratic Schooling: Classroom Level Change via Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Patrice R.; Skaruppa, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    As a classroom level reform effort cooperative learning is recommended as a vehicle for teaching democratic principles in elementary and secondary schools and in preservice teacher education programs. The paper stresses the importance of theory, research, and modeling when making judgements about the application of cooperative learning. (SM)

  11. In Defense of a Deliberative Democratic Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2013-01-01

    Political divides in our democracy are ever-widening. Deliberative democratic civics education provides a new way for civics education to prepare students for a democracy that addresses the diversity in moral perspectives that have created the divides in a more constructive way. Civics education traditionally has been tied to aggregative theories…

  12. School Democratization in Prefigurative Form: Two Brazilian Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2010-01-01

    Recent moves towards greater pupil participation in school decision-making have in part been based on instrumental rationales, such as increases in test scores and improvements in behaviour. This article assesses a different approach--that of the "prefigurative"--through which the school embodies the democratic society it aims to create. Two…

  13. Democratic Life Skill 1: Guiding Children to Find a Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "Democratic life skills" are social-emotional capacities that children need to be productive citizens and healthy individuals in a modern, diverse society. The construct for these skills comes from many sources. One helpful source is Maslow's concept of two coexisting sets of motivational needs in each individual: one set for security, belonging,…

  14. June Four: A Chronicle of the Chinese Democratic Uprising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1989

    This book presents more than 200 photographs along with a chronological record from the "Ming Pao News," covering the events in People's Republic of China from the death of Hu Yaobang on April 15, 1989, which precipitated the Chinese student democratic movement, to the crushing of the movement at Tiananmen Square by the Chinese army on June 4,…

  15. Negotiating for Democratic Communities in Schools: Principals' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasonga, Teresa A.; Christman, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the strategic use of negotiating as a tool for creating and enhancing democratic communities. A total of 44 principals from four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school, provided data for this study. Results found that within schools, principals used certain skills to negotiate bureaucratic roles, and…

  16. Democratic Education in an Era of Town Hall Protests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    One central aspect of a healthy democracy is the practice of democratic dissent. For the first time in many years, dissent is being widely practiced in town hall meetings and on street corners across the United States. Despite this presence, dissent is often suppressed or omitted in the prescribed, tested, hidden, and external curriculum of US…

  17. Democratic Citizenship and Service Learning: Advancing the Caring Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how service learning can promote the development of a "caring self" in college students by drawing on the ideas of John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, and contemporary critical theorists. Links this caring self to democratic citizenship and uses students' narratives to illustrate how it develops through service learning contexts. (DB)

  18. Empowering Students through the Use of the Democratic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Janice Lamb; Numrich, Andrea Platt; Walsh, Kristine E.

    This report describes a program designed to empower students through the use of the democratic classroom to improve students' attitudes toward school. Targeted population consisted of sixth grade students in a growing middle class community, located in a major midwestern city. The problem of poor student attitude was documented through data…

  19. Developing the European Citizen: Investing in Europe's Democratic Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; Cornett, Jeffery W.; Pitts, Annette Boyd; Setenyi, Janos; Gal, Tibor; Eich, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing that democracy is not a static concept and that it should be learned and lived on a daily basis, the Council of Europe has named 2005 the European Year of Citizenship through Education. Citizens of European Union (EU) member countries face new challenges in their participation as citizens in a democratic society. While EU citizenship…

  20. Democratizing Classroom Discourse: The Challenge for Online Writing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Sonia; Letofsky, Kirsten; Woodard, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This article is intended to highlight peer response discourse trends and to initiate a dialogue about the ways in which educators, and designers of educational environments, can play a central role in creating more democratic discourse in classrooms. We report on a research and development project involving education experts, computer engineers,…

  1. Democratic Citizenship and Information Technology: Promises, Challenges, and Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    This paper examines the relationship between democratic citizenship and information technology. Modern information technology disputes the idea that citizens can be properly educated to assume the burdens necessary to reap the blessing of freedom. Information technologies challenge the ability of citizens to fulfill the fundamental requirement of…

  2. Beyond Learning: Democratic Education for a Human Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2006-01-01

    Many educational practices are based upon philosophical ideas about what it means to be human, including particular subjectivities and identities such as the rational person, the autonomous individual, or the democratic citizen. This book asks what might happen to the ways in which we educate if we treat the question as to what it means to be…

  3. Democratic Classroom Management in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…

  4. Political Microcultures: Linking Civic Life and Democratic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    At the core of democratic citizenship is deliberation: citizens' tendency and capacity for debating issues of common importance. This study considers civic organizations--often found to be political mobilizers--as political microcultures: environments for political discourse that structure participants' understanding of the practice of…

  5. Designing Intelligent Knowledge: Epistemological Faith and the Democratization of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Clayton

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Clayton Pierce examines the epistemological standpoints of Intelligent Design (ID) and evolutionary science education, focusing specifically on the pedagogical question of how ID and modern science-based education fail to promote democratic relations in how students learn, think, and associate with science and technology in society.…

  6. Toward Inclusion and Human Unity: Rethinking Dewey's Democratic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hongmei

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author digs into John Dewey's writings to explore his democratic community to better understand the meaning and the value of community. The author begins by considering the connotation of the concept "community," which is distinguished from the more popular term "society" used in ordinary language. Then the author transitions…

  7. Religious Education in a Liberal, Pluralist, Democratic State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblith, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how throughout her academic career she has tried to answer the question "What should the appropriate place be for religion in the public schools of a liberal, pluralistic, democratic state?" The view the author embraces is that taking religion seriously in schools also means taking the purpose(s) of public…

  8. Ancient Athenian Democratic Knowledge and Citizenship: Connectivity and Intercultural Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundara, Jagdish S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the implications that ancient Athens had for modern representative democracies and the links that can be made to the philosophical principles that form the essence of intercultural education. Such an exploration shows that modern democratic societies have ignored many key aspects of the important legacy left to us by these…

  9. Protest Reconsidered: Identifying Democratic and Civic Engagement Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Somers, Patricia A.; Polman, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a case study approach, the authors examine the democratic and civic engagement learning outcomes of a campus protest. The conceptual framework is built on the ideas outlined in "Learning Reconsidered" (Keeling 2004) and modeled in its pragmatic follow-up, "Learning Reconsidered 2" (Keeling 2006). Results suggest student and campus…

  10. Practicing What We Preach: Cultivating Democratic Practice in Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Hartley, Matthew; Maxey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain why examining the way institutions model democracy on campus is an important, but often overlooked, step in advancing students' democratic learning. First, they note how a decline in shared governance produces an educational environment that adversely affects students' civic inclinations and agency. Next, they…

  11. University-school-community partnerships for youth development and democratic renewal.

    PubMed

    Harkavy, Ira; Hartley, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Democratic partnerships of universities, schools, and an array of neighborhood and community organizations are the most promising means of improving the lives of our nation's young people. Over the past two decades, many colleges and universities have been experiencing a renaissance in engagement activities. Universities, once ivory towers, have increasingly come to recognize that their destinies are inextricably linked with their communities. Authentic democratic partnerships have three characteristics: they are devised to achieve democratic purposes, the collective work is advanced through inclusive and democratic processes, and the product these partnerships produce benefits all participants and results in a strengthening of the democratic practices within the community. PMID:19593810

  12. Is Jefferson a Founding Father of Democratic Education? A Response to "Jefferson and the Ideology of Democratic Schooling"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neem, Johann

    2013-01-01

    This response argues that it is reasonable to consider Thomas Jefferson a proponent of democratic education. It suggests that Jefferson's education proposals sought to ensure the wide distribution of knowledge and that Jefferson's legacy remains important to us today.

  13. Towards a new understanding of the Neoproterozoic-early palæozoic Lufilian and northern Zambezi belts in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Hubertus; Berhorst, Volker

    2000-04-01

    The Lufilian Belt is of geological significance and economic importance due to rich CuCo mineralisation in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Copperbelt of Zambia. Though thorough exploration has yielded much information on the mines districts, the understanding of the belt as a whole appears, to some extent, historically charged and confused. In the first part of this article, basic knowledge and assumptions are reviewed and existing models critically assessed. Results include recognition of standard lithostratigraphies of the Katanga Supergroup comprising the Roan, Mwashia, Lower and Upper Kudelungu Groups in the Copperbelt and Katanga, a lower limit for the onset of deposition at about 880 Ma, and a major orogenetic event involving northeast directed thrusting (Lufilian Orogeny) at 560-550 Ma. The depositional history of the Lufilian Belt was controlled by continental rifting leading to formation of a passive continental margin. Continental rifting related to the dispersal of Rodinia began ca 880 Ma ago and was accompanied by magmatism (Kafue rhyolites: 879 Ma; Nchanga Granite: 877 Ma; Lusaka Granite: 865 Ma). Differential subsidence of the northwestward propagating rift soon allowed invasion by the sea advancing from the southeast, and subsequent development of marine rift-basin and platform domains. The standard stratigraphies for the Roan Group are restricted to the platform domain that bordered the rift-basin on its northeastern side. This domain included the Domes region of the Lufilian Belt and extended southeastwards into the northern Zambezi Belt. The platform was differentiated into a carbonate platform (barrier) represented by the Bancroft Subgroup (previously 'Upper Roan') in Zambia and Kambove Dolomite Formation in Katanga and a lagoon-basin (lower Kitwe Subgroup/Zambia; Dolomitic Shale Formation/Katanga) with mudflats (R.A.T. Subgroup/Katanga) and a siliciclastic margin towards the hinterland. The mineralised

  14. Sustained Innovation Through Shared Capitalism and Democratic Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyster, M. A.; Blasi, J.; Sibilia, J.; Zebuchen, T.; Bowman, A.

    The Foundation for Enterprise Development (FED) explores application of democratic representative governance models and structures for long-term interdisciplinary research, development and education to the concept of an organization that can sustain activity in support of interstellar travel in the 100-year timeframe, as outlined by the 100 Year StarshipTM. This paper titled, Sustained Innovation through Shared Capitalism and Democratic Governance , explores the roots of representative structures and organizations as long-lived success stories throughout history. Research, innovation, organizational structures and associated issues are explored to address the long-term focus required for development, both material and human. Impact investing vehicles are also explored as potential investment structures addressing the long-term horizon required by the organization. This paper provides an illustration, description and philosophical approach of this model as developed by the FED and our collaborators.

  15. Creating clones, kids & chimera: liberal democratic compromise at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nathan A

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to find middle ground between the supporters and opponents of biotechnology by perpetuating the existing legal compromise pertaining to the complete range of health and welfare doctrines relevant to the biotechnological industry. The author aspires neither to add to nor detract from this liberal democratic consensus, but to preserve its constitutive balance between positivism and natural law and over-regulation and under-regulation in the hopes of stabilizing new political fault lines developing around the few biotechnological innovations already grabbing headlines. The most feasible solution is to extend the existing liberal democratic compromise with respect to equal protection, reproductive rights, the First Amendment, human subject experimentation, patent law, and parental rights. This includes banning or monopolizing certain biotechnologies and extending substantive special respect to the ex vivo living human embryo. Biotechnology must not be left to regulate itself. PMID:15382747

  16. Parasites, democratization, and the liberalization of values across contemporary countries.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L; Aran, Devaraj

    2009-02-01

    The countries of the world vary in their position along the autocracy-democracy continuum of values. Traditionally, scholars explain this variation as based on resource distribution and disparity among nations. We provide a different framework for understanding the autocracy-democracy dimension and related value dimensions, one that is complementary (not alternative) to the research tradition, but more encompassing, involving both evolutionary (ultimate) and proximate causation of the values. We hypothesize that the variation in values pertaining to autocracy-democracy arises fundamentally out of human (Homo sapiens) species-typical psychological adaptation that manifests contingently, producing values and associated behaviours that functioned adaptively in human evolutionary history to cope with local levels of infectious diseases. We test this parasite hypothesis of democratization using publicly available data measuring democratization, collectivism-individualism, gender egalitarianism, property rights, sexual restrictiveness, and parasite prevalence across many countries of the world. Parasite prevalence across countries is based on a validated index of the severity of 22 important human diseases. We show that, as the hypothesis predicts, collectivism (hence, conservatism), autocracy, women's subordination relative to men's status, and women's sexual restrictiveness are values that positively covary, and that correspond with high prevalence of infectious disease. Apparently, the psychology of xenophobia and ethnocentrism links these values to avoidance and management of parasites. Also as predicted, we show that the antipoles of each of the above values--individualism (hence, liberalism), democracy, and women's rights, freedom and increased participation in casual sex--are a positively covarying set of values in countries with relatively low parasite stress. Beyond the cross-national support for the parasite hypothesis of democratization, it is consistent with

  17. The politics of color: preferences for Republican red versus Democratic blue.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2014-12-01

    The present study reveals that Election Day differentially affects the color preferences of US Republicans and Democrats. Voters' preferences for Republican red and Democratic blue were assessed, along with several distractor colors, on and around the 2010 interim and 2012 presidential elections. On non-Election Days, Republicans and Democrats preferred Republican red equally, and Republicans actually preferred Democratic blue more than Democrats did. On Election Day, however, Republicans' and Democrats' color preferences changed to become more closely aligned with their own party's colors. Republicans liked Republican red more than Democrats did, and no longer preferred Democratic blue more than Democrats did. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that color preferences are determined by people's preferences for correspondingly colored objects/entities (Palmer & Schloss in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010). They further suggest that color preferences are calculated at a given moment, depending on which color-object associations are currently most activated or salient. Color preferences are thus far more dynamic and context-dependent than has previously been believed. PMID:24733398

  18. Energy choices in a democratic society. Supporting paper 7

    SciTech Connect

    Nader, L.

    1980-04-01

    In a provacative discussion of energy policy and its relationship to social issues, Energy Choices in a Democratic Society presents four views of the future involving widely varying levels of energy consumption and life-styles. The futurists' intriguing descriptions of life in the imagined societies, loosely termed superindustrial, plentitude, small is beautiful, and minimum feasible are explored according to predictions about twelve cultural dimensions, including natural environment, settlement patterns, occupations, leisure, dispersion of decision-making power, and pluralism vs. homogeneity. These descriptions demonstrate some possible results of alternatives to be considered by scientists, policymakers, and citizens concerned about the direction of our energy policy.

  19. Adult intussusception in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Reinou S.; Leow, Jeffrey J.; Kushner, Adam L.

    2011-01-01

    Adult intussusception is a relatively infrequent, but well documented entity in the Western surgical literature, where the majorities of cases is caused by tumors and require resection. In Africa and other tropical locations, however, other causes of adult intussusceptions predominate and must be considered. As Western trained surgeons increasingly volunteer in developing countries it is imperative to become familiar with the complex presentation and differential diagnosis of this disease. We present an illustrative case of adult intussusception with a complex differential diagnosis that we recently treated during a surgical mission to the Democratic Republic of Congo. PMID:24949698

  20. Democratic Decay of Be6 Exposed by Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, I. A.; Charity, R. J.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, D.; Elson, J. M.; Ghosh, T. K.; Howard, M. E.; Iwasaki, H.; Kilburn, M.; Lee, Jenny; Lynch, W. G.; Manfredi, J.; Marley, S. T.; Sanetullaev, A.; Shane, R.; Shetty, D. V.; Sobotka, L. G.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Youngs, M.; Zhukov, M. V.

    2012-11-01

    The interaction of an E/A=70-MeV Be7 beam with a Be target was used to populate levels in Be6 following neutron knockout reactions. The three-body decay of the ground and first excited states into the α+p+p exit channel were detected in the High Resolution Array. Precise three-body correlations extracted from the experimental data allowed us to obtain insight into the mechanism of the three-body democratic decay. The correlation data are in good agreement with a three-cluster-model calculation and thus validate this theoretical approach over a broad energy range.

  1. The dynamics of minority opinions in democratic debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2004-05-01

    A model for the dynamics of opinion forming in democratic public debate is presented. Using concepts and techniques from the physics of disorder the dynamics of social refusal spreading is studied within a perfect world, where the minority holds neither better arguments nor lobbying backing. The one-person-one-vote rule, together with local majority rules, are used to determine the outcome of local group discussions. In case of a local tie, the group decides on keeping the Status Quo. The geometry of social life shaped by offices, houses, bars, and restaurants is shown to determine the distribution size of these discussion groups. It is found to yield very asymmetric unstable thresholds to the total spreading of one opinion at the benefit of the refusal one. The associated dynamics is rather quick and completed within few days. This democratic paradox of public debate driven majority opinion reversal is discussed in light of some European construction issues. The model may apply to rumor and fear propagation.

  2. Studying the Quality of Democracy: Two Cross-National Measures of Democratic Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article provides new cross-national measures of two dimensions of democratic citizenship with great import for the study of democratic quality, expressive participation, and intolerance of diversity. Using data from the 2000-2001 wave of the World Values Survey, the paper present new ways to measure participation and intolerance, as well as a…

  3. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  4. Non-formal Education and Its Role in Establishing a Democratic Culture within Indonesian Heterogeneous Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampubolon, Mangatas

    2003-01-01

    Examines nonformal education's part in expanding democratic culture in Indonesia; discusses contextual constraints on democracy, use of nonformal education for literacy and life skills development, and the influence on developing citizen awareness of responsibilities in a democratic society. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  5. On the (Im)Possibility of Democratic Citizenship Education in the Arab and Muslim World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    The euphoria of the recent Arab Spring that was initiated in northern African countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and spilled over to Bahrain, Yemen and Syria brings into question as to whether democratic citizenship education or more pertinently, education for democratic citizenship can successfully be cultivated in most of the Arab and…

  6. The Promise and Perils of Developing Democratic Literacy for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2009-01-01

    How do democratic practices relate to social justice in our classrooms? What risks to social justice might democratic classroom discussions pose? In this article, I respond to these questions by drawing upon educational scholarship and data from a qualitative study in four U.S. secondary classrooms on the meanings and implications of teaching for…

  7. Lydia J. Roberts's Nutrition Research and the Rhetoric of "Democratic" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    This article examines nutritionist Lydia J. Roberts's use of the "democratic approach" as a rhetorical strategy both to build solidarity among scientists and to enact participatory research in a rural Puerto Rican community. This example suggests that participatory scientific methodologies are not necessarily democratic but may function…

  8. How to Exist Politically and Learn from It: Hannah Arendt and the Problem of Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: In discussions about democratic education, there is a strong tendency to see the role of education as that of the preparation of children and young people for their future participation in democratic life. A major problem with this view is that it relies on the idea that the guarantee for democracy lies in the existence of a…

  9. Spiral of Rebellion: Conflict Seeking of Democratic Adolescents in Republican Counties. CIRCLE Working Paper #68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A study of adolescents living in red and blue counties during the 2006 midterm elections shows a striking pattern of Democratic youth thriving in political expression and debate when exposed to Republican ideological climates. Democratic adolescents were more likely to talk with parents and friends about politics, disagree openly, test opinions,…

  10. Experiments in Democratic Education: Dewey's Lab School and Korczak's Children's Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Liba H.

    2008-01-01

    For democracy to thrive, students increasingly need to participate in democratic education. During the first half of the twentieth century, two education reformers individually developed, refined, and implemented two different forms of democratic education. In this article, the author describes the purpose of public schooling and how John Dewey…

  11. The School's Democratic Mission and Conflict Resolution: Voices of Swedish Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Ilse; Olsson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Swedish educational policy mandates have given schools a double mission: the development of content-based knowledge as well as the promotion of democratic values and competencies. While detailed learning outcomes are specified for content domains, the democratic mission is imprecisely described and unsupported by practical measures. This leaves…

  12. Understanding the Universal Right to Education as Jurisgenerative Politics and Democratic Iterations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how the universal human right to education can be understood in terms of what Seyla Benhabib considers "democratic iterations". Further, by referring to the concept of jurisgenerative politics, Benhabib argues that a democratic people reinterpret guiding norms and principles which they find themselves bound to, through…

  13. Wisdom and Compassion in Democratic Leadership: Perceptions of the Bodhisattva Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Leslie; Ylimaki, Rose; Ford, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    At the heart of democratic leadership rests a deep respect for what it means to be human, the cultivation of the common good, and the need to act according to one's own direction. If democratic leadership aims to create an environment in which people are encouraged and supported in "aspiring to truths about the world" (Woods, 2005, p. xvi), then…

  14. Democratic Education: An (Im)Possibility that yet Remains to Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel; Jaastad, Bryn; Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to develop democratic schools have moved along particular rules and standards of "reasoning" even when expressed through different ideological and paradigmatic lines. From attempts to make a democratic education to critical pedagogy, different approaches overlap in their historical construction of the reason of schooling: designing society…

  15. Gender Delusions and Exclusions in the Democratization of Schooling in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines how democratization of schooling is being shaped in Latin America and how dangerous delusions and exclusions affect the treatment of gender in this process. Focuses on initiatives and development policies of international aid agencies, their research projects, and international conferences. Suggests that democratization requires a larger…

  16. The Recent Process of Decentralization and Democratic Management of Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Jose Camilo dos Santos

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the history of Brazilian decentralization policies, including those implemented by the military regime of 1964. Describes the experiences of democratic public school administration initiated in the 1970s-80s. Analyzes the move toward decentralization and democratization of public school administration in federal and state constitutions and…

  17. Conceptions of Volunteerism among Recent African Immigrants in Canada: Implications for Democratic Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareka, Ottilia; Nyemah, Joseph; Manguvo, Angellar

    2010-01-01

    In democratic societies the level of citizens' civic engagement and inclusion in all forms of democratic participation is crucial in maintaining social cohesion and a vibrant democracy. In the historical development of Canada's demographic, political, socio-economic and cultural systems, immigration continues to play an influential role. Our paper…

  18. A Survey on the Democratic Qualities of High School Students and the Schooling for Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Using the method of purpositive sampling, this research makes an empirical study on the relationship between the schooling for education and democratic qualities of public high school students in Beijing. The results show that the democratic qualities of the students in public high school of Beijing are better as a whole, but they are still lack…

  19. Building a Democratic Nation: Governments in Transition. [Student Text and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gretchen E.; Tarasovic, Amy E.; Sass, Charles R.

    This student text and teacher's guide are part of a curriculum unit that examines the process and progress of democratic government from ancient Greece and Rome through the beginning of the twenty-first century. Part 1, "What is Democracy?" explores the growth and spread of democratic principles throughout the Western world, with particular…

  20. Inclusive Curriculum? Challenges to the Role of Civic Education in a Jewish and Democratic State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinson, Halleli

    2007-01-01

    Against the backdrop of growing conflicts in Israeli society and concerns about its democratic character, the current curriculum guidelines and official textbook for civic education in Israel were set to offer a more inclusive civic education that would stress ideas such as pluralistic and democratic citizenship. However, this curriculum does not…

  1. Transforming Schools into Democratic Organisations: The Case of the Secondary Schools Management Development Project in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monyatsi, Pedzani Perci

    2005-01-01

    As a democratic country which aims at nurturing and sustaining its envied democracy, organisations in Botswana are expected and encouraged to build and maintain democratic structures and principles. In September 1993, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Botswana and the then British Overseas Development Agency (ODA) launched an ambitious…

  2. Teledeliberative Democratic Discourse: A Case Study of High School Students' Use of Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Scott; Marri, Anand R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to examine high school students' use of social networking to participate in teledeliberative democratic dialogue and explicates the implications of this dialogue for democratic education that is inclusive of all students. Design/methodology/approach: The case study analyzes the comments of 111 high school students over ten…

  3. Action as an Educational Virtue: Toward a Different Understanding of Democratic Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2005-01-01

    In this essay I attempt to show that compassionate and imaginative action have the potential to extend some of the fundamental dimensions of democratic citizenship education: deliberative argumentation and the recognition of what is other and different. I argue that cultivating democratic citizenship in schools and universities cannot focus solely…

  4. The Perceptions of Prospective Teachers on the Democratic Aspects of the Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Erdal; Gundogdu, Kerim; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The nations which have the aim to create democratic societies should also realize the same ideals in educational practices. Related literature declare that learning environments based on constructivist approach is assumed to be democratic. In line with this frame, the aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of prospective…

  5. Maxine Greene and the Democratic Project in Education: Signposts for the Irish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the work of philosopher Maxine Greene as it pertains to the democratic project in education, with a particular focus on the Irish educational context. The author considers the extent to which specific aspects of the educational concerns raised by Greene, with respect to the realisation of the democratic project in the context…

  6. Democratic Teacher Beliefs According to the Teacher's Gender and Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesici, Sahin

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the variations in democratic beliefs among teachers based on gender and locus of control. The study groups comprised of 286 teachers. The results demonstrated that the level of adherence to democratic beliefs on the part of female teachers was significantly higher than those of male teachers, especially in terms of equality and…

  7. Democratization of Secondary Education in Malaysia: Emerging Problems and Challenges of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2012-01-01

    The democratization of education in Malaysia has come a long way since the early 1960s. In the early 1990s, the government decided to democratize secondary education in order to widen formal access to secondary education, especially at the upper secondary level. It is the contention of this paper that the widening of formal access to education may…

  8. The Importance of Belonging: Learning from the Student Experience of Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Max A.

    2012-01-01

    This article grew out of an extensive piece of grounded theory research that explored students' experiences of democratic education. A small democratic school in the south of England is used as a case study. Students in this school experienced a strong sense of belonging--to the school itself, with teachers, and with peers. This appeared to make a…

  9. Leadership to Build a Democratic Community within School: A Case Study of Two Korean High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Young Taek; Printy, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to explore how democratic community is manifest in schools in Korea. It also tries to examine how leadership, specifically transformational leadership, functions in shaping a democratic community within a school. Toward this aim, we have conducted a case study of two religious high schools in Korea. Based on the findings from the…

  10. Democratizing School Authority: Brazilian Teachers' Perceptions of the Election of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The idea of collective decision making in schools has been a popular democratic educational reform model. One of its claims is that participation in school decision making empowers teachers and improves teaching. This research investigates this claim by exploring seven teachers' experiences with a unique democratic school reform in Porto Alegre,…

  11. Examining the Relationships Between Education, Social Networks and Democratic Support With ABM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drucker, Nick; Campbell, Kenyth

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an agent-based model that explores the relationships between education, social networks, and support for democratic ideals. This study examines two factors thai affect democratic support, education, and social networks. Current theory concerning these two variables suggests that positive relationships exist between education and democratic support and between social networks and the spread of ideas. The model contains multiple variables of democratic support, two of which are evaluated through experimentation. The model allows individual entities within the system to make "decisions" about their democratic support independent of one another. The agent based approach also allows entities to utilize their social networks to spread ideas. Current theory supports experimentation results. In addion , these results show the model is capable of reproducing real world outcomes. This paper addresses the model creation process and the experimentation procedure, as well as future research avenues and potential shortcomings of the model

  12. Mainland Chinese and Canadian Adolescents' Judgments and Reasoning about the Fairness of Democratic and Other Forms of Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Charles C.; Arnold, Mary Louise; Tan, Dingliang; Boyd, Dwight

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the judgments and reasoning of adolescents (ages 12-19 years) from three sites in urban and rural China (n = 270) and in an urban Canadian comparison sample (n = 72), about the fairness of various forms of democratic and non-democratic government. Adolescents from both China and Canada preferred democratic forms of government,…

  13. A Researcher-Student-Teacher Model for Democratic Science Pedagogy: Connections to Community, Shared Authority, and Critical Science Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, S. Jhumki

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a model for democratic pedagogy in science classrooms that is based on an examination of existing literature on democratic educational practices and on teacher and student ideas about how this pedagogy can take shape and be operationalized in science classrooms. A goal of democratic science pedagogy is to explore ways of…

  14. An Investigation of Devotion to Democratic Values and Conflict Resolution Abilities: A Case of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Mediha; Sari, Sezen; Otunc, Mine Suat

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate devotion to democratic values and conflict resolution abilities of elementary school students. In the direction of this general purpose, the level of the students' devotion to democratic values and conflict resolution abilities were investigated by the Devotion to Democratic Values Scale (DDVS) and…

  15. Democratic Decision Making Theory and Practice in a Public High School: A Call for a Better Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Heather

    In this paper the work of democratic theorists is applied to an analysis of democratic decision-making in a public high school. The article opens with a brief description of democratic decision-making as a school-reform strategy. The data for the study were collected in 1998 and 1999 and were based on 52 interviews with teachers, administrators,…

  16. Democratic Republic of the Congo: undoing government by predation.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Edward B

    2006-12-01

    This paper draws on two periods of field research, conducted in 2004, to consider the state of governance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first measures the paralysing impact of illegal taxation on riverine trade in the western provinces; the second documents civilian attempts to seek safety from violence in the troubled east, and evaluates third-party efforts to provide protection and security. Analysis of study findings suggests that the DRC's current governance crisis is neither historically novel nor driven exclusively by mineral resources, extraction rights or trafficking. Rather, government by predation is an endemic and systematic feature of the civil and military administration, ensuring the daily economic survival of soldiers and officials, who are able to wield their authority in a 'riskfree' environment, without oversight or accountability. The paper's conclusion tries to make sense of the persistence of corruption in social and political life, and assess the capacity of ordinary citizens to reverse their predicament. PMID:17100751

  17. A metagenomics portal for a democratized sequencing world.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Andreas; Glass, Elizabeth M; Bartels, Daniela; Bischof, Jared; Braithwaite, Daniel; D'Souza, Mark; Gerlach, Wolfgang; Harrison, Travis; Keegan, Kevin; Matthews, Hunter; Kottmann, Renzo; Paczian, Tobias; Tang, Wei; Trimble, William L; Yilmaz, Pelin; Wilkening, Jared; Desai, Narayan; Meyer, Folker

    2013-01-01

    The democratized world of sequencing is leading to numerous data analysis challenges; MG-RAST addresses many of these challenges for diverse datasets, including amplicon datasets, shotgun metagenomes, and metatranscriptomes. The changes from version 2 to version 3 include the addition of a dedicated gene calling stage using FragGenescan, clustering of predicted proteins at 90% identity, and the use of BLAT for the computation of similarities. Together with changes in the underlying software infrastructure, this has enabled the dramatic scaling up of pipeline throughput while remaining on a limited hardware budget. The Web-based service allows upload, fully automated analysis, and visualization of results. As a result of the plummeting cost of sequencing and the readily available analytical power of MG-RAST, over 78,000 metagenomic datasets have been analyzed, with over 12,000 of them publicly available in MG-RAST. PMID:24060134

  18. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  19. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  20. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

  1. Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

  2. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy. PMID:23527455

  3. Concentrations and forms of heavy metals around two ore processing sites in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, F.; Masalehdani, M. N. N.; De Putter, T.; D'Hollander, C.; Van Biezen, E.; Mujinya, B. B.; Potdevin, J. L.; Van Ranst, E.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals and the forms in which they occur were determined for tailings and derived deposits of two major processing sites of Cu-Co and Cu-Zn-(Pb) ores in the Katanga Copperbelt (Kipushi, Likasi). They were studied by a combination of methods, focussed on the nature of water- and EDTA-extractable compounds, the mineralogical composition of tailings and associated secondary minerals, and textural features of metal-bearing efflorescences. For the Kipushi area, sulfide minerals in tailings of decantation basins are identified as the source of extractable metals they contain, but input from an external source rather than local oxidation of substrate components is responsible for high levels of contamination in the Likasi area. Contaminated areas around Likasi are characterized by an abundance of Mg-sulfate efflorescences with high concentrations of cobalt and other metals, acting as an important vector for further dispersion of contaminants by wind and water.

  4. The recent process of decentralization and democratic management of education in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, José Camilo Dos

    1993-09-01

    Brazilian society is beginning a new historical period in which the principle of decentralization is beginning to predominate over centralization, which held sway during the last 25 years. In contrast to recent Brazilian history, there is now a search for political, democratic and participatory decentralization more consonant with grass-roots aspirations. The first section of this article presents a brief analysis of some decentralization policies implemented by the military regime of 1964, and discusses relevant facts related to the resistance of civil society to state authoritarianism, and to the struggle for the democratization and organization of civil society up to the end of the 1970s. The second section analyzes some new experiences of democratic public school administration initiated in the 1970s and 1980s. The final section discusses the move toward decentralization and democratization of public school administration in the new Federal and State Constitutions, and in the draft of the new Law of National Education.

  5. Sport in the German Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of China. A Sociopolitical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Thomas D.

    1985-01-01

    The use of sports in the German Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of China is both propagandist and ideological. International sports competition can enhance the country's image and domestic sport is a means of political socialization. (DF)

  6. Nancy Martin and James Britton: The Language Work of Democratic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradi, Gordon M.

    2004-01-01

    Nancy Martin and James Britton are two retired teachers whose collaborative research on the use of language in learning is profiled. Their language education project promotes personal and democratic uses of literacy.

  7. Self-esteem, authoritarianism, and democratic values in the face of threat.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Barbara A; Hastings, Brad M

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the associations among terrorist threat, right-wing authoritarianism, self-esteem, and their relations in support for democratic values. Students (n = 140) completed Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, and the Democratic Values Scale. The participants also read an editorial regarding the events of 9/11/01 and completed two mortality-salience questions to induce a sense of threat. Results showed that self-esteem was a significant contributor to the prediction of scores on the Democratic Values Scale. Furthermore, the interaction between self-esteem and right-wing authoritarianism explained significant variance in the Democratic Values Scale scores. The results are interpreted in light of theories addressing authoritarianism and self-esteem. PMID:15460386

  8. Challenges of the Democratization of Popular Education from the Perspective of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosero, Rocio

    1993-01-01

    Economic crises in the Andean region countries have helped deepen and intensify sex discrimination. The contributions of feminism to popular education may enable active participation of women in the democratizing process. (SK)

  9. Functionalizing Conflict: Jesse Jackson's Rhetorical Strategy at the 1984 Democratic National Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Mare, Lesley A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Jesse Jackson's rhetorical strategy of functionalizing conflict among divisive Democrats during the 1984 national convention. Applies conflict theory to Jackson's convention address, which serves as the basis for this rhetorical analysis. (JD)

  10. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans

    PubMed Central

    Sylwester, Karolina; Purver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives’ language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals’ language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties’ Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour. PMID:26375581

  11. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans.

    PubMed

    Sylwester, Karolina; Purver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives' language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals' language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties' Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour. PMID:26375581

  12. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  13. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspective of upcoming control activities.An electronic literature search via PubMed complemented by manual search of non-peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to January 2015. The search concerned all relevant records related to schistosomiasis in the DRC from January 1955 onwards. A total of 155 records were found, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarized by geographical region, mapped, and compared with those reported sixty years ago. The available data reported schistosomiasis in some areas located in 10 of the 11 provinces of DRC. Three species of Schistosoma were found: S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. The prevalence of schistosomiasis varied greatly between regions and between villages, with high values of up to 95 % observed in some communities. The overall trend over 60 years points to the spread of schistosomiasis to formerly non-endemic areas. The prevalence of schistosomiasis has increased in rural endemic areas and decreased in urban/peri-urban endemic areas of Kinshasa. Hepatosplenomegaly, urinary tract lesions and anaemia were commonly reported in schistosomiasis endemic areas but not always associated with infection status.The present review confirms that schistosomiasis is still endemic in DRC. However, available data are scattered across time and space and studies lack methodological uniformity, hampering a reliable estimation of the current status of schistosomiasis in DRC. There is a clear need for updated prevalence data

  14. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  15. [National ethics committees and representative democracy: is the new German ethics committee more "democratic"?].

    PubMed

    Dagron, Stéphanie

    2007-01-01

    The bill passed in April 2007 by the German parliament aims to confer democratic legitimacy on the German Ethics Committee (deutscher Ethikrat) which has replaced the former National Ethics Committee (nationaler Ethikrat) set up in 2001. This law results from a wide debate which began in 2005 within the political parties about the role in democracy of the bodies charged with advising the people's representatives in the areas of biotechnology and modern medicine. In this article, the author explains why it was necessary to confer a certain democratic legitimacy on the new Ethics Committee and analyses the relation that exists between the democratic principle, the work of this type of committee and the national institutional structure retained to stimulate the debate and advise the political decision-makers, and even to prepare legislation concerning bioethics. PMID:17902580

  16. Teaching Civic Education in a Democratic Society: A Comparison of Civic Education in Hungary and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Kaye; Burroughs, Susie; Groce, Eric

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated obstacles to teaching civic education in the United States, a country whose government was established on democratic principles over 250 years ago, and Hungary, a European country presently making the transition to a government based on democratic principles. The purpose is to compare the obstacles within these two…

  17. Democratic Deliberations in the Finnish Elementary Classroom: The Dilemmas of Deliberations and the Teacher's Role in an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammi, Tuure

    2013-01-01

    Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom. Results…

  18. Political Differences in Past, Present, and Future Life Satisfaction: Republicans Are More Sensitive than Democrats to Political Climate

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, David R.; Omorogbe, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Previous research finds that Republicans report being happier or more satisfied with their lives than Democrats. Using representative American samples from 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010, we tested a Person × Situation interactionist account in which political affiliation (Democrat, Republican) and political climate (favorable when the president in office is of the same party) are proposed to affect past, present, and anticipated future life satisfaction. Meta-analyses of related tests of key hypotheses confirmed that (a) life satisfaction was greater when the political climate was favorable rather than unfavorable and (b) Republicans were more sensitive to political climate than Democrats. As predicted, Republicans also were more politically polarized than Democrats. Taken together, the findings indicate that, compared to Democrats, Republicans are more apt to self-identify in political terms, and core aspects of their subjective well-being are more easily affected by the outcome of political events. PMID:24901253

  19. Cooperative diplomacy: Citizens, sovereignty, and the logic of democratic enlargement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndungu, Anthony Mark

    2000-12-01

    that intergovernmental agreement on compliance questions is most likely to occur when decision-making and policy-implementing processes are decentralized, and when governments establish and support decentralized intra- and trans-governmental institutions that enable private domestic groups of individuals to participate in international governance through two mechanisms. First, those decentralized institutions facilitate the formation of transnational coalitions of politically autonomous private domestic groups that can serve as a ``horizontal transmission belt'' for ideas and practices among private and public proponents of the major opposing domestic positions, thereby generating public transnational deliberation on compliance, monitoring and distributive questions. Second, politically autonomous private domestic groups can, by engaging in performance-based partnerships with senior government officials, also serve as a ``vertical transmission belt'' between domestic and intergovernmental regimes and vice versa, thereby encouraging their respective governments to adapt the social practices in issue-specific domestic regimes to international structural forces. These findings have significant ramifications for the concept of democratic enlargement, the institutionalization of competitive pluralism in non- liberal states. The robustness, across changes in administrations both at home and abroad, of the norms codified in international agreements may hinge on institutionalizing the participation of politically autonomous private domestic groups in decentralized intra- and trans-governmental decision-making and policy- implementing processes.

  20. Critical Democracy Audits--A Response to "Teacher, Researcher, and Accountability Discourses: Creating Space for Democratic Science Teaching Practices in Middle Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Educators frequently claim that the projects in which they are involved are democratic. However, considering the multiple and often conflicting notions of democracy and democratic education, are there any shared understandings of what either of those notions means? Does the claim that a project is democratic carry with it any shared assumptions,…

  1. "The Art of Democracy": Young People's Democratic Learning in Gallery Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawy, Robert; Biesta, Gert; McDonnell, Jane; Lawy, Helen; Reeves, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors report on research which aimed to explore the opportunities for democratic action and learning in a number of artist-led gallery education projects in the south-west of England. The research takes an approach to citizenship learning and democracy that is less focused on citizenship as a specific subject in the formal…

  2. Higher Education and the Practice of Democratic Politics: A Political Education Reader. Kettering Political Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murchland, Bernard, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on political education for democratic citizenship in higher education developed out of meetings over 5 years of a small group of faculty, administrators and students who gathered to discuss the way academia was educating young people for political responsibility. Following a foreword and an introduction by…

  3. Technology, Human Agency and Dewey's Constructivism: Opening Democratic Spaces in Virtual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines whether the ubiquitous presence of technology in schools negatively affects democratic learning by promoting instrumental rationality and, hence, reifying social reality. The author suggests that structural critiques of educational technology ignore the considerable impact of human agency on shaping related learning outcomes.…

  4. Preparing Leaders for the Work of Leading Schools in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starratt, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    A most important theme that should be stressed in preparation programs is the leader's articulation and cultivation of a vision of learning that honors the three purposes behind the mission of public education--development of skills, understandings, and dispositions for: (1) participation as a citizen in a democratic society; (2) employment or…

  5. Charting a Democratic Course for Global Citizenship Education: Research Directions and Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines research directions for global citizenship education, by emphasizing the centrality of democratic goals for schools in the 21st century. Despite a significant shift in educational policies and practices towards addressing education that respond to the conditions of globalization, there is not a clear vision regarding its role…

  6. Rights of the Child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosandey, Olivier

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The report's introductory summary asserts that although the DRC has ratified the Convention and other international…

  7. Incendiary Discourse: Reconsidering Flaming, Authority, and Democratic Subjectivity in Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiak, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between teacher authority and flaming in asynchronous online communication. Teachers who rely on what I call stabilization and universal applicability--two concepts emerging from a liberal democratic theory--may actually be preventing a full and robust understanding of the complexities of 21st-century…

  8. Teaching History and Building a Democratic Future: Reflections from Post-Communist Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciobanu, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Education in Western democratic societies is broadly focused on combining the goals of providing theoretical and practical knowledge with acquiring and practicing the skills of citizenship. In this context, teaching history is more than a linear narration of events, and includes themes and stories reflecting individuals and movements that fought…

  9. Advancing Democratic Principles: A European Examines a Neglected American Asset. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseler, Stephen

    According to this essay by a visiting scholar from Great Britain, there will always be a debate in democratic societies, about the proper role of morality in fashioning and articulating foreign policy. This ambivalence has been reflected in the uneven approach to the problem exhibited by successive United States administrations. There are two…

  10. Thinking about the Nature and Role of Authority in Democratic Education with Rousseau's "Emile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Educational authority is an issue in contemporary democracies. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to the problem of authority in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Emile" and his work has not been addressed in the contemporary debate on the issue of authority in democratic education. Olivier Michaud's goals are, first, to address both of these…

  11. Democratic Education across School Types: Evidence for the U.S. from NHES99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the differences in democratic education across school types, using the US National Household Education Survey (NHES) of 1999. We replicate the estimation approach of Campbell (1998) and find a strongly positive effect from attendance at Catholic school or private independent schools on community service participation, civic…

  12. Transaction Circles with Digital Texts as a Foundation for Democratic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Transaction circles weave together elements of guided reading and literature circles in an open conversational structure that supports students as agentive learners. Discourse within these circles utilizing digital informational texts assist in the development of democratic practices even in a time when federal mandates limit curricula and…

  13. The Cultural Mediation of State Policy: The Democratic Potential of New Community Schooling in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Jon; Walker, Melanie; Baron, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the democratic potential of New Community Schools (NCS) as developed by the Scottish Executive. Defines the ambivalence of NCS with regard to deliberative democracy, which results from the mediation of state policy. Evaluates NCS in terms of the ends and purposes of deliberative democracy. Infers from the early NCS experience a number of…

  14. Extending the Conversation: Why Does He Want a Dictator? Action Research on Democratic Classroom Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This article extends the conversation on English education as preparation for democratic participation. The author journeys through a cycle of action research, analyzing one classroom case study to improve her practice of curricular negotiation in a methods of teaching writing course.

  15. Continuity and Change in the Pursuit of a Democratic Public Mission for Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, G. Thomas; Goodlad, John I.

    2008-01-01

    An essential mission of schools, Mr. Bellamy and Mr. Goodlad argue, is ensuring that each new generation understands the principles and institutions that support democratic life. Schools require vigilant stewardship to serve this public purpose. Much of the needed work is local, but it depends on new and challenging collaborations among education…

  16. Jesse Jackson and Television: Black Image Presentation and Affect in the 1984 Democratic Campaign Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Bishetta D.

    A study analyzed the visual content of the 1984 New Hampshire and California Democratic candidate debates to determine how Jesse Jackson was portrayed by television. The New Hampshire debate was chosen because it offered the first opportunity for Jackson to be heard and compared to the other, more media-prominent candidates. The California debate…

  17. Democratization of Secondary Education in Malaysia: Attitudes towards Schooling and Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yao Sua

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the democratization of secondary education in Malaysia beginning in the 1990s, many students who do not have academic credentials are allowed to progress to upper secondary education. This study examines the attitudes of these students towards two important aspects of schooling--namely, learning and examinations, as well as…

  18. Using John Rawls to Teach the Limits of Majority Power in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most perplexing quandaries that has continually confronted proponents of democratic governance centers around the question of how to protect the right of the majority to govern while simultaneously protecting the fundamental rights of those who are, at least temporarily, in the minority (Martinson 1996, 163). The author of this paper…

  19. Hillary: The Movie, The History Channel, and the Challenge of the Documentary for Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: In "Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission (2009)," the U.S. Supreme Court cleared the way for corporations to spend unlimited amounts of money to influence citizens' decisions about candidates and issues that will appear on election ballots. More important, however, for democratic educators, the ruling…

  20. First Report of Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi has not been reported to occur in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in Central Africa. Nigeria (1) and Uganda (3) are the closest countries to DRC in the west and east, respectively, where the disease has been reported. In February 2007 during a dis...

  1. Innovative Approaches to Achieving Universal Primary Education and Its Democratization: A Synopsis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranaweera, A. Mahinda

    This paper presents information culled from a study of 200 publications about innovative approaches towards achieving universal primary education (UPE) and its democratization. The first part of the paper addresses the topics of children's right to primary education, the role of primary education in eradicating adult illiteracy, and the difficulty…

  2. Superintendent-Business Executive Collaboration in Intermediary Organizations: Moral Agency and Democratic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; McKee, Tiffany; Martin, Staci

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes collaboration between business executives and superintendents to influence local/regional K-12 educational change. Specifically, we examine participant like-mindedness about the ethics and appropriate focus of K-12 intermediary collaboration, the extent of democratic functioning, and key individuals to involve. Data…

  3. Experiencing Democracy through Neoliberalism: The Role of Social Justice in Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on research involving American College of Education students in relation to their impressions of, reactions to, and engagement with democracy. Four themes are explored: the conceptualization of democracy; the democratic educational experience of teachers; the concern about teaching controversial issues; and the understanding of,…

  4. Re-envisioning the Future: Democratic Citizenship Education and Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Smeyers, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of why democratic citizenship education should be incorporated more meaningfully into Islamic education discourses in formal institutions in the Arab and Muslim world. In the Arab and Muslim world civic and national education seem to be the dominant discourses. We argue that the latter discourses are inadequate…

  5. The War on Democratic Public Space: A Perspective from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a crisis in democratic public space in the USA. This essay explores key areas that are either causes or effects of the present predicament: post-9-11 fear, neoliberalisation/globalisation, migrating populations, and the growing power of right-wing fundamentalism, among others. (Contains 6 notes.)

  6. Educational Reform and Class Cleavages in Social Democratic Regimes: The Case of Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the relationship between the educational system of Sweden and its social class structure. The first section provides background information on Sweden's social democratic system which exhibits a strong tendency towards pragmatism, practicality, rationality, efficiency, competence, and educational planning.…

  7. Comment on Richard Merelman's "Democratic Politics and the Culture of American Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, M. Kent

    1980-01-01

    If for no other reason than the strong association between education and democratic values, we must give the education system some credit for the commitment of educated people to those values. Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036. (Author/IRT)

  8. The Elephant in the Room: A Conundrum in Democratic Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Shannon Lindsay; Morrison, Serina Cinnamon

    2011-01-01

    This study reflects an autoethnographic conversation between two graduate students whose purpose is to explore the tensions teachers face in the classroom as they are confronted with the demands of a standards-based curriculum while striving to assert themselves as educators for democratic citizenship. These tensions manifest in the most…

  9. Secondary Schools and Communities of Practice for Democratic Civic Education: Challenges of Authority and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Bradley A. U.; Brantmeier, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews and critiques the concept of "community of practice" (CoP), and analyzes its relevance for democratic citizenship education in secondary social studies. The authors discuss the origins of the CoP concept in the work of Lave and Wenger (1991), trace its usage in recent educational scholarship, and outline its conceptual…

  10. Discourse Structuration in Israel, Democratization of Education and the Impact of the Global Education Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The 1968 structural reform of the education system in Israel was part both of a global process of democratization of education launched after the Second World War and of a larger modernization project in which the social sciences played a crucial role. This dynamic was an expression of a conjunction of interests, in which political forces used…

  11. Ethical implications of democratic theory for U.S. public participation in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hourdequin, Marion; Landres, Peter; Hanson, Mark J.; Craig, David R.

    2012-07-15

    Traditional mechanisms for public participation in environmental impact assessment under U.S. federal law have been criticized as ineffective and unable to resolve conflict. As these mechanisms are modified and new approaches developed, we argue that participation should be designed and evaluated not only on practical grounds of cost-effectiveness and efficiency, but also on ethical grounds based on democratic ideals. In this paper, we review and synthesize modern democratic theory to develop and justify four ethical principles for public participation: equal opportunity to participate, equal access to information, genuine deliberation, and shared commitment. We then explore several tensions that are inherent in applying these ethical principles to public participation in EIA. We next examine traditional NEPA processes and newer collaborative approaches in light of these principles. Finally, we explore the circumstances that argue for more in-depth participatory processes. While improved EIA participatory processes do not guarantee improved outcomes in environmental management, processes informed by these four ethical principles derived from democratic theory may lead to increased public engagement and satisfaction with government agency decisions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four ethical principles based on democratic theory for public participation in EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NEPA and collaboration offer different strengths in meeting these principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore tensions inherent in applying these principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved participatory processes may improve public acceptance of agency decisions.

  12. Acting Locally in a Flat World: Global Citizenship and the Democratic Practice of Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battistoni, Richard M.; Longo, Nicholas V.; Jayanandhan, Stephanie Raill

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests ways to frame the democratic practice of service-learning in the context of a global society, and reports on emerging efforts at three universities to act globally through local community engagement. The article concludes with practical lessons for promoting global citizenship through service-learning in higher education.…

  13. Lift Every Voice and Sing: Democratic Dialogue in a Teacher Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufford, Don

    This paper describes a model that builds on the assumption that educators teaching foundations of education courses have a unique opportunity to model the democratic process and a moral responsibility to infuse the art of human conversation and self-transcendence into education. Exposure to such classes may encourage preservice teachers to go…

  14. Democratic Climates in Elementary Classrooms: A Review of Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Ann V.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews theory and research on the relationship between classroom climate and citizenship outcomes in elementary settings. Compares democratic learning environments described by three studies. Suggests that free expression, peer interaction in cooperative activities, respect for diverse viewpoints, and student participation in decision making…

  15. The Search for Emerging Decolonizing Methodologies in Qualitative Research: Further Strategies for Liberatory and Democratic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Gonzalez y Gonzalez, Elsa M.

    2008-01-01

    Many non-Western and non-English-speaking scholars express the need for supporting a methodological approach that foregrounds the voices of nationals and locals (or indigenous peoples). Supporting this stance, Western scholars will reach out in democratic and liberatory ways that effect research collaboration, helping to foster social justice and…

  16. Some Thoughts on the Search for Just and Democratic Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Gertie

    2007-01-01

    This article posits an intervention in the education system which integrates the theories of justice as fairness and deliberative democracy. The aim is to honour every child's right to learn in freedom, and to ensure that every child becomes a responsible and democratic South African citizen. The education system and the schools in that system…

  17. Democratization or Neocolonialism? The Education of Muslims under US Military Occupation, 1903-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    2004-01-01

    Recent events in Afghanistan and Iraq appear to mark the beginning of a new and challenging relationship between the United States and the Muslim world. As the US embarks upon its self-appointed task of helping to bring about the development of peaceful, democratic civil societies in Islamic nations wracked by decades of war, ethnic strife and…

  18. Democratizing Higher Education: Exploring MOOC Use among Those Who Cannot Afford a Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillahunt, Tawanna; Wang, Zengguang; Teasley, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Massive open online courses ("MOOCs") provide free access to higher education for anyone with Internet access. MOOCs are considered a means for democratizing education. These courses will hopefully provide an opportunity for individuals to learn from the best educators in the world, as well as help expand their personal networks, and…

  19. Dilemmas of Democratic Thought for Educational Leadership: Considerations of Social Justice Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Caroline R.

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to include democratic ideals in public education are not new. However, current leadership efforts to foster these ideals within a PK-12 curriculum are often fruitless, partly because of a lack of common definition or perceived benefit. What exactly is meant when we suggest that educational leaders advocate teaching about democracy in our…

  20. Sound-Bite Saboteurs: Public Discourse, Education, and the State of Democratic Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Julie; Lyons, William; Svehla, Lance

    2010-01-01

    "Sound-Bite Saboteurs" examines the emergence of a multifaceted, multimedia culture that encourages the use of sound bites to silence one's opponents at the expense of democratic deliberation and debate. No simple partisan phenomenon or mere attempt to "spin" a particular issue, sound-bite sabotage is, the authors argue, a sophisticated and…

  1. Teaching Democratic Theories of Education in El Salvador: Is the Laboratory Open?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Jeffrey

    A philosophy of education course focused on concepts of democratic education was taught to primary and secondary school teachers working in a private bilingual school in San Salvador (El Salvador). The teachers' school was an "International School" serving children of the wealthy and the educated who lived nearby. The course was designed so that…

  2. University-School-Community Partnerships for Youth Development and Democratic Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkavy, Ira; Hartley, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Democratic partnerships of universities, schools, and an array of neighborhood and community organizations are the most promising means of improving the lives of our nation's young people. Over the past two decades, many colleges and universities have been experiencing a renaissance in engagement activities. Universities, once ivory towers, have…

  3. AcaDemocrats. Equal Rights, Tolerance, Justice--When Will Today's Professoriate Abandon This Radical Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Lawrence; George, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A national survey cited in the "New York Times" last November reveals that "Democratic professors outnumber Republicans by at least seven to one in the humanities and social sciences." These numbers, astonishing as they may seem, simply confirm what many in the academy have long known: that the ivory tower is tinged blue. With thirty years of…

  4. Revisiting the Democratic Paradox of Environmental and Sustainability Education: Sustainability Issues as Matters of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Goeminne, Gert; Vandenabeele, Joke

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the democratic paradox in environmental and sustainability education (ESE) by drawing on Bruno Latour's conceptual distinction between "matters of fact" and "matters of concern" and the notion of attachments that goes with it. We present an analysis of three cases (nature excursions, workshops that…

  5. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Democratic Classroom Practice: Influences on Intentions for Pedagogical Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Caroline R.; Pryor, Brandt W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers' intentions to integrate democratic practice into their teaching and the influence of attitudes and beliefs on intentions. Participants were 76 undergraduates from 3 social studies methods classes. A theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) guided instrument development. Intention was…

  6. Integrated Schooling, Life Course Outcomes, and Social Cohesion in Multiethnic Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Nkomo, Mokubung

    2012-01-01

    Schools have a seminal role in preparing a society's children for their adult responsibilities as workers, parents, friends, neighbors, and citizens. The United States, countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Brazil, India, South Africa, and other multiethnic democratic nation-states have increasingly diverse…

  7. The Ecology of Democratic Learning Communities: Faculty Trust and Continuous Learning in Public Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensler, Lisa A. W.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Barber, Margaret E.; White, George P.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional explanatory study integrated three complex social processes--democratic community, faculty trust, and organizational learning--into a single testable model. The review of literature demonstrated substantial evidence for the proposed model. The data sources for the study included approximately 3,000 teachers from 79 public…

  8. Historical Development of Media Systems. II. German Democratic Republic. Communication and Society 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusiska, Emil

    This report summarizes a study of the systems of mass communication in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that concentrated on the ideological and political bases of mass media as they developed after the Second World War. Topics discussed include (1) the history of journalism in the GDR, (2) the roles of the various media in that country, (3)…

  9. The Depiction of Workplace Reality: Principles of Democratic Learning and New Brunswick's Youth Apprenticeship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; McKerracher, Adrian; Cormier, Janice; Desroches, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The sharp decline in voter participation among Canadian youth requires an examination of how our students are being prepared for democratic citizenship. Public schools, including programs falling under the purview of career education, provide the means to prepare learners for vocational, community, and political participation. In Canada, career…

  10. Social Networking and Democratic Practices as Spheres for Innovative Musical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes into account and discusses innovative learning in the 21st digital and communicative century based on life-world-phenomenology and Hannah Arendt's view of democracy. From this point of view, the authors address and discuss how democratic practices can offer innovative musical learning in relation to what is taking place in…

  11. The Importance of Student Centered Democratic Education & the Effects on Placement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical framework upon which a democratic classroom is based, and the effects that a curriculum based on social justice has on English Language Learners (ELLs). Furthermore, it explores authentic means of assessing ELLs, in addition to other more traditional and standardized testing. In a social justice framework, all…

  12. Democratizing Rural Economy: Institutional Friction, Sustainable Struggle and the Cooperative Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Patrick H.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development demands institutions manage the conflicts and struggles that inevitably arise over material and ideal interests. While current cooperative theory privileges the economic element, a political economy of cooperation emphasizes cooperatives' tentative bridging of economic and political spheres with a democratic ethos. The…

  13. Leadership Practices for Social Justice, Democratic Community, and Learning: School Principals' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasonga, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover leadership practices that integrate social justice and democratic community for student learning. Data were gathered through focus group discussions with school principals. The responses were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes. Leadership practices that were…

  14. Subsidizing the Cost of Collective Action: International Organizations and Protest among Polish Farmers during Democratic Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Polish farmers became politically contentious after democratization in 1989, despite their minimal involvement in the Solidarity movement. I test the effectiveness of social movement theories in explaining this phenomenon by examining frequency and intensity of protest from 1980-1995. I find that grievance models have little explanatory power,…

  15. Democratizing Higher Education and Access to Science: The Portuguese Reform 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Manuel; Horta, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The democratization of higher education through strategically driven science policies and higher education reforms is documented in this paper. These represent complementary policy actions oriented towards strengthening social, cultural and economic dimensions that allow higher education institutions (HEIs) to grow and to train graduates able to…

  16. Higher Education in the German Democratic Republic. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, H. J.

    The system of higher education of the German Democratic Republic is described. Information on the different kinds of colleges--universities, university colleges, and engineering and technical colleges--is provided, including admission procedures, course objectives, course content and structure, further education, paths leading to the award of…

  17. Diversity and Intergroup Contact in Higher Education: Exploring Possibilities for Democratization through Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sabrina N.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to research linking diversity and higher education teaching to democratic learning outcomes. It explores processes and outcomes associated with the intergroup contact of Black and White students enrolled in two sections of a diversity education course at a public university in the southeastern United States. The goals of…

  18. Teaching Self-Discipline: Democratizing the Classroom through Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyner, Nancy

    This document discusses classroom discipline and the teacher's role in promoting student understanding of the democratic process and respect for structure in social groups. Definitions of discipline include punishment, school regulations, and classroom rules enforced by the teacher as a reasonable authority. In explaining the need for rules and…

  19. Combining Community-Based Learning and Catholic Social Teaching in Educating for Democratic Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan Crawford; Post, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    College students are in a key developmental stage for cultivating their civic identities. This article draws on a case example to show how courses focused on educating students for democratic citizenship--courses on leadership, community organizing, social movements, or other related topics--prove to be excellent venues for integrating Catholic…

  20. Indiscipline in Political Parties: Bane of Democratic Consolidation and Good Governance in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oviasuyi, Patrick Osatohanmwen

    2006-01-01

    Indiscipline in political parties is antithetic to democratic consolidation and good governance in Nigeria. This article looks at the reasons and provides examples of actions of indiscipline in political parties in Nigeria and recommends that: the party must be superior to all its members, funding of the party should never be on individualistic…

  1. Nurturing Democracy: The Contribution of Distributed Leadership to a Democratic Organizational Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Philip A.; Gronn, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the comparative merits of distributed leadership and democratic leadership as understandings of, and preferred alternatives to, the leadership of and in organizations. It is particularly concerned that, while distributed leadership may provide a welcome and worthwhile respite from and alternative to the kind of heroic…

  2. Building a Society of Solidarity through Critical Pedagogy: Group Teaching as a Social and Democratic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolakaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Against the menacing shadow of neoliberalism, which promotes individualism and competition, the author illustrates in this paper the need for group teaching. Group teaching as a method of instruction and learning fosters community bonds, solidarity, and is more effective teaching. Group teaching is a democratic tool necessary for society to…

  3. Co-Creating Curriculum in Higher Education: Promoting Democratic Values and a Multidimensional View on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmark, Ulrika; Westman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study in teacher education in Sweden, focusing on creating spaces for student engagement through co-creating curriculum. It highlights democratic values and a multidimensional learning view as underpinning such endeavors. The main findings are that co-creating curriculum is an ambiguous process entailing unpredictable,…

  4. Skeletons in the Classroom Closet: Presence/Absence in the "Democratic" Public Sphere of the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provencal, Johanne

    2008-01-01

    The author brings together Paulo Freire and Jurgen Habermas to ask whether dialogue is possible in the classroom or whether, in a culture of rational debate, the classroom becomes more oppressive than democratic? In a voice and style that attempts to invite the skeletons out of the classroom closet, the author asks scholarly readers to lend an…

  5. Building Franklin's Truly Democratic, Engaged University: Twenty Years of Practice at the University of Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Matthew; Harkavy, Ira; Benson, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin founded the University of Pennsylvania as a secular institution with the pragmatic aim of instilling in its students the inclination and ability to serve humankind in both the civic and mercantile realms. On this, the three hundredth anniversary of his birth (1706-2006), Franklin's ideal of a democratic, engaged university has…

  6. Cultivating Responsibility and Humanity in Public Schools through Democratic Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of democratic citizenship education in public schools in South Africa, the Department of Basic Education (DoBE) has still not produced sufficiently plausible ways for how democracy and citizenship ought to be taught in classrooms. I argue that the recent "practical guide" on how to cultivate "responsibility…

  7. School Governance and the Pursuit of Democratic Participation: Lessons from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Suzanne Grant; Naidoo, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines experiences in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces with devolved school governance, introduced in 1996 to promote democratic participation in education decision making. Utilizing the ''theory of action'' framework, this analysis is an effort to de-center the school governance debate by moving from a central government…

  8. Enquiring Teachers and Democratic Politics: Transformations in New Zealand's Early Childhood Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has emerged in policy frameworks to sustain and encourage democratic participation and responsive pedagogy in early childhood education. Using findings from an evaluation of New Zealand's strategic plan for early childhood education, this article highlights ways in which policy initiatives interacted to support such…

  9. The Influence of Social Media on Adult Learners' Knowledge Construction and Democratic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…

  10. Invasive Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Ley, Benedikt; Le Hello, Simon; Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Weill, François-Xavier; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 is associated with high rates of drug resistance, bloodstream infections, and death. To determine whether ST313 is dominant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we studied 180 isolates collected during 2007-2011; 96% belonged to CRISPOL type CT28, which is associated with ST313. PMID:24655438

  11. Forging Democratic Spaces: Teachers and Students Transforming Urban Public Schools from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seher, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This article shows the process through which one teacher and a group of eleventh-graders worked to create spaces for democratic education in a hierarchically organized New York City public school that is heralded as a model of success under current reform initiatives. In response to student resistance to a required unit on Tim O'Brien's novel, The…

  12. Educating beyond Cultural Diversity: Redrawing the Boundaries of a Democratic Plurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I draw some distinctions between the terms "cultural diversity" and "plurality" and argue that a radical conception of plurality is needed in order both to re-imagine the boundaries of democratic education and to address more fully the political aspects of conflict that plurality gives rise to. This paper begins with a brief…

  13. Life in a Democratic Society: A Primary School Civics Course for Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzakalik, Krystayna; And Others

    This document summarizes a civics course for primary schools in Poland, grades 6-8. The curriculum was developed as part of the Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland Project, a cooperative effort of the Polish Ministry of National Education and the Mershon Center, The Ohio State University (United States). The project aims to help schools…

  14. Education for Engagement in Political and Democratic Life: Responsibilities of the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbeck, Bernhard

    The teaching of law and education for a law abiding behavior have without doubt been neglected in the German educational system. If schools have the task to teach students that they should become involved in a democratic society, that it is worth the effort to get involved in a democracy, then schools must teach their students the concepts and…

  15. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997–2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011–2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile. PMID:25897570

  16. Active and Democratic Citizenship Education and Its Challenges in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Arife Figen

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Turkey's passive and task-oriented approach to citizenship education, which has endured since the Ottoman Empire period, has begun to change into more active and democratic citizenship education since Turkey joined the European Union. Identifying the practical problems as well as describing the challenges when practicing the…

  17. The Practice of Equality: A Critical Understanding of Democratic Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay proposes a conception of citizenship that highlights its political aspects. Based on the work of Balibar, Rancière, and Biesta, it is argued that democratic citizenship education must include the education of equality. This means that students must have the opportunity to experience not only the membership aspect of citizenship that…

  18. New Information and Communication Technologies in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Strategies and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banza, Nsomwe-a- Nfunkwa

    2006-01-01

    This article will primarily allow a definition of the strategic development of ICT in the Democratic Republic of Congo, to be put forward. For the most part it involves the precision of many types of measures and strategies (such as institutional, regulatory, infrastructural measures), human resources, the development of content and partnerships,…

  19. Finding the Cracks: Progressive, Democratic Education in an Era of Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Shanti; Bradbury, Joan; Gardner, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, Chicago educators met to reflect on the opportunities and challenges for progressive, democratic education in Chicago-area schools. This article weaves together the writings of teachers and principals from over 15 public schools and a couple of private and parochial schools who are thinking about their own experiences in…

  20. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  1. Five Questions and a Stack of Books: Remediation for a Democratic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, France H.

    1983-01-01

    Because students who do not read and write cannot participate effectively in a democratic society, the staff of the College Skills Program at Burlington County (New Jersey) College has designed a developmental skills program in reading and writing with a social science core. The program (Social Science 100) emphasizes reading, thinking,…

  2. The Effects of Performance Assessment Approach on Democratic Attitude of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcinkaya, Elvan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research is to analyze the effects of performance assessment approach on democratic attitude of students. The research model is an experimental design with pretest-posttest control groups. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques are used for gathering of data in this research. 46 students participated in this research, with 23…

  3. Toward Democratic Education and Transformational Learning: An Examination of Students' Experiences at Kigali Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusiime, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the experiences of Kigali Institute of Education students using a framework of democratic education theories. In Rwanda, the discriminatory and non-critical education system is believed to have been one of the major causes for the civil strife that has characterized the country, beginning in its post independence to its…

  4. Human Rights, Education for Democratic Citizenship and International Organisations: Findings from a Kuwaiti UNESCO ASPnet School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nakib, Rania

    2012-01-01

    While universal human rights frameworks and democratic models of government have gained global support and even adherence, they often exist in tension with local cultural and religious practices. In Kuwait, tensions arise between its constitution, legal system and Islam, with several groups consequently marginalised. These tensions extend into the…

  5. Historical Precedents, Trans-Historical Strategies, and the Myth of Democratization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Estera

    1992-01-01

    Outlines coincidences between the birth of Dada and the birth of Fluxus. Charts the adoption of similar ahistorical strategies by members of both movements as they attempted to position themselves historically. Questions the assumption that democratization of the arts is the natural result of artistic actions that attempt to break down the line…

  6. The Importance of Cultivating Democratic Habits in Schools: Enduring Lessons from "Democracy and Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.; James, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that democratic habits remain as vital for education and culture today as they were when Dewey published "Democracy and Education" in 1916. We take our point of departure from his treatment of habit and education in the book. Dewey dissolves the stereotypical notion that habits refer solely to mechanical,…

  7. Democratic Education versus Smithian Efficiency: Prospects for a Deweyan Ideal in the "Neoliberal Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meens, David E.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, David Meens examines the viability of John Dewey's democratic educational project, as presented in "Democracy and Education," under present economic and political conditions. He begins by considering "Democracy and Education's" central themes in historical context, arguing that Dewey's proposal for democratic…

  8. Validation of Scale of Commitment to Democratic Values among Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study reports development of a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the commitment to democratic values among secondary school students in Kerala from 57 likert type statements originally developed in 2007 by Gafoor and Thushara to assess commitment to nine values avowed in the Indian Constitution. Nine separate maximum likelihood…

  9. Business School Teaching and Democratic Culture: An International and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik; Bislev, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Egalitarian and participation-oriented teaching emphasizes critical discussion and informal relationships between students and professors. The authors argue that the use of egalitarian and some aspects of participation-oriented teaching at business schools differs systematically across countries according to the strength of democratic culture.…

  10. Political Economy of American Education: Democratic Citizenship in the Heart of Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Thomas Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chief among the goals of American education is the cultivation of democratic citizens. Contrary to State catechism delivered through our schools, America was not born a democracy; rather it emerged as a republic with a distinct bias against democracy. Nonetheless we inherit a great demotic heritage. Abolition, the labor struggle, women's…

  11. Dewey's Theory of the Democratic Public and the Public Character of Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Leonard Waks reconsiders the issue of the public character of charter schools, that is, schools funded through public taxation but operated by non-state organizations such as nonprofit and for-profit educational corporations and nongovernmental public interest organizations. Using John Dewey's conception of a democratic public as a…

  12. Language and Cultural Diversity in U.S. Schools: Democratic Principles in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Terry A., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "With the idea in mind that America will continue to move toward a truly democratic society, however slowly, the contributors of these eight articles and introduction examine the possibility that language and culture will eventually not be an impediment to fulfilling the idea that America is a democracy. Diversity is at the heart of today's…

  13. Preparing Students for Democratic Life: The Rediscovery of Education's Civic Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith; Dedrick, John; Gish, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores why, despite repeated affirmations of the importance of civic education in undergraduate education, preparing students to understand and play an active role in democratic life is, for the most part, a marginal and episodic part of the undergraduate experience. After describing various factors that have contributed to its…

  14. Democratizing Academic Writing: A Revision of an Experience of Writing an Autoethnographic Dissertation in Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanco, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I revise my experience of writing an autoethnographic (Ellis, 2004) dissertation in the field of family therapy as a Colombian mestiza. I discuss how I grappled with my writing, and, in the process, stumbled into matters of democratizing texts. I problematize male-dominant academic standards, telling of the tensions when maneuvering…

  15. Achieving Widespread, Democratic Education in the United States Today: Dewey's Ideas Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Elizabeth; Blatchford, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Excellent, democratic education that furthers each person's potential, success and happiness for her own and others' well-being is not yet widespread in the U.S. today. Dewey's The Public and Its Problems has much to say about the possibilities and challenges of achieving this goal. This paper examines Dewey's ideas about how a public for…

  16. Community Service Learning as Democratic Education in South Africa and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel-Reyes, Meta; Weinstein, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Describes development of the first community service-learning program for democratic education in South Africa, based on the Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania) Democracy Education Project at a black high school near Capetown (South Africa). Notes that successful transposition of the model requires recognition of complex historical and cultural…

  17. The Consequences of Democratizing Knowledge: Reconsidering Richard Hofstadter and the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Deborah M.

    2001-01-01

    In his Pulitzer Prize winning work, "Anti-intellectualism in American Life," Richard Hofstadter set out to trace the social movements that altered the role of intellect in society from a virtue to a vice. In so doing, he explored questions regarding the purpose of education and whether the democratization of education altered that purpose and…

  18. Street-Level Democrats: Realizing the Potential of School, University, and Community Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Faculty members pursue external grants to support educational initiatives, but must do so mindfully because grants inadvertently can undermine core instructional activities. To reach full leadership potential, faculty members should act as "street-level democrats," focused on the needs of students, teachers, and the communities served. This…

  19. Are the Rural Schools of the Democratic Republic of Congo Ready for the $100 Laptop?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banza, Nsomwe-a- Nfunkwa

    2006-01-01

    The situation of schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo in matters concerning new information and communication technologies remains alarming. Given the primary role of these technologies in teaching and learning, as well as the concern of giving Congolese rural schools access to these tools, considering the problems of lack of electricity,…

  20. Facilitating Democratic Professional Development: Exploring the Double Role of Being an Academic Action Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olin, Anette; Karlberg-Granlund, Gunilla; Furu, Eli Moksnes

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the double role of the academic action researcher working as facilitator and researcher in democratic professional development projects. The inquiry is based on three partnership projects: "research circles" in Sweden, "dialogue conferences" in Norway and "tailored professional development" in…

  1. Factors Affecting Performance of Agricultural Extension: Evidence from Democratic Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Ulimwengu, John; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Badibanga, Thaddee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the institutional reforms and agricultural restructuring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this paper provides an assessment of the performance of the agricultural extension system as well as factors explaining it. Method: This paper involves key informants' interviews and surveys of 107 extension organizations and 162…

  2. Re-Imagining Democratic Citizenship Education: Towards a Culture of Compassionate Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Nuraan; Waghid, Yusef

    2012-01-01

    Benhabib (2002:134) maintains that, in order for individuals to become democratic citizens they need to be exposed to at least three inter-related elements: collective identity, privileges of membership, and social rights and benefits. Through exposure to these three inter-related items it is hoped that, by means of the teaching and learning of…

  3. Teacher Leadership Capacity-Building: Developing Democratically Accountable Leaders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Jones, Rahim J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a qualitative case study approach, the authors explore social justice implications of inservice principals' practices that affect attitudes and empower teachers. If a primary educational goal of progressive schooling is to create and sustain more democratic schools by enabling the growth of teachers as leaders who are responsible for their…

  4. Curriculum Theorizing and the Possibilities and Conditions for Social Action Toward Democratic Community and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleford, Michael S.

    1982-01-01

    An application of cultural psychoanalysis to the present culture, society, and its history examines insights into the conditions and possibilities for social action toward a higher form of democratic community. Such a community can work together in turning education toward the fulfillment of democracy. (CJ)

  5. Race, Culture, and Pluralism: The Evolution of Dewey's Vision for a Democratic Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallace, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this historical study, the author traces the evolution of Dewey's vision for a democratic curriculum. Prior to 1916, Dewey was a linear historicist, meaning that he conceptualized culture as moving linearly through three distinct stages--savagery, barbarianism, civilization--that corresponded with stages of child development. Dewey's suggested…

  6. Democratic Shortfalls in Privatized Curriculum Policy Production: Silencing the "Potted Plants" and Politicizing "Quick Fixes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Democratic policy production requires the input of citizen voices, ideally through a process that actively engages a broad range of stakeholders in decision-making. This article describes Ontario's curriculum policy formulation process during the 1990s, based on archival documents and interviews with 16 policy actors. The privatization of…

  7. The Education Ideal of the Democratic Citizen in Germany: Challenges and Changing Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Alexy; Geissel, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on exploratory qualitative interviews with German education policy experts. We ask whether, as Germany faces new challenges, changes have occurred in respect of the education ideal of the democratic citizen; perceived implications for civic education and schooling are also drawn out. Interviews were conducted with senior…

  8. Who Defines "Democratic Leadership?": Three High School Principals Respond to Site-Based Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Liane

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on behaviors and activities of three high school principals as they respond to district's decision to implement a shared decision-making model designed to give teachers and parents a larger voice. Describes these administrators' varying responses, along with varied ways democratic leadership was multilaterally defined in each school by…

  9. "I Am Not Angry in the Kindergarten!" Interruptive Anger as Democratic Participation in Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindheim, Liv Torunn

    2014-01-01

    This article calls into question the idyllic picture of Norwegian kindergartens where harmonious and joyful interaction is the preferred and normal way to participate. If taking children's right to democratic participation and freedom of expression seriously, anger can also be seen as a legitimate way of participating. Conflicts of interest,…

  10. Civic Education in Ethiopian Schools: Adopted Paradigms, Instructional Technology, and Democratic Citizenship in a Multicultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semela, Tesfaye; Bohl, Thorsten; Kleinknecht, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After nearly two decades of military dictatorship, democratic civic education has been integrated into the Ethiopian school curriculum. This paper examines the policy-practice concordance in implementing the civic education curriculum based on empirical evidence generated on the philosophical underpinnings, curricular contents, pedagogical…

  11. The Relationship between Levels of Education and Perception of Democratic Governance among Nigerian School Leavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Adesoji A.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the views and perception of school leavers about the democratic government in Nigeria. A self-designed questionnaire was used for collection of their views. The participants of the study comprised 500 school leavers selected across different working places in the six states of Southwest Nigeria. Results clearly revealed that…

  12. Democratic Citizenship Education in the Information Age: A Comparative Study of South Korea and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Young-Ran

    2004-01-01

    Democratic citizenship education in the information age must concern itself with the goal of nurturing future generations with the capacity to make appropriate use of the changes driven by the advances of ICTs so as to activate political and social democracy. Using Australia and South Korea as case studies, this paper discusses the role that…

  13. The Role of School Leaders in Establishing Democratic Principles in a Post-Conflict Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, J. Tim

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of the role of school leaders in establishing democratic principles in a post-conflict society. Drawn primarily from the author's experiences in Kosovo, the paper briefly introduces the historical and contemporary socio-political context of the region, and then examines the role of school administrators in a…

  14. Well Facilitated Shoptalk as Democratic Professional Development for Teachers of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Thomas H.; Parnell, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    Democratic professional development is of the teachers, by the teachers, for the teachers. It differs from managerial models, which often have preset agendas and provide what "experts" think teachers need. Managerial models tend to be leader-centered, making some teachers feel treated like "tall children" rather than…

  15. Character, Civic Renewal and Service Learning for Democratic Citizenship in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annette, John

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the civic republican conception of citizenship underlying the Labour government's programme of civil renewal and the introduction of education for democratic citizenship. It considers the importance of the cultivation of civic virtue through political participation for such developments and it reviews the research into how…

  16. Media and Democracy. A Response to "The Need for Media Education in Democratic Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lance E.

    2015-01-01

    This response supports Stoddard's (2014) assertion that media education should be considered a crucial factor of democratic education and offers both extensions and cautions related to that end. Extensions include practical suggestions for studying the non-neutrality of technology. The author also cautions educators that if media education and…

  17. Mapping a Balance: Democratic Land-Use Planning on Galiano Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Meg

    2000-01-01

    The residents of Galiano Island, British Columbia, have used geographic information systems (GIS) to create a local information database that informs community decisions about sustainable use of forest land. The islanders' involvement with GIS promotes a democratic land-use planning process that is reasoned and well informed. (SV)

  18. Translating the Ideal of Deliberative Democracy into Democratic Education: Pure Utopia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefrancois, David; Ethier, Marc-Andre

    2010-01-01

    Is the idea that the self-determination of all citizens influences progress towards democracy not merely a dream that breaks itself against the hard historical reality of political societies? Is not the same fate reserved for all pedagogical innovations in democratic education that depend on this great dream? It is commonplace to assert this logic…

  19. Moving People and Minds: Dance as a Vehicle of Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Theresa; Leonard, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Engaging today's youth in civil discussions of contentious issues remains both a crucial element in democratically oriented education and extremely challenging to facilitate. The purpose of this article, which documents and presents pilot study findings from a dance workshop that engaged practicing teachers surrounding the issue of immigration, is…

  20. Comparison of Ukrainian and Turkish Law Students' Attitudes towards Democratic Values: Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayalar, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Ukrainian and Turkish law students' attitudes towards democratic values and the factors that may affect these values and to compare them in terms of different variables. This study is a descriptive survey model. The research consists of total 226 students from three Schools of Law, two in Turkey and one in…

  1. Validity and Reliability Analysis for the Teacher Determination for Democratic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil, Rustu

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to develop a scale to assess the extent to which teachers display democratic behaviors they are supposed to display in in-classroom teaching practices and the level of their determination in displaying such behaviors. The study group of this survey is composed of 446 second grade high school students, 243 girls and…

  2. The Legacy of Dance as a Democratizing Force in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Melissa

    Many believe that dance is a democratizing force in academia. Modern dance history is replete with feminist, homosexual, and racial liberation ideologies transcribed through body language. Experiences in planning cross-discipline courses suggest that, without dance, important aesthetic and sociopolitical ideas most fully revealed in nonverbal and…

  3. Making Democracy Work Better: Mediating Structures, Social Capital, and the Democratic Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couto, Richard A.

    This book explores relationships among democracy, social capital, and community-based mediating structures, focusing on Appalachia because of the obvious failures of market capitalism there. It suggests that mediating structures protect communities from the savage side of market capitalism and promote the democratic prospect by increasing and…

  4. International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 427

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from rich data, "International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education" profiles teachers, students, and schools struggling to interrupt the reproduction of social inequalities from one generation to the next. International in its nature, the work collected here illustrates how forces of globalization create greater inequalities, and…

  5. Sulphur isotope constraints on formation conditions of the Luiswishi ore deposit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, C.; Cailteux, J.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Milesi, J. P.; Fléhoc, C.

    2005-07-01

    Luiswishi is a Congo-type Neoproterozoic sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit of the Central Africa Copperbelt, located northwest of Lubumbashi (DRC). The ores form two main Cu-Co orebodies hosted by the Mines Subgroup, one in the lower part of the Kamoto Formation and the other at the base of the Dolomitic Shales Formation. Sulphides occur essentially as early parallel layers of chalcopyrite and carrolite, and secondarily as late stockwork sulphides cross-cutting the bedding and the early sulphide generation. Both types of stratiform and stockwork chalcopyrite and carrolite were systematically analyzed for sulphur isotopes, along the lithostratigraphic succession of the Mine Series. The quite similar δ 34S values of stratiform sulphides and late stockwork sulphides suggest an in situ recrystallization or a slight remobilization of stockwork sulphides without attainment of isotopic equilibrium between different sulphide phases (chalcopyrite and carrolite). The distribution of δ 34S values (-14.4‰ to +17.5‰) combined with the lithology indicates a strong stratigraphic control of the sulphur isotope signature, supporting bacterial sulphate reduction during early diagenesis of the host sediments, in a shallow marine to lacustrine environment. Petrological features combined with sulphur isotopic data of sulphides at Luiswishi and previous results on nodules of anhydrite in the Mine Series indicate a dominant seawater/lacustrine origin for sulphates, precluding a possible hydrothermal participation. The high positive δ 34S values of sulphides in the lower orebody at Luiswishi, hosted in massive chloritic-dolomitic siltite (known as Grey R.A.T.), fine-grained stratified dolostone (D.Strat.) and silicified-stromatolitic dolomites alternating with chloritic-dolomitic silty beds (R.S.F.), suggest that they were probably deposited during a period of regression in a basin cut off from seawater. The variations of δ 34S values (i.e. the decrease of δ 34S values

  6. The Drastic Outcomes from Voting Alliances in Three-Party Democratic Voting (1990 → 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The drastic effect of local alliances in three-party competition is investigated in democratic hierarchical bottom-up voting. The results are obtained analytically using a model which extends a sociophysics frame introduced in 1986 (Galam in J. Math. Phys. 30:426, 1986) and 1990 (Galam in J. Stat. Phys. 61:943, 1990) to study two-party systems and the spontaneous formation of democratic dictatorship. It is worth stressing that the 1990 paper was published in the Journal of Statistical Physics, the first paper of its kind in this journal. It was shown how a minority in power can preserve its leadership using bottom-up democratic elections. However such a bias holds only down to some critical value of minimum support. The results were used latter to explain the sudden collapse of European communist parties in the nineties. The extension to three-party competition reveals the mechanisms by which a very small minority party can get a substantial representation at higher levels of the hierarchy when the other two competing parties are big. Additional surprising results are obtained, which enlighten the complexity of three-party democratic bottom-up voting. In particular, the unexpected outcomes of local voting alliances are singled out. Unbalanced democratic situations are exhibited with strong asymmetries between the actual bottom support of a party and its associated share of power at the top leadership. Subtle strategies are identified for a party to maximize its hold on the top leadership. The results are also valid to describe opinion dynamics with three competing opinions.

  7. Democratizing science and technology education: Perspectives from the philosophy of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Clayton Todd

    This study examines conceptualizations of science and technology and their relation to ideas of democratic education in the history of philosophy of education. My genealogical analysis begins by tracing the anti-democratic emergence of ideas and values of science and technology that have evolved through ancient and modern periods within the philosophy of education and continue to shape the ways science and technology are understood and treated in educational settings. From my critical engagement with Plato's Republic and Rousseau's Emile, I argue that anti-democratic structures and values have been embedded in philosophy of education through Plato's educational theory of techne and Rousseau's pedagogical theory that involves science and technology as important educational force. Following this theme, I analyze the work of John Dewey and Herbert Marcuse and their shared project for democratizing science and technology through education. Through a critical comparison of both theorists' models, I suggest that each provides positive legacies for philosophy of education to draw upon in rethinking the intersection of science, technology, and education: a strong model for understanding public problems associated with a highly technological and scientific society and a reconstructive framework for values and sensibilities that demands a new value relationship to be developed between humans and science and technology. Finally, I situate my critique and assessment of this history in the philosophy of education within the current science and technology education reform movement in the United States. I claim that the official models of science and technological literacy and inquiry, as constructed by the National Academy of Sciences and a host of governmental policies, shape science and technology education with a decidedly neo-liberal focus and purpose. In response to this anti-democratic movement I offer an alternative position that utilizes a counter-epistemology to the

  8. Intergenerational Perspectives on Education and Employment in the Zambian Copperbelt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2010-01-01

    This article explores intergenerational perspectives on the link between secondary schooling and employment held by students, parents, and teachers in Ndola, Zambia. The author argues that the differentiated meanings of schooling must be understood in light of the economic effects of the shift away from a state-controlled economy during the…

  9. How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat?

    PubMed

    Oswald, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat? In this article I conclude that it can be difficult to reconcile the two roles. One involves understanding, and reconciling, the conflicting views of citizens, and the other requires the pursuit of truth through reason. Nevertheless, an important function of philosophy and ethics is to inform and improve policy. If done effectively, we could expect better, and more just, laws and policies, thereby benefiting many lives. So applying philosophical thinking to policy is an important job. However, it comes with substantial difficulties, not least in reconciling, or choosing between, competing philosophical theories. Despite the importance of the task, and the apparent obstacles, there is relatively little literature on how to apply ethics to real-world policy-making. Democracies need ethicists who can engage in democratic debate and bridge the gap between philosophy and public policy. I offer some tactics here. PMID:23338041

  10. Mai-Mai militia and sexual violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Guy, Kitwe Mulunda

    2014-01-01

    This article sets the reasons for the brutal violence against women. It focuses on three field sites providing insight into Mai-Mai motivations and their attitudes toward sexual violence. According to most sources, 5.5 million people have died since the beginning of the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1994, and rape is used as a weapon of destruction. More than 15,000 rapes were reported in the DRC in the last year--accounts of these rapes include descriptions of horrific acts, such as mutilation and the killing of unborn children. The sexual violence is so severe in the DRC that some have described rape in the country as the worst in the world. Sexual violence has long lasting consequences and far-reaching impacts on individual survivors, their families, and their communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:25585492

  11. Corruption and Local Democratization in Indonesia: The Role of Islamic Parties1

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has a tradition of corruption among local officials who harass and collect bribes from firms. This paper examines whether corruption is affected by a change in institutions introducing local democratization and by party composition of local assemblies. Democratization occurred in 1999 and decentralization in 2001. We have firm-level data for 2001 and 2004. The 2001 data benchmark corruption at the time of decentralization, but for a limited sample of districts. We find that corruption declines between 2001 and 2004 overall, but much less [more] so in districts with more secular [Islamic] party representatives in district assemblies. For a larger sample of districts, correspondingly, we find that corruption in 2004 is more in districts which voted more in favor of secular party representatives in the first elections in 1999. We argue that the effects seem to be causal, over above any effects of changing religiosity and economic circumstances across districts. PMID:25083023

  12. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:23086003

  13. How school can teach civic engagement besides civic education: The role of democratic school climate.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Sharkey, Jill; Mayworm, Ashley; Scacchi, Luca; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Civic engagement, defined as involvement in community life, is influenced by reciprocal relationships between individuals and contexts and is a key factor that contributes to positive youth development. The present study evaluates a theoretical model linking perceived democratic school climate with adolescent civic engagement (operationalized as civic responsibility and intentions for future participation), taking into account the mediating role of civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Participants were 403 adolescents (47.9 % male) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years old (mean age = 13.6). Path analysis results partially validated the proposed theoretical model. Higher levels of democratic school climate were associated with higher levels of adolescent civic responsibility; the association was fully mediated by civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Adolescents' civic responsibility, then, was positively associated with a stronger intention to participate in the civic domain in the future. PMID:25172202

  14. [Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep in the Democratic Republic of Germany district of Frankfurt/Oder].

    PubMed

    Stuhrberg, E; Nickel, S; Hiepe, T

    1975-09-01

    In the district of Frankfurt/Oder of the German Democratic Republic, faecal examinations of 143 sheep stocks revealed a 31.3 percent infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum. In different territories of the district, the intensity of the infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum varied remarkably. Detailed investigations demonstrated, that the parasite was limited to pastures with Brownearth soil. Routine examinations revealed the fact, that the egg-output of Dicrocoelium dendritcum was very variable during the pasture season. During the whole time of the examinations, the authors found eggs in the faeces of sheep belonging to Dicrocoelium dendriticun. In the German Democratic Republic, this helminth species is not restricted to hills with limestones. It occurs also in lowlands with small amounts of lime like the Brown-earth zones of the district Frankfurt/Oder. PMID:1190548

  15. Corruption and Local Democratization in Indonesia: The Role of Islamic Parties.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari

    2011-03-01

    Indonesia has a tradition of corruption among local officials who harass and collect bribes from firms. This paper examines whether corruption is affected by a change in institutions introducing local democratization and by party composition of local assemblies. Democratization occurred in 1999 and decentralization in 2001. We have firm-level data for 2001 and 2004. The 2001 data benchmark corruption at the time of decentralization, but for a limited sample of districts. We find that corruption declines between 2001 and 2004 overall, but much less [more] so in districts with more secular [Islamic] party representatives in district assemblies. For a larger sample of districts, correspondingly, we find that corruption in 2004 is more in districts which voted more in favor of secular party representatives in the first elections in 1999. We argue that the effects seem to be causal, over above any effects of changing religiosity and economic circumstances across districts. PMID:25083023

  16. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential... Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of... section 2(b)(C) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended (12 U.S.C. 635(b)(2)(C)), I...

  17. The New Political History and Women's History: Comments on "The Democratic Experiment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklar, Kathryn Kish

    2006-01-01

    The new directions in American political history have been ably described by the editors of "The Democratic Experiment." These are now freshly out of the gate, but it is clear that they will continue to unfold in the years ahead. The author read the book with distinct pleasure--so much so that she wondered--more than once--whether it was not just…

  18. General structure of democratic mass matrix of quark sector in E6 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftci, R.; ćiftci, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) fermion sector, which is inspired by the E6 Grand Unified Theory (GUT) model, might be a good candidate to explain a number of unanswered questions in SM. Existence of the isosinglet quarks might explain great mass difference of bottom and top quarks. Also, democracy on mass matrix elements is a natural approach in SM. In this study, we have given general structure of Democratic Mass Matrix (DMM) of quark sector in E6 model.

  19. Democratic discussion in newspaper reporting of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Robbie

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a Habermasian analysis of newspaper reporting of the debate surrounding the effect of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (the FTA) on access to medicines through Australian patent law. Habermas's concept of the public sphere is utilised in determining whether discussion within the print media adequately conveyed complex legal issues to the public and facilitated democratic discussion. It was found that newspaper reporting generally failed to meet this standard. PMID:19010009

  20. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  1. Alteration and ore distribution in the Proterozoic Mines Series, Tenke-Fungurume Cu-Co district, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, I.; Barton, M. D.

    2012-06-01

    Two sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co deposits in the Tenke-Fungurume district of the Central African Copperbelt were examined to evaluate the alteration history of the ore-hosting Mines Series and its implications for ore distribution and processing. Core logging and petrography, focused on lithology and timing relationships, outlined a complex alteration sequence whose earliest features include formation of anhydrite nodules and laths, followed by precipitation of dolomite. Later alteration episodes include at least two silica introductions, accompanied by or alternating with two dolomite introductions into the existing gangue assemblages. One introduction of Cu-Co sulfides accompanied the last episode of dolomite alteration, overprinting an earlier generation of ore whose gangue association was unidentifiable. Sulfides and some carbonates were subsequently modified by supergene oxidation, transport, and reprecipitation to 100-200 m depth. Present-day ore distribution resulted from these successive processes. Ore is concentrated in two shale-dominated units on either side of a cavernous silicified dolomite, which is interpreted as the main conduit for the mineralizing fluids. Sulfide ores precipitated at the redox or sulfidation contacts between this dolomite and the shales. Later, supergene fluids dissolved and moved some of the metals, redepositing them as oxides and carbonates. Solubility differences between Cu and Co in supergene conditions caused them to precipitate separately. Thus, modern ore distribution at Tenke-Fungurume results both from original hypogene lithology- and contact-related precipitation and from supergene oxidation, transport, and Cu-Co decoupling. The supergene fluid flow also redistributed gangue minerals such as dolomite, which has an economically important influence on the processing costs of supergene ores.

  2. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model—an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information—we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences. PMID:27058247

  3. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences. PMID:27058247

  4. The adolescent sexual world and AIDS prevention: a democratic approach to programme design in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Schatz, P; Dzvimbo, K P

    2001-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to redress the under-representation of adolescent attitudes in AIDS prevention programme design and to discuss the implications of a democratic sexuality education approach within a health promotion context. The study surveyed the attitudes of adolescents (average age 16 years) on sex-related topics such as culture, marriage, sexual behaviour and sex education, identified similarities and differences in attitudes according to gender and socio-economic environments, and examined sources of students' knowledge of selected sex-related topics. Questionnaires were completed by 3429 secondary school students from different backgrounds. Findings showed significant differences in attitude related to gender and socio-economic settings and also in sources of information. The study drew on a democratic sexuality education approach. Using this approach, adolescents review ideological perspectives and decide which are most appropriate for them as guides in making decisions about their own lives. This type of education is fully consistent with the principles of democratic living and gives guidance to teenagers who are trying to decide how to live a healthy life. Study results suggest that programmers would be well advised to collect information from the adolescents' psycho-social-economic environment and link it with good governance and civil society strategies in developing AIDS prevention programmes that involve the adolescent in making lifestyle decisions. To achieve a more supportive environment for AIDS prevention, this approach can link adolescent attitudes and health promotion action to advocate for public policy reform, gender equality, multi-dimensional partnerships and social marketing. PMID:11356751

  5. That's MY Astronaut! Could Democratic Space Tourism Contribute to Earth Stewardship?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, E. F.

    2012-08-01

    Many studies have been done on the physical and biological effects of space on the human body. The psychological effects of living in space are also being analyzed including the stressors from living in an isolated environment. But are we paying enough attention to what seems to be a positive effect on the human psyche, that is, the effect on astronauts and cosmonauts of the magnificent view of Earth from space? Does the length of time spent looking out the window affect our consciousness? Who comes back changed? And why? Such a social experiment needs more participants. Could democratic access to the view via suborbital space tourism change our Earth for the better?

  6. Human Monkeypox in the Kivus, a Conflict Region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Andrea M; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Ndongala, Guy Mutombo; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Kabamba, Joelle; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Li, Yu; Emerson, Ginny; Damon, Inger K; Carroll, Darin S; Reynolds, Mary G; Malekani, Jean; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe

    2015-10-01

    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infection endemic in central and western Africa. Human MPX cases occur in the central and northern regions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and this is the first report of confirmed MPX cases in the forested areas of North and South Kivu Provinces, with a detailed epidemiological investigation for one case. The location of each case is within areas predicted to be suitable for MPX virus transmission based on an ecological niche model. Phylogenetic analysis places these viruses in the Congo Basin clade. PMID:26283752

  7. Power to the people? An international review of the democratizing effects of direct elections to healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ellen A; Greer, Scott L; Wilson, Iain; Donnelly, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    Ensuring that publicly funded health systems are democratically accountable is an enduring challenge in policy and practice. One strategy for enhancing public officials' accountability is to elect members of the public to oversee their performance. Several countries have experimented with direct elections to healthcare organizations. The most directly comparable examples involve some Canadian regional health authorities, New Zealand district health boards, foundation trusts in England and health boards in Scotland. We propose three aspects of the process by which the democratizing effects of elections should be judged: authorization, accountability and influence. Evidence from these countries suggests that the democratization of health systems is a complex task, which cannot be completed simply by introducing elections. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25620785

  8. Democratizing Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    According to John Banas and colleagues, the research on laughter in the classroom indicates that a classroom full of laughter increases learning. In contrast, Plato argued that laughter is a vice and chastised those who would give in to it. Nonetheless, between the ancient concept of laughter as vice and the modern concept of laughter as learning…

  9. Red brain, blue brain: evaluative processes differ in Democrats and Republicans.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Darren; Fonzo, Greg; Simmons, Alan N; Dawes, Christopher T; Flagan, Taru; Fowler, James H; Paulus, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Liberals and conservatives exhibit different cognitive styles and converging lines of evidence suggest that biology influences differences in their political attitudes and beliefs. In particular, a recent study of young adults suggests that liberals and conservatives have significantly different brain structure, with liberals showing increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and conservatives showing increased gray matter volume in the in the amygdala. Here, we explore differences in brain function in liberals and conservatives by matching publicly-available voter records to 82 subjects who performed a risk-taking task during functional imaging. Although the risk-taking behavior of Democrats (liberals) and Republicans (conservatives) did not differ, their brain activity did. Democrats showed significantly greater activity in the left insula, while Republicans showed significantly greater activity in the right amygdala. In fact, a two parameter model of partisanship based on amygdala and insula activations yields a better fitting model of partisanship than a well-established model based on parental socialization of party identification long thought to be one of the core findings of political science. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives engage different cognitive processes when they think about risk, and they support recent evidence that conservatives show greater sensitivity to threatening stimuli. PMID:23418419

  10. Red Brain, Blue Brain: Evaluative Processes Differ in Democrats and Republicans

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Darren; Fonzo, Greg; Simmons, Alan N.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Flagan, Taru; Fowler, James H.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Liberals and conservatives exhibit different cognitive styles and converging lines of evidence suggest that biology influences differences in their political attitudes and beliefs. In particular, a recent study of young adults suggests that liberals and conservatives have significantly different brain structure, with liberals showing increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and conservatives showing increased gray matter volume in the in the amygdala. Here, we explore differences in brain function in liberals and conservatives by matching publicly-available voter records to 82 subjects who performed a risk-taking task during functional imaging. Although the risk-taking behavior of Democrats (liberals) and Republicans (conservatives) did not differ, their brain activity did. Democrats showed significantly greater activity in the left insula, while Republicans showed significantly greater activity in the right amygdala. In fact, a two parameter model of partisanship based on amygdala and insula activations yields a better fitting model of partisanship than a well-established model based on parental socialization of party identification long thought to be one of the core findings of political science. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives engage different cognitive processes when they think about risk, and they support recent evidence that conservatives show greater sensitivity to threatening stimuli. PMID:23418419

  11. [The democratic movement, cholera epidemic and public health reform in the Zurich canton (1867)].

    PubMed

    Condrau, F

    1996-01-01

    In the summer of 1867 Zurich, Switzerland, was struck by a severe Cholera outbreak. Recent research suggests that the Cholera epidemic had such an influence on the municipal policy makers that they pushed through a major reform of the public health system, namely of water supply and sewerage. This paper adopts a theoretical conception of crisis and social change to evaluate the plausibility of this hypothesis. The basic idea is that structural change can be usually understood as the consequence of a major social crisis. Exactly this was the case in Zurich during the 1860s. After a decade of economic stability and progress, a severe crisis simultaneously stuck Zurich's agriculture, textile industry and railway companies. The so called Democratic Movement threatened the existing political system; the old political establishment feared a political revolution. On top of all this, Cholera struck Zurich, precipitating a crisis in the public health system. Suddenly, old concepts and institutions were felt to be outdated. The democrats put through political reforms, the economic downswing ended and a large program to reshape the urban environment was initiated. It can be concluded that the Cholera epidemic alone did not cause the public health reform. But together with other crisis phenomena it played a major role in weakening the stability of the old system, and thus contributed to the society's ability to put in place new political, economic, and social structures. PMID:9092134

  12. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Kazadi Lukusa, Aimé; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Kadima-Tshimanga, Bertin; Mvitu-Muaka, Moïse; Gini Ehungu, Jean Lambert; Ngiyulu, René; Ekulu Mfutu, Pépé; Budiongo Nzazi, Aléine

    2012-01-01

    Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females). Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years) for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years) for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality. PMID:22619679

  13. Antibiotic prescription behaviours in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey

    PubMed Central

    Quet, Fabrice; Leyer, Caroline; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N; Naphayvong, Philaysak; Keoluangkhot, Valy; Chomarat, Monique; Longuet, Christophe; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices of doctors working in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and their knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods Doctors attending morning meetings in 25 public hospitals in four provinces were asked to complete a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. The questionnaire contained 43 multiple choice questions that the doctor answered at the time of the meeting. Findings The response rate was 83.4% (386/463). Two hundred and seventy doctors (59.8%) declared that they had insufficient information about antibiotics. Only 14.0% (54/386) recognized the possibility of cephalosporin cross-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most participants had no information about local antibiotic resistance for Salmonella Typhi (211/385, 54.8%) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (253/384, 65.9%). Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were considered as harmless by 115 participants and 148 considered locally-available generic antibiotics to be of poor quality. Nearly three-quarters (280/386) of participants agreed that it was difficult to select the correct antibiotics. Most participants (373/386) welcomed educational programmes on antibiotic prescribing and 65.0% (249/383) preferred local over international antibiotic guidelines. Conclusion Doctors in the Lao People's Democratic Republic seem to favour antibiotic prescribing interventions. Health authorities should consider a capacity building programme that incorporates antibiotic prescribing and hospital infection control. PMID:26229186

  14. "How to Be Nice 'and' Get What You Want": Structural Referents of "Self" and "Other" in Experiential Education as (Un)Democratic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This critical ethnography explores a social justice program utilizing nontraditional, democratic, "experiential" education practices. The author posits a historical legacy of pedagogy of self obscures its emancipatory, democratic potential while simultaneously expanding on contemporary discourses of self and other as aspects of the…

  15. Sites of Liberation or Sites of Despair?: The Challenges and Possibilities of Democratic Education in an Urban Public School in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantzopoulos, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the possibilities of critical democratic education through the lived experiences of students at an urban U.S. public school. I show how students shape their own educational trajectories amid larger meta-narratives about schooling to illuminate the complexities and paradoxes of democratic schools. I argue that democratic…

  16. The New DEEL (Democratic Ethical Educational Leadership) and the Work of Reclaiming a Progressive Alternative in Educational Administration from PreK-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steven Jay; Shapiro, Joan Poliner

    2013-01-01

    Facing repressive accountability regimes and high-stakes testing in the US and beyond, university and practitioner educators around the world decided to take action. Inspired by the democratic administration movement of the 1930's and 1940's and current scholarship in ethics, we started a movement called the New DEEL (Democratic Ethical…

  17. The Democratization of Higher Education in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden: A Cross-National Study of Post-War Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Melanie J.

    The extent of democratization of Scandinavian higher education is evaluated. Democratization is considered to include: (1) the subordination of university decision-making to parliamentary democracy and, in Sweden, to corporate representative bodies; (2) the decentralization of higher education regionally, important particularly in Finland, Norway,…

  18. Multiphase origin of the Cu Co ore deposits in the western part of the Lufilian fold-and-thrust belt, Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, S.; Muchez, Ph.; Vets, J.; Fernandez-Alonzo, M.; Tack, L.

    2006-12-01

    A multiphase origin of the Cu-Co ores in the western part of the Lufilian fold-and-thrust belt in Central Africa is proposed based on literature, satellite image interpretations and petrographic and fluid inclusion analyses on samples from the stratiform mineralization of Kamoto and Musonoi (DR Congo). The various mineral occurrences in the Katanga Copperbelt can be classified in distinct categories: stratiform, supergene enrichment and vein-type. The stratiform mineralization form the largest group and can be found mainly in Lower Roan (R-2) rocks, which can be identified as ridges on satellite imagery. Ore deposits outside the R-2 occur along lineaments and result often from supergene enrichment. The main phase of the stratiform mineralization in the Katanga Copperbelt occurred during diagenesis preceding the Lufilian orogeny. Petrographic observation identified various mineralizing phases, which played a role in the formation of these stratiform mineralization. Mineralization started during early diagenesis, but mainly occurred during further burial. After the formation of early diagenetic pyrite, the circulation of diagenetic Cu-Co-rich fluids resulted in the formation of the main mineralization. Preliminary microthermometric investigation of primary inclusions in authigenic quartz, associated with the main stage of stratiform mineralization, indicates that an H 2O-NaCl fluid with a minimum temperature between 80 and 195 °C and a salinity between 8.4 and 18.4 eq. wt% NaCl circulated during the main phase of mineralization. Numerous faults and fractures formed during the Lufilian orogeny cut the stratiform mineralization. They are, however, at Kamoto and Musonoi only associated with minor sulphides. Supergene alteration along faults and fractures resulted in an enrichment of the mineralization, with the formation of secondary Cu-oxides, -carbonates and -silicates. The importance of the interaction of various processes for the formation of economic Cu-Co ore

  19. The Impact of Institutional Design on the Democratization of School Governance: The Case of Nicaragua's Autonomous School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Minvielle, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    Nicaragua presents an interesting case study of a society pursuing reform of the democratization of its school governance through citizen participation. A radical transformation with a complex institutional arrangement was put in place within a context of major political change and endemic poverty. In order to achieve our objective of empirically…

  20. Religious Freedom and Rendering to Caesar: Reading Democratic and Faith-Based Values in Curriculum, Pedagogy and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I synthesise and apply elements of political and reading theory to demonstrate how central themes in learners' lives (such as freedom, faith, autonomy, equality, rationality and rights) can be read and interpreted differently. I suggest that policy and pedagogy for citizenship and democratic education informed by research into…

  1. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  2. The Open Courseware Movement in Higher Education: Unmasking Power and Raising Questions about the Movement's Democratic Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Robert A.; Berdan,, Jennifer; Toven-Lindsey, Brit

    2013-01-01

    In this essay Robert Rhoads, Jennifer Berdan, and Brit Toven-Lindsey examine some of the key literature related to the open courseware (OCW) movement (including the emergence and expansion of massive open online courses, or MOOCs), focusing particular attention on the movement's democratic potential. The discussion is organized around three…

  3. African American Adolescent Engagement in the Classroom and Beyond: The Roles of Mother's Racial Socialization and Democratic-Involved Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ciara

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has explored how differential youth outcomes are associated with racial socialization and parenting style individually, but very little work has examined whether democratic-involved parenting style bolsters the positive link between racial messages and adolescent outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine mothers' use of…

  4. Beyond Communism and War: The Effect of Civic Education on the Democratic Attitudes and Behavior of Bosnian and Herzegovinian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Suzanne

    This study asks, To what degree has the Civitas: An International Civic Education Exchange Program in Bosnia and Herzegovina been effective in creating or promoting attitudes and values that serve to strengthen support for democratic institutions and processes among Bosnia and Herzegovina school children? To answer this question, an empirical…

  5. Merging Traditional Technique Vocabularies with Democratic Teaching Perspectives in Dance Education: A Consideration of Aesthetic Values and Their Sociopolitical Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests how movement analysis from a socially contextualized perspective can inform understanding about the significance of sociopolitical contexts and aesthetic values in Western dance training. Perspectives of movement analysis provide groundwork for discussing perceivable ways to address discrepancies between democratic and…

  6. Decision-Making Quandaries that Superintendents Face in Their Work in Small School Districts Building Democratic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchton, Debra; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Superintendents of small school districts describe how they give voice, involve and listen to others, and solicit various publics to build democratic communities. Superintendents make sense of leadership through their constructed role, leadership orientation, and district size. Findings suggest the following when superintendents involve, listen,…

  7. Secular Humanism vs. Religion? The Liberal Democratic Education Tradition and the Battle over Vouchers in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Todd Alan

    2007-01-01

    Since Mueller vs. Allen (1983), several legal decisions have attempted to clarify what is the appropriate relationship between religion and public education in a democratic society. During this time, the United States legal system has shifted, moving the historic "establishment clause" away from a strict "separationist" view…

  8. "Learning in Fellowship": Encounters between Christian Socialists and Social Democratic Influences in Adult Education, 1900-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the meeting ground between Christian Socialist and Social Democratic ideas and practices in the development of adult education between 1900 and 1930 in the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, focusing on cross-cultural dissemination and reception of Christian Socialism and the influence of the Woodbrooke Settlement in the United Kingdom and…

  9. Developing Democratic Dispositions and Enabling Crap Detection: Claims for Classroom Philosophy with Special Reference to Western Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The prominence given in national or state-wide curriculum policy to thinking, the development of democratic dispositions and preparation for the "good life", usually articulated in terms of lifelong learning and fulfilment of personal life goals, gives rise to the current spate of interest in the role that could be played by philosophy…

  10. The "Safe School": A Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Model of Community Policing as an Expression of Democratic Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Israel; Barkol, Rina

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the idea of the "safe school" juvenile delinquency prevention model as a paradigm of bringing together all of the community participants, in order to bring about ways and means through which community problems could be met and solved. It suggests that in free and democratic societies, the consent of all participant parties…

  11. Bringing Politics into the Nursery: Early Childhood Education as a Democratic Practice. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Care and education for young children is often understood primarily as a commodity to be provided in the marketplace, or as a kind of factory to produce human capital. But institutions for children and young people can also serve a very different role. They can be understood as forums for democratic political practice. This is a choice that we, as…

  12. The 1984 Literacy Campaign in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. A Case Study. Notes, Comments...No. 183.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fara, Mohammed Saeed; Fisher, Nigel

    In 1984, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen undertook a nationwide literacy campaign, which mobilized the entire nation in an effort to reach an estimated 194,000 illiterate people, 77 percent of them women. The campaign plan demanded the full and active participation of formal school teachers and students at secondary level and above as…

  13. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  14. The Paradox of Meaning Well while Causing Harm: A Discussion about the Limits of Tolerance within Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edling, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum guidelines in many democratic countries argue for the need to practice tolerance as a means to creating peaceful relations. Through moral education, young people are believed to be able to develop a way of being that respects plurality and decreases interpersonal violence in society. But where do students' personal involvements or the…

  15. Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Examining the National Association of Scholars and Teachers for Democratic Culture Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Tollefson, Michael

    This paper considers the ongoing debate between two organizations (National Association of Scholars and Teachers for a Democratic Culture) in higher education. The rhetorical positions of each side resemble those of the "cold war" between the United States and the Soviet Union of the 1950s and 1960s where each side created a mirror image of the…

  16. The Volkshochschule: A Comparative Study of Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadt, Armin Ludwig

    The Volkschochschule (people's college) is the primary institution for adult education in both the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). The general purpose of this study is to assess similarities and differences not only in the basic aims of adult education but to examine where possible the…

  17. Educational Reforms and Marketization in Norway--A Challenge to the Tradition of the Social Democratic, Inclusive School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgøy, Ingrid; Homme, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A social democratic, egalitarian public sector and a corporatist political economy have been strong, distinctive and enduring characteristics of Norwegian education. However, this article demonstrates that the education sector has experienced a period of rapid and extensive implementation of New Public Management (NPM) reforms and post-NPM reforms…

  18. A 17-Year Case Study of an Elementary School's Journey: From Traditional School to Learning Community to Democratic School Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cate, Jean McGregor; Vaughn, Courtney Ann; O'Hair, Mary John

    2006-01-01

    This case study explores one elementary school's 17-year evolution from a traditional Title I elementary school into a learning community and, eventually, a high-achieving democratic school community. The investigation adds specificity and context to the existing theoretical framework outlining this change process. The school's journey is…

  19. "Of, By, and For Are Not Merely Prepositions": Teaching and Learning Conflict Resolution for a Democratic, Global Citizenry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisler, Andria K.

    2009-01-01

    Universities that promote a liberal education through creative, cross-cultural curriculum nurture the goals of democracy and assist students in becoming "citizens of the world." Democratic education for social justice and global consciousness are necessary tools in the peaceful transformation of today's violent conflicts, which now supersede…

  20. Teacher Opinions on the Concepts Preparing Students to a Democratic Life in the First Grade Social Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the teacher opinions on whether the concepts preparing the students to the democratic life in the first grade social studies course theme "My School Excitement" are convenient for the level of the students. In the present study, the phenomenon science model, which is one of the qualitative…

  1. Democratic School Governing Bodies in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal: The First Elections. EPU Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Gregory; Dlamini, Mbali

    This document examines the implementation of the Schools Act, which established the democratic governing bodies and the school governance, capacity-building program in KwaZulu-Natal. It is based on a study that: (1) recorded the existence/nonexistence of governing bodies and compiled a profile of the average governing body based on a sample of…

  2. On the Social Status and Career Prospects of Youth in Agriculture in the GDR (German Democratic Republic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittel, Guenter

    The new Youth Act passed by the People's Chamber of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1974 assumes that the interests of young people concur with the interests of their socialist society and state, for it reforms the rights and conditions for the further development of young people and defines their duties and responsibilities in terms of…

  3. A Framework for Learning about Big Data with Mobile Technologies for Democratic Participation: Possibilities, Limitations, and Unanticipated Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Thomas M.; Schuler-Brown, Sarah; Way, Winmar

    2013-01-01

    As Big Data becomes increasingly important in policy-making, research, marketing, and commercial applications, we argue that literacy in this domain is critical for engaged democratic participation and that peer-generated data from mobile technologies offer rich possibilities for students to learn about this new genre of data. Through the lens of…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: Understanding for Democratic Participation in Renewing the Agri-Food System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture poses ecological problems and opportunities, which defy simple democratic reform without an educated citizenry. Developing an educated citizenry can be accomplished by further developing agricultural literacy in elementary education. While benchmarks for agricultural literacy have been produced, relatively little attention has…

  5. The Outdoor Environment as a Site for Children's Participation, Meaning-Making and Democratic Learning: Examples from Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Wenche; Grindheim, Liv Torunn; Waters, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore socio-cultural theories of learning and some of the processes by which children learn democratic values. Norwegian policy and practice emphasises children's right to participation and involvement in decision-making. We discuss the importance of adults' attitudes, knowledge and ability to relate to and understand…

  6. Families, School Choice, and Democratic Iterations on the Right to Education and Freedom of Education in Finnish Municipalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira; Silvennoinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the ways in which the right to education and freedom of education are expressed in local school choice policies in Finland. We aim to discover the elements that form democratic iterations on the right to education and freedom of education by contrasting their manifestations in three local institutional spaces for parental…

  7. Malaria surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: comparison of microscopy, PCR, and rapid diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Doctor, Stephanie M; Liu, Yunhao; Whitesell, Amy; Thwai, Kyaw L; Taylor, Steve M; Janko, Mark; Emch, Michael; Kashamuka, Melchior; Muwonga, Jérémie; Tshefu, Antoinette; Meshnick, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Malaria surveillance is critical for control efforts, but diagnostic methods frequently disagree. Here, we compare microscopy, PCR, and a rapid diagnostic test in 7137 samples from children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo using latent class analysis. PCR had the highest sensitivity (94.6%) and microscopy had the lowest (76.7%). PMID:26915637

  8. Progressive Reformers and the Democratic Origins of Citizenship Education in the United States during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the…

  9. African American adolescent engagement in the classroom and beyond: the roles of mother's racial socialization and democratic-involved parenting.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Ciara

    2009-02-01

    Previous research has explored how differential youth outcomes are associated with racial socialization and parenting style individually, but very little work has examined whether democratic-involved parenting style bolsters the positive link between racial messages and adolescent outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine mothers' use of democratic-involved parenting as a moderator of the association between racial socialization (e.g., racial pride, racial barrier, and self-worth messages) and youth engagement. The types of engagement explored were attitudes toward class work and persistence on task. Ninety-four African American youth (ages 11-14) reported on maternal style and socialization. As predicted, racial barrier socialization was positively associated with engagement among adolescents who perceived their mothers to provide more involvement coupled with opportunities for their teens to make decisions. In contrast, barrier socialization and engagement were negatively associated among adolescents who viewed their mothers as low in democratic-involved parenting. Implications for adolescent engagement and for research on racial socialization and democratic-involved parenting style are discussed. PMID:19636718

  10. The Lippmann-Dewey "Debate" Revisited: The Problem of Knowledge and the Role of Experts in Modern Democratic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCesare, Tony

    2012-01-01

    With only some fear of oversimplification, the fundamental differences between Walter Lippmann and John Dewey that are of concern here can be introduced by giving attention to Lippmann's deceptively simple formulation of a central problem in democratic theory: "The environment is complex. Man's political capacity is simple. Can a bridge be built…

  11. Democratic Environments Offered to Children at School, in the Family, and in Society: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate democratic environments offered to children in Turkey at school, in the home, and in society. A mixed method is a general type of research where qualitative and quantitative methods are used together. The researcher first collects quantitative and then the qualitative data. The study group in the research…

  12. The Reforming Trajectory of the Italian Educational System. Site-Based Management and Decentralisation as a Challenge for Democratic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Serpieri, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to present some tensions embedded in the Italian educational reform, arising both from the enactment of neo-liberal policies and the possibilities of democratic development opened up by the introduction of schools' site-based management and decentralisation. The article uses discourses as heuristic devices and presents two case…

  13. Patriotism and Democratic Citizenship Education in South Africa: On the (im) Possibility of Reconciliation and Nation Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I shall evaluate critically the democratic citizenship education project in South Africa to ascertain whether the patriotic sentiments expressed in the "Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy" (2001) are in conflict with the achievement of reconciliation and nation building (specifically peace and friendship) after decades…

  14. Exploring the Links between Adult Education and Human Resource Development: Learning, Risk-Taking, and Democratic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Learning is indeed an integral component of adapting successfully to an ever-changing world, one full of intriguing possibilities and insidious barriers. Democratic societies establish educative systems where learning and development is promoted to advance a citizenry of skillful problem solvers, knowledgeable decision makers, incisive risk…

  15. Social Indicators for Policy Research and Democratic Action: A Paradigm and Some Examples. Report-73-119.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sismondo, Sergio

    The primary purpose of this paper is to present a possible means to establish a new social indicators intelligence system that embodies a relations testing capacity. Major ideas defined and described include social indicators, theory, model, policy research, and democratic action. A paradigm covers the movement from theory to model and action.…

  16. Situation Report--Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in ten foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  17. Education for All Meets Political Democratization: Free Primary Education and the Neoliberalization of the Malawian School and State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    In recent years sub-Saharan African states, including Malawi, have adopted the Education for All (EFA) goal of universal, fee-free primary education (UPE). The EFA process is often linked to the expansion and sustainability of universal rights, democratic processes, and political systems. The EFA policies have also been tied, discursively and in…

  18. Toward an Understanding of the Democratic Reconceptualization of Physical Education Teacher Education in Post-Military Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Matta, Gylton; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Hemphill, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher education, including physical education teacher education (PETE), around the world remains highly autocratic and content focused [Apple, M. W. 2000. "Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age." New York: Routledge]. Scholars in physical education [O'Sullivan, M., D. Siedentop, and L. F. Locke.…

  19. Democratization of Education as Prerequisite for Social Economic and Cultural Progress in a Multi-Cultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madumere, S. C.; Olisaemeka, B. U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on democratization of education as a prerequisite for social, economic and cultural progress in a multi-cultural society, such as Nigeria. Attempt was made to define and explain the major concepts in the paper. Education was explained as an instrument of democracy and as function of socialization, culture and economic…

  20. Children's Meaning-Making of Nature in an Outdoor-Oriented and Democratic Swedish Preschool Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaar, Susanne; Öhman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the Swedish preschool educational tradition is characterised by outdoor-oriented and democratic approaches. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate what consequences these approaches have for preschool children's meaning-making of nature, when studied in practice, in children's spontaneous…

  1. Root Metaphors, Paradigm Shifts, and Democratically Shared Values: Community Service-Learning as a Bridge-Building Endeavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper claims that community service-learning (CSL) projects in schools and universities, if done well, might very well take us--all of us--to important new places. Under the conception of community service and democratic education more generally, CSL projects in schools and universities can take us to "the" most important place: a…

  2. Something to Talk about: Does the Language Use of Pre-School Teachers Invite Children to Participate in Democratic Conversation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholin, Kristin Rydjord; Jansen, Turid Thorsby

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on how kindergarten can encourage children's participation based on the idea of democratic community. The Norwegian Kindergartens Act emphasises children's right to participate and kindergarten is seen as an arena for learning. We discuss planned conversations between pre-school teachers and children during ongoing…

  3. A Fresh Take on Democratic Education: Revisiting Rancière through the Notions of Emergence and Enaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastrup-Birk, Henriette; Wildemeersch, Danny

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to new ways of thinking about democratic education. We discuss how revisiting this concept may help raise fresh questions in relation to non-formal fora grappling with intricate sustainability issues that span international borders. Starting from Rancière's ideas on democracy, we first examine a conception of…

  4. Baseline assessment of collaborative tuberculosis/HIV activities in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Martinot, Amanda; Van Rie, Annelies; Mulangu, Sabue; Mbulula, Marie; Jarrett, Nikki; Behets, Frieda; Bola, Valentin; Bahati, Etienne

    2008-07-01

    Ninety-two clinics were surveyed in 2005 as part of a baseline assessment of HIV activities in Tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Some HIV activities were implemented in 58% of TB clinics. The majority of health had > or = 1 health care worker (HCW) trained in either HIV counseling or testing (71%). Fifty-three clinics offered counseling and testing to TB patients; twenty-two (42%) routinely offered HIV CT to all patients, while others used selective criteria. While most offered on-site counseling (92%) and testing (77%), not all 53 clinics had a HCW trained in counseling and only 31 had access to a counseling room. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was offered in 51% of clinics; antiretroviral treatment in 17%. Shortcomings in human resources, infrastructure and quality of services were revealed. Strengthening those clinics already implementing HIV activities could be prioritized to achieve the goals set forward by the Global Plan to Stop TB. PMID:18628533

  5. Dementia and representative democracy: Exploring challenges and implications for democratic citizenship.

    PubMed

    Sonnicksen, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Despite growing recognition of the rights of people with dementia for full citizenship, issues related to democracy, whether from theoretical or practical perspectives, remain neglected. Especially since discourses on dementia have expanded to this rights-based approach, it is imperative to begin to examine the meanings and practices of democracy within a context of dementia. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to assess implications of dementia in the context of democracy. Rather than surveying the variety of democratic concepts, it will focus the analytical framework on representative democracy and then outline several challenges to and for representative democracy and citizens with dementia. The intention is to begin to identify paths for ensuring representation, inclusion and participation for those who have dementia. PMID:27170585

  6. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014–2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  7. [Shock therapy and psychosurgery in the early German Democratic Republic (GDR)].

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, L

    2015-11-01

    Patient files, textbooks and published articles of the time show that the wide range of psychiatric therapies of the 1950s and 1960s was also used in the early German Democratic Republic (GDR). The use of insulin coma therapy, cardiazol and electroconvulsive therapies and especially of leucotomy in the GDR must not only be seen in the context of the international development and debate concerning these therapies up to the introduction of psychopharmaceutic therapy but also, in a similar way as in the Federal Republic of Germany, in relation to the locally sometimes different availability of insulin and cardiazol in the post-war period, different schools of academic thought and scientific research interest and priorities of the clinics concerned. PMID:25962346

  8. Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection with Handheld Microscopy in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Meister, Isabel; Utzinger, Jürg; Odermatt, Peter; Andrews, Jason R; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, yet it is of considerable public health importance in Southeast Asia given the predilection for chronically infected persons to develop cholangiocarcinoma. We evaluated a handheld microscope for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini in a community-based setting in Lao People's Democratic Republic in comparison with conventional light microscopy. In stool samples collected from 104 individuals, handheld microscopy revealed a sensitivity of 70.6% and a specificity of 89.5% for O. viverrini infection. Pearson's correlation for quantitative fecal egg counts between the two devices was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-0.99). With small adjustments to further increase diagnostic sensitivity, a handheld microscope may become a helpful tool to screen for O. viverrini and other helminth infections in public health settings. PMID:26526923

  9. Dorstenialuamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN). PMID:25383011

  10. Democratic Mass Matrices Induced by Strong Gauge Dynamics and Large Mixing Angles for Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Shirano, H.; Terao, H.

    2005-05-01

    We consider the dynamical realization of the democratic type of Yukawa coupling matrices as the Pendelton-Ross infrared fixed points. Such fixed points of the Yukawa couplings become possible through the introduction of many Higgs fields, which are made superheavy, but one massless mode. Explicitly, we consider a strongly coupled supersymmetric GUT based on SU(5) × SU(5), in which rapid convergence to the infrared fixed point generates sufficiently large mass hierarchy for quarks and leptons. In particular, it is found that the remarkable difference between mixing angles in the quark and lepton sectors can be explained as a simple dynamical consequence. We also discuss a possible scenario leading to a realistic mass spectra and mixing angles for quarks and leptons. In this scheme, the Yukawa couplings not only for top but also for bottom appear close to their quasi-fixed points at low energy and, therefore, tan β should be large.

  11. Terms Used for People Living With HIV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mupenda, Bavon; Duvall, Sandra; Maman, Suzanne; Pettifor, Audrey; Holub, Christina; Taylor, Eboni; Rennie, Stuart; Kashosi, Mujalambo; Lema, Mamie; Behets, Frieda

    2015-01-01

    For this study we conducted in-depth interviews with 29 youth living with HIV (YLWH) and key informant interviews with 8 HIV care/support providers. We describe terms used to portray people living with HIV (PLWH) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Labels commonly used, mostly derogatory, described PLWH as walking corpses, dangers to others, or people deserving to die before others get infected. Blame and other accusations were directed at PLWH through anchoring or objectification. Being labeled sometimes made these youth suffer in silence, afraid to disclose their status, or avoid performing actions in public, preferring to let others do them. YLWH need psychosocial support to mitigate the harmful effects of these labels and strengthen their coping skills, whereas community, institutional, and national efforts are needed for stigma reduction. PMID:24463633

  12. Investigation of Recurrent Melioidosis in Lao People's Democratic Republic by Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Audrey; Dittrich, Sabine; Phommasone, Koukeo; Douangnouvong, Anousone; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N; Dance, David A B

    2016-06-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei In northeast Thailand and northern Australia, where the disease is highly endemic, a range of molecular tools have been used to study its epidemiology and pathogenesis. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) where melioidosis has been recognized as endemic since 1999, no such studies have been undertaken. We used a multilocus sequence typing scheme specific for B. pseudomallei to investigate nine cases of culture-positive recurrence occurring in 514 patients with melioidosis between 2010 and 2015: four were suspected to be relapses while the other five represented reinfections. In addition, two novel sequence types of the bacterium were identified. The low overall recurrence rates (2.4%) and proportions of relapse and reinfection in the Laos are consistent with those described in the recent literature, reflecting the effective use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27001759

  13. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014-2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  14. Investigation of Recurrent Melioidosis in Lao People's Democratic Republic by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, Audrey; Dittrich, Sabine; Phommasone, Koukeo; Douangnouvong, Anousone; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N.; Dance, David A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. In northeast Thailand and northern Australia, where the disease is highly endemic, a range of molecular tools have been used to study its epidemiology and pathogenesis. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) where melioidosis has been recognized as endemic since 1999, no such studies have been undertaken. We used a multilocus sequence typing scheme specific for B. pseudomallei to investigate nine cases of culture-positive recurrence occurring in 514 patients with melioidosis between 2010 and 2015: four were suspected to be relapses while the other five represented reinfections. In addition, two novel sequence types of the bacterium were identified. The low overall recurrence rates (2.4%) and proportions of relapse and reinfection in the Laos are consistent with those described in the recent literature, reflecting the effective use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27001759

  15. Science education for democratic citizenship through the use of the history of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstø, Stein Dankert

    2008-09-01

    Scholars have argued that the history of science might facilitate an understanding of processes of science. Focusing on science education for citizenship and active involvement in debates on socioscientific issues, one might argue that today’s post-academic science differs from academic science in the past, making the history of academic science irrelevant. However, this article argues that, under certain conditions, cases from the history of science should be included in science curricula for democratic participation. One condition is that the concept of processes is broadened to include science society interactions in a politically sensitive sense. The scope of possibilities of using historical case studies to prepare for citizenship is illustrated by the use of a well-known case from the history of science: Millikan’s and Ehrenhaft’s “Battle over the electron”.

  16. PARRHESIA, PHAEDRA, AND THE POLIS: ANTICIPATING PSYCHOANALYTIC FREE ASSOCIATION AS DEMOCRATIC PRACTICE.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Jill

    2015-07-01

    This essay explores the mostly unexamined analogy of psychoanalytic free association to democratic free speech. The author turns back to a time when free speech was a matter of considerable discussion: the classical period of the Athenian constitution and its experiment with parrhesia. Ordinarily translated into English as "free speech," parrhesia is startlingly relevant to psychoanalysis. The Athenian stage-in particular, Hippolytus (Euripides, 5th century BCE)-illustrates this point. Euripides's tragic tale anticipates Freud's inquiries, exploring the fundamental link between free speech and female embodiment. The author suggests that psychoanalysis should claim its own conception of a polis as a mediated and ethical space between private and public spheres, between body and mind, and between speaking and listening communities. PMID:26198602

  17. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s), forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565) were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%), although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%). Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103) of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%). Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the majority of aggressions

  18. Performed and preferred participation in science and technology across Europe: Exploring an alternative idea of "democratic deficit".

    PubMed

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Stares, Sally

    2013-08-01

    Republican ideals of active scientific citizenship and extensive use of deliberative, democratic decision making have come to dominate the public participation agenda, and academic analyses have focused on the deficit of public involvement vis-à-vis these normative ideals. In this paper we use latent class models to explore what Eurobarometer survey data can tell us about the ways in which people participate in tacit or in policy-active ways with developments in science and technology, but instead of focusing on the distance between observed participation and the dominant, normative ideal of participation, we examine the distance between what people do, and what they themselves think is appropriate in terms of involvement. The typology of citizens emerging from the analyses entails an entirely different diagnosis of democratic deficit, one that stresses imbalance between performed and preferred participation. PMID:23825243

  19. Do committees ru(i)n the bio-political culture? On the democratic legitimacy of bioethics committees.

    PubMed

    Friele, Minou Bernadette

    2003-08-01

    Bioethical and bio-political questions are increasingly tackled by committees, councils, and other advisory boards that work on different and often interrelated levels. Research ethics committees work on an institutional or clinical level; local advisory boards deal with biomedical topics on the level of particular political regions; national and international political advisory boards try to answer questions about morally problematic political decisions in medical research and practice. In accordance with the increasing number and importance of committees, the quality of their work and their functional status are being subjected to more and more scrutiny. Besides overall criticism regarding the quality of their work, particular committees giving political advice are often suspected of being incompatible with democratic values, such as respect for affected parties, representation of diverse values and transparency in the decision-making processes. Based on the example of the German National Ethics Council, whose inauguration caused a still ongoing debate on the aims and scopes of committees in general, this paper discusses: (1) the requirements of modern democratic societies in dealing with complex scientific-technical problems; (2) the composition and organisation of committees working as political advisory boards; and (3) the appointment procedures and roles of laymen and experts, and here in particular of ethicists, who may legitimately be taken on by a committee. I will argue that bioethics committees do not necessarily endanger democratic values, but can considerably improve their realisation in democratic decision-making procedures--if, and only if, they do not act as substitutes for parliamentarian processes, but help prepare parliamentarian processes to be organised as rationally as possible. PMID:14567389

  20. Knowledge and Solidarity: The Norwegian Social-Democratic School Project in a Period of Change, 1945-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volckmar, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Between World War II and the end of the millennium two major educational reform periods are identified in Norway: reform period I in the 1950s and 1960s and reform period II in the 1990s. The Labour Party led both reforms. While the educational reforms in the 1950s and 1960s undoubtedly were part of an overall Nordic social-democratic project, the…

  1. Democracies restricting democratic rights: some classical sources and implications for ethics of biometrics.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek and 17th century English philosophy are not usually discussed along with the ethics of biometrics and data sharing. Academic ethics today, however, suffers from a lack of background in classical texts. We may discuss whether biometrics and data sharing are consistent with democracy, but if we do not know what democracy is, then we cannot know what actions are consistent with it. I shall discuss how and why democracies have restricted the rights of their citizens. I will give the most attention to two paradigms that have most influenced modern democratic thinking: 17th century English democracy and ancient Athens. I do not accept the dogma that the Athenians were obviously wrong to try and then to condemn Socrates. His death-loving doctrine could not but have weakened the will of the youth to work and fight for the good of Athens. I will try to understand the Athenians' point of view and their need to defend their security. At the end, I will apply these lessons to biometrics and data sharing for security reasons. PMID:21380481

  2. Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German Democratic Republic government.

    PubMed

    Franke, W W; Berendonk, B

    1997-07-01

    Several classified documents saved after the collapse of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1990 describe the promotion by the government of the use of drugs, notably androgenic steroids, in high-performance sports (doping). Top-secret doctoral theses, scientific reports, progress reports of grants, proceedings from symposia of experts, and reports of physicians and scientists who served as unofficial collaborators for the Ministry for State Security ("Stasi") reveal that from 1966 on, hundreds of physicians and scientists, including top-ranking professors, performed doping research and administered prescription drugs as well as unapproved experimental drug preparations. Several thousand athletes were treated with androgens every year, including minors of each sex. Special emphasis was placed on administering androgens to women and adolescent girls because this practice proved to be particularly effective for sports performance. Damaging side effects were recorded, some of which required surgical or medical intervention. In addition, several prominent scientists and sports physicians of the GDR contributed to the development of methods of drug administration that would evade detection by international doping controls. PMID:9216474

  3. The Mexico City Policy: a "gag rule" that violates free speech and democratic values.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S A

    1998-04-01

    With the support of the Republican leadership of the US House of Representatives, Representative Chris Smith of New Jersey continues to attempt to limit provision of US family planning (FP) funding to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) who agree to enforce absolute prohibitions on engaging in abortion-related activities. Despite the fact that the House is withholding funds to meet US obligations to the UN and to support the International Monetary Fund, US President Clinton refuses to give in to pressure to enforce what amounts to a "gag rule." The Secretary of State explains that Clinton has no intention of punishing organizations engaging in free-speech protected democratic activities in foreign countries. Smith has offered a self-styled "compromise" that would allow Clinton to waive disqualification for a foreign NGO offering abortion services with its own funds in compliance with the laws of its country. This waiver would penalize the international FP program by $44 million and would not apply to the broad prohibitions against abortion lobbying (including lobbying for changes in laws, sponsoring conferences and workshops on "alleged" defects in abortion laws, and drafting and distributing materials or public statements on "alleged defects"). Smith's emphasis on the "lobbying" ban has widened the issue from a debate on abortion to a debate on democracy and free speech. Opposition to Smith's proposal is, thus, rising in many quarters. Smith also endorses withholding US contributions to the UN Population Fund because the fund has resumed work in China. PMID:12293660

  4. Severe malaria in children: A descriptive report from Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kunuanunua, Thomas S; Nsibu, Célestin N; Bodi, Joseph M; Tshibola, Thérèse K; Makusi Bura, Mimy; Magoga, Kumbundu; Ekila, Mathilde B; Situakibanza, Hypolite T; Aloni, Michel N

    2015-08-01

    The decline of susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resulted in the change of drug policy. This policy has probably changed the facies of the severe form of malaria. A prospective study was conducted in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data on children aged ≤13 years, diagnosed with severe malaria were analyzed. In total, 378 children were included with an overall median age of 8 years (age range: 1-13 years). Dark urine was seen in 25.1% of cases. Metabolic acidosis (85.2%), hypoglycemia (62.2%) and hemoglobin ≤5 g/dl (39.1%) were the common laboratories features. Severe malaria anemia, cerebral malaria and Blackwater fever (BWF) were found in 39.1, 30.1 and 25.4%, respectively. Mortality rate was 4%. BWF emerges as a frequent form of severe malaria in our midst. Availing artemisin-based combination treatments in the health care system is a priority to reduce the incidence of BWF in our environment. PMID:25957436

  5. Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR. PMID:27430548

  6. Salmonella Typhi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Fluoroquinolone Decreased Susceptibility on the Rise

    PubMed Central

    Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Phoba, Marie-France; Bertrand, Sophie; Vanhoof, Raymond; Verhaegen, Jan; Smith, Anthony Marius; Keddy, Karen Helena; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) to first-line antibiotics is emerging in Central Africa. Although increased use of fluoroquinolones is associated with spread of resistance, Salmonella Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) has rarely been reported in Central Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of a microbiological surveillance study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Salmonella Typhi isolates from bloodstream infections were collected prospectively between 2007 and 2011. The genetic relationship of the Salmonella Typhi isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates was determined and mutations associated with DCS were studied. In total, 201 Salmonella Typhi isolates were collected. More than half of the Salmonella Typhi isolates originated from children and young adults aged 5–19. Thirty different PFGE profiles were identified, with 72% of the isolates showing a single profile. Multidrug resistance, DCS and azithromycin resistance were 30.3%, 15.4% and 1.0%, respectively. DCS was associated with point mutations in the gyrA gene at codons 83 and 87. Conclusions/Significance Our study describes the first report of widespread multidrug resistance and DCS among Salmonella Typhi isolates from DR Congo. Our findings highlight the need for increased microbiological diagnosis and surveillance in DR Congo, being a prerequisite for rational use of antimicrobials and the development of standard treatment guidelines. PMID:23166855

  7. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among healthcare workers in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, H; Vandendriessche, S; Hallin, M; Batoko, B; Alworonga, J-P; Mapendo, B; Van Geet, C; Dauly, N; Denis, O; Jacobs, J

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a global health concern, but there are few data from Central Africa. The objective of our study was to characterise S. aureus colonisation isolates from healthcare-exposed professionals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Healthcare workers and medical students (n = 380) in Kisangani, DRC were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage in a single-centre cross-sectional study in the University Hospital of Kisangani. The isolates were identified and characterised using phenotypic and genotypic methods. The nasal carriage rate of S. aureus was 16.6 % and 10 out of 63 isolates (15.9 %) were MRSA. We found 28 different spa types. Most MRSA isolates belonged to ST8-spa t1476-SCCmec V. The majority of MRSA were multidrug-resistant to non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Overall, 28.5 % of S. aureus carried Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding genes (all methicillin-sensitive) and 17.5 % carried toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-encoding genes. The finding of MRSA carriage among healthcare workers in a setting with limited access to diagnostic microbiology and appropriate therapy calls for improved education on infection control practices and supports the introduction of surveillance programmes. PMID:25931131

  8. Women's Status and Intimate Partner Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tlapek, Sarah Myers

    2015-09-01

    Women's greatest risk of violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may come from an intimate partner, but few studies have analyzed context-specific risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) in the DRC. This study analyzed data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Congo to assess risk and protective factors for IPV and the role of women's status, a factor implicated in prior IPV research. Using a sample of 1,821 married or cohabiting women between the ages of 15 and 49, four logistic regression models tested relationships between physical, sexual, emotional, or any violence and independent variables of interest. Results indicated that 68.2% of respondents had experienced at least one of the three types of IPV. An attitude of acceptance toward spousal violence was associated with increased risk for physical and emotional IPV. Women who were the only wife of their husband were half as likely to experience IPV compared with women whose husbands had other wives or women who did not know their husbands' marital status. Partner's use of alcohol was associated with nearly doubled risk for both physical and sexual IPV. The study's results indicate that IPV occurs frequently and is justified as acceptable by many women in the DRC. Findings suggest that awareness-raising campaigns may be a helpful intervention and that partner characteristics should be considered when assessing women's risk for IPV. PMID:25315479

  9. Impact of Competing Values and Choices on Democratic Support in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wai-Man

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the reasons for the relatively low democratic support (DS) in Hong Kong in the context of competing values and choices based on the previous Asian Barometer Surveys. In so doing, it establishes a three-factor theoretical model that includes survey attitudinal statements related to authoritarianism (AU), nationalism (NA) and economic evaluations (EC) on DS. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the analysis shows that the hypothesized model is a very good fit. The Hong Kong people's relatively low DS, in terms of their unconditional support for democracy and the degree of democracy they want for Hong Kong, can be well explained by the three factors in combination. The factors have various extent of impact on DS, with AU being the strongest, followed by EC, and then NA. The paper contributes by illustrating the usefulness of CFA in political values research, unraveling the comparative importance of the values and choices in affecting DS, and establishing a model for further testing. PMID:23874056

  10. Prevalence of River Epilepsy in the Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Colebunders, Robert; Tepage, Floribert; Rood, Ente; Mandro, Michel; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Musinya, Gisele; Mambandu, Germain; Kabeya, José; Komba, Michel; Levick, Bethany; Mokili, John L; Laudisoit, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas. Objective To determine the prevalence and distribution of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Design/Methods An epilepsy prevalence study was carried out in 2014, in two localities of the Bas-Uélé district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Orientale Province of the DRC. Risk factors for epilepsy were identified using a random effects logistic regression model and the distribution of epilepsy cases was investigated using the Moran’s I statistic of spatial auto-correlation. Results Among the 12,776 individuals of Dingila, 373 (2.9%) individuals with epilepsy were identified. In a house-to-house survey in Titule, 68 (2.3%) of the 2,908 people who participated in the survey were found to present episodes of epilepsy. Epilepsy showed a marked spatial pattern with clustering of cases occurring within and between adjacent households. Individual risk of epilepsy was found to be associated with living close to the nearest fast flowing river where blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae)–the vector of Onchocerca volvulus–oviposit and breed. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in villages in the Bas-Uélé district in the DRC was higher than in non-onchocerciasis endemic regions in Africa. Living close to a blackflies infested river was found to be a risk factor for epilepsy. PMID:27139245

  11. Intimate partner violence, modern contraceptive use and conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Palermo, Tia; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been found to be negatively associated with contraceptive use in developing countries, but evidence from Africa is mixed. This study examines whether the above association differs in conflict settings, which have the potential for both higher levels of violence and more limited access to family planning. We use nationally representative data from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to examine the relationship between individual- and community-level IPV and modern contraceptive use, and to explore whether conflict modifies the relationship between IPV and contraceptive use. Nationally, only 6% of women reported current modern contraceptive use, while 53% reported experiencing physical IPV and 32% reported experiencing sexual IPV. In multivariate models, we found that individual-level sexual IPV was positively associated with current using modern contraceptive use, but that a combined measure of physical and sexual IPV did not demonstrate a similar association. Community-level IPV was not associated with individual-level contraceptive use. Conflict exposure was neither an independent predictor nor modifier of contraceptive use. Results suggest improved access to family planning should be a priority for programming in DRC, and efforts should ensure that sufficient resources are allocated towards the reproductive health needs of women in both conflict and non-conflict regions. PMID:25828259

  12. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented. PMID:26164963

  13. Democratization and Political Change as Threats to Collective Sentiments: Testing Durkheim in Russia

    PubMed Central

    PRIDEMORE, WILLIAM ALEX; KIM, SANG-WEON

    2006-01-01

    Durkheim argued that acute political crises result in increased homicide rates because they pose a threat to sentiments about the collective. Though crucial to Durkheim’s work on homicide, this idea remains untested. The authors took advantage of the natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine this hypothesis. Using data from Russian regions (N = 78) and controlling for measures of anomie and other covariates, the authors estimated the association between political change and change in homicide rates between 1991 and 2000. Results indicated that regions exhibiting less support for the Communist Party in 2000 (and thus greater change in political ideals because the Party had previously exercised complete control) were regions with greater increases in homicide rates. Thus, while democratization may be a positive development relative to the Communist juggernaut of the past, it appears that the swift political change in Russia is partially responsible for the higher rates of violence there following the collapse of the Soviet Union. PMID:16880894

  14. HIGH RATE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION IN LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Jutavijittum, Prapan; Yousukh, Amnat; Saysanasongkham, Bounnack; Samountry, Bounthome; Samountry, Khamtim; Toriyama, Kan; Tokuda, Masaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Among 3,000 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at Mother and Child Hospital in Vientiane, Lao PDR, 5.8% were HBsAg positive by a rapid test. Among serum samples of 47 infants aged 9-12 months born to HBsAg-positive mothers, 38% were anti-HBs negative. Percent anti-HBs negative children is significantly higher in those born to HBeAg positive mothers than in those born to HBeAg negative mothers (60% vs 25%, p < 0.05). Out of 47 HBsAg-positive mothers, 10 had infants who were HBsAg positive. None of the infants born to HBsAg negative mothers became HBsAg positive but 10/19 (52.6%) of infants born to HBeAg positive mothers became HBsAg positive. This high rate of mother-to-child transmission of HBV in an endemic country is of concern and indicates that routine vaccination program for Lao infants needs strengthening. PMID:27244958

  15. High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Asymptomatic Individuals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Bobanga, Thierry Lengu; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Kayembe, Jean-Marie Ntumba; Situakibanza, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Nsibu, Célestin Ndosimao; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 14 million cases reported by the WHO Malaria Report in 2014. Asymptomatic malaria cases are known to be prevalent in endemic areas and are generally untreated, resulting in a significant source of gametocytes that may serve as reservoir of disease transmission. Considering that microscopy certainly underestimates the prevalence of Plasmodium infections within asymptomatic carriers and that PCR assays are currently recognized as the most sensitive methods for Plasmodium identification, this study was conducted to weigh the asymptomatic carriage in DRC by a molecular method. Six provinces were randomly selected for blood collection in which 80 to 100 individuals were included in the study. Five hundred and eighty blood samples were collected and molecular diagnosis was performed. Globally, almost half of the samples collected from asymptomatic individuals (280/580; 48.2%) had Plasmodium infections and the most species identified was P. falciparum alone in combination with P. malariae. The high prevalence reported here should interpellate the bodies involved in malaria control in DR Congo to take into account asymptomatic carriers in actions taken and consider asymptomatic malaria as a major hurdle for malaria elimination. PMID:26942036

  16. Human African Trypanosomiasis in a Rural Community, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Lutumba, Pascal; Makieya, Eric; Shaw, Alexandra; Meheus, Filip

    2007-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) (sleeping sickness) caused the loss of ≈1.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2002. We describe the effect of HAT during 2000–2002 in Buma, a rural community near Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We used retrospective questionnaire surveys to estimate HAT-related household costs and DALYs. The HAT outbreak in Buma involved 57 patients and affected 47 (21%) households. The cost to each household was equivalent to 5 months’ income for that household. The total number of HAT-related DALYs was 2,145, and interventions to control HAT averted 1,408 DALYs. The cost per DALY averted was US $17. Because HAT has a serious economic effect on households and control interventions are cost-effective, considering only global burden of disease rankings for resource allocation could lead to misguided priority setting if applied without caution in HAT-affected countries. PMID:17479887

  17. Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tia; Bredenkamp, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide data-based estimates of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and describe risk factors for such violence. Methods. We used nationally representative household survey data from 3436 women selected to answer the domestic violence module who took part in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey along with population estimates to estimate levels of sexual violence. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze correlates of sexual violence. Results. Approximately 1.69 to 1.80 million women reported having been raped in their lifetime (with 407 397–433 785 women reporting having been raped in the preceding 12 months), and approximately 3.07 to 3.37 million women reported experiencing intimate partner sexual violence. Reports of sexual violence were largely independent of individual-level background factors. However, compared with women in Kinshasa, women in Nord-Kivu were significantly more likely to report all types of sexual violence. Conclusions. Not only is sexual violence more generalized than previously thought, but our findings suggest that future policies and programs should focus on abuse within families and eliminate the acceptance of and impunity surrounding sexual violence nationwide while also maintaining and enhancing efforts to stop militias from perpetrating rape. PMID:21566049

  18. Risk Factors for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, Matthias; Grein, Thomas; Roth, Cathy; Swanepoel, Robert; Libande, Modeste L.; Talarmin, Antoine; Bertherat, Eric; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Tugume, Ben; Colebunders, Robert; Kondé, Kader M.; Pirard, Patricia; Olinda, Loku L.; Rodier, Guénaël R.; Campbell, Patricia; Tomori, Oyewale; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted two antibody surveys to assess risk factors for Marburg hemorrhagic fever in an area of confirmed Marburg virus transmission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Questionnaires were administered and serum samples tested for Marburg-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fifteen (2%) of 912 participants in a general village cross-sectional antibody survey were positive for Marburg immunoglobulin G antibody. Thirteen (87%) of these 15 were men who worked in the local gold mines. Working as a miner (odds ratio [OR] 13.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1 to 62.1) and receiving injections (OR 7.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 33.2) were associated with a positive antibody result. All 103 participants in a targeted antibody survey of healthcare workers were antibody negative. Primary transmission of Marburg virus to humans likely occurred via exposure to a still unidentified reservoir in the local mines. Secondary transmission appears to be less common with Marburg virus than with Ebola virus, the other known filovirus. PMID:14720391

  19. Assessment of gender distribution in dengue surveillance data, the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Prasith, Nouda; Keosavanh, Onechanh; Phengxay, Manilay; Stone, Sara; Lewis, Hannah C; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Matsui, Tamano; Phongmanay, Panom; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphanh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adolescent and young adult males account for a large proportion of dengue cases reported through national surveillance systems in the Western Pacific Region. To preliminarily assess the validity of these observed distributions, a field investigation was conducted in the Lao People's Democratic Republic’s Savannakhet Province in November 2011. Methods Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Dengue surveillance data from Savannakhet Province, and aggregate hospital admission data from the Savannakhet Provincial Hospital for outpatients and inpatients were analysed by age and sex. Unstructured informal interviews were conducted with local health care workers, primary and secondary school officials and villagers. Results An excess of males was found among reported dengue cases in Savannakhet Province in the 15–49 year age group. Females in the same age group, however, were found to access health care more than their male counterparts. Qualitative assessments attributed this distribution to young females being more health-conscious and having greater health care-seeking behaviour. Discussion The excess of male dengue cases in the surveillance data appeared to be associated with a truly higher risk of dengue rather than greater health care access or health care-seeking behaviour by young men. This investigation indicated the importance of assessing the reported surveillance data within the context of health care utilization behaviour of the population under surveillance. PMID:24015367

  20. Human rabies: a descriptive observation of 21 children in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Muyila, Delphin I; Aloni, Michel N; Lose-Ekanga, Marie Josée; Nzita, Jules M; Kalala-Mbikay, Alexandre; Bongo, Henri L; Esako, Mathilde N; Malonga-Biapi, Jean Pierre; Mputu-Dibwe, BenoÎt; Aloni, Muriel L; Ekila, Mathilde B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Human rabies has recently emerged as a significant public health threat in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, there is little epidemiological information on human rabies especially in children. Methods: We performed at Pediatrics Department of General Reference hospital of Kinshasa between December 2008 and July 2009, a retrospective study to assess the incidence and to describe their clinical aspects and outcome. Results: A total of 21 cases were observed, rather three cases per month. There were 12 boys (57.1%) and 9 girls (42.9%). Biting animal was found to be dog in all cases (100%). The dog was not immunized in all of cases. On admission, all patients (100%) showed furious rabies manifestations. Only two (9.5%) had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) after the bite incident. Two (9.5%) patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The case-fatality rate was 100%. Conclusions: The disease emerges as a new major public health problem because of a lack of knowledge regarding rabies risk, the poor management of dog bites. Preventative vaccination for rabies should be recommended in the population of Kinshasa, area at high risk to contract rabies, particularly in children. PMID:25417907