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Sample records for kda regulates nucleocytoplasmic

  1. Tumor marker nucleoporin 88 kDa regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport of NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nozomi Kilsdonk, Jeroen W.J. van; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Smeets, Ruben; Bruggeman, Sophia W.M.; Alonso, Angel; Loo, Fons van de; Schneider, Matthias; Berg, Wim B. van den; Swart, Guido W.M.

    2008-09-26

    Nucleoporin 88 kDa (Nup88) is a tumor marker, overexpressed in various types of cancer. In Drosophila Nup88 (mbo) was reported to selectively mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of NF-{kappa}B, an ubiquitous transcription factor involved in immune responses, apoptosis, and cancer. We addressed the function of Nup88 in mammalian cells. Selective depletion of Nup88 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent reporter gene activation and the nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B without affecting the upstream activation pathway in NIH3T3 cells. In contrast, nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptor was not reduced by the depletion of Nup88. In metastatic melanoma cells overexpressing Nup88, constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B was found both in nucleus and cytoplasm. Nup88 depletion in these cells reduced TNF-induced nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B subunits. We conclude that Nup88 regulates the activity of NF-{kappa}B at the level of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Overexpression of Nup88 in tumor cells may, thus be involved in the constitutive NF-{kappa}B activation.

  2. The Importin β Binding Domain as a Master Regulator of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Kaylen; Cingolani, Gino

    2010-01-01

    Specific and efficient recognition of import cargoes is essential to ensure nucleocytoplasmic transport. To this end, the prototypical karyopherin importin β associates with import cargoes directly or, more commonly, through import adaptors, such as importin α and snurportin. Adaptor proteins bind the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of import cargoes while recruiting importin β via an N-terminal importin β binding (IBB) domain. The use of adaptors greatly expands and amplifies the repertoire of cellular cargoes that importin β can efficiently import into the cell nucleus and allows for fine regulation of nuclear import. Accordingly, the IBB-domain is a dedicated NLS, unique to adaptor proteins that functions as a molecular liaison between importin β and import cargoes. This review provides an overview of the molecular role played by the IBB-domain in orchestrating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Recent work has determined that the IBB-domain has specialized functions at every step of the import and export pathway. Unexpectedly, this stretch of ∼40 amino acids plays an essential role in regulating processes such as formation of the import complex, docking and translocation through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), release of import cargoes into the cell nucleus and finally recycling of import adaptors and importin β into the cytoplasm. Thus, the IBB-domain is a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport, whose complex molecular function is only recently beginning to emerge. PMID:21029753

  3. Regulation of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of transcription factor OREBP/TonEBP/NFAT5.

    PubMed

    Tong, Edith H Y; Guo, Jin-Jun; Huang, Ai-Long; Liu, Han; Hu, Chang-Deng; Chung, Stephen S M; Ko, Ben C B

    2006-08-18

    The osmotic response element-binding protein (OREBP), also known as tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) or NFAT5, regulates the hypertonicity-induced expression of a battery of genes crucial for the adaptation of mammalian cells to extracellular hypertonic stress. The activity of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated at multiple levels, including nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. OREBP/TonEBP protein can be detected in both the cytoplasm and nucleus under isotonic conditions, although it accumulates exclusively in the nucleus or cytoplasm when subjected to hypertonic or hypotonic challenges, respectively. Using immunocytochemistry and green fluorescent protein fusions, the protein domains that determine its subcellular localization were identified and characterized. We found that OREBP/TonEBP nuclear import is regulated by a nuclear localization signal. However, under isotonic conditions, nuclear export of OREBP/TonEBP is mediated by a CRM1-dependent, leucine-rich canonical nuclear export sequence (NES) located in the N terminus. Disruption of NES by site-directed mutagenesis yielded a mutant OREBP/TonEBP protein that accumulated in the nucleus under isotonic conditions but remained a target for hypotonicity-induced nuclear export. More importantly, a putative auxiliary export domain distal to the NES was identified. Disruption of the auxiliary export domain alone is sufficient to abolish the nuclear export of OREBP/TonEBP induced by hypotonicity. By using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, we showed that CRM1 interacts with OREBP/TonEBP, but not with a mutant protein deficient in NES. Our findings provide insight into how nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated by changes in extracellular tonicity. PMID:16782704

  4. Salt Stress and Ethylene Antagonistically Regulate Nucleocytoplasmic Partitioning of COP1 to Control Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanwen; Wang, Juan; Shi, Hui; Gu, Juntao; Dong, Jingao; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-04-01

    Seed germination, a critical stage initiating the life cycle of a plant, is severely affected by salt stress. However, the underlying mechanism of salt inhibition of seed germination (SSG) is unclear. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS1 (COP1) counteracts SSG Genetic assays provide evidence that SSG in loss of function of the COP1 mutant was stronger than this in the wild type. A GUS-COP1 fusion was constitutively localized to the nucleus in radicle cells. Salt treatment caused COP1 to be retained in the cytosol, but the addition of ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate had the reverse effect on the translocation of COP1 to the nucleus, revealing that ethylene and salt exert opposite regulatory effects on the localization of COP1 in germinating seeds. However, loss of function of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) mutant impaired the ethylene-mediated rescue of the salt restriction of COP1 to the nucleus. Further research showed that the interaction between COP1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) had a role in SSG Correspondingly, SSG in loss of function of HY5 was suppressed. Biochemical detection showed that salt promoted the stabilization of HY5, whereas ethylene restricted its accumulation. Furthermore, salt treatment stimulated and ethylene suppressed transcription of ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which was directly transcriptionally regulated by HY5. Together, our results reveal that salt stress and ethylene antagonistically regulate nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of COP1, thereby controlling Arabidopsis seed germination via the COP1-mediated down-regulation of HY5 and ABI5. These findings enhance our understanding of the stress response and have great potential for application in agricultural production. PMID:26850275

  5. Senescence-related functional nuclear barrier by down-regulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Young; Ryu, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hong Ju; Choi, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristic natures of senescent cells is the hypo- or irresponsiveness not only to growth factors but also to apoptotic stress. In the present study, we confirmed the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated p-ERK1/2 and NF-kB p50 in response to growth stimuli or LPS in the senescent human diploid fibroblasts. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the senescence-associated hypo-responsiveness, we carried out the comparison study for gene expression profiles through microarray analysis. In consequence, we observed the vast reduction in expression of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in senescent cells, when compared with those in young cells. Expression levels of several nucleoporins, karyopherin {alpha}, karyopherin {beta}, Ran, and Ran-regulating factors were confirmed to be down-regulated in senescent HDFs by using RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Taken together, these data suggest the operation of certain senescence-associated functional nuclear barriers by down-regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in the senescent cells.

  6. The Q-rich/PST domain of the AHR regulates both ligand-induced nuclear transport and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Anna; Henkler, Frank; Brinkmann, Joep; Sowada, Juliane; Genkinger, Doris; Kern, Christian; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) shuttles continuously between cytoplasm and nucleus, unless ligand-binding triggers association with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and subsequent binding to cognate DNA motifs. We have now identified Val 647 as mandatory residue for export from the nucleus and AHR-function. This residue prevents inactivation of the receptor as a consequence of nuclear sequestration via constitutive import. Concomitantly mutants lacking this residue are exclusively localised in the nucleus. Although ligands accelerate nuclear import transiently, stable nuclear transition depends on a motif adjacent to Val 647 that comprises residues 650–661. Together, this defined region within the Q-rich domain regulates intracellular trafficking of the AHR in context of both nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and receptor activation. Nuclear export therefore depends on the previously characterised N-terminal NES and the newly identified motif that includes V647. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of full-length human AHR is further affected by a section of the PST domain that shows sequence similarities with nuclear export signals. In concert, these motifs maintain a predominant cytoplasmic compartmentalisation, receptive for ligand binding. PMID:27535013

  7. The Q-rich/PST domain of the AHR regulates both ligand-induced nuclear transport and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Anna; Henkler, Frank; Brinkmann, Joep; Sowada, Juliane; Genkinger, Doris; Kern, Christian; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) shuttles continuously between cytoplasm and nucleus, unless ligand-binding triggers association with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and subsequent binding to cognate DNA motifs. We have now identified Val 647 as mandatory residue for export from the nucleus and AHR-function. This residue prevents inactivation of the receptor as a consequence of nuclear sequestration via constitutive import. Concomitantly mutants lacking this residue are exclusively localised in the nucleus. Although ligands accelerate nuclear import transiently, stable nuclear transition depends on a motif adjacent to Val 647 that comprises residues 650-661. Together, this defined region within the Q-rich domain regulates intracellular trafficking of the AHR in context of both nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and receptor activation. Nuclear export therefore depends on the previously characterised N-terminal NES and the newly identified motif that includes V647. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of full-length human AHR is further affected by a section of the PST domain that shows sequence similarities with nuclear export signals. In concert, these motifs maintain a predominant cytoplasmic compartmentalisation, receptive for ligand binding. PMID:27535013

  8. p35 Regulates the CRM1-Dependent Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Nuclear Hormone Receptor Coregulator-Interacting Factor 1 (NIF-1)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Su; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chien, Winnie W. Y.; Li, Zhen; Fu, Amy K. Y.; Ip, Nancy Y.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, which plays critical roles in a wide spectrum of neuronal functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity. Cdk5 activity is controlled by its specific activators: p35 or p39. While knockout studies reveal that Cdk5/p35 is critical for neuronal migration during early brain development, functions of Cdk5/p35 have been unraveled through the identification of the interacting proteins of p35, most of which are Cdk5/p35 substrates. However, it remains unclear whether p35 can regulate neuronal functions independent of Cdk5 activity. Here, we report that a nuclear protein, nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC)-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1), is a new interacting partner of p35. Interestingly, p35 regulates the functions of NIF-1 independent of Cdk5 activity. NIF-1 was initially discovered as a transcriptional regulator that enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors. Our results show that p35 interacts with NIF-1 and regulates its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via the nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, we identified a nuclear export signal on p35; mutation of this site or blockade of the CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export pathway resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p35. Intriguingly, blocking the nuclear export of p35 attenuated the nuclear accumulation of NIF-1. These findings reveal a new p35-dependent mechanism in transcriptional regulation that involves the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription regulators. PMID:25329792

  9. Functional insights of nucleocytoplasmic transport in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    Plant nucleocytoplasmic transport beyond the nuclear envelope is important not only for basic cellular functions but also for growth, development, hormonal signaling, and responses to environmental stimuli. Key components of this transport system include nuclear transport receptors and nucleoporins. The functional and physical interactions between receptors and the nuclear pore in the nuclear membrane are indispensable for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Recently, several groups have reported various plant mutants that are deficient in factors involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge about nucleocytoplasmic transport in plants, and we review the plant-specific regulation and roles of this process in plants. PMID:24765097

  10. Osmotic stress alters chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Finan, John D.; Leddy, Holly A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport increases under hyper-osmotic stress. {yields} The mechanism is a change in nuclear geometry, not a change in permeability of the nuclear envelope. {yields} Intracytoplasmic but not intranuclear diffusion is sensitive to osmotic stress. {yields} Pores in the chromatin of the nucleus enlarge under hyper-osmotic stress. -- Abstract: Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of biological function in many cell types, but its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, we examined whether changes in extracellular osmolality can alter chromatin condensation and the rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as potential mechanisms by which osmotic stress can act. Transport of 10 kDa dextran was measured both within and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using two different photobleaching methods. A mathematical model was developed to describe fluorescence recovery via nucleocytoplasmic transport. As osmolality increased, the diffusion coefficient of dextran decreased in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress decreased nuclear size and increased nuclear lacunarity, indicating that while the nucleus was getting smaller, the pores and channels interdigitating the chromatin had expanded. The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport was increased under hyper-osmotic stress but was insensitive to hypo-osmotic stress, consistent with the nonlinear osmotic properties of the nucleus. The mechanism of this osmotic sensitivity appears to be a change in the size and geometry of the nucleus, resulting in a shorter effective diffusion distance for the nucleus. These results may explain physical mechanisms by which osmotic stress can influence intracellular signaling pathways that rely on nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  11. Phosphorylation-regulated Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking of Internalized Fibroblast Growth Factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Więdłocha, Antoni; Nilsen, Trine; Wesche, Jørgen; Sørensen, Vigdis; Małecki, Jędrzej; Marcinkowska, Ewa; Olsnes, Sjur

    2005-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1), which stimulates cell growth, differentiation, and migration, is capable of crossing cellular membranes to reach the cytosol and the nucleus in cells containing specific FGF receptors. The cell entry process can be monitored by phosphorylation of the translocated FGF-1. We present evidence that phosphorylation of FGF-1 occurs in the nucleus by protein kinase C (PKC)δ. The phosphorylated FGF-1 is subsequently exported to the cytosol. A mutant growth factor where serine at the phosphorylation site is exchanged with glutamic acid, to mimic phosphorylated FGF-1, is constitutively transported to the cytosol, whereas a mutant containing alanine at this site remains in the nucleus. The export can be blocked by leptomycin B, indicating active and receptor-mediated nuclear export of FGF-1. Thapsigargin, but not leptomycin B, prevents the appearance of active PKCδ in the nucleus, and FGF-1 is in this case phosphorylated in the cytosol. Leptomycin B increases the amount of phosphorylated FGF-1 in the cells by preventing dephosphorylation of the growth factor, which seems to occur more rapidly in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the phosphorylated growth factor is likely to play a role in the activity of internalized FGF-1. PMID:15574884

  12. GNL3L Is a Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling Protein: Role in Cell Cycle Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Thoompumkal, Indu Jose; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy

    2015-01-01

    GNL3L is an evolutionarily conserved high molecular weight GTP binding nucleolar protein belonging to HSR1-MMR1 subfamily of GTPases. The present investigation reveals that GNL3L is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to Leptomycin B. Deletion mutagenesis reveals that the C-terminal domain (amino acids 501–582) is necessary and sufficient for the export of GNL3L from the nucleus and the exchange of hydrophobic residues (M567, L570 and 572) within the C-terminal domain impairs this process. Results from the protein-protein interaction analysis indicate that GNL3L interaction with CRM1 is critical for its export from the nucleus. Ectopic expression of GNL3L leads to lesser accumulation of cells in the ‘G2/M’ phase of cell cycle whereas depletion of endogenous GNL3L results in ‘G2/M’ arrest. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis followed by BrdU labeling assay indicates that significantly increased DNA synthesis occurs in cells expressing nuclear export defective mutant (GNL3L∆NES) compared to the wild type or nuclear import defective GNL3L. Furthermore, increased hyperphosphorylation of Rb at Serine 780 and the upregulation of E2F1, cyclins A2 and E1 upon ectopic expression of GNL3L∆NES results in faster ‘S’ phase progression. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that GNL3L is exported from the nucleus in CRM1 dependent manner and the nuclear localization of GNL3L is important to promote ‘S’ phase progression during cell proliferation. PMID:26274615

  13. Phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 regulates tonicity-induced osmotic response element-binding protein/tonicity enhancer-binding protein nucleocytoplasmic trafficking.

    PubMed

    Xu, SongXiao; Wong, Catherine C L; Tong, Edith H Y; Chung, Stephen S M; Yates, John R; Yin, YiBing; Ko, Ben C B

    2008-06-20

    The osmotic response element-binding protein (OREBP), also known as tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) or NFAT5, is the only known osmo-sensitive transcription factor that mediates cellular adaptations to extracellular hypertonic stress. Although it is well documented that the subcellular localization and transactivation activity of OREBP/TonEBP are tightly regulated by extracellular tonicity, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we show that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated by the dual phosphorylation of Ser-155 and Ser-158. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Ser-155 is an essential residue that regulates OREBP/TonEBP nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that Ser-155 and Ser-158 of OREBP/TonEBP are both phosphorylated in living cells under hypotonic conditions. In vitro phosphorylation assays further suggest that phosphorylation of the two serine residues proceeds in a hierarchical manner with phosphorylation of Ser-155 priming the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and that these phosphorylations are essential for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the transcription factor. Finally, we have shown that the pharmacological inhibition of casein kinase 1 (CK1) abolishes the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and impedes OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export and that recombinant CK1 phosphorylates Ser-158. Knockdown of CK1alpha1L, a novel isoform of CK1, inhibits hypotonicity-induced OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export. Together these data highlight the importance of Ser-155 and Ser-158 in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP and indicate that CK1 plays a major role in regulating this process. PMID:18411282

  14. Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 1 Regulates Tonicity-induced Osmotic Response Element-binding Protein/Tonicity Enhancer-binding Protein Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, SongXiao; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Tong, Edith H. Y.; Chung, Stephen S. M.; Yates, John R.; Yin, YiBing; Ko, Ben C. B.

    2008-01-01

    The osmotic response element-binding protein (OREBP), also known as tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) or NFAT5, is the only known osmo-sensitive transcription factor that mediates cellular adaptations to extracellular hypertonic stress. Although it is well documented that the subcellular localization and transactivation activity of OREBP/TonEBP are tightly regulated by extracellular tonicity, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we show that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated by the dual phosphorylation of Ser-155 and Ser-158. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Ser-155 is an essential residue that regulates OREBP/TonEBP nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that Ser-155 and Ser-158 of OREBP/TonEBP are both phosphorylated in living cells under hypotonic conditions. In vitro phosphorylation assays further suggest that phosphorylation of the two serine residues proceeds in a hierarchical manner with phosphorylation of Ser-155 priming the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and that these phosphorylations are essential for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the transcription factor. Finally, we have shown that the pharmacological inhibition of casein kinase 1 (CK1) abolishes the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and impedes OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export and that recombinant CK1 phosphorylates Ser-158. Knockdown of CK1α1L, a novel isoform of CK1, inhibits hypotonicity-induced OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export. Together these data highlight the importance of Ser-155 and Ser-158 in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP and indicate that CK1 plays a major role in regulating this process. PMID:18411282

  15. Salt Stress and Ethylene Antagonistically Regulate Nucleocytoplasmic Partitioning of COP1 to Control Seed Germination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hui; Gu, Juntao; Dong, Jingao; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination, a critical stage initiating the life cycle of a plant, is severely affected by salt stress. However, the underlying mechanism of salt inhibition of seed germination (SSG) is unclear. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS1 (COP1) counteracts SSG. Genetic assays provide evidence that SSG in loss of function of the COP1 mutant was stronger than this in the wild type. A GUS-COP1 fusion was constitutively localized to the nucleus in radicle cells. Salt treatment caused COP1 to be retained in the cytosol, but the addition of ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate had the reverse effect on the translocation of COP1 to the nucleus, revealing that ethylene and salt exert opposite regulatory effects on the localization of COP1 in germinating seeds. However, loss of function of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) mutant impaired the ethylene-mediated rescue of the salt restriction of COP1 to the nucleus. Further research showed that the interaction between COP1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) had a role in SSG. Correspondingly, SSG in loss of function of HY5 was suppressed. Biochemical detection showed that salt promoted the stabilization of HY5, whereas ethylene restricted its accumulation. Furthermore, salt treatment stimulated and ethylene suppressed transcription of ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which was directly transcriptionally regulated by HY5. Together, our results reveal that salt stress and ethylene antagonistically regulate nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of COP1, thereby controlling Arabidopsis seed germination via the COP1-mediated down-regulation of HY5 and ABI5. These findings enhance our understanding of the stress response and have great potential for application in agricultural production. PMID:26850275

  16. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK-2) mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and cell growth control of Ras-associated tumor suppressor protein, RASSF2

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Gita; Mahalingam, S.

    2009-10-01

    Ras GTPase controls the normal cell growth through binding with an array of effector molecules, such as Raf and PI3-kinase in a GTP-dependent manner. RASSF2, a member of the Ras association domain family, is known to be involved in the suppression of cell growth and is frequently down-regulated in various tumor tissues by promoter hypermethylation. In the present study, we demonstrate that RASSF2 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm by a signal-mediated process and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to leptomycin B. Amino acids between 240 to 260 in the C-terminus of RASSF2 harbor a functional nuclear export signal (NES), which is necessary and sufficient for efficient export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. Substitution of conserved Ile254, Val257 and Leu259 within the minimal NES impaired RASSF2 export from the nucleus. In addition, wild type but not the nuclear export defective RASSF2 mutant interacts with export receptor, CRM-1 and exported from the nucleus. Surprisingly, we observed nucleolar localization for the nuclear export defective mutant suggesting the possibility that RASSF2 may localize in different cellular compartments transiently in a cell cycle dependent manner and the observed nuclear localization for wild type protein may be due to faster export kinetics from the nucleolus. Furthermore, our data suggest that RASSF2 is specifically phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK-2 and the inhibitors of MAPK pathway impair the phosphorylation and subsequently block the export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. These data clearly suggest that ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of RASSF2. Interestingly, nuclear import defective mutant of RASSF2 failed to induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and apoptosis suggesting that RASSF2 regulates cell growth in a nuclear localization dependent manner. Collectively, these data provided evidence for the first time that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates

  17. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, A H; Silver, P A

    1997-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport is a complex process that consists of the movement of numerous macromolecules back and forth across the nuclear envelope. All macromolecules that move in and out of the nucleus do so via nuclear pore complexes that form large proteinaceous channels in the nuclear envelope. In addition to nuclear pores, nuclear transport of macromolecules requires a number of soluble factors that are found both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. A combination of biochemical, genetic, and cell biological approaches have been used to identify and characterize the various components of the nuclear transport machinery. Recent studies have shown that both import to and export from the nucleus are mediated by signals found within the transport substrates. Several studies have demonstrated that these signals are recognized by soluble factors that target these substrates to the nuclear pore. Once substrates have been directed to the pore, most transport events depend on a cycle of GTP hydrolysis mediated by the small Ras-like GTPase, Ran, as well as other proteins that regulate the guanine nucleotide-bound state of Ran. Many of the essential factors have been identified, and the challenge that remains is to determine the exact mechanism by which transport occurs. This review attempts to present an integrated view of our current understanding of nuclear transport while highlighting the contributions that have been made through studies with genetic organisms such as the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:9184010

  18. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP/p97) Regulated by Its N domain and C-terminal Region

    PubMed Central

    Song, Changcheng; Wang, Qing; Song, Changzheng; Lockett, Stephen J.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Li, Chou-Chi H.; Wang, Ji Ming; Rogers, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Valosin-containing protein (VCP or p97), a member of AAA family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), plays a key role in many important cellular activities. A genetic deficiency of VCP can cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget’s disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). Previous studies showed that the VCP N domain is essential for the regulation of nuclear entry of VCP. Here we report that IBMPFD mutations, which are mainly located in the N domain, suppress the nuclear entry of VCP. Moreover, the peptide sequence G780AGPSQ in the C-terminal region regulates the retention of VCP in the nucleus. A mutant lacking this sequence can increase the nuclear distribution of IBMPFD VCP, suggesting that this sequence is a potential molecular target for correcting the deficient nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of IBMPFD VCP proteins. PMID:25447673

  19. Negative regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression in monocytes: role of the 65-kDa plus 50-kDa NF-kappa B dimer.

    PubMed

    Raziuddin; Mikovits, J A; Calvert, I; Ghosh, S; Kung, H F; Ruscetti, F W

    1991-11-01

    Although monocytic cells can provide a reservoir for viral production in vivo, their regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription can be either latent, restricted, or productive. These differences in gene expression have not been molecularly defined. In THP-1 cells with restricted HIV expression, there is an absence of DNA-protein binding complex formation with the HIV-1 promoter-enhancer associated with markedly less viral RNA production. This absence of binding was localized to the NF-kappa B region of the HIV-1 enhancer; the 65-kDa plus 50-kDa NF-kappa B heterodimer was preferentially lost. Adding purified NF-kappa B protein to nuclear extracts from cells with restricted expression overcomes this lack of binding. In addition, treatment of these nuclear extracts with sodium deoxycholate restored their ability to form the heterodimer, suggesting the presence of an inhibitor of NF-kappa B activity. Furthermore, treatment of nuclear extracts from these cells that had restricted expression with lipopolysaccharide increased viral production and NF-kappa B activity. Antiserum specific for NF-kappa B binding proteins, but not c-rel-specific antiserum, disrupted heterodimer complex formation. Thus, both NF-kappa B-binding complexes are needed for optimal viral transcription. Binding of the 65-kDa plus 50-kDa heterodimer to the HIV-1 enhancer can be negatively regulated in monocytes, providing one mechanism restricting HIV-1 gene expression. PMID:1946356

  20. Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling dynamics of the transcriptional regulators XYR1 and CRE1 under conditions of cellulase and xylanase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Lichius, Alexander; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei is a model for investigating the regulation of (hemi-)cellulase gene expression. Cellulases are formed adaptively, and the transcriptional activator XYR1 and the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 are main regulators of their expression. We quantified the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling dynamics of GFP-fusion proteins of both transcription factors under cellulase and xylanase inducing conditions, and correlated their nuclear presence/absence with transcriptional changes. We also compared their subcellular localization in conidial germlings and mature hyphae. We show that cellulase gene expression requires de novo biosynthesis of XYR1 and its simultaneous nuclear import, whereas carbon catabolite repression is regulated through preformed CRE1 imported from the cytoplasmic pool. Termination of induction immediately stopped cellulase gene transcription and was accompanied by rapid nuclear degradation of XYR1. In contrast, nuclear CRE1 rapidly decreased upon glucose depletion, and became recycled into the cytoplasm. In mature hyphae, nuclei containing activated XYR1 were concentrated in the colony center, indicating that this is the main region of XYR1 synthesis and cellulase transcription. CRE1 was found to be evenly distributed throughout the entire mycelium. Taken together, our data revealed novel aspects of the dynamic shuttling and spatial bias of the major regulator of (hemi-)cellulase gene expression, XYR1, in T. reesei. PMID:25302561

  1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of galectin-3.

    PubMed

    Arnoys, Eric J; Ackerman, Cheri M; Wang, John L

    2015-01-01

    A large number of observations on the nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of galectin-3 have been reported, correlating the presence or absence of the protein in a particular compartment of the cell to various parameters such as source of the cells under study, specific cell type, culture conditions, proliferation status of the cell/culture, or neoplastic transformation. In fact, galectin-3 exhibits the phenomenon of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, defined as the repeated bidirectional movement of a protein across the nuclear pore complex. Nevertheless, the finding that galectin-3 can show a predominantly nuclear localization under one set of conditions and a prominent cytoplasmic localization under other conditions suggests specific and regulated mechanisms of balance between cytoplasmic anchorage, nuclear import, nuclear retention, and nuclear export. One key consideration in the understanding of these processes is the definition of the signals and receptors that mediate the transport. In this chapter, we describe the experimental procedures that have allowed us to document the phenomenon of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the identification of the nuclear localization signal as well as the nuclear export signal. PMID:25253159

  2. Viral Subversion of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Melanie L.; Mata, Miguel A.; Sakthivel, Ramanavelan; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking of proteins and RNA into and out of the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to its critical function in many cellular processes, the NPC and transport factors are common targets of several viruses that disrupt key constituents of the machinery to facilitate viral replication. Many viruses such as poliovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus inhibit protein import into the nucleus, while viruses such as influenza A virus target and disrupt host mRNA nuclear export. Current evidence indicates that these viruses may employ such strategies to avert the host immune response. Conversely, many viruses co-opt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to facilitate transport of viral RNAs. Since viral proteins interact with key regulators of the host nuclear transport machinery, viruses have served as invaluable tools of discovery that led to the identification of novel constituents of nuclear transport pathways. In addition, this review explores the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis as these studies revealed new antiviral therapeutic strategies and exposed previously unknown cellular mechanisms. Further understanding of nuclear transport pathways will determine whether such therapeutics will be useful treatments for important human pathogens. PMID:24289861

  3. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Endocytic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vecchi, Manuela; Polo, Simona; Poupon, Viviane; van de Loo, Jan-Willem; Benmerah, Alexandre; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo

    2001-01-01

    Many cellular processes rely on the ordered assembly of macromolecular structures. Here, we uncover an unexpected link between two such processes, endocytosis and transcription. Many endocytic proteins, including eps15, epsin1, the clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM), and α-adaptin, accumulate in the nucleus when nuclear export is inhibited. Endocytosis and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of endocytic proteins are apparently independent processes, since inhibition of endocytosis did not appreciably alter nuclear translocation of endocytic proteins, and blockade of nuclear export did not change the initial rate of endocytosis. In the nucleus, eps15 and CALM acted as positive modulators of transcription in a GAL4-based transactivation assay, thus raising the intriguing possibility that some endocytic proteins play a direct or indirect role in transcriptional regulation. PMID:11425879

  4. Phospho-regulation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of CrzA in response to calcium and alkaline-pH stress in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ortiz, Patricia; Espeso, Eduardo A

    2013-08-01

    Tolerance to abiotic stresses by microorganisms require of appropriate signalling and regulatory pathways. Calcineurin phosphatases mediate calcium-dependent signalling pathways which are widely distributed among phylogeny. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcineurin mediates the post-translational modification of downstream effectors, most of them transcription factors, being the best-characterized calcineurin-regulated zinc-finger factor 1, Crz1p. Here we study the signalling process of CrzA, a filamentous fungal Crz orthologue, in response to calcium and ambient-pH alkalinization. In Aspergillus nidulans resting cells CrzA locates in the cytoplasm being excluded from nuclei. CrzA is a phospho-protein and upon calcium, manganese or alkaline-pH stresses, accumulates in nuclei in a calcineurin-dependent manner. Functional analysis of CrzA defined the presence of a nuclear-export and two nuclear-localization signals as well as a PSINVE sequence that constitutes the major calcineurin-docking domain. First 450 amino acids of CrzA contain these functional motifs and in this region is where phosphorylated residues locate. Different phosphorylation steps are identified in CrzA and activities of casein kinase 1 homologue, CkiA, and of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, identified for the first time here as GskA, are involved. The phospho-signalling process and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of CrzA shows similarities to those described in yeast for Crz1p homologues and of NFATs in mammals. PMID:23772954

  5. Translocator protein (18 kDa) as a pharmacological target in adipocytes to regulate glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-09-01

    As a major regulator in obesity and its associated metabolic complications, the proper functioning of adipocytes is crucial for health maintenance, thus serving as an important target for the development of anti-obese and anti-diabetic therapies. There is increasing evidence that mitochondrial malfunction is a pivotal event in disturbing adipocyte cell homeostasis. Among major mitochondrial structure components, the high-affinity drug- and cholesterol-binding outer mitochondrial membrane translocator protein (18 kDa; TSPO) has shown importance across a broad spectrum of mitochondrial functions. Recent studies demonstrated the presence of TSPO in white adipocyte mitochondria of mice, and administration of TSPO drug ligands to obese mice reduced weight gain and lowered glucose level. Therefore, it is of great interest to assess whether TSPO in adipocytes could serve as a drug target to regulate adipocyte activities with potential influence on weight control and glucose metabolism. Two structurally distinct TSPO drug ligands, PK 11195 and FGIN-1-27, improved the intracellular dynamics of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, such as the production and release of adipokines, glucose uptake, and adipogenesis. TSPO knockdown in either differentiated adipocytes or preadipocytes impaired these functions. Findings from 3T3-L1 cells were related to human primary cells, where TSPO expression was tightly associated with the metabolic state of primary adipocytes and the differentiation of primary preadipocytes. These results suggest that TSPO expression is essential to safeguard healthy adipocyte functions, and that TSPO activation in adipocytes improves their metabolic status in regulating glucose homeostasis. Adipocyte TSPO may serve as a pharmacologic target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:26123521

  6. A diurnally regulated dehydrin from Avicennia marina that shows nucleo-cytoplasmic localization and is phosphorylated by Casein kinase II in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Preeti A; Rebala, Keerthi C; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2009-08-01

    Dehydrins have a key role in protecting plants from dehydration stress. We report here the isolation of two cDNAs coding for the same dehydrin, AmDHN1 and AmDHN1a from salt stressed leaves of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. by EST library screening. AmDHN1 was found to contain a retained intron that was absent in AmDHN1a. AmDHN1 expression in the context of various environmental stresses was investigated. In leaves, AmDHN1 shows a diurnal pattern of regulation and is induced only by mannitol application. In roots, AmDHN1 is rapidly induced by salinity (NaCl) and dehydration stress (PEG and mannitol). A fragment of 795 bp corresponding to the 5' upstream region of AmDHN1 was isolated by TAIL-PCR. In silico analysis of this sequence reveals the presence of putative stress regulatory elements (ABRE, DRE, MYB and MYC binding sequences). Putative phosphorylation sites for Casein kinase II were identified in the AmDHN1a ORF. In vitro phosphorylation of Escherichia coli expressed Trx-AmDHN1a by Casein kinase II was observed that was reversed by Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase treatment. A putative nuclear targeting domain was identified in the translated AmDHN1a ORF and stably transformed AmDHNIa-GFP was found to show nucleo-cytoplasmic localization in tobacco guard cells. As observed for maize Rab 17, the phosphorylation of AmDHN1a may contribute to its nuclear localization. PMID:19398349

  7. A novel nuclear localization signal in the auxiliary domain of apobec-1 complementation factor regulates nucleocytoplasmic import and shuttling.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Valerie; Kennedy, Susan; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2003-10-17

    C to U editing of the nuclear apolipoprotein B (apoB) transcript is mediated by a core enzyme containing a catalytic deaminase, apobec-1, and an RNA binding subunit, apobec-1 complementation factor (ACF). ACF expression is predominantly nuclear, including mutant proteins with deletions of a putative nuclear localization signal. We have now identified a novel 41-residue motif (ANS) in the auxiliary domain of ACF that functions as an authentic nuclear localization signal. ANS-green fluorescence protein and ANS-beta-galactosidase chimeras were both expressed exclusively in the nucleus, whereas wild-type chimeras or an ACF deletion mutant lacking the ANS were cytoplasmic. Nuclear accumulation of ACF is transcription-dependent, temperature-sensitive, and reversible, features reminiscent of a shuttling protein. ACF relocates to the cytoplasm after actinomycin D treatment, an effect blocked by the CRM1 inhibitor leptomycin B. Heterokaryon assays confirmed directly that ACF shuttles in vivo. ACF binds to the protein carrier, transportin 2 in vivo, and colocalizes to the nucleus as determined by confocal microscopy. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that transportin 2 binds directly to the ANS motif. These data suggest that directed nuclear localization and compartmentalization of the core complex of the apoB RNA editing enzyme is regulated through a dominant targeting sequence (ANS) contained within ACF. PMID:12896982

  8. Molecular Pathways: Anticancer Activity by Inhibition of Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Fabio; Wang, Yisong; Rodriguez, Jose A; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Zhang, Yu-Wen; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2015-10-15

    A dynamic distribution between nucleus and cytoplasm (nucleocytoplasmic shuttling) is one of the control mechanisms adapted by normal cells to regulate the activity of a variety of molecules. Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is involved in promoting abnormal cell survival, tumor progression, and drug resistance, and is associated with poor cancer prognosis. Aberrant nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in cancer cells may result from a hyperactive status of diverse signal-transduction pathways, such as the PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways, or from alterations in the general nuclear import/export machinery. Among the large number of molecules involved in the shuttling process, exportin XPO1, also known as chromosome region maintenance 1, appears to play a particularly prominent role in pathogenesis of both hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Given the importance of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in cancer pathogenesis and the rapidly expanding knowledge in this field, attempts have been made to develop compounds able to revert the aberrant nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. A promising new drug, KPT-330 (Selinexor), which belongs to the class of XPO1 inhibitors called selective inhibitors of nuclear export, is now being tested in phase I/II clinical trials. PMID:26324742

  9. Divergent regulation by growth factors and cytokines of 95 kDa and 72 kDa gelatinases and tissue inhibitors or metalloproteinases-1, -2, and -3 in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, R P; Baker, A H; Murray, E J; Booth, R F; Newby, A C

    1996-04-01

    The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during neointima formation in atherosclerosis and angioplasty restenosis is mediated by certain growth factors and cytokines, one action of which may be to promote basement-membrane degradation. To test this hypothesis further, the effects of such growth factors and cytokines on the synthesis of two basement-membrane-degrading metalloproteinases, namely the 72 kDa gelatinase (MMP-2, gelatinase A) and the 95 kDa gelatinase (MMP-9, gelatinase B) and three tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was studied in primary cultured rabbit aortic SMCs. Expression of the 95 kDa gelatinase was increased by phorbol myristate acetate, foetal calf serum, thrombin and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha); platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB alone had no effect but acted synergistically with IL-1alpha. A selective protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, abolished induction of the 95 kDa gelatinase. In contrast, none of the agents tested modulated the synthesis of the 72 kDa gelatinase. We conclude that maximal up-regulation of 95 kDa gelatinase expression requires the concerted action of growth factors and inflammatory cytokines mediated, in part, by a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were highly expressed, and their synthesis was not affected by growth factors or cytokines. Expression of TIMP-3 mRNAs was, however, increased by PDGF and transforming growth factor beta, especially in combination. Divergent regulation of gelatinase and TIMP expression implies that either net synthesis or net degradation of basement membrane can be mediated by appropriate combinations of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:8670128

  10. Divergent regulation by growth factors and cytokines of 95 kDa and 72 kDa gelatinases and tissue inhibitors or metalloproteinases-1, -2, and -3 in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fabunmi, R P; Baker, A H; Murray, E J; Booth, R F; Newby, A C

    1996-01-01

    The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during neointima formation in atherosclerosis and angioplasty restenosis is mediated by certain growth factors and cytokines, one action of which may be to promote basement-membrane degradation. To test this hypothesis further, the effects of such growth factors and cytokines on the synthesis of two basement-membrane-degrading metalloproteinases, namely the 72 kDa gelatinase (MMP-2, gelatinase A) and the 95 kDa gelatinase (MMP-9, gelatinase B) and three tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was studied in primary cultured rabbit aortic SMCs. Expression of the 95 kDa gelatinase was increased by phorbol myristate acetate, foetal calf serum, thrombin and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha); platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB alone had no effect but acted synergistically with IL-1alpha. A selective protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, abolished induction of the 95 kDa gelatinase. In contrast, none of the agents tested modulated the synthesis of the 72 kDa gelatinase. We conclude that maximal up-regulation of 95 kDa gelatinase expression requires the concerted action of growth factors and inflammatory cytokines mediated, in part, by a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were highly expressed, and their synthesis was not affected by growth factors or cytokines. Expression of TIMP-3 mRNAs was, however, increased by PDGF and transforming growth factor beta, especially in combination. Divergent regulation of gelatinase and TIMP expression implies that either net synthesis or net degradation of basement membrane can be mediated by appropriate combinations of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:8670128

  11. [PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF NEW COMPOUNDS ACTING AS REGULATORS OF 18-KDA TRANSLOCATOR PROTEIN LIGANDS].

    PubMed

    Yarkov, S A; Mokrov, G V; Gudasheva, T A; Yarkova, M A; Seredenin, S B

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of new original 1-arylpyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-3-carboxamide derivatives with mitochondrial translocator protein (MTP) 18 kDa has been studied by radioligand binding assay. Compounds GML-1 (Ki = 5.2 x 10⁻⁸ M) and GML-3 (Ki = 5.3 x 10⁻⁷ M) exhibit high binding affinity for MTP. GML-1 and GML-3 in a dose range of 0.1-1 mg/kg (i.p.) demonstrated anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test in CD-1 mice, which were blocked by the MTP selective antagonist PK11195. The data obtained on the molecular target, anxiolytic-like effects and low toxicity GML-1 and GML-3 suggest that these compounds are promising for further investigation as anxiolytics. PMID:27159950

  12. Chlorophyll antenna proteins of photosystem I: topology, synthesis, and regulation of the 20-kDa subunit of Chlamydomonas light-harvesting complex of photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, D.L.; Plumley, F.G.; Ikeuchi, M.; Michaels, A.S.; Schmidt, G.W.

    1987-05-01

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) was isolated from wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; the Chl a/b-protein complex contains four major polypeptides of approximately 27, 26, 24, and 20 kDa (polypeptides 14, 15, 17.2, and 22, respectively, in the nomenclature for Chlamydomonas thylakoid proteins). Antiserum against the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI was prepared and used to determine the membrane topology, subcellular site of synthesis, and cell-cycle regulation of this polypeptide. The results indicate that the 20-kDa subunit as well as the other major LHCI polypeptides are integral membrane proteins. Moreover, protease digestion experiments reveal that the 20-kDa polypeptide is completely protected by the membrane bilayer but the 27- and 26-kDa LHCI polypeptides are exposed at the membrane surface. In vivo synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is sensitive to cycloheximide but not to chloramphenicol; the form of the polypeptide recovered from in vitro translations of polyadenylated RNA is approximately 24 kDa, 4 kDa larger than the mature polypeptide. It is concluded that this LHCI polypeptide is nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor. Synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is restricted to the light period in light-dark synchronized cells. Translatable mRNA for this polypeptide accumulates during the light but levels are dramatically reduced during the dark period. Thus, synthesis of the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI appears to be transcriptionally regulated during the cell cycle.

  13. Chlorophyll antenna proteins of photosystem I: topology, synthesis, and regulation of the 20-kDa subunit of Chlamydomonas light-harvesting complex of photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Herrin, D L; Plumley, F G; Ikeuchi, M; Michaels, A S; Schmidt, G W

    1987-05-01

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) was isolated from wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; the Chl a/b-protein complex contains four major polypeptides of approximately 27, 26, 24, and 20 kDa (polypeptides 14, 15, 17.2, and 22, respectively, in the nomenclature for Chlamydomonas thylakoid proteins). Antiserum against the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI was prepared and used to determine the membrane topology, subcellular site of synthesis, and cell-cycle regulation of this polypeptide. The results indicate that the 20-kDa subunit as well as the other major LHCI polypeptides are integral membrane proteins. Moreover, protease digestion experiments reveal that the 20-kDa polypeptide is completely protected by the membrane bilayer but the 27- and 26-kDa LHCI polypeptides are exposed at the membrane surface. In vivo synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is sensitive to cycloheximide but not to chloramphenicol; the form of the polypeptide recovered from in vitro translations of polyadenylated RNA is approximately 24 kDa, 4 kDa larger than the mature polypeptide. It is concluded that this LHCI polypeptide is nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor. Synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is restricted to the light period in light-dark synchronized cells. Translatable mRNA for this polypeptide accumulates during the light but levels are dramatically reduced during the dark period. Thus, synthesis of the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI appears to be transcriptionally regulated during the cell cycle. PMID:3555343

  14. Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) Is Regulated in White and Brown Adipose Tissue by Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Misty M.; Manning, H. Charles; Ellacott, Kate L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is an outer-mitochondrial membrane transporter which has many functions including participation in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), production of cellular energy, and is the rate-limiting step in the uptake of cholesterol. TSPO expression is dysregulated during disease pathologies involving changes in tissue energy demands such as cancer, and is up-regulated in activated macrophages during the inflammatory response. Obesity is associated with decreased energy expenditure, mitochondrial dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation which collectively contribute to the development of the Metabolic Syndrome. Therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of TSPO in adipose tissue may be a feature of disease pathology in obesity. Radioligand binding studies revealed a significant reduction in TSPO ligand binding sites in mitochondrial extracts from both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mouse models of obesity (diet-induced and genetic) compared to control animals. We also confirmed a reduction in TSPO gene expression in whole tissue extracts from WAT and BAT. Immunohistochemistry in WAT confirmed TSPO expression in adipocytes but also revealed high-levels of TSPO expression in WAT macrophages in obese animals. No changes in TSPO expression were observed in WAT or BAT after a 17 hour fast or 4 hour cold exposure. Treatment of mice with the TSPO ligand PK11195 resulted in regulation of metabolic genes in WAT. Together, these results suggest a potential role for TSPO in mediating adipose tissue homeostasis. PMID:24260329

  15. Insulin receptor substrate protein 53kDa (IRSp53) is a negative regulator of myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ashish; George, Bhawana; Rajmohan, Rajamuthiah; Jain, Neeraj; Wong, Ming Hwa; Kambadur, Ravi; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2012-06-01

    Fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to generate multinucleated myotubes is a critical step in skeletal muscle development. Filopodia, the actin cytoskeleton based membrane protrusions, have been observed early during myoblast fusion, indicating that they could play a direct role in myogenic differentiation. The control of filopodia formation in myoblasts remains poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of IRSp53 (Insulin Receptor Substrate protein 53kDa), a known regulator of filopodia formation, is down-regulated during differentiation of both mouse primary myoblasts and a mouse myoblast cell line C2C12. Over-expression of IRSp53 in C2C12 cells led to induction of filopodia and decrease in cell adhesion, concomitantly with inhibition of myogenic differentiation. In contrast, knocking down the IRSp53 expression in C2C12 cells led to a small but significant increase in myotube development. The decreased cell adhesion of C2C12 cells over-expressing IRSp53 is correlated with a reduction in the number of vinculin patches in these cells. Mutations in the conserved IMD domain (IRSp53 and MIM (missing in metastasis) homology domain) or SH3 domain of IRSp53 abolished the ability of this protein to inhibit myogenic differentiation and reduce cell adhesion. Over-expression of the IMD domain alone was sufficient to decrease the cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and to inhibit myogenesis in a manner dependent on its function in membrane shaping. Based on our data, we propose that IRSp53 is a negative regulator of myogenic differentiation which correlates with the observed down regulation of IRSp53 expression during myoblast differentiation to myotubes. PMID:22465711

  16. Regulation of Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) Expression in Rat and Human Male Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Manku, Gurpreet; Culty, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a high affinity cholesterol- and drug-binding protein highly expressed in steroidogenic cells, such as Leydig cells, where it plays a role in cholesterol mitochondrial transport. We have previously shown that TSPO is expressed in postnatal day 3 rat gonocytes, precursors of spermatogonial stem cells. Gonocytes undergo regulated phases of proliferation and migration, followed by retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation. Understanding these processes is important since their disruption may lead to the formation of carcinoma in situ, a precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). Previously, we showed that TSPO ligands do not regulate gonocyte proliferation. In the present study, we found that TSPO expression is downregulated in differentiating gonocytes. Similarly, in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, a mouse TGCT cell line with embryonic stem cell properties, there is a significant decrease in TSPO expression during RA-induced differentiation. Silencing TSPO expression in gonocytes increased the stimulatory effect of RA on the expression of the differentiation marker Stra8, suggesting that TSPO exerts a repressive role on differentiation. Furthermore, in normal human testes, TSPO was located not only in Leydig cells, but also in discrete spermatogenic phases such as the forming acrosome of round spermatids. By contrast, seminomas, the most common type of TGCT, presented high levels of TSPO mRNA. TSPO protein was expressed in the cytoplasmic compartment of seminoma cells, identified by their nuclear expression of the transcription factors OCT4 and AP2G. Thus, TSPO appears to be tightly regulated during germ cell differentiation, and to be deregulated in seminomas, suggesting a role in germ cell development and pathology. PMID:27608010

  17. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Activates Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase but Not Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase through a 100-kDa Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Cottom, Joshua; Salvador, Lisa M.; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Reierstad, Scott; Park, Youngkyu; Carr, Daniel W.; Davare, Monika A.; Hell, Johannes W.; Palmer, Stephen S.; Dent, Paul; Kawakatsu, Hisaaki; Ogata, Masato; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this report we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor signals to promote activation of the p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) in granulosa cells. Results show that the ERK kinase MEK and upstream intermediates Raf-1, Ras, Src, and L-type Ca2+ channels are already partially activated in vehicle-treated cells and that FSH does not further activate them. This tonic stimulatory pathway appears to be restrained at the level of ERK by a 100-kDa phosphotyrosine phosphatase that associates with ERK in vehicle-treated cells and promotes dephosphorylation of its regulatory Tyr residue, resulting in ERK inactivation. FSH promotes the phosphorylation of this phosphotyrosine phosphatase and its dissociation from ERK, relieving ERK from inhibition and resulting in its activation by the tonic stimulatory pathway and consequent translocation to the nucleus. Consistent with this premise, FSH-stimulated ERK activation is inhibited by the cell-permeable protein kinase A-specific inhibitor peptide Myr-PKI as well as by inhibitors of MEK, Src, a Ca2+ channel blocker, and chelation of extracellular Ca2+. These results suggest that FSH stimulates ERK activity in immature granulosa cells by relieving an inhibition imposed by a 100-kDa phosphotyrosine phosphatase. PMID:12493768

  18. Perturbation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport affects size of nucleus and nucleolus in human cells.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Abira; Bhattacharjee, Chumki; Bhave, Madhura; Kailaje, Vaishali; Jain, Bhawik K; Sengupta, Isha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

    2016-03-01

    Size regulation of human cell nucleus and nucleolus are poorly understood subjects. 3D reconstruction of live image shows that the karyoplasmic ratio (KR) increases by 30-80% in transformed cell lines compared to their immortalized counterpart. The attenuation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport causes the KR value to increase by 30-50% in immortalized cell lines. Nucleolus volumes are significantly increased in transformed cell lines and the attenuation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport causes a significant increase in the nucleolus volume of immortalized cell lines. A cytosol and nuclear fraction swapping experiment emphasizes the potential role of unknown cytosolic factors in nuclear and nucleolar size regulation. PMID:26813731

  19. Identification of 30 kDa calsequestrin-binding protein, which regulates calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, N; Kasai, M

    1998-01-01

    In a previous study [Yamaguchi, Kawasaki and Kasai (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 648-653], we showed that the stilbene derivative 4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid activates the Ca2+ channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in rabbit skeletal muscle, and it does not bind to the channel protein itself but to the SR 30 kDa protein. Furthermore, the 30 kDa protein was shown to bind to calsequestrin (CSQ), which is one of the regulators of the Ca2+ release channel in the SR. In the present study, we determined the partial amino acid sequence of the CSQ-binding 30 kDa protein and, consequently, this protein was proved to be highly similar to ADP/ATP translocase (AAT) expressed in the mitochondria in a variety of cells. By Western-blotting analysis, the CSQ-binding 30 kDa protein was recognized by the antibody raised against bovine cardiac AAT and, furthermore, depolarization-induced Ca2+ release monitored in the rabbit skeletal muscle triads was significantly activated by the antibody. As a result of cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding AAT of the rabbit skeletal muscle, the amino acid sequence was found to be the same as that of the CSQ-binding 30 kDa protein determined above. Furthermore, the expressed product of the cDNA encoding AAT in Escherichia coli was proved to bind to CSQ. These results suggest that AAT itself is expressed in the rabbit skeletal muscle SR and regulates the Ca2+ release from the SR; that is, excitation-contraction coupling of the skeletal muscle cell. PMID:9794793

  20. Nucleocytoplasmic transfer of the NF2 tumor suppressor protein merlin is regulated by exon 2 and a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal in exon 15.

    PubMed

    Kressel, Michael; Schmucker, Beatrice

    2002-09-15

    The neurofibromatosis 2 protein merlin is a classical tumor suppressor protein. Germline mutations predispose to the development of schwannomas, meningiomas and ependymomas. Merlin has been implicated in cellular migration and adhesion. This function is reflected in its subcellular localization at the plasma membrane and known interacting partners. Merlin has been regarded as an exception in not exerting a functional role within the nucleus as other tumor suppressors do. Here, we show that detection of wild-type protein in the nucleus is a rare event. However, splicing out of exon 2 leads to unrestricted entry into the nucleus. Skipping of adjacent exon 3 has no comparable effect ruling out an unspecific effect due to misfolding of the 4.1/JEF domain. Exon 2 functions as a cytoplasmic retention factor as it is able to confer sole cytoplasmic localization to a GFP fusion protein. Nuclear entry of merlin is thus regulated by alternative splicing within the 4.1/JEF domain and analogous to band 4.1 protein. Merlin's ability to enter the nucleus is complemented by a full nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttle protein with a functional Rev-type nuclear export sequence (NES) within exon 15 that facilitates export via the CRM1/exportin pathway. Deletion of this NES or treatment with the CRM1-specific inhibitor leptomycin B leads to overall nuclear accumulation of merlin isoforms missing exon 2. A cellular function different to the wild-type protein is implied for naturally occurring splice variants lacking exon 2. A putative effect of merlin as a transcriptional regulator and identification of nuclear binding partners remains to be elucidated. PMID:12217955

  1. Acetylation-deacetylation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) regulates its transcriptional activity and nucleocytoplasmic localization.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yumiko; Garduño, Lakisha; Theodore, Melanie; Yang, Jianqi; Arinze, Ifeanyi J

    2011-03-01

    Activation of Nrf2 by covalent modifications that release it from its inhibitor protein Keap1 has been extensively documented. In contrast, covalent modifications that may regulate its action after its release from Keap1 have received little attention. Here we show that CREB-binding protein induced acetylation of Nrf2, increased binding of Nrf2 to its cognate response element in a target gene promoter, and increased Nrf2-dependent transcription from target gene promoters. Heterologous sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) decreased acetylation of Nrf2 as well as Nrf2-dependent gene transcription, and its effects were overridden by dominant negative SIRT1 (SIRT1-H355A). The SIRT1-selective inhibitors EX-527 and nicotinamide stimulated Nrf2-dependent gene transcription, whereas resveratrol, a putative activator of SIRT1, was inhibitory, mimicking the effect of SIRT1. Mutating lysine to alanine or to arginine at Lys(588) and Lys(591) of Nrf2 resulted in decreased Nrf2-dependent gene transcription and abrogated the transcription-activating effect of CREB-binding protein. Furthermore, SIRT1 had no effect on transcription induced by these mutants, indicating that these sites are acetylation sites. Microscope imaging of GFP-Nrf2 in HepG2 cells as well as immunoblotting for Nrf2 showed that acetylation conditions resulted in increased nuclear localization of Nrf2, whereas deacetylation conditions enhanced its cytoplasmic rather than its nuclear localization. We posit that Nrf2 in the nucleus undergoes acetylation, resulting in binding, with basic-region leucine zipper protein(s), to the antioxidant response element and consequently in gene transcription, whereas deacetylation disengages it from the antioxidant response element, thereby resulting in transcriptional termination and subsequently in its nuclear export. PMID:21196497

  2. The C9orf72 repeat expansion disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Donnelly, Christopher J; Haeusler, Aaron R; Grima, Jonathan C; Machamer, James B; Steinwald, Peter; Daley, Elizabeth L; Miller, Sean J; Cunningham, Kathleen M; Vidensky, Svetlana; Gupta, Saksham; Thomas, Michael A; Hong, Ingie; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Huganir, Richard L; Ostrow, Lyle W; Matunis, Michael J; Wang, Jiou; Sattler, Rita; Lloyd, Thomas E; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2015-09-01

    The hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) GGGGCC (G4C2) in C9orf72 is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Recent studies support an HRE RNA gain-of-function mechanism of neurotoxicity, and we previously identified protein interactors for the G4C2 RNA including RanGAP1. A candidate-based genetic screen in Drosophila expressing 30 G4C2 repeats identified RanGAP (Drosophila orthologue of human RanGAP1), a key regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as a potent suppressor of neurodegeneration. Enhancing nuclear import or suppressing nuclear export of proteins also suppresses neurodegeneration. RanGAP physically interacts with HRE RNA and is mislocalized in HRE-expressing flies, neurons from C9orf72 ALS patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-derived neurons), and in C9orf72 ALS patient brain tissue. Nuclear import is impaired as a result of HRE expression in the fly model and in C9orf72 iPSC-derived neurons, and these deficits are rescued by small molecules and antisense oligonucleotides targeting the HRE G-quadruplexes. Nucleocytoplasmic transport defects may be a fundamental pathway for ALS and FTD that is amenable to pharmacotherapeutic intervention. PMID:26308891

  3. The C9ORF72 repeat expansion disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport

    PubMed Central

    Haeusler, Aaron R.; Grima, Jonathan C.; Machamer, James B.; Steinwald, Peter; Daley, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Sean J.; Cunningham, Kathleen M.; Vidensky, Svetlana; Gupta, Saksham; Thomas, Michael A.; Hong, Ingie; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Huganir, Richard L.; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Matunis, Michael J.; Wang, Jiou; Sattler, Rita

    2016-01-01

    A GGGGCC (G4C2) hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in C9ORF72 is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Recent studies support an HRE RNA gain-of-function mechanism of neurotoxicity, and we previously identified protein interactors for the G4C2 RNA including RanGAP1. A candidate-based genetic screen in Drosophila expressing 30 G4C2 repeats identified RanGAP (Drosophila ortholog of human RanGAP1), a key regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as a potent suppressor of neurodegeneration. Enhancing nuclear import or suppressing nuclear export of proteins also suppresses neurodegeneration. RanGAP physically interacts with HRE RNA and is mislocalized in HRE-expressing flies, neurons from C9ORF72 ALS patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSNs), and in C9ORF72 patient brain tissue. Nuclear import is impaired as a result of HRE expression in the fly model and in C9ORF72 iPSNs, and these deficits are rescued by small molecules and antisense oligonucleotides targeting the HRE G-quadruplexes. Nucleocytoplasmic transport defects may be a fundamental pathway for ALS and FTD amenable to pharmacotherapeutic intervention. PMID:26308891

  4. Introduction to nucleocytoplasmic transport: molecules and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Peters, Reiner

    2006-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport, the exchange of matter between nucleus and cytoplasm, plays a fundamental role in human and other eukaryotic cells, affecting almost every aspect of health and disease. The only gate for the transport of small and large molecules as well as supramolecular complexes between nucleus and cytoplasm is the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The NPC is not a normal membrane transport protein (transporter). Composed of 500 to 1000 peptide chains, the NPC features a mysterious functional duality. For most molecules, it constitutes a molecular sieve with a blurred cutoff at approx 10 nm, but for molecules binding to phenylalanine-glycine (FG) motifs, the NPC appears to be a channel of approx 50 nm diameter, permitting bidirectional translocation at high speed. To achieve this, the NPC cooperates with soluble factors, the nuclear transport receptors, which shuttle between nuclear contents and cytoplasm. Here, we provide a short introduction to nucleocytoplasmic transport by describing first the structure and composition of the nuclear pore complex. Then, mechanisms of nucleocytoplasmic transport are discussed. Finally, the still essentially unresolved mechanisms by which nuclear transport receptors and transport complexes are translocated through the nuclear pore complex are considered, and a novel translocation model is suggested. PMID:16739728

  5. Transcription factor (TF)-like nuclear regulator, the 250-kDa form of Homo sapiens TFIIIB", is an essential component of human TFIIIC1 activity.

    PubMed

    Weser, Stephan; Gruber, Christin; Hafner, Heike M; Teichmann, Martin; Roeder, Robert G; Seifart, Klaus H; Meissner, Wolfgang

    2004-06-25

    The general human RNA polymerase III transcription factor (TF) IIIC1 has hitherto been ill defined with respect to the polypeptides required for reconstitution of its activity. Here we identify Homo sapiens TFIIIB" (HsBdp1) as an essential component of hTFIIIC1 and hTFIIIC1-like activities. Several forms of HsBdp1 are described. The 250-kDa form of HsBdp1, also designated the "transcription factor-like nuclear regulator," strictly co-eluted with TFIIIC1 activity over multiple chromatographic purification steps as revealed by Western blot with anti-HsBdp1 antibodies and by MALDI-TOF analysis. In addition, TFIIIC1 activity could be depleted from partially purified fractions with anti-HsBdp1 antibodies but not with control antibodies. Moreover, highly purified recombinant HsBdp1 could replace TFIIIC1 activity in reconstituted transcription of the VAI gene in vitro. Furthermore, smaller proteins of approximately 90-150 kDa that were recognized by anti-HsBdp1 antibodies co-eluted with TFIIIC1-like activity. Finally, cytoplasmic extracts from differentiated mouse F9 fibroblast cells that lacked TFIIIC1 activity could be made competent for transcription of the VA1 gene by the addition of TFIIIC1, TFIIIC1-like, or recombinant HsBdp1. These results suggest that HsBdp1 proteins represent essential components of TFIIIC1 and TFIIIC1-like activities. PMID:15096501

  6. Discovery of a nucleocytoplasmic O-mannose glycoproteome in yeast.

    PubMed

    Halim, Adnan; Larsen, Ida Signe Bohse; Neubert, Patrick; Joshi, Hiren Jitendra; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Strahl, Sabine; Clausen, Henrik

    2015-12-22

    Dynamic cycling of N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) on serine and threonine residues (O-GlcNAcylation) is an essential process in all eukaryotic cells except yeast, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. O-GlcNAcylation modulates signaling and cellular processes in an intricate interplay with protein phosphorylation and serves as a key sensor of nutrients by linking the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway to cellular signaling. A longstanding conundrum has been how yeast survives without O-GlcNAcylation in light of its similar phosphorylation signaling system. We previously developed a sensitive lectin enrichment and mass spectrometry workflow for identification of the human O-linked mannose (O-Man) glycoproteome and used this to identify a pleothora of O-Man glycoproteins in human cell lines including the large family of cadherins and protocadherins. Here, we applied the workflow to yeast with the aim to characterize the yeast O-Man glycoproteome, and in doing so, we discovered hitherto unknown O-Man glycosites on nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial proteins in S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Such O-Man glycoproteins were not found in our analysis of human cell lines. However, the type of yeast O-Man nucleocytoplasmic proteins and the localization of identified O-Man residues mirror that of the O-GlcNAc glycoproteome found in other eukaryotic cells, indicating that the two different types of O-glycosylations serve the same important biological functions. The discovery opens for exploration of the enzymatic machinery that is predicted to regulate the nucleocytoplasmic O-Man glycosylations. It is likely that manipulation of this type of O-Man glycosylation will have wide applications for yeast bioprocessing. PMID:26644575

  7. Discovery of a nucleocytoplasmic O-mannose glycoproteome in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Adnan; Larsen, Ida Signe Bohse; Neubert, Patrick; Joshi, Hiren Jitendra; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Strahl, Sabine; Clausen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic cycling of N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) on serine and threonine residues (O-GlcNAcylation) is an essential process in all eukaryotic cells except yeast, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. O-GlcNAcylation modulates signaling and cellular processes in an intricate interplay with protein phosphorylation and serves as a key sensor of nutrients by linking the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway to cellular signaling. A longstanding conundrum has been how yeast survives without O-GlcNAcylation in light of its similar phosphorylation signaling system. We previously developed a sensitive lectin enrichment and mass spectrometry workflow for identification of the human O-linked mannose (O-Man) glycoproteome and used this to identify a pleothora of O-Man glycoproteins in human cell lines including the large family of cadherins and protocadherins. Here, we applied the workflow to yeast with the aim to characterize the yeast O-Man glycoproteome, and in doing so, we discovered hitherto unknown O-Man glycosites on nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial proteins in S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Such O-Man glycoproteins were not found in our analysis of human cell lines. However, the type of yeast O-Man nucleocytoplasmic proteins and the localization of identified O-Man residues mirror that of the O-GlcNAc glycoproteome found in other eukaryotic cells, indicating that the two different types of O-glycosylations serve the same important biological functions. The discovery opens for exploration of the enzymatic machinery that is predicted to regulate the nucleocytoplasmic O-Man glycosylations. It is likely that manipulation of this type of O-Man glycosylation will have wide applications for yeast bioprocessing. PMID:26644575

  8. Potassium-3-beta-hydroxy-20-oxopregn-5-en-17-alpha-yl sulfate: a novel inhibitor of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Nizar M; Al-Balas, Qosay A; Alzoubi, Karem H; AlEjielat, Rowan F

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the central role of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in colorectal cancer (CRC) survival and chemoresistance. In the present study, we aimed to design a GRP78 inhibitor and test its potential to inhibit CRC cells growth. Materials and methods Computer-aided drug design was used to establish novel compounds as potential inhibitors of GRP78. Discovery Studio 3.5 software was used to evaluate a series of designed compounds and assess their mode of binding to the active site of the protein. The cytotoxicity of the designed compounds was evaluated using the MTT assay and the propidium iodide method. The effect of the inhibitor on the expression of GRP78 was evaluated by immunoblotting. Results Among the designed compounds, only potassium-3-beta-hydroxy-20-oxopregn-5-en-17-alpha-yl sulfate (PHOS) has a potential to inhibit the growth of CRC cells. Inhibition of cellular growth was largely attributed to downregulation of GRP78 and induction of apoptotic cell death. Conclusion These results introduce PHOS as a promising GRP78 inhibitor that could be used in future studies as a combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of CRC patients. Our ongoing studies aim to characterize PHOS safety profile as well as its mechanism of action. PMID:26893572

  9. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the progesterone receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Guiochon-Mantel, A; Lescop, P; Christin-Maitre, S; Loosfelt, H; Perrot-Applanat, M; Milgrom, E

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear localization of the progesterone receptor is mediated by two signal sequences: one is constitutive and lies in the hinge region (between the DNA and steroid binding domains), the other is hormone dependent and is localized in the second zinc finger of the DNA binding domain. The use of various inhibitors of energy synthesis in cells expressing permanently or transiently the wild-type receptor or a receptor mutated within the nuclear localization signals, demonstrated that the nuclear residency of the receptor reflects a dynamic situation: the receptor diffusing into the cytoplasm and being constantly and actively transported back into the nucleus. The existence of this nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttle mechanism was confirmed by receptor transfer from one nucleus to the other in heterokaryons. Preliminary evidence was obtained, using oestrogen receptor, that this phenomenon may be of general significance for steroid receptors. Images PMID:1935904

  10. Hepatitis B virus enhances cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity via a mechanism involving suppression of glucose-regulated protein of 78 Kda.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Rui; Yang, HuiOu; Xiang, Qian; Jiang, Qing; He, Qi; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Huifen; Wang, Qiang; Ning, Qin; Li, Yiwu; Lei, Ping; Shen, Guanxin

    2016-07-25

    Cisplatin is a classical platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of many cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The application of cisplatin is significantly limited by its toxicity, which may be affected by various biological factors. Persistence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to HCC development and may be associated with higher incidence of severe hepatitis during chemotherapy. However, whether HBV alters the susceptibility of hepatocytes to cisplatin remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HBV transfection enhanced cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity via a mechanism involving suppression of glucose-regulated protein of 78 KDa (Grp78), a major stress-induced chaperone that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Silencing Grp78 gene increased the susceptibility of HepG2 to cisplatin by activating caspase-3. Grp78 expression was down-regulated by HBV infection both in vitro and in liver tissues of patients. We compared the cisplatin sensitivity of hepatoma cells either expressing (HepG2.2.15 cells) or not expressing the entire Hepatitis B Virus genome (HepG2). HepG2.2.15 cells showed increased sensitivity to cisplatin and a higher apoptosis rate. Overexpression of Grp78 counteracted the increase of sensitivity of HepG2.215 cells to cisplatin. Furthermore, we found that HBV disrupted Grp78 synthesis in response to cisplatin stimulation, which may trigger severe and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that can induce cellular apoptosis. Our findings provide new information into the effect of HBV in the modulation of Grp78 expression, and, consequently on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity during viral infection. PMID:27234046

  11. A 130-kDa Protein 4.1B Regulates Cell Adhesion, Spreading, and Migration of Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts by Influencing Actin Cytoskeleton Organization*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Song, Jinlei; An, Chao; Dong, Wenji; Zhang, Jingxin; Yin, Changcheng; Hale, John; Baines, Anthony J.; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    Protein 4.1B is a member of protein 4.1 family, adaptor proteins at the interface of membranes and the cytoskeleton. It is expressed in most mammalian tissues and is known to be required in formation of nervous and cardiac systems; it is also a tumor suppressor with a role in metastasis. Here, we explore functions of 4.1B using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) derived from wild type and 4.1B knock-out mice. MEF cells express two 4.1B isoforms: 130 and 60-kDa. 130-kDa 4.1B was absent from 4.1B knock-out MEF cells, but 60-kDa 4.1B remained, suggesting incomplete knock-out. Although the 130-kDa isoform was predominantly located at the plasma membrane, the 60-kDa isoform was enriched in nuclei. 130-kDa-deficient 4.1B MEF cells exhibited impaired cell adhesion, spreading, and migration; they also failed to form actin stress fibers. Impaired cell spreading and stress fiber formation were rescued by re-expression of the 130-kDa 4.1B but not the 60-kDa 4.1B. Our findings document novel, isoform-selective roles for 130-kDa 4.1B in adhesion, spreading, and migration of MEF cells by affecting actin organization, giving new insight into 4.1B functions in normal tissues as well as its role in cancer. PMID:24381168

  12. Increased Serum Levels of Anti-Carbamylated 78-kDa Glucose-Regulated Protein Antibody in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lai, Pei-Hsuan; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and titer of anti-carbamylated 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (anti-CarGRP78) antibody in serum from controls, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Thirty-three RA patients, 20 SLE patients, 20 pSS patients, and 20 controls were enrolled from our outpatient clinic. GRP78 was cloned and carbamylated. Serum titers of anti- cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP), anti-GRP78, and anti-CarGRP78 were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No differences in serum titers of anti-GRP78 antibody in patients with RA, SLE, or pSS compared with the controls were observed. Serum levels of anti-carGRP78 antibody in patients with RA, but not SLE or pSS, were significantly higher compared with the controls (OD405 0.15 ± 0.08 versus 0.11 ± 0.03, p = 0.033). There was a positive correlation between the serum levels of anti-GRP78 antibody, but not anti-CarGRP78 antibody, with the levels of anti-CCP antibody in patients with RA. Both anti-GRP78 and anti-carGRP78 antibodies failed to correlate with C-reactive protein levels in patients with RA. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of anti-CarGRP78 antibody in patients with RA. In addition, the serum titer of anti-CarGRP78 antibody was significantly elevated in patients with RA compared with the controls. Anti-CarGRP78 antibody could also be detected in patients with SLE or pSS. PMID:27618024

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Activity of Ataxin-3

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Patrícia; Carvalho, Ana Luísa

    2009-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3, also known as Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD), is one of many inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by polyglutamine-encoding CAG repeat expansions in otherwise unrelated genes. Disease protein misfolding and aggregation, often within the nucleus of affected neurons, characterize polyglutamine disorders. Several evidences have implicated the nucleus as the primary site of pathogenesis for MJD. However, the molecular determinants for the nucleocytoplasmic transport of human ataxin-3 (Atx3), the protein which is mutated in patients with MJD, are not characterized. In order to characterize the nuclear shuttling activity of Atx3, we performed yeast nuclear import assays and found that Atx3 is actively imported into the nucleus, by means of a classical nuclear localizing sequence formed by a cluster of lysine and arginine residues. On the other hand, when active nuclear export was inhibited using leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of the nuclear export receptor CRM1, both endogenous Atx3 and transfected GFP-Atx3 accumulated inside the nucleus of a subpopulation of COS-7 cells, whereas both proteins are normally predominant in the cytoplasm. Additionally, using a Rev(1.4)-GFP nuclear export assay, we performed an extensive analysis of six putative aliphatic nuclear export motifs identified in Atx3 amino acid sequence. Although none of the tested peptide sequences were found to drive nuclear export when isolated, we have successfully mapped the region of Atx3 responsible for its CRM1-independent nuclear export activity. Curiously, the N-terminal Josephin domain alone is exported into the cytoplasm, but the nuclear export activity of Atx3 is significantly enhanced in a longer construct that is truncated after the two ubiquitin interaction motifs, upstream from the polyQ tract. Our data show that Atx3 is actively imported to and exported from the cell nucleus, and that its nuclear export activity is dependent on a motif located at its N

  14. An integrated model for the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Hannah M; Gray, Nicola K

    2012-05-01

    Cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) regulate mRNA stability and translation. Although predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, PABP proteins also cycle through the nucleus. Recent work has established that their steady-state localization can be altered by cellular stresses such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and infection by several viruses, resulting in nuclear accumulation of PABPs. Here, we present further evidence that their interaction with and release from mRNA and translation complexes are important in determining their sub-cellular distribution and propose an integrated model for regulated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of PABPs. PMID:22896784

  15. Mammalian cells contain a second nucleocytoplasmic hexosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Gutternigg, Martin; Rendić, Dubravko; Voglauer, Regina; Iskratsch, Thomas; Wilson, Iain B H

    2009-04-01

    Some thirty years ago, work on mammalian tissues suggested the presence of two cytosolic hexosaminidases in mammalian cells; one of these has been more recently characterized in a recombinant form and has an important role in cellular function due to its ability to cleave beta-N-acetylglucosamine residues from a variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. However, the molecular nature of the second cytosolic hexosaminidase, named hexosaminidase D, has remained obscure. In the present study, we molecularly characterize for the first time the human and murine recombinant forms of enzymes, encoded by HEXDC genes, which appear to correspond to hexosaminidase D in terms of substrate specificity, pH dependency and temperature stability. Furthermore, a Myc-tagged form of this novel hexosaminidase displays a nucleocytoplasmic localization. Transcripts of the corresponding gene are expressed in a number of murine tissues. On the basis of its sequence, this enzyme represents, along with the lysosomal hexosaminidase subunits encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes, the third class 20 glycosidase to be identified from mammalian sources. PMID:19040401

  16. Nucleoporins and nucleocytoplasmic transport in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akiko; Yaseen, Nabeel R

    2014-08-01

    Hematologic malignancies are often associated with chromosomal rearrangements that lead to the expression of chimeric fusion proteins. Rearrangements of the genes encoding two nucleoporins, NUP98 and NUP214, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of hematologic malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. NUP98 rearrangements result in fusion of an N-terminal portion of NUP98 to one of numerous proteins. These rearrangements often follow treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitors and tend to occur in younger patients. They have been shown to induce leukemia in mice and to enhance proliferation and disrupt differentiation in primary human hematopoietic precursors. NUP214 has only a few fusion partners. DEK-NUP214 is the most common NUP214 fusion in AML; it tends to occur in younger patients and is usually associated with FLT3 internal tandem duplications. The leukemogenic activity of NUP214 fusions is less well characterized. Normal nucleoporins, including NUP98 and NUP214, have important functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport, transcription, and mitosis. These functions and their disruptions by oncogenic nucleoporin fusions are discussed. PMID:24657637

  17. Mechanism of Human Nucleocytoplasmic Hexosaminidase D

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian β-hexosaminidases have been shown to play essential roles in cellular physiology and health. These enzymes are responsible for the cleavage of the monosaccharides N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) from cellular substrates. One of these β-hexosaminidases, hexosaminidase D (HexD), encoded by the HEXDC gene, has received little attention. No mechanistic studies have focused on the role of this unusual nucleocytoplasmically localized β-hexosaminidase, and its cellular function remains unknown. Using a series of kinetic and mechanistic investigations into HexD, we define the precise catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and establish the identities of key enzymic residues. The preparation of synthetic aryl N-acetylgalactosaminide substrates for HexD in combination with measurements of kinetic parameters for wild-type and mutant enzymes, linear free energy analyses of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of these substrates, evaluation of the reaction by nuclear magnetic resonance, and inhibition studies collectively reveal the detailed mechanism of action employed by HexD. HexD is a retaining glycosidase that operates using a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism, has a preference for galactosaminide over glucosaminide substrates, and shows a pH optimum in its second-order rate constant at pH 6.5–7.0. The catalytically important residues are Asp148 and Glu149, with Glu149 serving as the general acid/base residue and Asp148 as the polarizing residue. HexD is inhibited by Gal-NAG-thiazoline (Ki = 420 nM). The fundamental insights gained from this study will aid in the development of potent and selective probes for HexD, which will serve as useful tools to improve our understanding of the physiological role played by this unusual enzyme. PMID:27149221

  18. Mechanism of Human Nucleocytoplasmic Hexosaminidase D.

    PubMed

    Alteen, Matthew G; Oehler, Verena; Nemčovičová, Ivana; Wilson, Iain B H; Vocadlo, David J; Gloster, Tracey M

    2016-05-17

    Mammalian β-hexosaminidases have been shown to play essential roles in cellular physiology and health. These enzymes are responsible for the cleavage of the monosaccharides N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) from cellular substrates. One of these β-hexosaminidases, hexosaminidase D (HexD), encoded by the HEXDC gene, has received little attention. No mechanistic studies have focused on the role of this unusual nucleocytoplasmically localized β-hexosaminidase, and its cellular function remains unknown. Using a series of kinetic and mechanistic investigations into HexD, we define the precise catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and establish the identities of key enzymic residues. The preparation of synthetic aryl N-acetylgalactosaminide substrates for HexD in combination with measurements of kinetic parameters for wild-type and mutant enzymes, linear free energy analyses of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of these substrates, evaluation of the reaction by nuclear magnetic resonance, and inhibition studies collectively reveal the detailed mechanism of action employed by HexD. HexD is a retaining glycosidase that operates using a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism, has a preference for galactosaminide over glucosaminide substrates, and shows a pH optimum in its second-order rate constant at pH 6.5-7.0. The catalytically important residues are Asp148 and Glu149, with Glu149 serving as the general acid/base residue and Asp148 as the polarizing residue. HexD is inhibited by Gal-NAG-thiazoline (Ki = 420 nM). The fundamental insights gained from this study will aid in the development of potent and selective probes for HexD, which will serve as useful tools to improve our understanding of the physiological role played by this unusual enzyme. PMID:27149221

  19. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated Phosphoprotein of 32-kDa (DARPP-32)-dependent Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Signaling in Experimental Parkinsonism*

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Emanuela; Feyder, Michael; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Bateup, Helen S.; Greengard, Paul; Fisone, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Dyskinesia, a motor complication caused by prolonged administration of the antiparkinsonian drug l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), is accompanied by activation of cAMP signaling and hyperphosphorylation of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32). Here, we show that the abnormal phosphorylation of DARPP-32 occurs specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1R). Using mice in which DARPP-32 is selectively deleted in D1R-expressing MSNs, we demonstrate that this protein is required for l-DOPA-induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways, which are implicated in dyskinesia. We also show that mutation of the phosphorylation site for cAMP-dependent protein kinase on DARPP-32 attenuates l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and reduces the concomitant activations of ERK and mTORC1 signaling. These studies demonstrate that, in D1R-expressing MSNs, l-DOPA-induced activation of ERK and mTORC1 requires DARPP-32 and indicates the importance of the cAMP/DARPP-32 signaling cascade in dyskinesia. PMID:22753408

  20. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32-kDa (DARPP-32)-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in experimental parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Santini, Emanuela; Feyder, Michael; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Bateup, Helen S; Greengard, Paul; Fisone, Gilberto

    2012-08-10

    Dyskinesia, a motor complication caused by prolonged administration of the antiparkinsonian drug l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), is accompanied by activation of cAMP signaling and hyperphosphorylation of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32). Here, we show that the abnormal phosphorylation of DARPP-32 occurs specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1R). Using mice in which DARPP-32 is selectively deleted in D1R-expressing MSNs, we demonstrate that this protein is required for l-DOPA-induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways, which are implicated in dyskinesia. We also show that mutation of the phosphorylation site for cAMP-dependent protein kinase on DARPP-32 attenuates l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and reduces the concomitant activations of ERK and mTORC1 signaling. These studies demonstrate that, in D1R-expressing MSNs, l-DOPA-induced activation of ERK and mTORC1 requires DARPP-32 and indicates the importance of the cAMP/DARPP-32 signaling cascade in dyskinesia. PMID:22753408

  1. Inherited human sex reversal due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of SRY defines a male transcriptional threshold

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity. PMID:24003159

  2. Up-regulation of the 31 kDa dehydroascorbate reductase in the modified skeletal muscle cell (nurse cell) during Trichinella spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Saviozzi, Michela; Piaggi, Simona; Malvaldi, Gino; Casini, Alessandro

    2003-09-15

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is an important factor of defence against oxidative stress. AA is maintained in the reduced functional form by glutathione (GSH)-dependent dehydroascorbate (DHA) reducing enzymes, including the cytosolic glutaredoxin, the microsomal protein disulphide isomerase, and a DHA reductase of 31 kDa, hereafter referred to as DHAR, purified from rat liver cytosol and human red cells. As these mechanisms have rarely been studied in parasites, we looked for the possible presence of this 31 kDa protein in Trichinella spiralis L(1) larvae. Biochemical data, immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemical studies suggested the absence of this protein within parasites at this stage. However, they possess a low DHA reducing ability, which is probably due to the presence of glutaredoxin. On the other hand, immunohistochemical studies performed in histological sections of muscle tissue from Trichinella-infected animals showed an increase in DHAR in the nurse cell (NC) of T. spiralis- and Trichinella britovi-infected animals, compared with the surrounding muscle fibres. This result was confirmed by immunoblot analysis, whereas no such increase was observed in Trichinella pseudospiralis-infected animals. In the modified skeletal muscle cell also haeme oxygenase 1 increased, as well as lipoperoxidised proteins. Both findings suggest an oxidative stress of the NC, which might be related to the intense inflammatory reaction which surrounds the NC-parasite complex. Another possibility to explain the increase in DHAR could be that the NC needs to recycle a substantial amount of AA to synthesise the collagen capsule. PMID:13129525

  3. Nucleotide sequence of psbQ gene for 16-kDa protein of oxygen-evolving complex from Arabidopsis thaliana and regulation of its expression.

    PubMed

    Grover, M; Gaur, T; Kochhar, A; Maheshwari, S C; Tyagi, A K

    1999-06-30

    The psbQ gene encoding a 16-kDa polypeptide of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II has been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana and characterized. The gene consists of a 28 nucleotide long leader sequence, two introns and three exons encoding a 223-amino-acid precursor polypeptide. The first 75 amino acids act as a transit peptide for the translocation of the polypeptide into the thylakoid lumen. Expression studies show that the gene is light-inducible and expresses only in green tissues with high steady-state mRNA levels in leaves. Using this gene as a probe, restriction fragment length polymorphism between two ecotypes, Columbia and Estland, has also been detected. PMID:10470848

  4. Space shuttling in the cell: nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masamitsu; Toda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Microtubules form a multifunctional filamentous structure essential for the cell. In interphase, microtubules form networks in the cytoplasm and play pivotal roles in cell polarity and intracellular transport of various biomolecules. In mitosis, microtubules dramatically change their morphology to assemble the mitotic spindle, thereby pulling the chromosomes toward the spindle poles. One long-standing question is how microtubules are reorganized upon mitotic entry. Yeast cells undergo closed mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope persists, whereas higher eukaryotes undergo open mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope breaks down. Microtubule reorganization must be controlled by selective localization of microtubule-assembly factors. Recent findings in fission yeast indicate that several microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus through regulation by Ran GTPase, the universal organizer of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Furthermore, the synergistic interplay of Ran and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) induces the critical spatiotemporal shift of modes in microtubule assembly from cytoplasmic arrays to nuclear spindles. A MAP complex Alp7/TACC-Alp14/TOG undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in interphase, whereas it is retained in the mitotic nucleus through a decrease of its nuclear export by CDK. Our understanding of how microtubules are reorganized during the cell cycle is beginning to emerge. PMID:21327068

  5. SPEED Microscopy and Its Application in Nucleocytoplasmic Transport.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiong; Kelich, Joseph M; Yang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) selectively mediate the bidirectional trafficking of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The selective barrier is formed by intrinsically disordered phenylalanine-glycine (FG) nucleoporins anchored on the wall of the submicrometer NPC, which allows for passive diffusion and facilitated translocation through the nuclear pore. Dysfunction of nucleocytoplasmic transport has been associated with many human diseases. However, due to the technical challenge of imaging the native tomography of the FG-nucleoporin barrier and its interactions with transiting molecules in the native NPC, the precise nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanism remains unresolved. To refine the transport mechanism, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy methods have been employed to obtain the transport kinetics and the spatial transport route of individual fluorescent molecules through the NPC. In this method paper, we particularly highlight a newly developed high-speed super-resolution three-dimensional microscopy approach, termed as SPEED (single-point edge-excitation subdiffraction) microscopy, and its application in characterizing nucleocytoplasmic transport. PMID:27147062

  6. PRMT1 promotes glucose toxicity-induced β cell dysfunction by regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of PDX-1 in a FOXO1-dependent manner in INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lixia; Chen, Hewen; Sun, Jiaying; Lu, Di; Chen, Chen; Liu, Dongfang

    2015-08-01

    Protein N-arginine methyltransferase-1 (PRMT1), the major asymmetric arginine methyltransferase, plays important roles in various cellular processes. Previous reports have demonstrated that levels and activities of PRMT1 can vary in animals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to assess the expression and mechanism of action of PRMT1 during glucose toxicity-induced β cell dysfunction. Liposome-mediated gene transfection was used to transfect INS-1 cells with siPRMT1, which inhibits PRMT1 expression, and pALTER-FOXO1, which overexpresses forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1). The cells were then cultured in media containing 5.6 or 25 mmol/L glucose with or without the small molecule PRMT1 inhibitor AMI-1 for 48 h. The protein levels of PRMT1, the arginine methylated protein α-metR, FOXO1, Phospho-FOXO1, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 (PDX-1), and the intracellular localization of PDX-1 and FOXO1 were then measured by western blotting. FOXO1 methylation was detected by immunoprecipitated with anti-PRMT1 antibody and were immunoblotted with α-metR. The levels of insulin mRNA were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and intracellular insulin content were measured using radioimmunoassays. Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) was detected using Fura-2 AM. Intracellular cAMP levels were measured using ELISA. Chronic exposure to high glucose impaired insulin secretion, decreased insulin mRNA levels and insulin content, increased intracellular [Ca(2+)]i and cAMP levels, and abolishes their responses to glucose. Inhibiting PRMT1 expression improved insulin secretion, increased mRNA levels and insulin content by regulating the intracellular translocation of PDX-1 and FOXO1, decreasing the methylation of FOXO1, and reducing intracellular [Ca(2+)]i and cAMP concentrations. Transient overexpression of constitutively active FOXO1 in nuclear reversed the AMI-1-induced improvement of β cell function without

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems.

    PubMed

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2016-01-01

    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles. PMID:27363369

  8. Identification of a Novel Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling RNA Helicase of Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Alexandre Haruo; Serpeloni, Mariana; Hiraiwa, Priscila Mazzocchi; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Muniz, João Renato Carvalho; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Goldenberg, Samuel; Ávila, Andréa Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression in trypanosomes is controlled mostly by post-transcriptional pathways. Little is known about the components of mRNA nucleocytoplasmic export routes in these parasites. Comparative genomics has shown that the mRNA transport pathway is the least conserved pathway among eukaryotes. Nonetheless, we identified a RNA helicase (Hel45) that is conserved across eukaryotes and similar to shuttling proteins involved in mRNA export. We used in silico analysis to predict the structure of Trypanosoma cruzi Hel45, including the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain, and our findings suggest that this RNA helicase can form complexes with mRNA. Hel45 was present in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Electron microscopy showed that Hel45 is clustered close to the cytoplasmic side of nuclear pore complexes, and is also present in the nucleus where it is associated with peripheral compact chromatin. Deletion of a predicted Nuclear Export Signal motif led to the accumulation of Hel45ΔNES in the nucleus, indicating that Hel45 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. This transport was dependent on active transcription but did not depend on the exportin Crm1. Knockdown of Mex67 in T. brucei caused the nuclear accumulation of the T. brucei ortholog of Hel45. Indeed, Hel45 is present in mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes that are not associated with polysomes. It is still necessary to confirm the precise function of Hel45. However, this RNA helicase is associated with mRNA metabolism and its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is dependent on an mRNA export route involving Mex67 receptor. PMID:25313564

  9. The RanGTP Pathway: From Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport to Spindle Assembly and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cavazza, Tommaso; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Ran regulates the interaction of transport receptors with a number of cellular cargo proteins. The high affinity binding of the GTP-bound form of Ran to import receptors promotes cargo release, whereas its binding to export receptors stabilizes their interaction with the cargo. This basic mechanism linked to the asymmetric distribution of the two nucleotide-bound forms of Ran between the nucleus and the cytoplasm generates a switch like mechanism controlling nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Since 1999, we have known that after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) Ran and the above transport receptors also provide a local control over the activity of factors driving spindle assembly and regulating other aspects of cell division. The identification and functional characterization of RanGTP mitotic targets is providing novel insights into mechanisms essential for cell division. Here we review our current knowledge on the RanGTP system and its regulation and we focus on the recent advances made through the characterization of its mitotic targets. We then briefly review the novel functions of the pathway that were recently described. Altogether, the RanGTP system has moonlighting functions exerting a spatial control over protein interactions that drive specific functions depending on the cellular context. PMID:26793706

  10. Role of Dopamine Type 1 Receptors and Dopamine- and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein Mr 32 kDa in Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Mediated Induction of ΔFosB in the Mouse Forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lazenka, Matthew F; Tomarchio, Aaron J; Lichtman, Aron H; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J

    2015-09-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana, produces motor and motivational effects via interactions with the dopaminergic system in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. However, the molecular events that underlie these interactions after THC treatment are not well understood. Our study shows that pretreatment with dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonists before repeated administration of THC attenuated induction of Δ FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (ΔFosB) in the nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. Anatomical studies showed that repeated THC administration induced ΔFosB in D1R-containing striatal neurons. Dopamine signaling in the striatum involves phosphorylation-specific effects of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which regulates protein kinase A signaling. Genetic deletion of DARPP-32 attenuated ΔFosB expression measured after acute, but not repeated, THC administration in both the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. THC was then acutely or repeatedly administered to wild-type (WT) and DARPP-32 knockout (KO) mice, and in vivo responses were measured. DARPP-32 KO mice exhibited enhanced acute THC-mediated hypolocomotion and developed greater tolerance to this response relative to the WT mice. Agonist-stimulated guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) binding showed that cannabinoid-stimulated G-protein activity did not differ between DARPP-32 KO and WT mice treated with vehicle or repeated THC. These results indicate that D1Rs play a major role in THC-mediated ΔFosB induction in the forebrain, whereas the role of DARPP-32 in THC-mediated ΔFosB induction and modulation of motor activity appears to be more complex. PMID:26099530

  11. hMSH5 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein whose stability depends on its subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, François; Lespinasse, Françoise; Staccini, Pascal; Palin, Lucile; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique; Santucci-Darmanin, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    MSH5 is a MutS-homologous protein required for meiotic DNA recombination. In addition, recent studies suggest that the human MSH5 protein (hMSH5) participates to mitotic recombination and to the cellular response to DNA damage and thus raise the possibility that a tight control of hMSH5 function(s) may be important for genomic stability. With the aim to characterize mechanisms potentially involved in the regulation of hMSH5 activity, we investigated its intracellular trafficking properties. We demonstrate that hMSH5 possesses a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES) and a nuclear localization signal that participates to its nuclear targeting. Localization analysis of various mutated forms of hMSH5 by confocal microscopy indicates that hMSH5 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We also provide evidence suggesting that hMSH5 stability depends on its subcellular compartmentalization, hMSH5 being much less stable in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. Together, these data suggest that hMSH5 activity may be regulated by nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear proteasomal degradation, both of these mechanisms contributing to the control of nuclear hMSH5 content. Moreover, data herein also support that in tissues where both hMSH5 and hMSH4 proteins are expressed, hMSH5 might be retained in the nucleus through masking of its NES by binding of hMSH4. PMID:20185565

  12. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Young-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kim, Soo-A.

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  13. Respiratory virus modulation of host nucleocytoplasmic transport; target for therapeutic intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Leon; Ghildyal, Reena; Jans, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory diseases caused by rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus represent a large social and financial burden on healthcare worldwide. Although all three viruses have distinctly unique properties in terms of infection and replication, they share the ability to exploit/manipulate the host-cell nucleocytoplasmic transport system in order to replicate effectively and efficiently. This review outlines the various ways in which infection by these viruses impacts on the host nucleocytoplasmic transport system, and examples where inhibition thereof in turn decreases viral replication. The highly conserved nature of the nucleocytoplasmic transport system and the viral proteins that interact with it make this virus–host interface a prime candidate for the development of specific antiviral therapeutics in the future. PMID:26322040

  14. Binding of the human cytomegalovirus 80-kDa immediate-early protein (IE2) to minor groove A/T-rich sequences bounded by CG dinucleotides is regulated by protein oligomerization and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Waheed, I; Chiou, C J; Ahn, J H; Hayward, G S

    1998-12-01

    The 80-kDa immediate-early regulatory protein IE2 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) functions as an essential positive transactivator of downstream viral promoters, but it also specifically down-regulates transcription from the major immediate-early promoter through a 14-bp DNA target motif known as the cis-repression signal (CRS) located at the transcription start site. The IE2 protein purified from bacteria as a fusion product of either staphylococcal Protein A/IE2(290-579) or glutathione-S-transferase (GST)/IE2(346-579) bound specifically to a [32P]-labeled CRS oligonucleotide probe in an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In contrast, no direct interaction with the CRS probes could be detected with IE2 wild-type protein in extracts from infected or transfected mammalian cells or when synthesized by in vitro translation. However, in vitro phosphorylation of GST/IE2(346-579) by incubation with either the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) or a HeLa cell nuclear extract strongly inhibited its DNA-binding activity. This process required ATP hydrolysis and could be reversed by subsequent incubation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase. Importantly, dephosphorylation of the constitutively expressed native IE2 protein present in a nuclear extract from the U373(A45) cell line unmasked a specific CRS DNA-binding activity that could be supershifted with anti-IE2 monoclonal antibody (mAb). A series of high-molecular-weight hetero-oligomeric DNA-bound structures of intermediate mobility were formed in EMSA assays when a mixture of staphylococcal Protein A/IE2 and GST/IE2 was coincubated with the CRS probe. Coincubation with a DNA-binding negative but dimerization-competent GST/IE2 deletion mutant competitively inhibited DNA-binding by staphylococcal Protein A/IE2, whereas coincubation with a GST/IE2 deletion mutant that lacked the ability to both dimerize and bind to DNA failed to influence the mobility of the DNA-bound staphylococcal Protein A/IE2

  15. Analysing the impact of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of β-catenin and its antagonists APC, Axin and GSK3 on Wnt/β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Yvonne; Rateitschak, Katja; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    The canonical Wnt signalling pathway plays a critical role in development and disease. The key player of the pathway is β-catenin. Its activity is mainly regulated by the destruction complex consisting of APC, Axin and GSK3. In the nucleus, the complex formation of β-catenin and TCF initiates target gene expression. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the role of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of APC, Axin, and GSK3 and the inactivation of β-catenin by the destruction complex in Wnt/β-catenin signalling. We address the following questions: Can nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of APC, Axin and GSK3 increase the [β-catenin/TCF] concentration? And, how is the [β-catenin/TCF] concentration influenced by phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of nuclear β-catenin? Based on experimental findings, we develop a compartmental model and conduct several simulation experiments. Our analysis reveals the following key findings: 1) nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of β-catenin and its antagonists can yield a spatial separation between the said proteins, which results in a breakdown of β-catenin degradation, followed by an accumulation of β-catenin and hence leads to an increase of the [β-catenin/TCF] concentration. Our results strongly suggest that Wnt signalling can benefit from nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of APC, Axin and GSK3, although they are in general β-catenin antagonising proteins. 2) The total robustness of the [β-catenin/TCF] output is closely linked to its absolute concentration levels. We demonstrate that the compartmental separation of β-catenin and the destruction complex does not only lead to a maximization, but additionally to an increased robustness of [β-catenin/TCF] signalling against perturbations in the cellular environment. 3) A nuclear accumulation of the destruction complex renders the pathway robust against fluctuations in Wnt signalling and against changes in the compartmental distribution of β-catenin. 4) Elucidating the impact of

  16. Binding of a protein to an AU-rich domain of tumour necrosis factor alpha mRNA as a 35 kDa complex and its regulation in primary rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y U; Rus, H G; Fisher, S N; Pitha, P M; Shin, M L

    1996-06-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) induces tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) gene transcription and increases the mRNA stability. NDV stabilizes TNF alpha mRNA by preventing poly(A) shortening in a protein kinase C-dependent manner. TNF alpha 3'-untranslated region (UTR) contains an AU-rich domain (ARD) with seven AUUUA pentamers, a motif implicated in poly(A) removal and mRNA degradation. In this report, protein binding to TNF alpha ARD and the effects of NDV and kinases on ARD-binding activity were investigated in primary rat astrocytes. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts contained proteins binding to centrally located 27 nt AUUUAUUAUUUAUUUAUUAUUUAUUUA, within TNF alpha ARD. Portions of ARD with a single AUUUA did not show ARD-binding activity. The ARD-protein complexes migrated as two bands on electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. The slower moving complexes appeared either as a broader band or doublets. The UV cross-linked ARD-protein complexes, however, migrated as a single 35 kDa band on SDS/PAGE. In cytoplasmic extracts treated with alkaline phosphatase there was a decrease in the faster moving complex and an increase in the slower moving complex, whereas NDV infection produced the reverse effect. In addition, the faster moving complex was decreased when cytoplasmic extracts from NDV-infected cells were treated with protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. Neither NDV infection nor phosphatase treatment affected the mobility pattern of nuclear extracts. The data indicate that a protein of molecular mass less than 35 kDa binds to a segment of TNF alpha ARD containing primarily UUAUUUAUU motifs, and the ARD-binding activity in cytoplasmic compartment is post-transcriptionally modified. PMID:8687387

  17. Binding of a protein to an AU-rich domain of tumour necrosis factor alpha mRNA as a 35 kDa complex and its regulation in primary rat astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y U; Rus, H G; Fisher, S N; Pitha, P M; Shin, M L

    1996-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) induces tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) gene transcription and increases the mRNA stability. NDV stabilizes TNF alpha mRNA by preventing poly(A) shortening in a protein kinase C-dependent manner. TNF alpha 3'-untranslated region (UTR) contains an AU-rich domain (ARD) with seven AUUUA pentamers, a motif implicated in poly(A) removal and mRNA degradation. In this report, protein binding to TNF alpha ARD and the effects of NDV and kinases on ARD-binding activity were investigated in primary rat astrocytes. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts contained proteins binding to centrally located 27 nt AUUUAUUAUUUAUUUAUUAUUUAUUUA, within TNF alpha ARD. Portions of ARD with a single AUUUA did not show ARD-binding activity. The ARD-protein complexes migrated as two bands on electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. The slower moving complexes appeared either as a broader band or doublets. The UV cross-linked ARD-protein complexes, however, migrated as a single 35 kDa band on SDS/PAGE. In cytoplasmic extracts treated with alkaline phosphatase there was a decrease in the faster moving complex and an increase in the slower moving complex, whereas NDV infection produced the reverse effect. In addition, the faster moving complex was decreased when cytoplasmic extracts from NDV-infected cells were treated with protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. Neither NDV infection nor phosphatase treatment affected the mobility pattern of nuclear extracts. The data indicate that a protein of molecular mass less than 35 kDa binds to a segment of TNF alpha ARD containing primarily UUAUUUAUU motifs, and the ARD-binding activity in cytoplasmic compartment is post-transcriptionally modified. PMID:8687387

  18. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein CIZ reduces adult bone mass by inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein-induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Morinobu, Mikihiko; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Hino, Kazunori; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Nifuji, Akira; Yamamoto, Haruyasu; Hirai, Hisamaru; Noda, Masaki

    2005-03-21

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem; however, the mechanisms regulating adult bone mass are poorly understood. Cas-interacting zinc finger protein (CIZ) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that localizes at cell adhesion plaques that form where osteoblasts attach to substrate. To investigate the potential role of CIZ in regulating adult bone mass, we examined the bones in CIZ-deficient mice. Bone volume was increased and the rates of bone formation were increased in CIZ-deficient mice, whereas bone resorption was not altered. CIZ deficiency enhanced the levels of mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins related to osteoblastic phenotypes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as osterix mRNA expression in whole long bones. Bone marrow cells obtained from the femora of CIZ-deficient mice revealed higher ALP activity in culture and formed more mineralized nodules than wild-type cells. CIZ deficiency enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow cells in cultures, indicating that BMP is the target of CIZ action. CIZ deficiency increased newly formed bone mass after femoral bone marrow ablation in vivo. Finally, BMP-2-induced bone formation on adult mouse calvariae in vivo was enhanced by CIZ deficiency. These results establish that CIZ suppresses the levels of adult bone mass through inhibition of BMP-induced activation of osteoblasts. PMID:15781586

  19. Characterization of molecular determinants for nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of PRV UL54

    SciTech Connect

    Li Meili; Wang Shuai; Cai Mingsheng; Guo Hong; Zheng Chunfu

    2011-09-01

    The pseudorabies virus (PRV) early protein UL54 is a homologue of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early protein ICP27, which is a multifunctional protein and essential for HSV-1 infection. To determine if UL54 might shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, as has been shown for its homologues in human herpesviruses, the molecular determinants for its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were investigated. Heterokaryon assays demonstrated that UL54 was a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein and this property could not be blocked by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1). However, TAP/NXF1 promoted the nuclear export of UL54 and interacted with UL54, suggesting that UL54 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm via a TAP/NXF1, but not CRM1, dependent nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, UL54 was demonstrated to target to the nucleus through a classic Ran-, importin {beta}1- and {alpha}5-dependent nuclear import mechanism.

  20. Cytoplasmic protein aggregates interfere with nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA.

    PubMed

    Woerner, Andreas C; Frottin, Frédéric; Hornburg, Daniel; Feng, Li R; Meissner, Felix; Patra, Maria; Tatzelt, Jörg; Mann, Matthias; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hipp, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-like protein aggregation is associated with neurodegeneration and other pathologies. The nature of the toxic aggregate species and their mechanism of action remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the compartment specificity of aggregate toxicity using artificial β-sheet proteins, as well as fragments of mutant huntingtin and TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43). Aggregation in the cytoplasm interfered with nucleocytoplasmic protein and RNA transport. In contrast, the same proteins did not inhibit transport when forming inclusions in the nucleus at or around the nucleolus. Protein aggregation in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus, caused the sequestration and mislocalization of proteins containing disordered and low-complexity sequences, including multiple factors of the nuclear import and export machinery. Thus, impairment of nucleocytoplasmic transport may contribute to the cellular pathology of various aggregate deposition diseases. PMID:26634439

  1. Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is essential for BAK1- and BKK1-mediated cell-death control.

    PubMed

    Du, Junbo; Gao, Yang; Zhan, Yanyan; Zhang, Shasha; Wu, Yujun; Xiao, Yao; Zou, Bo; He, Kai; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Guojing; Lin, Honghui; Li, Jia

    2016-02-01

    BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1) was initially identified as a co-receptor of the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1. Genetic analyses also revealed that BAK1 and its closest homolog BAK1-LIKE 1 (BKK1) regulate a BR-independent cell-death control pathway. The double null mutant bak1 bkk1 displays a salicylic acid- and light-dependent cell-death phenotype even without pathogen invasion. Molecular mechanisms of the spontaneous cell death mediated by BAK1 and BKK1 remain unknown. Here we report our identification of a suppressor of bak1 bkk1 (sbb1-1). Genetic analyses indicated that cell-death symptoms in a weak double mutant, bak1-3 bkk1-1, were completely suppressed by the loss-of-function mutation in SBB1, which encodes a nucleoporin (NUP) 85-like protein. Genetic analyses also demonstrated that individually knocking out three other nucleoporin genes from the SBB1-located sub-complex was also able to rescue the cell-death phenotype of bak1-3 bkk1-1. In addition, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, DRH1, was identified in the same protein complex as SBB1 via a proteomic approach. The drh1 mutation also rescues the cell-death symptoms of bak1-3 bkk1-1. Further analyses indicated that export of poly(A)(+) RNA was greatly blocked in the nup and drh1 mutants, resulting in accumulation of significant levels of mRNAs in the nuclei. Over-expression of a bacterial NahG gene to inactivate salicylic acid also rescues the cell-death phenotype of bak1-3 bkk1-1. Mutants suppressing cell-death symptoms always showed greatly reduced salicylic acid contents. These results suggest that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, especially of molecules directly or indirectly involved in endogenous salicylic acid accumulation, is critical in BAK1- and BKK1-mediated cell-death control. PMID:26775605

  2. Subcellular Proteomics Reveals a Role for Nucleo-cytoplasmic Trafficking at the DNA Replication Origin Activation Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Claire M.; Tudzarova, Slavica; Crawford, Mark; Williams, Gareth H.; Stoeber, Kai; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of DNA replication initiation factors such as CDC7 kinase triggers the origin activation checkpoint in healthy cells and leads to a protective cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase of the mitotic cell division cycle. This protective mechanism is thought to be defective in cancer cells. To investigate how this checkpoint is activated and maintained in healthy cells, we conducted a quantitative SILAC analysis of the nuclear- and cytoplasmic-enriched compartments of CDC7-depleted fibroblasts and compared them to a total cell lysate preparation. Substantial changes in total abundance and/or subcellular location were detected for 124 proteins, including many essential proteins associated with DNA replication/cell cycle. Similar changes in protein abundance and subcellular distribution were observed for various metabolic processes, including oxidative stress, iron metabolism, protein translation and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This is accompanied by reduced abundance of two karyopherin proteins, suggestive of reduced nuclear import. We propose that altered nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking plays a key role in the regulation of cell cycle arrest. The results increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of the DNA replication origin activation checkpoint and are consistent with our proposal that cell cycle arrest is an actively maintained process that appears to be distributed over various subcellular locations. PMID:23320540

  3. HIV-1 Recruits UPF1 but Excludes UPF2 to Promote Nucleocytoplasmic Export of the Genomic RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ajamian, Lara; Abel, Karen; Rao, Shringar; Vyboh, Kishanda; García-de-Gracia, Francisco; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Gehring, Niels H.; Mouland, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Unspliced, genomic HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) is a component of several ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) during the viral replication cycle. In earlier work, we demonstrated that the host upframeshift protein 1 (UPF1), a key factor in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), colocalized and associated to the viral structural protein Gag during viral egress. In this work, we demonstrate a new function for UPF1 in the regulation of vRNA nuclear export. We establish that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of UPF1 is required for this function and demonstrate that UPF1 exists in two essential viral RNPs during the late phase of HIV-1 replication: the first, in a nuclear export RNP that contains Rev, CRM1, DDX3 and the nucleoporin p62, and the second, which excludes these nuclear export markers but contains Gag in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, we observed that both UPF2 and the long isoform of UPF3a, UPF3aL, but not the shorter isoforms UPF3aS and UPF3b, are excluded from the UPF1-Rev-CRM1-DDX3 complex as they are negative regulators of vRNA nuclear export. In silico protein-protein docking analyses suggest that Rev binds UPF1 in a region that overlaps the UPF2 binding site, thus explaining the exclusion of this negative regulatory factor by HIV-1 that is necessary for vRNA trafficking. This work uncovers a novel and unique regulatory circuit involving several UPF proteins that ultimately regulate vRNA nuclear export and trafficking. PMID:26492277

  4. HIV-1 Recruits UPF1 but Excludes UPF2 to Promote Nucleocytoplasmic Export of the Genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Ajamian, Lara; Abel, Karen; Rao, Shringar; Vyboh, Kishanda; García-de-Gracia, Francisco; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Kulozik, Andreas E; Gehring, Niels H; Mouland, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Unspliced, genomic HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) is a component of several ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) during the viral replication cycle. In earlier work, we demonstrated that the host upframeshift protein 1 (UPF1), a key factor in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), colocalized and associated to the viral structural protein Gag during viral egress. In this work, we demonstrate a new function for UPF1 in the regulation of vRNA nuclear export. OPEN ACCESS Biomolecules 2015, 5 2809 We establish that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of UPF1 is required for this function and demonstrate that UPF1 exists in two essential viral RNPs during the late phase of HIV-1 replication: the first, in a nuclear export RNP that contains Rev, CRM1, DDX3 and the nucleoporin p62, and the second, which excludes these nuclear export markers but contains Gag in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, we observed that both UPF2 and the long isoform of UPF3a, UPF3aL, but not the shorter isoforms UPF3aS and UPF3b, are excluded from the UPF1-Rev-CRM1-DDX3 complex as they are negative regulators of vRNA nuclear export. In silico protein-protein docking analyses suggest that Rev binds UPF1 in a region that overlaps the UPF2 binding site, thus explaining the exclusion of this negative regulatory factor by HIV-1 that is necessary for vRNA trafficking. This work uncovers a novel and unique regulatory circuit involving several UPF proteins that ultimately regulate vRNA nuclear export and trafficking. PMID:26492277

  5. ERK1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling rate depends on specific N-terminal aminoacids

    SciTech Connect

    Marchi, Matilde; NEST-INFM, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa ; Pancrazi, Laura; Maffei, Margherita; Institute of Food Science CNR, Avellino ; Ratto, G. Michele; Costa, Mario

    2010-07-23

    Despite ERK1 and ERK2 were considered interchangeable isoforms for a long time, their roles are now emerging as only partially overlapping. We recently reported that the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of GFP-tagged ERK1 is slower than that of ERK2, this difference being caused by a unique domain of ERK1 located at its N-terminus (ERK1-Nt). In the present report we further investigated this issue by asking which were the specific aminoacids involved in such process. By photobleaching strategy, we demonstrated that ERK1-Nt is a domain capable to slow down the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling rate even of a small cargo protein. ERK1-Nt was then dissected into three regions as follows: 1 (aa 1-9), 2 (aa 10-29) and 3, (aa 30-39) that were deleted or mutated at specific sites. Dynamic imaging assessment of the role played by each region in determining the shuttling rate revealed that: region 1 has no significant role, region 2 and specific aminoacids of region 3 (V{sub 31}, K{sub 33,} P{sub 36}) are critical, but singularly do not totally account for the difference in the shuttling rate between ERK1 and 2. Finally, we demonstrated that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling rate of a passively diffusing protein (mRED) is inversely related to ERK1-Nt-GFP concentrations inside the cell, thus suggesting that ERK1-Nt-GFP occupies the nuclear pore perhaps because of an important affinity of ERK1-Nt for nucleoporins. In conclusion, ERK1-Nt is a domain able per se to confer a slower shuttling rate to a cargo protein. Specific regions within this domain were identified as responsible for this biophysical property.

  6. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport of RNAs and RNA-Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Katherine E; Gleizes, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bohnsack, Markus T

    2016-05-22

    RNAs and ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) play key roles in mediating and regulating gene expression. In eukaryotes, most RNAs are transcribed, processed and assembled with proteins in the nucleus and then either function in the cytoplasm or also undergo a cytoplasmic phase in their biogenesis. This compartmentalization ensures that sequential steps in gene expression and RNP production are performed in the correct order and it allows important quality control mechanisms that prevent the involvement of aberrant RNAs/RNPs in these cellular pathways. The selective exchange of RNAs/RNPs between the nucleus and cytoplasm is enabled by nuclear pore complexes, which function as gateways between these compartments. RNA/RNP transport is facilitated by a range of nuclear transport receptors and adaptors, which are specifically recruited to their cargos and mediate interactions with nucleoporins to allow directional translocation through nuclear pore complexes. While some transport factors are only responsible for the export/import of a certain class of RNA/RNP, others are multifunctional and, in the case of large RNPs, several export factors appear to work together to bring about export. Recent structural studies have revealed aspects of the mechanisms employed by transport receptors to enable specific cargo recognition, and genome-wide approaches have provided the first insights into the diverse composition of pre-mRNPs during export. Furthermore, the regulation of RNA/RNP export is emerging as an important means to modulate gene expression under stress conditions and in disease. PMID:26434509

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of hexokinase II in a cancer cell

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Catherine L.; Pastorino, John G.

    2010-04-16

    In yeast, the hexokinase type II enzyme (HXKII) translocates to the nucleus in the presence of excess glucose, and participates in glucose repression. However, no evidence has suggested a nuclear function for HXKII in mammalian cells. Herein, we present data showing nuclear localization of HXKII in HeLa cells, both by immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation. HXKII is extruded from the nucleus, at least in part, by the activity of the exportin 1/CrmA system, as demonstrated by increased nuclear expression and decreased cytoplasmic expression after incubation with leptomycin B, a bacterially-derived exportin inhibitor. Furthermore, cytoplasmic localization of HXKII is dependent on its enzymatic activity, as inhibiting HXKII activity using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) increased nuclear localization. This effect was more significant in cells incubated in the absence of glucose for 24 h prior to addition of 2DG. Regulated translocation of HXKII to the nucleus of mammalian cells could represent a previously unknown glucose-sensing mechanism.

  8. Nucleo-cytoplasmic transport as a therapeutic target of cancer.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Senapedis, William; McCauley, Dilara; Baloglu, Erkan; Shacham, Sharon; Festuccia, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Shuttling of specific proteins out of the nucleus is essential for the regulation of the cell cycle and proliferation of both normal and malignant tissues. Dysregulation of this fundamental process may affect many other important cellular processes such as tumor growth, inflammatory response, cell cycle, and apoptosis. It is known that XPO1 (Exportin-1/Chromosome Region Maintenance 1/CRM1) is the main mediator of nuclear export in many cell types. Nuclear proteins exported to the cytoplasm by XPO1 include the drug targets topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) and BCR-ABL and tumor suppressor proteins such as Rb, APC, p53, p21, and p27. XPO1 can mediate cell proliferation through several pathways: (i) the sub-cellular localization of NES-containing oncogenes and tumor suppressor proteins, (ii) the control of the mitotic apparatus and chromosome segregation, and (iii) the maintenance of nuclear and chromosomal structures. The XPO1 protein is elevated in ovarian carcinoma, glioma, osteosarcoma, pancreatic and cervical cancer. There is a growing body of research indicating that XPO1 may have an important role as a prognostic marker in solid tumors. Because of this, nuclear export inhibition through XPO1 is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in many cancers. The best understood XPO1 inhibitors are the small molecule nuclear export inhibitors (NEIs; Leptomycin B and derivatives, ratjadones, PKF050-638, valtrate, ACA, CBS9106, selinexor/KPT-330, and verdinexor/KPT-335). Selinexor and verdinexor are orally bioavailable, highly potent, small molecules that are classified as Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE). KPT-330 is the only NEI currently in Phase I/II human clinical trials in hematological and solid cancers. Of all the potential targets in nuclear cytoplasmic transport, the nuclear export receptor XPO1 remains the best understood and most advanced therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25476752

  9. Three cardiovirus Leader proteins equivalently inhibit four different nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J.; Basta, Holly A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2015-10-15

    Cardiovirus infections inhibit nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by Leader protein-induced phosphorylation of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporins (Nups). Recombinant Leader from encephalomyocarditis virus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and Saffold virus target the same subset of Nups, including Nup62 and Nup98, but not Nup50. Reporter cell lines with fluorescence mCherry markers for M9, RS and classical SV40 import pathways, as well as the Crm1-mediated export pathway, all responded to transfection with the full panel of Leader proteins, showing consequent cessation of path-specific active import/export. For this to happen, the Nups had to be presented in the context of intact nuclear pores and exposed to cytoplasmic extracts. The Leader phosphorylation cascade was not effective against recombinant Nup proteins. The findings support a model of Leader-dependent Nup phosphorylation with the purpose of disrupting Nup-transportin interactions. - Highlights: • Nup98, but not Nup50 becomes phosphorylated by cardiovirus Leader protein-dependent mechanisms. • At least four independent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways are inhibited by this process. • Nups must be presented in a nuclear pore context for Leader-directed phosphorylation. • Leader, by itself, does not cause activation of cellular kinases.

  10. The Effects of Modeled Microgravity on Nucleocytoplasmic Localization of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve; Jackson, E.B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to space radiation and microgravity occurs to humans during space flight. In order to have accurate risk estimations, answering questions to whether increased DNA damage seen during space flight in modified by microgravity are important. Several studies have examined whether intercellular repair of radiation-induced DNA lesions are modified by microgravity. Results from these studies show no modification of the repair processes due to microgravity. However, it is known that in studies not involving radiation that microgravity interferes with normal development. Interestingly, there is no data that attempts to analyze the possible effects of microgravity on the trafficking of DNA repair proteins. In this study, we analyze the effects of modeled microgravity on nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the human DNA repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1/Ref1) which is involved in base excision repair. We examined nuclear translocation of APE1 using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to APE1 as a reporter. While APE1 under normal gravity showed normal nuclear localization, APE1 nuclear localization under modeled microgravity was decreased. These results suggest that nucleocytoplasmic translocation of APE1 is modified under modeled microgravity.

  11. Modern tools to study nuclear pore complexes and nucleocytoplasmic transport in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Askjaer, Peter; Galy, Vincent; Meister, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by many features that make it highly attractive to study nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and nucleocytoplasmic transport. NPC composition and structure are highly conserved in nematodes and being amenable to a variety of genetic manipulations, key aspects of nuclear envelope dynamics can be observed in great details during breakdown, reassembly, and interphase. In this chapter, we provide an overview of some of the most relevant modern techniques that allow researchers unfamiliar with C. elegans to embark on studies of nucleoporins in an intact organism through its development from zygote to aging adult. We focus on methods relevant to generate loss-of-function phenotypes and their analysis by advanced microscopy. Extensive references to available reagents, such as mutants, transgenic strains, and antibodies are equally useful to scientists with or without prior C. elegans or nucleoporin experience. PMID:24857735

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic transport in the midzone membrane domain controls yeast mitotic spindle disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Rafael; Dephoure, Noah; Gygi, Steve P.; Kellogg, Douglas R.; Tallada, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    During each cell cycle, the mitotic spindle is efficiently assembled to achieve chromosome segregation and then rapidly disassembled as cells enter cytokinesis. Although much has been learned about assembly, how spindles disassemble at the end of mitosis remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic transport at the membrane domain surrounding the mitotic spindle midzone, here named the midzone membrane domain (MMD), is essential for spindle disassembly in Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells. We show that, during anaphase B, Imp1-mediated transport of the AAA-ATPase Cdc48 protein at the MMD allows this disassembly factor to localize at the spindle midzone, thereby promoting spindle midzone dissolution. Our findings illustrate how a separate membrane compartment supports spindle disassembly in the closed mitosis of fission yeast. PMID:25963819

  13. [Importin-β1 plays a key role in the nucleocytoplasmic transportation process of MARVELD1].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Shi, M; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    While MARVEL domain-containing protein 1 (MARVELD1) is widely expressed in normal tissue, its expression is decreased in tumor tissue. Importin-β1 is a kind of nucleocytoplasmic transport protein, which participates in protein transportation between the nucleus and cytoplasm. It has been known that MARVELD1 binds importin-β1. To define the biological functions of the binding between MARVELD1 and importin-β1, confocal laser scanning microscopy was applied to confirm the distribution of MARVELD1 in the cells when importin-β1, is knocked down, and the results show that MARVELD1's concentration is decreased in the nucleus and elevated in the cytoplasm. GST-pull down and western blot were applied to test the binding affinity between the normal importin-β1, and several truncations of MARVELD1, and the binding affinity between the normal MARVELD1 and several truncations of importin-β1. These results show that there exist several binding points between MARVELD1 and importin-β1. Basing on these results one can come to a conclusion that importin-β1 mediates the non-classical nucleocytoplasmic transportation of MARVELD1. It was also found that knockdown of importin-β1, leads to an increase in the total density of MARVELD1. Considering the abnormally reduced expression of MARVELD1 in tumor tissue, the results of this study will help gaining a better understanding of the roles of MARVELD1 in the signal network systems during tumorigenesis in cancer cells. PMID:26107903

  14. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm) from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid female

  15. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina; Petrini, Stefania; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify a new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.

  16. Identification of an l-Rhamnose Synthetic Pathway in Two Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Parakkottil Chothi, Madhu; Duncan, Garry A.; Armirotti, Andrea; Abergel, Chantal; Gurnon, James R.; Van Etten, James L.; Bernardi, Cinzia; Damonte, Gianluca; Tonetti, Michela

    2010-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are characterized by large genomes that often encode proteins not commonly found in viruses. Two species in this group are Acanthocystis turfacea chlorella virus 1 (ATCV-1) (family Phycodnaviridae, genus Chlorovirus) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (family Mimiviridae), commonly known as mimivirus. ATCV-1 and other chlorovirus members encode enzymes involved in the synthesis and glycosylation of their structural proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized three enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the sugar l-rhamnose: two UDP-d-glucose 4,6-dehydratases (UGDs) encoded by ATCV-1 and mimivirus and a bifunctional UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose epimerase/reductase (UGER) from mimivirus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ATCV-1 probably acquired its UGD gene via a recent horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from a green algal host, while an earlier HGT event involving the complete pathway (UGD and UGER) probably occurred between a protozoan ancestor and mimivirus. While ATCV-1 lacks an epimerase/reductase gene, its Chlorella host may encode this enzyme. Both UGDs and UGER are expressed as late genes, which is consistent with their role in posttranslational modification of capsid proteins. The data in this study provide additional support for the hypothesis that chloroviruses, and maybe mimivirus, encode most, if not all, of the glycosylation machinery involved in the synthesis of specific glycan structures essential for virus replication and infection. PMID:20538863

  17. A deep proteomics perspective on CRM1-mediated nuclear export and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Kırlı, Koray; Karaca, Samir; Dehne, Heinz Jürgen; Samwer, Matthias; Pan, Kuan Ting; Lenz, Christof; Urlaub, Henning; Görlich, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    CRM1 is a highly conserved, RanGTPase-driven exportin that carries proteins and RNPs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We now explored the cargo-spectrum of CRM1 in depth and identified surprisingly large numbers, namely >700 export substrates from the yeast S. cerevisiae, ≈1000 from Xenopus oocytes and >1050 from human cells. In addition, we quantified the partitioning of ≈5000 unique proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes. The data suggest new CRM1 functions in spatial control of vesicle coat-assembly, centrosomes, autophagy, peroxisome biogenesis, cytoskeleton, ribosome maturation, translation, mRNA degradation, and more generally in precluding a potentially detrimental action of cytoplasmic pathways within the nuclear interior. There are also numerous new instances where CRM1 appears to act in regulatory circuits. Altogether, our dataset allows unprecedented insights into the nucleocytoplasmic organisation of eukaryotic cells, into the contributions of an exceedingly promiscuous exportin and it provides a new basis for NES prediction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11466.001 PMID:26673895

  18. Nucleocytoplasmic protein translocation during mitosis in the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Budniak, Aldona

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis is a fundamental and essential life process. It underlies the duplication and survival of all cells and, as a result, all eukaryotic organisms. Since uncontrolled mitosis is a dreaded component of many cancers, a full understanding of the process is critical. Evolution has led to the existence of three types of mitosis: closed, open, and semi-open. The significance of these different mitotic species, how they can lead to a full understanding of the critical events that underlie the asexual duplication of all cells, and how they may generate new insights into controlling unregulated cell division remains to be determined. The eukaryotic microbe Dictyostelium discoideum has proved to be a valuable biomedical model organism. While it appears to utilize closed mitosis, a review of the literature suggests that it possesses a form of mitosis that lies in the middle between truly open and fully closed mitosis-it utilizes a form of semi-open mitosis. Here, the nucleocytoplasmic translocation patterns of the proteins that have been studied during mitosis in the social amoebozoan D. discoideum are detailed followed by a discussion of how some of them provide support for the hypothesis of semi-open mitosis. PMID:24618050

  19. A deep proteomics perspective on CRM1-mediated nuclear export and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning.

    PubMed

    Kırlı, Koray; Karaca, Samir; Dehne, Heinz Jürgen; Samwer, Matthias; Pan, Kuan Ting; Lenz, Christof; Urlaub, Henning; Görlich, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    CRM1 is a highly conserved, RanGTPase-driven exportin that carries proteins and RNPs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We now explored the cargo-spectrum of CRM1 in depth and identified surprisingly large numbers, namely >700 export substrates from the yeast S. cerevisiae, ≈1000 from Xenopus oocytes and >1050 from human cells. In addition, we quantified the partitioning of ≈5000 unique proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes. The data suggest new CRM1 functions in spatial control of vesicle coat-assembly, centrosomes, autophagy, peroxisome biogenesis, cytoskeleton, ribosome maturation, translation, mRNA degradation, and more generally in precluding a potentially detrimental action of cytoplasmic pathways within the nuclear interior. There are also numerous new instances where CRM1 appears to act in regulatory circuits. Altogether, our dataset allows unprecedented insights into the nucleocytoplasmic organisation of eukaryotic cells, into the contributions of an exceedingly promiscuous exportin and it provides a new basis for NES prediction. PMID:26673895

  20. Signals for Bidirectional Nucleocytoplasmic Transport in the Duck Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mabit, Helene; Breiner, Klaus M.; Knaust, Andreas; Zachmann-Brand, Beate; Schaller, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Hepadnavirus genome replication involves cytoplasmic and nuclear stages, requiring balanced targeting of cytoplasmic nucleocapsids to the nuclear compartment. In this study, we analyze the signals determining capsid compartmentalization in the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) animal model, as this system also allows us to study hepadnavirus infection of cultured primary hepatocytes. Using fusions to the green fluorescent protein as a functional assay, we have identified a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that mediates nuclear pore association of the DHBV nucleocapsid and nuclear import of DHBV core protein (DHBc)-derived polypeptides. The DHBc NLS mapped is unique. It bears homology to repetitive NLS elements previously identified near the carboxy terminus of the capsid protein of hepatitis B virus, the human prototype of the hepadnavirus family, but it maps to a more internal position. In further contrast to the hepatitis B virus core protein NLS, the DHBc NLS is not positioned near phosphorylation target sites that are generally assumed to modulate nucleocytoplasmic transport. In functional assays with a knockout mutant, the DHBc NLS was found to be essential for nuclear pore association of the nucleocapsid. The NLS was found to be also essential for virus production from the full-length DHBV genome in transfected cells and from hepatocytes infected with transcomplemented mutant virus. Finally, the DHBc additionally displayed activity indicative of a nuclear export signal, presumably counterbalancing NLS function in the productive state of the infected cell and thereby preventing nucleoplasmic accumulation of nucleocapsids. PMID:11160696

  1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling: a novel in vivo property of antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Peter; Misteli, Tom; Baker, Brenda F.; Bennett, C. Frank; Spector, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (P=S ODNs) are frequently used as antisense agents to specifically interfere with the expression of cellular target genes. However, the cell biological properties of P=S ODNs are poorly understood. Here we show that P=S ODNs were able to continuously shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that shuttling P=S ODNs retained their ability to act as antisense agents. The shuttling process shares characteristics with active transport since it was inhibited by chilling and ATP depletion in vivo. Transport was carrier-mediated as it was saturable, and nuclear pore complex-mediated as it was sensitive to treatment with wheatgerm agglutinin. Oligonucleotides without a P=S backbone chemistry were only weakly restricted in their migration by chilling, ATP depletion and wheatgerm agglutinin and thus moved by diffusion. P=S ODN shuttling was only moderately affected by disruption of the Ran/RCC1 system. We propose that P=S ODNs shuttle through their binding to yet unidentified cellular molecules that undergo nucleocytoplasmic transport via a pathway that is not as strongly dependent on the Ran/RCC1 system as nuclear export signal-mediated protein export, U-snRNA, tRNA and mRNA export. The shuttling property of P=S ODNs must be taken into account when considering the mode and site of action of these antisense agents. PMID:10606658

  2. Exploring nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses in Tara Oceans microbial metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Hingamp, Pascal; Grimsley, Nigel; Acinas, Silvia G; Clerissi, Camille; Subirana, Lucie; Poulain, Julie; Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Villar, Emilie; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Faust, Karoline; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Moreau, Hervé; Desdevises, Yves; Bork, Peer; Raes, Jeroen; de Vargas, Colomban; Karsenti, Eric; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Pesant, Stéphane; Wincker, Patrick; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles in the sea by accelerating the turnover of their unicellular hosts or by causing diseases in animals. To better characterize the diversity, abundance and biogeography of marine NCLDVs, we analyzed 17 metagenomes derived from microbial samples (0.2–1.6 μm size range) collected during the Tara Oceans Expedition. The sample set includes ecosystems under-represented in previous studies, such as the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and Indian Ocean lagoons. By combining computationally derived relative abundance and direct prokaryote cell counts, the abundance of NCLDVs was found to be in the order of 104–105 genomes ml−1 for the samples from the photic zone and 102–103 genomes ml−1 for the OMZ. The Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae dominated the NCLDV populations in the metagenomes, although most of the reads classified in these families showed large divergence from known viral genomes. Our taxon co-occurrence analysis revealed a potential association between viruses of the Megaviridae family and eukaryotes related to oomycetes. In support of this predicted association, we identified six cases of lateral gene transfer between Megaviridae and oomycetes. Our results suggest that marine NCLDVs probably outnumber eukaryotic organisms in the photic layer (per given water mass) and that metagenomic sequence analyses promise to shed new light on the biodiversity of marine viruses and their interactions with potential hosts. PMID:23575371

  3. Ubiquitous expression of the 43- and 44-kDa forms of transcription factor USF in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sirito, M; Lin, Q; Maity, T; Sawadogo, M

    1994-01-01

    USF is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that, like Myc, recognizes the DNA binding motif CACGTG. Two different forms of USF, characterized by apparent molecular weights of 43,000 and 44,000, were originally identified in HeLa cells by biochemical analysis. Clones for the 43-kDa USF were first characterized, but only partial clones for the human 44-kDa USF (USF2, or FIP) have been reported. Here we describe a complete cDNA for the 44-kDa USF from murine cells. Analysis of this clone has revealed that the various USF family members are quite divergent in their N-terminal amino acid sequences, while a high degree of conservation characterizes their dimerization and DNA-binding domains. Interestingly, the 3' noncoding region of the 44-kDa USF cDNAs displayed an unusual degree of conservation between human and mouse. In vitro transcription/translation experiments indicated a possible role for this region in translation regulation. Alternative splicing forms of the 44-kDa USF messages exist in both mouse and human. Examination of the tissue and cell-type distribution of USF by Northern blot and gel retardation assays revealed that while expression of both the 43- and 44-kDa USF species is ubiquitous, different ratios of USF homo- and heterodimers are found in different cells. Images PMID:8127680

  4. 15 kDa Granulysin versus GM-CSF for monocytes differentiation: analogies and differences at the transcriptome level

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Granulysin is an antimicrobial and proinflammatory protein with several isoforms. While the 9 kDa isoform is a well described cytolytic molecule with pro-inflammatory activity, the functions of the 15 kDa isoform is less well understood. Recently it was shown that 15 kDa Granulysin can act as an alarmin that is able to activate monocytes and immature dendritic cells. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a growth factor widely used in immunotherapy both for in vivo and ex vivo applications, especially for its proliferative effects. Methods We analyzed gene expression profiles of monocytes cultured with 15 kDa Granulysin or GM-CSF for 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours to unravel both similarities and differences between the effects of these stimulators. Results The analysis revealed a common signature induced by both factors at each time point, but over time, a more specific signature for each factor became evident. At all time points, 15 kDa Granulysin induced immune response, chemotaxis and cell adhesion genes. In addition, only 15 kDa Granulsyin induced the activation of pathways related to fundamental dendritic cell functions, such as co-stimulation of T-cell activation and Th1 development. GM-CSF specifically down-regulated genes related to cell cycle arrest and the immune response. More specifically, cytokine production, lymphocyte mediated immunity and humoral immune response were down-regulated at late time points. Conclusion This study provides important insights on the effects of a novel agent, 15 kDa granulysin, that holds promise for therapeutic applications aimed at the activation of the immune response. PMID:21501511

  5. Sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus phylogeny and PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Sharon C; VanWalleghem, Elissa; Anderson, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    Sturgeon epitheliotropic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) can cause a lethal disease of the integumentary system. These viruses have not been assigned to any currently recognized family or genus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses using the major capsid protein (MCP) showed that the sturgeon NCLDVs formed a cohesive taxonomic group, could be identified to the species or possibly sub-species level and formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the Megavirales. The genetic relatedness of the sturgeon virus MCP allowed design of 3 PCR diagnostic tests with analytical specificity (ASp) inclusive of this group of viruses. The conventional PCR test, C1, had broader ASp than the 2 quantitative PCR tests, Q1 and Q2, and was inclusive of the sturgeon viruses as well as some viruses belonging to the families Mimi-, Phycodna-, or Iridoviridae. Q2 had broader specificity than Q1 but both tests recognized the sturgeon NCLDVs and did not cross-react with co-localizing sturgeon herpesviruses. Analytical test performance characteristics evaluated for Q1 and Q2 revealed sensitive assays with observed 50% limits of detection between 3 and 6.25 plasmid copies and high intra- and inter-assay repeatability. Q1 was used to test for sturgeon viruses in endangered populations of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens within the Winnipeg River or Nelson River drainage systems of Manitoba, Canada. Test results indicated that namao virus is endemic in the Nelson River water basin. These tests meet the analytical requirements for diagnostic testing in Canada and are useful tools for disease management in sturgeon conservation stocking programs in North America. PMID:26648102

  6. GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9ORF72 compromises nucleocytoplasmic transport

    PubMed Central

    Freibaum, Brian D.; Lu, Yubing; Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Kim, Nam Chul; Almeida, Sandra; Lee, Kyung-Ha; Badders, Nisha; Valentine, Marc; Miller, Bruce L.; Wong, Philip C.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Kim, Hong Joo; Gao, Fen-Biao; Taylor, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9ORF72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)1,2. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To capture the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2 repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein (GFP) to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. These transgenic animals show dosage-dependent, repeat length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins as observed in patients. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. Consistent with these results we found morphological abnormalities in the architecture of the nuclear envelope in cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified a substantial defect in RNA export resulting in retention of RNA in the nuclei of Drosophila cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats and also in mammalian cells, including aged iPSC-derived neurons from C9ORF72 patients. These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration. PMID:26308899

  7. Subcellular Localization of Class II HDAs in Arabidopsis thaliana: Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of HDA15 Is Driven by Light

    PubMed Central

    Alinsug, Malona V.; Chen, Fang Fang; Luo, Ming; Tai, Ready; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    Class II histone deacetylases in humans and other model organisms undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This unique functional regulatory mechanism has been well elucidated in eukaryotic organisms except in plant systems. In this study, we have paved the baseline evidence for the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of Class II HDAs as well as their mRNA expression patterns. RT-PCR analysis on the different vegetative parts and developmental stages reveal that Class II HDAs are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues with minimal developmental specificity. Moreover, stable and transient expression assays using HDA-YFP/GFP fusion constructs indicate cytoplasmic localization of HDA5, HDA8, and HDA14 further suggesting their potential for nuclear transport and deacetylating organellar and cytoplasmic proteins. Organelle markers and stains confirm HDA14 to abound in the mitochondria and chloroplasts while HDA5 localizes in the ER. HDA15, on the other hand, shuttles in and out of the nucleus upon light exposure. In the absence of light, it is exported out of the nucleus where further re-exposition to light treatments signals its nuclear import. Unlike HDA5 which binds with 14-3-3 proteins, HDA15 fails to interact with these chaperones. Instead, HDA15 relies on its own nuclear localization and export signals to navigate its subcellular compartmentalization classifying it as a Class IIb HDA. Our study indicates that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is indeed a hallmark for all eukaryotic Class II histone deacetylases. PMID:22363501

  8. The high risk HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein has multiple transport signals that mediate its nucleocytoplasmic traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Mamoor, Shahan; Onder, Zeynep; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Kwak, Kihyuck; Bordeaux, Jennifer; Crosby, Lauren; Roden, Richard B.S.; Moroianu, Junona

    2012-01-20

    In this study we examined the transport signals contributing to HPV16 L2 nucleocytoplasmic traffic using confocal microscopy analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein-L2 (EGFP-L2) fusions expressed in HeLa cells. We confirmed that both nuclear localization signals (NLSs), the nNLS (1MRHKRSAKRTKR12) and cNLS (456RKRRKR461), previously characterized in vitro (Darshan et al., 2004), function independently in vivo. We discovered that a middle region rich in arginine residues (296SRRTGIRYSRIGNKQTLRTRS316) functions as a nuclear retention sequence (NRS), as mutagenesis of critical arginine residues within this NRS reduced the fraction of L2 in the nucleus despite the presence of both NLSs. Significantly, the infectivity of HPV16 pseudoviruses containing either RR297AA or RR297EE within the L2 NRS was strongly reduced both in HaCaT cells and in a murine challenge model. Experiments using Ratjadone A nuclear export inhibitor and mutation-localization analysis lead to the discovery of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal ({sub 462}LPYFFSDVSL) mediating 16L2 nuclear export. These data indicate that HPV16 L2 nucleocytoplasmic traffic is dependent on multiple functional transport signals.

  9. C9ORF72 poly(GA) aggregates sequester and impair HR23 and nucleocytoplasmic transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Gendron, Tania F; Grima, Jonathan C; Sasaguri, Hiroki; Jansen-West, Karen; Xu, Ya-Fei; Katzman, Rebecca B; Gass, Jennifer; Murray, Melissa E; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Lin, Wen-Lang; Garrett, Aliesha; Stankowski, Jeannette N; Daughrity, Lillian; Tong, Jimei; Perkerson, Emilie A; Yue, Mei; Chew, Jeannie; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Kurti, Aishe; Wang, Zizhao S; Liesinger, Amanda M; Baker, Jeremy D; Jiang, Jie; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Edbauer, Dieter; Cleveland, Don W; Rademakers, Rosa; Boylan, Kevin B; Bu, Guojun; Link, Christopher D; Dickey, Chad A; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Dickson, Dennis W; Fryer, John D; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal inclusions of poly(GA), a protein unconventionally translated from G4C2 repeat expansions in C9ORF72, are abundant in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by this mutation. To investigate poly(GA) toxicity, we generated mice that exhibit poly(GA) pathology, neurodegeneration and behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of FTD and ALS. These phenotypes occurred in the absence of TDP-43 pathology and required poly(GA) aggregation. HR23 proteins involved in proteasomal degradation and proteins involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport were sequestered by poly(GA) in these mice. HR23A and HR23B similarly colocalized to poly(GA) inclusions in C9ORF72 expansion carriers. Sequestration was accompanied by an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and decreased xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) levels in mice, indicative of HR23A and HR23B dysfunction. Restoring HR23B levels attenuated poly(GA) aggregation and rescued poly(GA)-induced toxicity in neuronal cultures. These data demonstrate that sequestration and impairment of nuclear HR23 and nucleocytoplasmic transport proteins is an outcome of, and a contributor to, poly(GA) pathology. PMID:26998601

  10. Exon recognition and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning determine AMPD1 alternative transcript production.

    PubMed Central

    Mineo, I; Holmes, E W

    1991-01-01

    Two mature transcripts are produced from the rat AMP deaminase 1 (AMPD1) gene, one that retains exon 2 and one from which exon 2 has been removed. The ratio of these two transcripts is controlled by stage-specific and tissue-specific signals (I. Mineo, P. R. H. Clarke, R. L. Sabina, and E. W. Holmes, Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:5271-5278, 1990; R. L. Sabina, N. Ogasawara, and E. W. Holmes, Mol. Cell. Biol. 9:2244-2246, 1989). By using transfection studies with native, mutant, and chimeric minigene constructs, two steps in RNA processing that determine the ratio of these two transcripts have been identified. The first step is recognition of this exon in the primary transcript. The primary transcript is subject to alternative splicing in which exon 2 is either recognized and thereby included in the mature mRNA or is ignored and retained in a composite intron containing intron 1-exon 2-intron 2. The following properties of the primary transcript influence exon recognition. (i) Exon 2 is intrinsically difficult to recognize, possibly because of its small size (only 12 bases) and/or a suboptimal 5' donor site at the exon 2-intron 2 boundary. (ii) Intron 2 plays a permissive role in recognition of exon 2 because it is removed at a relatively slow rate, presumably because of the suboptimal polypyrimidine tract in the putative 3' branch site. The second step in RNA processing that influences the ratio of mature transcripts produced from the AMPD1 gene occurs subsequent to the ligation of exon 2 to exon 1. An RNA intermediate, composed of exon 1-exon 2-intron 2-exon 3, is produced in the first processing step, but it is variably retained in the nucleus. Retention of this intermediate in the nucleus is associated with accumulation of the mature mRNA containing exon 2, while cytoplasmic escape of this intermediate is reactions, exon recognition and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning, determine the relative abundance of alternative mRNAs derived from the AMPD1 gene. Images PMID:1922051

  11. Purification and properties of an oestrogen-stimulated mouse uterine glycoprotein (approx. 70 kDa).

    PubMed Central

    Teng, C T; Walker, M P; Bhattacharyya, S N; Klapper, D G; DiAugustine, R P; McLachlan, J A

    1986-01-01

    An oestrogen-induced secretory protein from mouse uterine luminal fluid was purified by CM-Affi-Gel Blue chromatography and reverse-phase h.p.l.c. This protein has an apparent molecular mass of approx. 70 kDa both by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (with or without 2-mercaptoethanol) and by gel-filtration column chromatography, indicating that it exists as a single-chain polypeptide. Further analysis of the protein revealed that it is highly basic (pI greater than or equal to 10) and is a glycoprotein. The N-terminus appears to be blocked to Edman degradation. The partial amino acid sequence of a fragment was obtained by cleavage with CNBr; no sequence homology was apparent between the analysed fragment and other known sequences. The incorporation of [35S]methionine into uterine proteins in vitro revealed that oestrogen treatment of immature mice stimulates both synthesis and secretion of the 70 kDa protein. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with polyclonal antibody was used to determine the tissue distribution of the protein. Tissues such as lung, brain, spleen, muscle, intestine, liver, kidney and ovary of oestrogen-treated mice did not have detectable amounts of the 70 kDa protein. Immunoreactivity was present in uterine and vaginal tissues from oestrogen-treated animals. The 70 kDa protein was not induced by testosterone or progesterone. Although the function of this protein is unknown, it is useful as a marker for the study of oestrogen action in the mammalian uterus as well as regulation of gene expression at the molecular level. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3814091

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic Recycling of the Nuclear Localization Signal Receptor α Subunit In Vivo Is Dependent on a Nuclear Export Signal, Energy, and RCC1

    PubMed Central

    Boche, Irene; Fanning, Ellen

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear protein import requires a nuclear localization signal (NLS) receptor and at least three other cytoplasmic factors. The α subunit of the NLS receptor, Rag cohort 1 (Rch1), enters the nucleus, probably in a complex with the β subunit of the receptor, as well as other import factors and the import substrate. To learn more about which factors and/or events end the import reaction and how the import factors return to the cytoplasm, we have studied nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Rch1 in vivo. Recombinant Rch1 microinjected into Vero or tsBN2 cells was found primarily in the cytoplasm. Rch1 injected into the nucleus was rapidly exported in a temperature-dependent manner. In contrast, a mutant of Rch1 lacking the first 243 residues accumulated in the nuclei of Vero cells after cytoplasmic injection. After nuclear injection, the truncated Rch1 was retained in the nucleus, but either Rch1 residues 207–217 or a heterologous nuclear export signal, but not a mutant form of residues 207–217, restored nuclear export. Loss of the nuclear transport factor RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation) at the nonpermissive temperature in the thermosensitive mutant cell line tsBN2 caused nuclear accumulation of wild-type Rch1 injected into the cytoplasm. However, free Rch1 injected into nuclei of tsBN2 cells at the nonpermissive temperature was exported. These results suggested that RCC1 acts at an earlier step in Rch1 recycling, possibly the disassembly of an import complex that contains Rch1 and the import substrate. Consistent with this possibility, incubation of purified RanGTP and RCC1 with NLS receptor and import substrate prevented assembly of receptor/substrate complexes or stimulated their disassembly. PMID:9334337

  13. Membrane-associated 41-kDa GTP-binding protein in collagen-induced platelet activation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.; Bourguignon, L.Y. )

    1990-08-01

    Initially we established that the binding of collagen to human blood platelets stimulates both the rapid loss of PIP2 and the generation of inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). These results indicate that the binding of collagen stimulates inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C during platelet activation. The fact that GTP or GTP-gamma-S augments, and pertussis toxin inhibits, collagen-induced IP3 formation suggests that a GTP-binding protein or (or proteins) may be directly involved in the regulation of phospholipase C-mediated phosphoinositide turnover in human platelets. We have used several complementary techniques to isolate and characterize a platelet 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) that has a number of structural and functional similarities to the regulatory alpha i subunit of the GTP-binding proteins isolated from bovine brain. This 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) is found to be closely associated with at least four membrane glycoproteins (e.g., gp180, gp110, gp95, and gp75) in a 330-kDa complex that can be dissociated by treatment with high salt plus urea. Most important, we have demonstrated that antilymphoma 41-kDa (alpha i subunit of GTP-binding proteins) antibody cross-reacts with the platelet 41-kDa protein (or proteins) and the alpha i subunit of bovine brain Gi alpha proteins, and blocks GTP/collagen-induced IP3 formation. These data provide strong evidence that the 41-kDa platelet GTP-binding protein (or proteins) is directly involved in collagen-induced signal transduction during platelet activation.

  14. The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Won Kyung . E-mail: wkkang@riken.jp; Kurihara, Masaaki . E-mail: mkuri@riken.jp; Matsumoto, Shogo . E-mail: smatsu@riken.jp

    2006-06-20

    The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) display a biphasic pattern of intracellular localization during infection. At early times, they reside in the nucleus but then show both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization as the infection proceeds. Therefore, we examined the possibility of nuclear export. Using inhibitors, we reveal that BmNPV BRO proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutations on the leucine-rich region of BRO proteins resulted in nuclear accumulation of transiently expressed proteins, suggesting that this region functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). On the contrary, mutant BRO-D with an altered NES did not show nuclear accumulation in infected cells, although protein production seemed to be reduced. RT-PCR analysis showed that the lower level of protein production was due to a reduction in RNA synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that BRO proteins are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway.

  15. Identification of domains on the extrinsic 23 kDa protein possibly involved in electrostatic interaction with the extrinsic 33 kDa protein in spinach photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Tohri, Akihiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Ohta, Hisataka; Inoue, Yasunori; Enami, Isao

    2004-03-01

    To elucidate the domains on the extrinsic 23 kDa protein involved in electrostatic interaction with the extrinsic 33 kDa protein in spinach photosystem II, we modified amino or carboxyl groups of the 23 kDa protein to uncharged methyl ester groups with N-succinimidyl propionate or glycine methyl ester in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide, respectively. The N-succinimidyl propionate-modified 23 kDa protein did not bind to the 33 kDa protein associated with PSII membranes, whereas the glycine methyl ester-modified 23 kDa protein completely bound. This indicates that positive charges on the 23 kDa protein are important for electrostatic interaction with the 33 kDa protein associated with the PSII membranes. Mapping of the N-succinimidyl propionate-modified sites of the 23 kDa protein was performed using Staphylococcus V8 protease digestion of the modified protein followed by determination of the mass of the resultant peptide fragments with MALDI-TOF MS. The results showed that six domains (Lys11-Lys14, Lys27-Lys38, Lys40, Lys90-Lys96, Lys143-Lys152, Lys166-Lys174) were modified with N-succinimidyl propionate. In these domains, Lys11, Lys13, Lys33, Lys38, Lys143, Lys166, Lys170 and Lys174 were wholly conserved in the 23 kDa protein from 12 species of higher plants. These positively charged lysyl residues on the 23 kDa protein may be involved in electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged carboxyl groups on the 33 kDa protein, the latter has been suggested to be important for the 23 kDa binding [Bricker, T.M. & Frankel, L.K. (2003) Biochemistry42, 2056-2061]. PMID:15009208

  16. Structural requirements to obtain highly potent and selective 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) Ligands.

    PubMed

    Taliani, Sabrina; Pugliesi, Isabella; Da Settimo, Federico

    2011-01-01

    The (18 kDa) Translocator Protein (TSPO), was initially identified in 1977 as peripheral binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam and named "Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)". It is an evolutionarily well-conserved protein particularly located at the outer/inner mitochondrial membrane contact sites, in closely association with the 32 kDa voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the 30 kDa adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), thus forming the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). TSPO is ubiquitary expressed in peripheral tissues (steroid producing tissues, liver, heart, kidney, lung, immune system) and in lower levels in the central nervous system, where it is mainly located in glial cells, and in neurons. TSPO is involved in a variety of biological processes such as cholesterol transport, steroidogenesis, calcium homeostasis, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial oxidation, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis induction, and regulation of immune functions. In the last decade, many studies have reported that TSPO basal expression is altered in a number of human pathologies, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders (Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases), as well as in various forms of brain injury and inflammation and anxiety. Consequently, TSPO has not only been suggested as a promising drug target for a number of therapeutic applications (anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, immunomodulating, etc.), but also as valid diagnostic marker for related-disease state and progression, prompting the development of specific labelled ligands as powerful tools for imaging techniques. A number of structurally different classes of ligands have been reported, showing high affinity and selectivity towards TSPO. Indeed, most of these ligands have been designed starting from selective CBR ligands which were structurally modified in order to shift their affinity towards TSPO. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies were performed allowing to

  17. Ultratight crystal packing of a 10 kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Trillo-Muyo, Sergio; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek; Kuisiene, Nomeda

    2013-03-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase from G. thermoleovorans is reported; it is one of the most tightly packed protein structures reported to date. While small organic molecules generally crystallize forming tightly packed lattices with little solvent content, proteins form air-sensitive high-solvent-content crystals. Here, the crystallization and full structure analysis of a novel recombinant 10 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase are reported. The orthorhombic crystal contained only 24.5% solvent and is therefore among the most tightly packed protein lattices ever reported.

  18. In vivo breakdown products of the 32 kDa thylakoid herbicide binding protein. [Spirodela oligorrhiza

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Mattoo, A.K.; Gaba, V.; Edelman, M.

    1986-04-01

    The 32 kDa herbicide binding protein of PSII is degraded rapidly in the light. This phenomenon was investigated in Spirodela oligorrhiza. When fronds were radiolabeled in the presence of cycloheximide only the chloroplast-encoded proteins were labeled. Under these conditions, a breakdown product of 23.5 kDa was observed. This polypeptide was further degraded with kinetics similar to that of the 32 kDa protein. The 23.5 kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with an antibody specific to the 32 kDa protein. By protease digestion it was determined that the 23.5 kDa polypeptide is the intact N-terminal piece of the 32 kDa protein. Thus, this product corresponds to the membrane anchor of the 32 kDa protein. Using the same antibody, breakdown products of 16 kDa, 14 kDa and 12 kDa were observed. These products have also been observed in Zea mays and Solanum nigrum. Using DCMU during pulse-chase experiments at different light intensities, evidence was obtained that the 23.5 kDa breakdown product is generated in vivo.

  19. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of STK16 (PKL12), a Golgi-resident serine/threonine kinase involved in VEGF expression regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guinea, Barbara; Gonzalez de la Pena, Manuel . E-mail: abernad@cnb.uam.es

    2006-01-15

    PKL12/STK16 protein is the first identified mammalian member of a ser/thr kinase subfamily that is conserved across several kingdoms, with a broad expression pattern in murine tissues and cell types. Endogenous STK16 subcellular localization was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence in NIH/3T3 and NRK cells, demonstrating a Golgi-associated pattern that appears to be independent of signals provided by integrin pathways. When cells were treated with brefeldin A (BFA) or nocodazole, drugs that promote Golgi disorganization, we observed STK16 translocation to the nuclear compartment. Constitutive overexpression of this protein by retroviral vectors also promotes accumulation of STK16 in the nuclear compartment, as shown by subfractionation studies. A kinase-dead STK16 mutant (E202A) was used to demonstrate that both the Golgi association and the nuclear translocation capabilities seem to be independent of the STK16 kinase activity. In addition, we show that STK16 overexpression in several cell lines enhances their capacity to produce and secrete VEGF. To confirm these data in vivo, we injected tumor cells overexpressing STK16 into immunodeficient BALBc/SCID mice. HT1080-derived tumors overexpressing STK16 showed increased volume and number of blood vessels compared to controls. Altogether, these data concur with previous reports suggesting a potential role for STK16 as a transcriptional co-activator.

  20. The 15kDa Selenoprotein and Thioredoxin Reductase 1 Promote Colon Cancer by Different Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Petra A.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Yoo, Min-Hyuk; Naranjo-Suarez, Salvador; Xu, Xue-Ming; He, Yiwen; Asaki, Esther; Seifried, Harold E.; Reinhold, William C.; Davis, Cindy D.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins mediate much of the cancer-preventive properties of the essential nutrient selenium, but some of these proteins have been shown to also have cancer-promoting effects. We examined the contributions of the 15kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) to cancer development. Targeted down-regulation of either gene inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and formation of experimental metastases of mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cells. Surprisingly, combined deficiency of Sep15 and TR1 reversed the anti-cancer effects observed with down-regulation of each single gene. We found that inflammation-related genes regulated by Stat-1, especially interferon-γ-regulated guanylate-binding proteins, were highly elevated in Sep15-deficient, but not in TR1-deficient cells. Interestingly, components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were up-regulated in cells lacking both TR1 and Sep15. These results suggest that Sep15 and TR1 participate in interfering regulatory pathways in colon cancer cells. Considering the variable expression levels of Sep15 and TR1 found within the human population, our results provide insights into new roles of selenoproteins in cancer. PMID:25886253

  1. The 29-kDa proteins phosphorylated ion thrombin-activated human platelets are forms of the estrogen receptor-related 27-kDa heat shock protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.E.; Yan Zhu; O'Neill, S. )

    1991-12-15

    Thrombin plays a critical role in platelet activation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Cellular activation by thrombin leads to the phosphorylation of multiple proteins, most of which are unidentified. The authors have characterized several 29-kDa proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of intact human platelets to thrombin. A murine monoclonal antibody raised to an unidentified estrogen receptor-related 29-kDa protein selectively recognized these proteins as well as a more basic, unphosphorylated 27-kDa protein. Cellular activation by thrombin led to a marked shift in the proportion of protein from the 27-kDa unphosphorylated form to the 29-kDa phosphoprotein species. Using this antibody, they isolated and sequenced a human cDNA clone encoding a protein that was identical to the mammalian 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27), a protein of uncertain function that is known to be phosphorylated to several forms and to be transcriptionally induced by estrogen. The 29-kDa proteins were confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of HSP27 by immunoprecipitation studies. Thus, the estrogen receptor-related protein is HSP27, and the three major 20-kDa proteins phosphorylated in thrombin-activated platelets are forms of HSP27. These data suggest a role for HSP27 in the signal transduction events of platelet activation.

  2. A 92-kDa human immunostimulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Fontan, E; Briend, E; Saklani-Jusforgues, H; d'Alayer, J; Vandekerckhove, J; Fauve, R M

    1994-01-01

    We purified to apparent homogeneity a human urinary glycoprotein of 92 kDa (HGP.92) that, administered intravenously at 250 micrograms/kg, fully protected mice against a lethal inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes. Since HGP.92 protected scid mice, which lack B and T lymphocytes, this increased resistance to Listeria did not appear to be lymphocyte mediated. Furthermore, inflammatory macrophages incubated with 6 nM HGP.92 inhibited the growth of Lewis carcinoma cells in vitro. These two activities appeared to depend on an oligosaccharide moiety, as they were lost after N-Glycanase treatment of HGP.92. Thus, the biological activity of HGP.92 was in some way related to a glycan moiety. Images PMID:8078887

  3. The effect of light color on the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast cycle of the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Cepák, V; Pribyl, P; Vítová, M

    2006-01-01

    The color of light (white, red, blue, and green) had a significant effect on the growth and reproductive processes (both in the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast compartment of the cells) in synchronous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus. This effect decreased in the order red > white > blue > green. In the same order, the light phase of the cell cycle (time when first autospores started to be released) was prolonged. The length of dark phase (time when 100 % of daughters were allowed to release from mothers) was not influenced and was the same for all colors. Critical cell size for cell division in green light was shifted to a smaller size (compared with cells grown in other lights) and so was the size of released daughters. The nuclear cycle was slowed in blue and even in green light, contrary to cells grown in red and white light. At the beginning of the cell cycle, one-nucleus daughters possess approximately 10 nucleoids; during the cell cycle their number doubled in all variants before the division of nuclei. Both events were delayed in cultures grown more slowly most markedly in green light. Smaller daughters in the green variant possessed a lower number of nucleoids. Motile cells released in continuous green or blue lights but not in red one were rarely observed. PMID:17007440

  4. shRNA library screening identifies nucleocytoplasmic transport as a mediator of BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent resistance.

    PubMed

    Khorashad, Jamshid S; Eiring, Anna M; Mason, Clinton C; Gantz, Kevin C; Bowler, Amber D; Redwine, Hannah M; Yu, Fan; Kraft, Ira L; Pomicter, Anthony D; Reynolds, Kimberly R; Iovino, Anthony J; Zabriskie, Matthew S; Heaton, William L; Tantravahi, Srinivas K; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Chenchik, Alex; Bonneau, Kyle; Ullman, Katharine S; O'Hare, Thomas; Deininger, Michael W

    2015-03-12

    The mechanisms underlying tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients lacking explanatory BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations are incompletely understood. To identify mechanisms of TKI resistance that are independent of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, we introduced a lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library targeting ∼5000 cell signaling genes into K562(R), a CML cell line with BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance expressing exclusively native BCR-ABL1. A customized algorithm identified genes whose shRNA-mediated knockdown markedly impaired growth of K562(R) cells compared with TKI-sensitive controls. Among the top candidates were 2 components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport complex, RAN and XPO1 (CRM1). shRNA-mediated RAN inhibition or treatment of cells with the XPO1 inhibitor, KPT-330 (Selinexor), increased the imatinib sensitivity of CML cell lines with kinase-independent TKI resistance. Inhibition of either RAN or XPO1 impaired colony formation of CD34(+) cells from newly diagnosed and TKI-resistant CML patients in the presence of imatinib, without effects on CD34(+) cells from normal cord blood or from a patient harboring the BCR-ABL1(T315I) mutant. These data implicate RAN in BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent imatinib resistance and show that shRNA library screens are useful to identify alternative pathways critical to drug resistance in CML. PMID:25573989

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic human O-GlcNAc transferase is sufficient for O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins

    PubMed Central

    Trapannone, Riccardo; Mariappa, Daniel; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; vanAalten, Daan M.F.

    2016-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is a nutrient-dependent protein post-translational modification (PTM), dynamically and reversibly driven by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyse the addition and the removal of the O-GlcNAc moieties to/from serine and threonine residues of target proteins respectively. Increasing evidence suggests involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in many biological processes, including transcription, signalling, neuronal development and mitochondrial function. The presence of a mitochondrial O-GlcNAc proteome and a mitochondrial OGT (mOGT) isoform has been reported. We explored the presence of mOGT in human cell lines and mouse tissues. Surprisingly, analysis of genomic sequences indicates that this isoform cannot be expressed in most of the species analysed, except some primates. In addition, we were not able to detect endogenous mOGT in a range of human cell lines. Knockdown experiments and Western blot analysis of all the predicted OGT isoforms suggested the expression of only a single OGT isoform. In agreement with this, we demonstrate that overexpression of the nucleocytoplasmic OGT (ncOGT) isoform leads to increased O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins, suggesting that ncOGT is necessary and sufficient for the generation of the O-GlcNAc mitochondrial proteome. PMID:27048592

  6. Nucleocytoplasmic human O-GlcNAc transferase is sufficient for O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins.

    PubMed

    Trapannone, Riccardo; Mariappa, Daniel; Ferenbach, Andrew T; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2016-06-15

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is a nutrient-dependent protein post-translational modification (PTM), dynamically and reversibly driven by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyse the addition and the removal of the O-GlcNAc moieties to/from serine and threonine residues of target proteins respectively. Increasing evidence suggests involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in many biological processes, including transcription, signalling, neuronal development and mitochondrial function. The presence of a mitochondrial O-GlcNAc proteome and a mitochondrial OGT (mOGT) isoform has been reported. We explored the presence of mOGT in human cell lines and mouse tissues. Surprisingly, analysis of genomic sequences indicates that this isoform cannot be expressed in most of the species analysed, except some primates. In addition, we were not able to detect endogenous mOGT in a range of human cell lines. Knockdown experiments and Western blot analysis of all the predicted OGT isoforms suggested the expression of only a single OGT isoform. In agreement with this, we demonstrate that overexpression of the nucleocytoplasmic OGT (ncOGT) isoform leads to increased O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins, suggesting that ncOGT is necessary and sufficient for the generation of the O-GlcNAc mitochondrial proteome. PMID:27048592

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of tRNAs and implication of the cytosolic Hsp70 system in tRNA import.

    PubMed

    Yoshihisa, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    tRNAs, a class of non-coding RNAs essential for translation, are unique among cytosolic RNA species in that they shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm during their life. Although their export from the nucleus has been studied in detail, limited information on import machinery was available. Our group recently reported that Ssa2p, one of major cytosolic Hsp70s in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acts as a crucial factor for tRNA import upon nutrient starvation. Ssa2p can bind tRNAs and a nucleoporin directly in an ATP-sensitive manner, suggesting that it acts as a nuclear import carrier for tRNAs, like importin-β proteins. In vitro assays revealed that Ssa2p binds tRNA specifically but has preference for loosely folded tRNAs. In this Extra View, these features of Ssa2p as a new import factor is discussed with other recent findings related to nucleocytoplasmic transport of tRNAs reported from other groups. PMID:26280499

  8. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of tRNAs and implication of the cytosolic Hsp70 system in tRNA import

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihisa, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    tRNAs, a class of non-coding RNAs essential for translation, are unique among cytosolic RNA species in that they shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm during their life. Although their export from the nucleus has been studied in detail, limited information on import machinery was available. Our group recently reported that Ssa2p, one of major cytosolic Hsp70s in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acts as a crucial factor for tRNA import upon nutrient starvation. Ssa2p can bind tRNAs and a nucleoporin directly in an ATP-sensitive manner, suggesting that it acts as a nuclear import carrier for tRNAs, like importin-β proteins. In vitro assays revealed that Ssa2p binds tRNA specifically but has preference for loosely folded tRNAs. In this Extra View, these features of Ssa2p as a new import factor is discussed with other recent findings related to nucleocytoplasmic transport of tRNAs reported from other groups. PMID:26280499

  9. Expression of two membrane fusion proteins, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa and vesicle-associated membrane protein, in choroid plexus epithelium.

    PubMed

    Chung, I; Burkart, A; Szmydynger-Chodobska, J; Dodd, K A; Trimble, W S; Miller, K V; Shim, M; Chodobski, A

    2003-01-01

    In addition to being the major site of cerebrospinal fluid formation, the choroid plexus epithelium emerges as an important source of polypeptides in the brain. Physiologically regulated release of some polypeptides synthesized by the choroid plexus has been shown. The molecular mechanisms underlying this polypeptide secretion have not been characterized, however. In the present study, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa and vesicle-associated membrane protein, two membrane fusion proteins playing a critical role in exocytosis in neurons and endocrine cells, were found to be expressed in the choroid plexus epithelium. It was also shown that in choroidal epithelium, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa and vesicle-associated membrane protein stably interact. Two members of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family, vesicle-associated membrane protein-1 and vesicle-associated membrane protein-2, were expressed in the rat choroid plexus at the messenger RNA and protein level. However, their newly discovered isoforms, vesicle-associated membrane protein-1b and vesicle-associated membrane protein-2b, produced by alternative RNA splicing, were not detected in choroidal tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that vesicle-associated membrane protein is confined to the cytoplasm of choroidal epithelium, whereas synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa is associated with plasma membranes, albeit with a varied cellular distribution among species studied. Specifically, in the rat choroid plexus, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa was localized to the basolateral membrane domain of choroidal epithelium and was expressed in small groups of cells. In comparison, in ovine and human choroidal tissues, apical staining for synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa was found in the majority of epithelial cells. These species-related differences in cellular synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa distribution suggested that the synaptosome-associated protein of

  10. Soluble methionine enhances accumulation of a 15 kDa zein, a methionine-rich storage protein, in transgenic alfalfa but not in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Amira, Golan; Ifat, Matityahu; Tal, Avraham; Hana, Badani; Shmuel, Galili; Rachel, Amir

    2005-09-01

    With the general aim of elevating the content of the essential amino acid methionine in vegetative tissues of plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco plants, as well as BY2 tobacco suspension cells, were transformed with a beta-zein::3HA gene under the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus encoding a rumen-stable methionine-rich storage protein of 15 kDa zein. To examine whether soluble methionine content limited the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA, methionine was first added to the growth medium of the different transgenic plants and the level of the alien protein was determined. Results demonstrated that the added methionine enhanced the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA in transgenic alfalfa and tobacco BY2 cells, but not in whole transgenic tobacco plants. Next, the endogenous levels of methionine were elevated in the transgenic tobacco and alfalfa plants by crossing them with plants expressing the Arabidopsis cystathionine gamma-synthase (AtCGS) having significantly higher levels of soluble methionine in their leaves. Compared with plants expressing only the 15 kDa zein::3HA, transgenic alfalfa co-expressing both alien genes showed significantly enhanced levels of this protein concurrently with a reduction in the soluble methionine content, thus implying that soluble methionine was incorporated into the 15 kDa zein::3HA. Similar phenomena also occurred in tobacco, but were considerably less pronounced. The results demonstrate that the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA is regulated in a species-specific manner and that soluble methionine plays a major role in the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein in some plant species but less so in others. PMID:16061510

  11. Identification of sequence similarity between 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones: evidence for a common evolutionary background?

    PubMed Central

    Flores, A I; Cuezva, J M

    1997-01-01

    Recent findings support the premise that chaperonins (60 kDa stress-proteins) and alpha-subunits of F-type ATPases (alpha-ATPase) are evolutionary related protein families. Two-dimensional gel patterns of synthesized proteins in unstressed and heat-shocked embryonic Drosophila melanogaster SL2 cells revealed that antibodies raised against the alpha-subunit of the F1-ATPase complex from rat liver recognize an inducible p71 member of the 70 kDa stress-responsive protein family. Molecular recognition of this stress-responsive 70 kDa protein by antibodies raised against the F1-ATPase alpha-subunit suggests the possibility of partial sequence similarity within these ATP-binding protein families. A multiple sequence alignment between alpha-ATPases and 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones is presented. Statistical evaluation of sequence similarity reveals a significant degree of sequence conservation within the three protein families. The finding suggests a common evolutionary origin for the ATPases and molecular chaperone protein families of 60 kDa and 70 kDa, despite the lack of obvious structural resemblance between them. PMID:9065788

  12. Accumulation of 52 kDa glycine rich protein in auxin-deprived strawberry fruits and its role in fruit growth. [Fragaria ananassa

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-04-01

    Growth of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) receptacles can be stopped at any stage by deachening the fruits and can be resumed by exogenous application of auxin. In their earlier studies they demonstrated auxin regulated polypeptide changes at different stages of strawberry fruit development. Removal of achenes from fruits to deprive auxin resulted in the accumulation of 52 KDa polypeptide. This polypeptide is associated with cell wall and its concentration is increased in a time-dependent manner in auxin deprived receptacles. Incorporation studies with (/sup 35/S) methionine showed the promotion of labelling of 52 kDa polypeptide in the auxin-deprived receptacles within 12 h after removal of the achenes. Amino acid analysis revealed that the 52 KDa polypeptide is rich in glycine. Their studies, with normal and mutant strawberry receptacles, indicate that the synthesis and accumulation of this glycine rich protein correlates with cessation of receptacle growth. These results suggest a role for the glycine rich protein in growth.

  13. Flexible Gates: Dynamic Topologies and Functions for FG Nucleoporins in Nucleocytoplasmic Transport▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Laura J.; Wente, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a physical barrier between the nucleus and cytoplasm and, as such, separates the mechanisms of transcription from translation. This compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells allows spatial regulation of gene expression; however, it also necessitates a mechanism for transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Macromolecular trafficking of protein and RNA occurs exclusively through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), specialized channels spanning the nuclear envelope. A novel family of NPC proteins, the FG-nucleoporins (FG-Nups), coordinates and potentially regulates NPC translocation. The extensive repeats of phenylalanine-glycine (FG) in each FG-Nup directly bind to shuttling transport receptors moving through the NPC. In addition, FG-Nups are essential components of the nuclear permeability barrier. In this review, we discuss the structural features, cellular functions, and evolutionary conservation of the FG-Nups. PMID:19801417

  14. Adenovirus type 2 encoded early 11 kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.V.K.N.; Kapoor, Q.S.

    1986-05-01

    Several adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) encoded early proteins have been identified in viral infected human KB cells. These proteins are of great interest as they play key roles in cell transformation, viral DNA synthesis and gene expression. They have partially purified an AD2 encoded early polypeptide of an apparent molecular weight of 11 kilodaltons from the nuclei of viral infected cells labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine. After DNA removal from the nuclear extracts, the polypeptide was isolated using DEAE-Sephacel anion exchange and Biogel P-10 gel filtration columns. This simple two step procedure yielded several fold purification of the polypeptide. Antisera raised in mice against an Ad2 transformed rat cell line 8617 was found to immunoprecipitate the 11 kDa polypeptide from the nuclear extract of Ad2 infected KB cells. After relating this protein to an open reading frame of an Ad2 early gene block by matching the amino acid sequences to the nucleotide sequences of early genes, they plan to functionally characterize this protein by using monoclonal antibodies in in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  15. Unique nucleocytoplasmic dsDNA and +ssRNA viruses are associated with the dinoflagellate endosymbionts of corals

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Adrienne M S; Welsh, Rory M; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The residence of dinoflagellate algae (genus: Symbiodinium) within scleractinian corals is critical to the construction and persistence of tropical reefs. In recent decades, however, acute and chronic environmental stressors have frequently destabilized this symbiosis, ultimately leading to coral mortality and reef decline. Viral infection has been suggested as a trigger of coral–Symbiodinium dissociation; knowledge of the diversity and hosts of coral-associated viruses is critical to evaluating this hypothesis. Here, we present the first genomic evidence of viruses associated with Symbiodinium, based on the presence of transcribed +ss (single-stranded) RNA and ds (double-stranded) DNA virus-like genes in complementary DNA viromes of the coral Montastraea cavernosa and expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries generated from Symbiodinium cultures. The M. cavernosa viromes contained divergent viral sequences similar to the major capsid protein of the dinoflagellate-infecting +ssRNA Heterocapsa circularisquama virus, suggesting a highly novel dinornavirus could infect Symbiodinium. Further, similarities to dsDNA viruses dominated (∼69%) eukaryotic viral similarities in the M. cavernosa viromes. Transcripts highly similar to eukaryotic algae-infecting phycodnaviruses were identified in the viromes, and homologs to these sequences were found in two independently generated Symbiodinium EST libraries. Phylogenetic reconstructions substantiate that these transcripts are undescribed and distinct members of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDVs) group. Based on a preponderance of evidence, we infer that the novel NCLDVs and RNA virus described here are associated with the algal endosymbionts of corals. If such viruses disrupt Symbiodinium, they are likely to impact the flexibility and/or stability of coral–algal symbioses, and thus long-term reef health and resilience. PMID:22791238

  16. Influenza virus NS1 protein inhibits pre-mRNA splicing and blocks mRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport.

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, P; Beloso, A; Ortín, J

    1994-01-01

    The influenza virus RNA segment 8 encodes two proteins, NS1 and NS2, by differential splicing. The collinear transcript acts as mRNA for NS1 protein, while the spliced mRNA encodes NS2 protein. The splicing of NS1 mRNA was studied in cells transfected with a recombinant plasmid that has the cDNA of RNA segment 8 cloned under the SV40 late promoter and polyadenylation signals. As described for influenza virus-infected cells, NS1 mRNA was poorly spliced to yield NS2 mRNA. However, inactivation of the NS1 gene, but not the NS2 gene, led to a substantial increase in the splicing efficiency, as shown by the relative accumulations of NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. This effect was not specific for NS1 mRNA, since the splicing of the endogenous SV40 early transcript was altered in such a way that t-Ag mRNA was almost eliminated. These changes in the splicing pattern coincided with a strong inhibition of the mRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport. Both NS1 and NS2 mRNAs were retained in the nucleus of cells expressing NS1 protein, but no effect was observed when only NS2 protein was expressed. Furthermore, other mRNAs tested, such as T-Ag mRNA and the non-spliceable nucleoprotein transcript, were also retained in the nucleus upon expression of NS1 protein, suggesting that it induced a generalized block of mRNA export from the nucleus. Images PMID:8313914

  17. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  18. Nuclear export of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Rev is mediated by its activation domain and is blocked by transdominant negative mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Szilvay, A M; Brokstad, K A; Kopperud, R; Haukenes, G; Kalland, K H

    1995-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Rev moves repeatedly between the cytoplasm, a perinuclear zone, the nucleoli, and nucleoplasmic speckles. In this study, we demonstrated by both indirect immunofluorescence and Western immunoblot analysis that nuclear exit of Rev transdominant negative mutants was defective compared with that of wild-type Rev. The basic and activation domains of Rev signal import and export, respectively, of Rev across the nuclear membrane. In cotransfection experiments, mutants containing mutations of Rev inhibited the nuclear egress of wild-type Rev, thus revealing a novel transdominant negative phenotype. PMID:7745679

  19. Subcellular localization and mechanisms of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of steroid receptor coactivator-1.

    PubMed

    Amazit, Larbi; Alj, Youssef; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Chauchereau, Anne; Loosfelt, Hugues; Pichon, Christophe; Pantel, Jacques; Foulon-Guinchard, Emmanuelle; Leclerc, Philippe; Milgrom, Edwin; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne

    2003-08-22

    Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-stimulated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription by recruiting coregulators to gene promoters. Subcellular localization and dynamic movements of transcription factors have been shown to be one of the major means of regulating their transcriptional activity. In the present report we describe the subcellular localization and the dynamics of intracellular trafficking of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1). After its synthesis in the cytoplasm, SRC-1 is imported into the nucleus, where it activates transcription and is subsequently exported back to the cytoplasm. In both the nucleus and cytoplasm, SRC-1 is localized in speckles. The characterization of SRC-1 nuclear localization sequence reveals that it is a classic bipartite signal localized in the N-terminal region of the protein, between amino acids 18 and 36. This sequence is highly conserved within the other members of the p160 family. Additionally, SRC-1 nuclear export is inhibited by leptomycin B. The region involved in its nuclear export is localized between amino acids 990 and 1038. It is an unusually large domain differing from the classic leucine-rich NES sequences. Thus SRC-1 nuclear export involves either an alternate type of NES or is dependent on the interaction of SRC-1 with a protein, which is exported through the crm1/exportin pathway. Overall, the intracellular trafficking of SRC-1 might be a mechanism to regulate the termination of hormone action, the interaction with other signaling pathways in the cytoplasm and its degradation. PMID:12791702

  20. Suppression of heat-induced hsp70 expression by the 70-kDa subunit of the human Ku autoantigen.

    PubMed

    Li, G C; Yang, S H; Kim, D; Nussenzweig, A; Ouyang, H; Wei, J; Burgman, P; Li, L

    1995-05-01

    Expression of the 70-kDa polypeptide of human Ku autoantigen in rat cells is shown to suppress specifically the induction of hsp70 upon heat shock. Thermal induction of other heat shock proteins is not significantly affected, nor is the state of phosphorylation or the DNA-binding ability of the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. These findings support a model in which hsp70 gene expression is controlled by a second regulatory factor in addition to the positive activator HSF1. The Ku autoantigen, or a protein closely related to it, is likely to be involved in the regulation of hsp70 expression. PMID:7753835

  1. Nucleo-cytoplasmic functions of the PDZ-LIM protein family: new insights in organ development

    PubMed Central

    Krcmery, Jennifer; Camarata, Troy; Kulisz, Andre; Simon, Hans-Georg

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent work on the PDZ-LIM protein family has revealed important activities at the cellular level, mediating signals between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, with significant impact on organ development. We review and integrate current knowledge about the PDZ-LIM protein family and propose a new functional role, sequestering nuclear factors in the cytoplasm. Characterized by their PDZ and LIM domains, the PDZ-LIM family is comprised of evolutionarily conserved proteins found throughout the animal kingdom, from worms to humans. Combining two functional domains in one protein, PDZ-LIM proteins have wide-ranging and multi-compartmental cell functions during development and homeostasis while, in contrast, misregulation can lead to cancer formation and progression. New emerging roles include interactions with integrins, T-box transcription factors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. Facilitating the assembly of protein complexes, PDZ-LIM proteins can act as signal modulators, influence actin dynamics, regulate cell architecture and control gene transcription. PMID:20091751

  2. A 40 kDa protein of the inner membrane is the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    PubMed Central

    De Stefani, Diego; Raffaello, Anna; Teardo, Enrico; Szabò, Ildikò; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis plays a key role in the regulation of aerobic metabolism and cell survival1, but the molecular identity of the Ca2+ channel, the mitochondrial calcium uniporter2, was still unknown. We have identified in silico a protein (denominated MCU) that shares tissue distribution with MICU1, a recently characterized uniporter regulator3, coexists with uniporter activity in phylogeny and includes two trasmembrane domains in the sequence. siRNA silencing of MCU in HeLa cells drastically reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. MCU overexpression doubled the [Ca2+]mt rise evoked by IP3-generating agonists, thus significantly buffering the cytosolic elevation. The purified MCU protein exhibited channel activity in planar lipid bilayers, with electrophysiological properties and inhibitor sensitivity of the uniporter. A mutant MCU, in which two negatively-charged residues of the putative pore forming region were replaced, had no channel activity and reduced agonist-dependent [Ca2+]mt transients when overexpressed in HeLa cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that the identified 40 kDa protein is the channel responsible for Ruthenium Red-sensitive mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, thus providing molecular basis for this process of utmost physiological and pathological relevance. PMID:21685888

  3. TSPO: kaleidoscopic 18-kDa amid biochemical pharmacology, control and targeting of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gatliff, Jemma; Campanella, Michelangelo

    2016-01-15

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) localizes in the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of cells and is readily up-regulated under various pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation, mechanical lesions and neurological diseases. Able to bind with high affinity synthetic and endogenous ligands, its core biochemical function resides in the translocation of cholesterol into the mitochondria influencing the subsequent steps of (neuro-)steroid synthesis and systemic endocrine regulation. Over the years, however, TSPO has also been linked to core cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy. It interacts and forms complexes with other mitochondrial proteins such as the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) via which signalling and regulatory transduction of these core cellular events may be influenced. Despite nearly 40 years of study, the precise functional role of TSPO beyond cholesterol trafficking remains elusive even though the recent breakthroughs on its high-resolution crystal structure and contribution to quality-control signalling of mitochondria. All this along with a captivating pharmacological profile provides novel opportunities to investigate and understand the significance of this highly conserved protein as well as contribute the development of specific therapeutics as presented and discussed in the present review. PMID:26733718

  4. A 47-kDa human nuclear protein recognized by antikinetochore autoimmune sera is homologous with the protein encoded by RCC1, a gene implicated in onset of chromosome condensation.

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, F R; Maier, G; Tilz, G; Ponstingl, H

    1990-01-01

    Several autoimmune sera from patients with Raynaud phenomenon decorated mammalian kinetochores and bound to a 47-kDa protein on immunoblots of nuclear lysates. Antibody affinity-purified from immunoblots of the 47-kDa band recognized kinetochores, but due to crossreaction with an 18-kDa protein, localization remains elusive. We used one of these sera to purify the antigen from HeLa cells synchronized in mitosis as a noncovalent complex with a 25-kDa protein. The antigen was released from DNA by intercalation with 25 mM chloroquine. Ion-exchange chromatography yielded the pure complex with an apparent molecular size of 68 kDa, which was separated into its components by gel filtration in 6 M guanidinium chloride. Upon two-dimensional gel electrophoresis the 47-kDa protein gave two main spots of pI 6.6 and 6.7, respectively. Posttranslational modification is indicated by additional antigenic spots, by lack of a free alpha-amino group, and by chromatographic behavior of peptides on reversed-phase chromatography. The amino acid sequence for 205 residues of the 47-kDa protein has been established. This sequence is highly homologous with the translated reading frame of RCC1, a gene reportedly involved in regulating onset of mammalian chromosome condensation. Images PMID:2236072

  5. Topological studies of spinach 22 kDa protein of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Pichersky, E; Yocum, C F

    1994-12-30

    An intrinsic 22 kDa polypeptide is associated with the O2-evolving Photosystem II core complex in a variety of green plants, although it does not appear to be required for O2 evolution. Digestion of thylakoid membranes and isolated Photosystem II preparations with trypsin, followed by immunoblotting using spinach anti-22 kDa antibodies, leads to two observations: (1) the domain between the 2nd and 3rd transmembrane helices of the 22 kDa protein is stromally exposed, and (2) only in a reaction center complex preparation, lacking the chlorophyll a/b-light harvesting complex II, is there extensive proteolytic cleavage of the 22 kDa protein. We also found that after, but not prior to, selective extraction of the 22 and 10 kDa proteins from Photosystem II membranes, the chlorophyll a/b-light harvesting complex II can be separated from the Photosystem II reaction center core by precipitation with MgCl2. This result suggests that the 22 kDa polypeptide is located between the Photosystem II reaction center polypeptides and light-harvesting complex II; it is possible that the protein serves as a link between the two protein complexes. The presence of the 22 kDa protein in several species was also examined by immunoblotting with polyclonal spinach anti-22 kDa antibodies. PMID:7803450

  6. Prostaglandin E2 requirement for transforming growth factor beta 1 inhibition of elicited macrophage 14 kDa phospholipase A2 release.

    PubMed Central

    McCord, M.; Bolognese, B.; Marshall, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Cultured elicited-peritoneal macrophages release a soluble type II 14 kDa phospholipase A2 (PLA2) over time, reaching a plateau by 20-24 h of incubation and maintaining these levels over 72 h. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is also produced but does not plateau until 48-72 h. 2. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) reduces cellular 14 kDa PLA2 and its subsequent release by approximately half, but does not alter PGE2 production. Co-incubation of TGF beta 1 with indomethacin interfered, in a concentration-dependent manner, with the ability of TGF beta 1 to reduce cellular 14 kDa PLA2 and its subsequent release over 24 h. The regulation of TGF beta 1 was not specific to indomethacin since other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had the same effect. This suggested that cyclooxygenase activity was essential for TGF beta 1 to exert its effect and indeed, the addition of exogenous PGE2 restored the TGF beta 1 action. 3. PGE2 alone exerted a concentration-dependent negative feedback action on elicited-macrophage 14 kDa PLA2 release. The inhibitory concentration (IC50 = approximately 180 ng PGE2 ml-1) approximated the PGE2 levels measured in the 24 h macrophage conditioned media (85-140 ng PGE2 ml-1) where PLA2 release began to plateau. Further, incubation of cells with indomethacin over 48 h resulted in the enhancement of 14 kDa PLA2 activity compared to that released from untreated cells. Forskolin failed to inhibit 14 kDa PLA2 release, suggesting PGE2 was not acting through an increase in adenylate cyclase. 4. Taken together, the data are consistent with the immunosuppressive aspects reported for both mediators during inflammation and demonstrates the requirement of PGE2 for TGF beta 1 action on the elicited macrophage. Images Figure 3 PMID:8590973

  7. Acute Liver Injury Induces Nucleocytoplasmic Redistribution of Hepatic Methionine Metabolism Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Miguel; Garrido, Francisco; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Pacheco, María; Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The discovery of methionine metabolism enzymes in the cell nucleus, together with their association with key nuclear processes, suggested a putative relationship between alterations in their subcellular distribution and disease. Results: Using the rat model of d-galactosamine intoxication, severe changes in hepatic steady-state mRNA levels were found; the largest decreases corresponded to enzymes exhibiting the highest expression in normal tissue. Cytoplasmic protein levels, activities, and metabolite concentrations suffered more moderate changes following a similar trend. Interestingly, galactosamine treatment induced hepatic nuclear accumulation of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) α1 and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase tetramers, their active assemblies. In fact, galactosamine-treated livers showed enhanced nuclear MAT activity. Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication mimicked most galactosamine effects on hepatic MATα1, including accumulation of nuclear tetramers. H35 cells that overexpress tagged-MATα1 reproduced the subcellular distribution observed in liver, and the changes induced by galactosamine and APAP that were also observed upon glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine. The H35 nuclear accumulation of tagged-MATα1 induced by these agents correlated with decreased glutathione reduced form/glutathione oxidized form ratios and was prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione ethyl ester. However, the changes in epigenetic modifications associated with tagged-MATα1 nuclear accumulation were only prevented by NAC in galactosamine-treated cells. Innovation: Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in proteins that regulate the methylation index follow opposite trends in acute liver injury, their nuclear accumulation showing potential as disease marker. Conclusion: Altogether these results demonstrate galactosamine- and APAP-induced nuclear accumulation of methionine metabolism enzymes as active oligomers and unveil the implication of

  8. Nucleocytoplasmic Translocation of UBXN2A Is Required for Apoptosis during DNA Damage Stresses in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Ammara; Sane, Sanam; Freeling, Jessica L; Wang, Hongmin; Zhang, Dong; Rezvani, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    The subcellular localization, expression level, and activity of anti-cancer proteins alter in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cellular stresses to reverse tumor progression. The purpose of this study is to determine whether UBXN2A, an activator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, has different subcellular compartmentalization in response to the stress of DNA damage. We measured trafficking of the UBXN2A protein in response to two different DNA damage stresses, UVB irradiation and the genotoxic agent Etoposide, in colon cancer cell lines. Using a cytosol-nuclear fractionation technique followed by western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we monitored and quantitated UBXN2A and p53 proteins as well as p53's downstream apoptotic pathway. We showed that the anti-cancer protein UBXN2A acts in the early phase of cell response to two different DNA damage stresses, being induced to translocate into the cytoplasm in a dose- and time-dependent manner. UVB-induced cytoplasmic UBXN2A binds to mortalin-2 (mot-2), a known oncoprotein in colon tumors. UVB-dependent upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm decreases p53 binding to mot-2 and activates apoptotic events in colon cancer cells. In contrast, the shRNA-mediated depletion of UBXN2A leads to significant reduction in apoptosis in colon cancer cells exposed to UVB and Etoposide. Leptomycin B (LMB), which was able to block UBXN2A nuclear export following Etoposide treatment, sustained p53-mot-2 interaction and had partially antagonistic effects with Etoposide on cell apoptosis. The present study shows that nucleocytoplasmic translocation of UBXN2A in response to stresses is necessary for its anti-cancer function in the cytoplasm. In addition, LMB-dependent suppression of UBXN2A's translocation to the cytoplasm upon stress allows the presence of an active mot-2 oncoprotein in the cytoplasm, resulting in p53 sequestration as well as activation of other mot-2-dependent growth promoting pathways. PMID:26516353

  9. Neospora caninum: identification of 19-, 38-, and 40-kDa surface antigens and a 33-kDa dense granule antigen using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schares, G; Dubremetz, J F; Dubey, J P; Bärwald, A; Loyens, A; Conraths, F J

    1999-06-01

    Neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, can infect a broad host range and is regarded as an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. In the present study, four antigens of N. caninum were partially characterized using monoclonal antibodies. Immunofluorescence of viable tachyzoites as well as the immunoprecipitation of antigens extracted from tachyzoites previously labeled by surface biotinylation revealed that three of these antigens with apparent molecular weights of 40, 38, and 19 kDa are located in the outer surface membrane of this parasite stage. Further evidence for the surface localization of the 38-kDa antigen was obtained by immunoelectron microscopy. In addition to the surface molecules, an antigen located in dense granules and in the tubular network of the parasitophorous vacuole was detected by another monoclonal antibody. When tachyzoite antigens separated under nonreducing conditions were probed on Western blots, this antibody reacted mainly with a 33-kDa antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis of infected tissue sections indicated that the 33-kDa dense granule antigen is present in both tachyzoites and bradyzoites, while the 38-kDa surface antigen from tachyzoites seems to be absent in bradyzoites. PMID:10366536

  10. Antimicrobial Properties of an Immunomodulator - 15 kDa Human Granulysin

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hung-Mu; Lin, Li-Chih; Wang, Chiu-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Liao, You-Di

    2016-01-01

    Granulysin, a cationic protein expressed by human natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, is a mediator for drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and graft-versus-host disease. Some 15 kDa granulysin are processed into 9 kDa forms and sequestered in cytolytic granules, while others are constitutively secreted into body fluids. Both 9 and 15 kDa granulysin have been shown to be a serum marker for cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, 15 kDa is able to activate monocyte differentiation. However, its antimicrobial properties have not been clearly addressed. Here, we report a novel method to prepare both the soluble 9 and 15 kDa granulysin and show that the 15 kDa form is more effective than the 9 kDa form in exerting specific antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa within a range of few micromolars. We also show that the 15 kDa granulysin is able to hyperpolarize the membrane potential and increase membrane permeability of treated bacteria. Interestingly, the bactericidal activity and membrane permeability of the granulysins were markedly reduced at lower pH (pH 5.4) as a result of probable increase in hydrophobicity of the granulysins. Additionally, we’ve also shown the granulysin to inhibit biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that the 15 kDa granulysin exhibits a novel mechanism in bacteria killing in a way that’s different from most antimicrobial peptides. Our novel granulysin preparation methodology will be useful for further study of action mechanisms of other antimicrobial, cytotoxic and immunomodulating properties in granulysin-mediated diseases. PMID:27276051

  11. Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO): An Old Protein with New Functions?

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Liu, Jian; Liu, Nan; Kuhn, Leslie A; Garavito, R Michael; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2016-05-24

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) was previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in eukaryotes, where it is mainly localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Considerable evidence indicates that it plays regulatory roles in steroidogenesis and apoptosis and is involved in various human diseases, such as metastatic cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, inflammation, and anxiety disorders. Ligands of TSPO are widely used as diagnostic tools and treatment options, despite there being no clear understanding of the function of TSPO. An ortholog in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter was independently discovered as the tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TspO) and found to play a role in the response to changes in oxygen and light conditions that regulate photosynthesis and respiration. As part of this highly conserved protein family found in all three kingdoms, the rat TSPO is able to rescue the knockout phenotype in Rhodobacter, indicating functional as well as structural conservation. Recently, a major breakthrough in the field was achieved: the determination of atomic-resolution structures of TSPO from different species by several independent groups. This now allows us to reexamine the function of TSPO with a molecular perspective. In this review, we focus on recently determined structures of TSPO and their implications for potential functions of this ubiquitous multifaceted protein. We suggest that TSPO is an ancient bacterial receptor/stress sensor that has developed additional interactions, partners, and roles in its mitochondrial outer membrane environment in eukaryotes. PMID:27074410

  12. The Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) and Its Role in Mitochondrial Biology and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, Vladimir M; Rupprecht, Rainer; Wetzel, Christian H

    2015-01-01

    The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane of many cell types and its expression is found to be up-regulated under various pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation, mechanical lesions, and neurological diseases, e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Its primary function is to mediate the transport of cholesterol into the inner compartments of mitochondria. Moreover, TSPO is interacting and building up functional complexes with other mitochondrial proteins such as the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT), hexokinase I and II and Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). This mini review will focus on the role of TSPO as a central regulator of mitochondrial function with regard to pathologic states and as a target for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25807946

  13. Therapeutic actions of translocator protein (18 kDa) ligands in experimental models of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Arbo, B D; Benetti, F; Garcia-Segura, L M; Ribeiro, M F

    2015-11-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18kDa protein located at contact sites between the outer and the inner mitochondrial membrane. Numerous studies have associated TSPO with the translocation of cholesterol across the aqueous mitochondrial intermembrane space and the regulation of steroidogenesis, as well as with the control of some other mitochondrial functions, such as mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, apoptosis and cell proliferation. In the brain, changes in TSPO expression occur in several neuropathological conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, TSPO ligands have been shown to promote neuroprotection in animal models of brain pathology. At least in some cases, the mechanisms of neuroprotection are associated with modifications in brain steroidogenesis. In addition, regulation of neuroinflammation seems to be a common mechanism in the neuroprotective actions of TSPO ligands in different animal models of brain pathology. PMID:26200949

  14. Targeting mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux and lipid phenotype.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Janice M W; Allen, Anne-Marie; Graham, Annette

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish mitochondrial cholesterol trafficking 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) as a potential therapeutic target, capable of increasing macrophage cholesterol efflux to (apo)lipoprotein acceptors. Expression and activity of TSPO in human (THP-1) macrophages were manipulated genetically and by the use of selective TSPO ligands. Cellular responses were analysed by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), immunoblotting and radiolabelling, including [3H]cholesterol efflux to (apo)lipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and human serum. Induction of macrophage cholesterol deposition by acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) increased expression of TSPO mRNA and protein, reflecting findings in human carotid atherosclerosis. Transient overexpression of TSPO enhanced efflux (E%) of [3H]cholesterol to apoA-I, HDL and human serum compared with empty vector (EV) controls, whereas gene knockdown of TSPO achieved the converse. Ligation of TSPO (using PK11195, FGIN-1-27 and flunitrazepam) triggered increases in [3H]cholesterol efflux, an effect that was amplified in TSPO-overexpressing macrophages. Overexpression of TSPO induced the expression of genes [PPARA (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α), NR1H3 (nuclear receptor 1H3/liver X receptor α), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1), ABCG4 (ATP-binding cassette G4) and APOE (apolipoprotein E)] and proteins (ABCA1 and PPARα) involved in cholesterol efflux, reduced macrophage neutral lipid mass and lipogenesis and limited cholesterol esterification following exposure to AcLDL. Thus, targeting TSPO reduces macrophage lipid content and prevents macrophage foam cell formation, via enhanced cholesterol efflux to (apo)lipoprotein acceptors. PMID:24814875

  15. The 32 kDa Enamelin Undergoes Conformational Transitions upon Calcium Binding

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daming; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The 32 kDa hydrophilic and acidic enamelin, the most stable cleavage fragment of the enamel specific glycoprotein, is believed to play vital roles in controlling crystal nucleation or growth during enamel biomineralization. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrate that the secondary structure of the 32 kDa enamelin has a high content of α-helix (81.5%). Quantitative analysis on the circular dichroism data revealed that the 32 kDa enamelin undergoes conformational changes with a structural preference to β-sheet as a function of calcium ions. We suggest that the increase of β-sheet conformation upon presence of Ca2+ may allow preferable interaction of the 32 kDa enamelin with apatite crystal surfaces during enamel biomineralization. The calcium association constant of the 32 kDa enamelin calculated from the fitting curve of ellipticity at 222 nm is Ka = 1.55 (±0.13) × 103 M−1, indicating a relatively low affinity. Our current biophysical studies on the 32 kDa enamelin structure provide novel insights towards understanding the enamelin-mineral interaction and subsequently the functions of enamelin during enamel formation. PMID:18508280

  16. In vitro degradation of the 32kDa PS II reaction centre protein

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenswiller, L.C.; Greenberg, B.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The 32kDa thylakoid membrane protein is an integral component of the PS II reaction centre. The protein, although stable in the dark, undergoes light dependent turnover. Light from the UV, visible and far-red spectral regions induce 32kDa protein degradation. To better understand 32kDa protein metabolism, an in vitro degradation system is being developed. It consists of isolated thylakoid membranes than contain radiolabelled protein. The 32kDa protein is actively and specifically degraded when the thylakoid preparation is exposed to UV or visible radiation. The protein is stable in the dark. The herbicides (atrazine and DCMU) inhibit degradation in the in vitro system as they do in vivo. Additionally, several methods of isolating thylakoids are being compared to optimize the 32kDa protein degradation reaction. The preparations will be evaluated based on their ability to permit light dependent degradation of the 32kDa protein without affecting the other membrane components.

  17. Purification and biochemical characterization of a 70 kDa sericin from tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.

    PubMed

    Dash, Rupesh; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kaplan, David L; Kundu, S C

    2007-05-01

    Sericin isolated from the cocoon of the tropical tasar silkmoth Antheraea mylitta showed three major bands, with the lowest 70 kDa. This band was purified by anion exchange chromatography. Immunoblotting with concanavalin-A suggests a glycoprotein and CD analysis of secondary structure includes beta-sheet. Amino acid analysis shows that the protein is enriched in glycine and serine while the mole percentages of these two amino acids are different from sericin of mulberry silkworm. An anti A. mylitta sericin antibody was able to cross-react with sericin from A. assamensis but not the sericin of Bombyx mori and Philosamia ricini. Immunoblot analysis with proteins isolated from middle silk gland of A. mylitta at different developmental stages of larva showed that the 70 kDa sericin is developmentally regulated. These data extend the range of biochemical features found in this unusual family of proteins and may help in developing an improved understanding of their role in forming environmentally stable fibroin fiber-sericin composite structures (cocoons). PMID:17350301

  18. Androgen-dependent protein interactions within an intron 1 regulatory region of the 20-kDa protein gene.

    PubMed

    Avellar, M C; Gregory, C W; Power, S G; French, F S

    1997-07-11

    The 20-kDa protein gene is androgen regulated in rat ventral prostate. Intron 1 contains a 130-base pair complex response element (D2) that binds androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) but transactivates only with AR in transient cotransfection assays in CV1 cells using the reporter vector D2-tkCAT. To better understand the function of this androgen-responsive unit, nuclear protein interactions with D2 were analyzed by DNase I footprinting in ventral prostate nuclei of intact or castrated rats and in vitro with ventral prostate nuclear protein extracts from intact, castrated, and testosterone-treated castrated rats. Multiple androgen-dependent protected regions and hypersensitive sites were identified in the D2 region with both methods. Mobility shift assays with 32P-labeled oligonucleotides spanning D2 revealed specific interactions with ventral prostate nuclear proteins. Four of the D2-protein complexes decreased in intensity within 24 h of castration. UV cross-linking of the androgen-dependent DNA binding proteins identified protein complexes of approximately 140 and 55 kDa. The results demonstrate androgen-dependent nuclear protein-DNA interactions within the complex androgen response element D2. PMID:9211911

  19. Integrated and Functional Genomics Analysis Validates the Relevance of the Nuclear Variant ErbB380kDa in Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    El Maassarani, Mahmoud; Barbarin, Alice; Fromont, Gaëlle; Kaissi, Ouafae; Lebbe, Margot; Vannier, Brigitte; Moussa, Ahmed; Séité, Paule

    2016-01-01

    The EGF-family of tyrosine-kinase receptors activates cytoplasmic pathways involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation in response to specific extracellular ligands. Beside these canonical pathways, the nuclear localization of the ErbB receptors in primary tumours and cancer cell lines led to investigate their role as transcriptional regulators of cancer genes. The nuclear localization of ErbB3 has been reported in various cancer tissues and cell lines but the nuclear functions and the putative correlation with tumour progression and resistance to therapy remain unclear. We first assessed ErbB3 expression in normal and tumour prostate tissues. The nuclear staining was mainly due to an isoform matching the C-terminus domain of the full length ErbB3185kDa receptor. Nuclear staining was also restricted to cancer cells and was increased in advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer when compared to localized tumours, suggesting it could be involved in the progression of prostate cancer up to the terminal castration-resistant stage. ChIP-on-chip experiments were performed on immortalized and tumour cell lines selected upon characterization of endogenous nuclear expression of an ErbB380kDa isoform. Among the 1840 target promoters identified, 26 were selected before ErbB380kDa-dependent gene expression was evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, providing evidence that ErbB380kDa exerted transcriptional control on those genes. Some targets are already known to be involved in prostate cancer progression even though no link was previously established with ErbB3 membrane and/or nuclear signalling. Many others, not yet associated with prostate cancer, could provide new therapeutic possibilities for patients expressing ErbB380kDa. Detecting ErbB380kDa could thus constitute a useful marker of prognosis and response to therapy. PMID:27191720

  20. Homology cloning of rat 72 kDa type IV collagenase: cytokine and second-messenger inducibility in glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, H P; McNeil, L; Davies, M; Martin, J; Lovett, D H

    1993-01-01

    Glomerular mesangial cells (MC) play a central role in the synthesis and turnover of the glomerular extracellular matrix. Prior studies [Davies, Thomas, Martin and Lovett (1988) Biochem. J. 251, 419-425; Martin, Davies, Thomas and Lovett (1989) Kidney Int. 36, 790-801] have characterized at the protein level a 72 kDa type IV collagenase that is secreted by cultured human and rat MC. While exposure of most cell types to interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or phorbol ester has little or even an inhibitory effect on 72 kDa type IV collagenase secretion, these factors significantly increased the synthesis of this enzyme by rat MC. Given this divergent pattern of expression, a homology-based PCR cloning strategy using rat MC cDNA templates was employed to define at the molecular level the structure of the mesangial 72 kDa type IV collagenase. The nucleotide sequence within the open reading frame of the rat mesangial 72 kDa type IV collagenase cDNA diverges from the sequence of the human homologue by approx. 9%. The divergence in the 3' untranslated region was much more extensive. Steady-state levels of the 3.1 kb transcript of the 72 kDa type IV collagenase were low or undetectable in resting MC, but were greatly stimulated following incubation with IL-beta, TNF-alpha or phorbol ester. None of these factors induced synthesis by MC of the closely related 92 kDa type IV collagenase. Synthesis by MC of the 72 kDa type IV collagenase was also induced by second-messenger analogues, including 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and forskolin. It is concluded that MC regulate the expression of this enzyme in an unusual, tissue-specific fashion. Cytokine and second-messenger inducibility may contribute to the enhanced expression of the enzyme during glomerular inflammatory disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7916617

  1. Characteristics of 26 kDa antigen of H. Pylori by Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Ghahremani, Hossein; Farshad, Shohreh; Amini Najafabadi, Hossein; Kashanian, Susan; Momeni Moghaddam, Mohammad Amin; Moradi, Nariman; Paknejad, Maliheh

    2015-02-01

    Alkylhydroperoxide reductase (AhpC, the 26 kDa antigen) is one of the abundant antioxidant enzymes in Helicobacter pylori and seems to have a good potential for use in development of immunoassays to detect H. pylori infection in clinical specimens. This study aimed to investigate some properties of this antigen by the produced monoclonal antibodies. Five established hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against 26 kDa antigen of H. pylori were cultivated and MAbs were purified by affinity chromatography. Subsequently, MAbs were conjugated with biotin, and different combinations of capture and tracer antibodies used in sandwich ELISA. Immunoblotting of bacterial extracts were performed to estimate aggregation status of the antigen. Release of antigen from the cultivated bacteria on solid media was examined by sandwich ELISA, and also, existence of interference in fecal extract was investigated by immunoblotting and sandwich ELISA. Our findings showed that the MAbs against 26 kDa antigen of H. pylori could recognize three bands of nearly 25 kDa, 50 kDa, and 75 kDa in immunoblotting. This study also indicated presence of more antigens in the culture medium around the bacteria than the bacterial extract itself. The results of sandwich ELISA and immunoblotting on fecal extracts suggest the presence of interfering agents that prevent detection of antigen by antibody in ELISA but not in immunoblotting. In this study the oligomerization of the 26 kDa antigen, presence of interfering agents in stool matrix, and release of antigen to outside of bacteria, were demonstrated. PMID:25530147

  2. Knockdown of pre-mRNA cleavage factor Im 25 kDa promotes neurite outgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm25 knockdown promoted NGF-induced neurite out growth from PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of CFIm25 did not influence the morphology of proliferating PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm regulated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth via coordinating RhoA activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFIm25 knockdown increase the number of primary dendrites of hippocampal neurons. -- Abstract: Mammalian precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) cleavage factor I (CFIm) plays important roles in the selection of poly(A) sites in a 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR), producing mRNAs with variable 3 Prime ends. Because 3 Prime -UTRs often contain cis elements that impact stability or localization of mRNA or translation, alternative polyadenylation diversifies utilization of primary transcripts in mammalian cells. However, the physiological role of CFIm remains unclear. CFIm acts as a heterodimer comprising a 25 kDa subunit (CFIm25) and one of the three large subunits-CFIm59, CFIm68, or CFIm72. CFIm25 binds directly to RNA and introduces and anchors the larger subunit. To examine the physiological roles of CFIm, we knocked down the CFIm25 gene in neuronal cells using RNA interference. Knockdown of CFIm25 increased the number of primary dendrites of developing hippocampal neurons and promoted nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite extension from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells without affecting the morphology of proliferating PC12 cells. On the other hand, CFIm25 knockdown did not influence constitutively active or dominantly negative RhoA suppression or promotion of NGF-induced neurite extension from PC12 cells, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that endogenous CFIm may promote neuritogenesis in developing neurons by coordinating events upstream of NGF-induced RhoA inactivation.

  3. Suppression of heat-induced hsp70 expression by the 70-kDa subunit of the human Ku autoantigen.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G C; Yang, S H; Kim, D; Nussenzweig, A; Ouyang, H; Wei, J; Burgman, P; Li, L

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the 70-kDa polypeptide of human Ku autoantigen in rat cells is shown to suppress specifically the induction of hsp70 upon heat shock. Thermal induction of other heat shock proteins is not significantly affected, nor is the state of phosphorylation or the DNA-binding ability of the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. These findings support a model in which hsp70 gene expression is controlled by a second regulatory factor in addition to the positive activator HSF1. The Ku autoantigen, or a protein closely related to it, is likely to be involved in the regulation of hsp70 expression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7753835

  4. Characterization of the 105-kDa molecular chaperone. Identification, biochemical properties, and localization.

    PubMed

    Matsumori, Mika; Itoh, Hideaki; Toyoshima, Itaru; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Sawada, Ken-Ichi; Fukuda, Jun; Tanaka, Toshinobu; Okubo, Atsuya; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Mizoi, Kazuo; Hama, Tokiko; Suzuki, Akira; Hamada, Fumio; Otaka, Michiro; Shoji, Yutaka; Takada, Goro

    2002-11-01

    We have characterized the biochemical properties of the testis and brain-specific 105-kDa protein which is cross-reacted with an anti-bovine HSP90 antibody. The protein was induced in germ cells by heat stress, resulting in a protein which is one of the heat shock proteins [Kumagai, J., Fukuda, J., Kodama, H., Murata, M., Kawamura, K., Itoh, H. & Tanaka, T. (2000) Eur. J. Biochem.267, 3073-3078]. In the present study, we characterized the biochemical properties of the protein. The 105-kDa protein inhibited the aggregation of citrate synthase as a molecular chaperone in vitro. ATP/MgCl2 has a slight influence of the suppression of the citrate synthase aggregation by the 105-kDa protein. The protein possessed chaperone activity. The protein was able to bind to ATP-Sepharose like the other molecular chaperone HSP70. A partial amino-acid sequence (24 amino-acid residues) of the protein was determined and coincided with those of the mouse testis- and brain-specific APG-1 and osmotic stress protein 94 (OSP94). The 105-kDa protein was detected only in the medulla of the rat kidney sections similar to OSP94 upon immunoblotting. The purified 105-kDa protein was cross-reacted with an antibody against APG-1. These results suggested that APG-1 and OSP94 are both identical to the 105-kDa protein. There were highly homologous regions between the 105-kDa protein/APG-1/OSP94 and HSP90. The region of HSP90 was also an immunoreactive site. An anti-bovine HSP90 antibody may cross-react with the 105-kDa protein similar to HSP90 in the rat testis and brain. We have investigated the localization and developmental induction of the protein in the rat brain. In the immunohistochemical analysis, the protein was mainly detected in the cytoplasm of the nerve and glial cells of the rat brain. Although the 105-kDa protein was localized in all rat brain segments, the expression pattern was fast in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and slow in the cerebellum. PMID:12423363

  5. The prototypical 4.1R-10-kDa domain and the 4.1g-10-kDa paralog mediate fodrin-actin complex formation.

    PubMed

    Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A; Frye, C S; Benz, E J; Huang, S C

    2001-06-01

    A complex family of 4.1R isoforms has been identified in non-erythroid tissues. In this study we characterized the exonic composition of brain 4.1R-10-kDa or spectrin/actin binding (SAB) domain and identified the minimal sequences required to stimulate fodrin/F-actin association. Adult rat brain expresses predominantly 4.1R mRNAs that carry an extended SAB, consisting of the alternative exons 14/15/16 and part of the constitutive exon 17. Exon 16 along with sequences carried by exon 17 is necessary and sufficient to induce formation of fodrin-actin-4.1R ternary complexes. The ability of the respective SAB domains of 4.1 homologs to sediment fodrin/actin was also investigated. 4.1G-SAB stimulates association of fodrin/actin, although with an approximately 2-fold reduced efficiency compared with 4.1R-10-kDa, whereas 4.1N and 4.1B do not. Sequencing of the corresponding domains revealed that 4.1G-SAB carries a cassette that shares significant homology with 4.1R exon 16, whereas the respective sequence is divergent in 4.1N and absent from brain 4.1B. An approximately 150-kDa 4.1R and an approximately 160-kDa 4.1G isoforms are present in PC12 lysates that occur in vivo in a supramolecular complex with fodrin and F-actin. Moreover, proteins 4.1R and 4.1G are distributed underneath the plasma membrane in PC12 cells. Collectively, these observations suggest that brain 4.1R and 4.1G may modulate the membrane mechanical properties of neuronal cells by promoting fodrin/actin association. PMID:11274145

  6. In vitro study on the interaction between the 32 kDa enamelin and amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daming; Du, Chang; Sun, Zhi; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Enamel extracelluar matrix components play vital roles in controlling crystal nucleation and growth during enamel formation. We investigated the interaction between the 32 kDa enamelin fragment and amelogenin using immunochemical and biophysical methods. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the 32 kDa enamelin and amelogenin eluted together from a Protein A column. Dynamic light scattering results showed that the 32 kDa enamelin had a profound effect on amelogenin assembly at pH 8.0, causing partial dissociation of the nanospheres, in a dose-dependent manner. The appearance of an isodichroic point and the shifting and intensity decrease of the ellipticity minima in the circular dichroism spectra of amelogenin following the addition of the 32 kDa enamelin were indicative of conformational changes in amelogenin and of a direct interaction between the two macromolecules. Our results collectively demonstrate that the 32 kDa enamelin has a direct interaction with amelogenin in vitro. Our current studies provide novel insights into understanding possible cooperation between enamelin and amelogenin in macromolecular self-assembly and in controlling enamel mineral formation. PMID:19263522

  7. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  8. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, O.; Doi, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. The authors propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits.

  9. Detection and differentiation of 22 kDa and 20 kDa Growth Hormone proteoforms in human plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Bache, Nicolai; Bosch, Jaume; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; Segura, Jordi; Jensen, Ole N

    2015-04-01

    Human growth hormone (GH) is suspected to be widely and illegally used in sport to improve athletes' performance. For the detection of GH abuse, blood samples are screened for abnormal ratios between the 22 and 20 kDa GH proteoforms that demonstrate the administration of the synthetic hormone. Current detection methods are based on classical immunoassays as they provide sufficient sensitivity for the detection of GH proteoforms. These antibody based methods, however, suffer from unclear selectivity and potential cross-reactivity towards similar proteins. For unambiguous GH detection, we report a Mass Spectrometry ImmunoAssay (MSIA) that first enriches GH from plasma with an antibody of relatively low specificity, and subsequently quantifies the 22 and 20 kDa proteoforms by Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) LC-MS/MS analysis. This method proved superior to an antibody-free strategy based on GH purification by protein precipitation. Using GH-MSIA we successfully quantified the 22/20 kDa GH ratio in post-exercise capillary plasma extracted from two individuals. This GH-MSIA is applicable to anti-doping and GH-related disease analysis. PMID:25556001

  10. Characterization of the 70 kDa polypeptide of the Na/Ca exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Saba, R I; Bollen, A; Herchuelz, A

    1999-01-01

    The Na/Ca exchanger is associated with 160, 120 and 70 kDa polypeptides whose nature is poorly understood. We have purified and characterized the Na/Ca exchanger from bovine cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles (SLVs) by using ion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. The Na/Ca exchanger-enriched fraction was reconstituted into asolectin liposomes [lipid to protein ratio 10:1 (w/w)] that showed Na/Ca exchange activity. Under non-reducing conditions, SDS/PAGE showed a single 70 kDa polypeptide, which was further characterized by immunoblots with different antibodies: SWant, raised against the purified exchanger protein; NH2-terminus, residues 1-21; NCX1, residues 393-406; and Exon F, residues 622-644. Immunoblots under reducing conditions with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 showed three bands migrating at 160, 120 and 70 kDa for SLV preparations, whereas Exon F reacted only with the 160 and 120 kDa bands. Under non-reducing conditions, immunoblots with purified reconstituted Na/Ca exchanger showed a single band at 70 kDa reacting with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 but not with Exon F. We conclude that the 70 kDa protein is associated with Na/Ca exchange activity, has the same N-terminal sequence as the cloned bovine cardiac exchanger, and has its length decreased by at least 35% from its C-terminal portion as compared with that of the wild-type exchanger. PMID:9931309

  11. Involvement of the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of a 20 kDa protein in the proliferative effect of high-density lipoproteins (subclass 3) on the adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, K A; Bonnafous, M; Favre, G; Soula, G; Le Gaillard, F

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that high-density lipoproteins (subclass 3; HDL3) bind to sites specific for apolipoprotein AI on the human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and that HDL3 binding promotes a mitogenic effect [Favre, Tazi, Le Gaillard, Bennis, Hachem and Soula (1993) J. Lipid Res. 34, 1093-1106]. In the present study, we have examined the cell proteins that showed modified phosphorylation after binding of HDL3 to specific sites, and the roles of Ca2+ and protein kinase C. Native HDL3 (but not tetranitromethane-modified HDL3) and Ca2+ ionophore A23187 strongly enhanced the phosphorylation of a 20 kDa protein (x 3.6) and, to a lower extent, the phosphorylation of 24 and 28 kDa proteins (x 2.2 and 2.6 respectively). The two effectors were equally able to stimulate cell growth. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by a 24 h incubation of cells with phorbol myristate acetate prevented the effects of HDL3 on the phosphorylation of 24 and 28 kDa proteins. However, the extent of phosphorylation of the 20 kDa protein was not affected. In contrast, activation of protein kinase C by a short incubation with phorbol myristate acetate resulted in inhibition of proliferation and an increase in 24 and 28 kDa (but not 20 kDa) protein phosphorylation. These results suggest that HDL3 putative receptors exert their proliferative effect on A549 cells through activation of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. This kinase activity is not modulated by phorbol ester and thus may be a calmodulin kinase or an isoenzyme of protein kinase C that is independent of phorbol ester. It allows a subsequent 20 kDa protein to be phosphorylated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7733897

  12. Isolation and characterization of the promoter for the gene coding for the 68 kDa carnitine palmitoyltransferase from the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Brady, P S; Park, E A; Liu, J S; Hanson, R W; Brady, L J

    1992-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) regulates the flux of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for subsequent beta-oxidation. A 485 bp segment of the promoter for the gene encoding the 68 kDa CPT was isolated from a rat lambda DASH genomic library using the polymerase chain reaction. The promoter contained a consensus binding sequence for CREB (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) at -153 to -166, and for C/EBP alpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) at -115 to -128. DNAase I footprinting using proteins isolated from rat liver nuclei indicated the presence of several regions of nuclear protein binding, most notably at -95 to -130, at -273 to -295, and at a wide region encompassing -395 to -465. DNAase I footprinting studies with purified CREB and C/EBP alpha confirmed that protein binding to DNA occurred at the sites predicted by the consensus sequences. The segment containing 481 bp of 5' flanking sequence plus 181 bp of untranslated mRNA was ligated to the structural gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). When this plasmid was transfected into Hep G2 cells, CAT activity was stimulated 7-fold by addition of 1 mM-8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP) or co-transfection of the expression vector coding for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA). The ability of several known second messengers and transcription factors to stimulate transcription of 68 kDa CPT promoter-CAT reporter was tested in co-transfection experiments. 68 kDa CPT promoter-CAT reporter transcription activity was stimulated 7-fold by addition of 8-Br-cAMP, and this induction was depressed 50% by the addition of phorbol esters. When the 68 kDa CPT promoter-CAT reporter was co-transfected with an expression vector for CREB or C/EBP alpha, transcription was increased 3- and 10-fold respectively. 8-Br-cAMP caused an additional 8-fold induction in the presence of each factor to yield 25- and 80-fold induction respectively. Co-transfection of the expression vector for c

  13. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase 2C is phosphorylated and inhibited by 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Zhao, Z; Filloux, C; Fischer, E H; Van Obberghen, E

    1994-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase 2C (PTP2C, also named SHPTP2, SHPTP3, or PTP1D) is a cytosolic enzyme with two Src homology 2 domains. We have investigated its regulation by phosphorylation in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. In untreated cells, PTP2C was phosphorylated predominantly on serine residues. A 5-min treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced an increase in phosphorylation on threonine and, to a lesser degree, on serine. After 45 min of exposure to EGF, PTP2C phosphorylation returned to basal levels. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we found that the 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase, p44mapk, phosphorylated PTP2C on serine and threonine residues. This phosphorylation resulted in a pronounced inhibition of PTP2C enzyme activity measured with phosphorylated EGF receptors as substrate. Moreover, in intact PC12 cells, PTP2C was also inhibited following a short EGF treatment, but its activity returned to normal when the exposure to EGF was maintained for 45 min. The profile of this response to EGF can be inversely correlated to that of the stimulatory action of EGF on p44mapk. These data suggest that the EGF-induced regulation of PTP2C activity is mediated by p44mapk. These findings provide evidence for an additional role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade--namely, the regulation of a PTP. Images PMID:8197172

  14. 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase and SATB1 localize to β-amyloid induced matrix attachment regions.

    PubMed

    Winick-Ng, Warren; Caetano, Fabiana A; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Morey, Trevor M; Heit, Bryan; Rylett, R Jane

    2016-01-01

    The M-transcript of human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) produces an 82-kDa protein (82-kDa ChAT) that concentrates in nuclei of cholinergic neurons. We assessed the effects of acute exposure to oligomeric amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42) on 82-kDa ChAT disposition in SH-SY5Y neural cells, finding that acute exposure to Aβ1-42 results in increased association of 82-kDa ChAT with chromatin and formation of 82-kDa ChAT aggregates in nuclei. When measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified that Aβ1-42-exposure increases 82-kDa ChAT association with gene promoters and introns. The Aβ1-42-induced 82-kDa ChAT aggregates co-localize with special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), which anchors DNA to scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 had a similar genomic association as 82-kDa ChAT, with both proteins associating with synapse and cell stress genes. After Aβ1-42 -exposure, both SATB1 and 82-kDa ChAT are enriched at the same S/MAR on the APP gene, with 82-kDa ChAT expression attenuating an increase in an isoform-specific APP mRNA transcript. Finally, 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 have patterned genomic association at regions enriched with S/MAR binding motifs. These results demonstrate that 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 play critical roles in the response of neural cells to acute Aβ-exposure. PMID:27052102

  15. 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase and SATB1 localize to β-amyloid induced matrix attachment regions

    PubMed Central

    Winick-Ng, Warren; Caetano, Fabiana A.; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Morey, Trevor M.; Heit, Bryan; Rylett, R. Jane

    2016-01-01

    The M-transcript of human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) produces an 82-kDa protein (82-kDa ChAT) that concentrates in nuclei of cholinergic neurons. We assessed the effects of acute exposure to oligomeric amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1–42) on 82-kDa ChAT disposition in SH-SY5Y neural cells, finding that acute exposure to Aβ1–42 results in increased association of 82-kDa ChAT with chromatin and formation of 82-kDa ChAT aggregates in nuclei. When measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified that Aβ1–42 -exposure increases 82-kDa ChAT association with gene promoters and introns. The Aβ1–42 -induced 82-kDa ChAT aggregates co-localize with special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), which anchors DNA to scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 had a similar genomic association as 82-kDa ChAT, with both proteins associating with synapse and cell stress genes. After Aβ1–42 -exposure, both SATB1 and 82-kDa ChAT are enriched at the same S/MAR on the APP gene, with 82-kDa ChAT expression attenuating an increase in an isoform-specific APP mRNA transcript. Finally, 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 have patterned genomic association at regions enriched with S/MAR binding motifs. These results demonstrate that 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 play critical roles in the response of neural cells to acute Aβ -exposure. PMID:27052102

  16. Cloning of a 72 kDa matrix metalloproteinase (gelatinase) from chicken embryo fibroblasts using gene family PCR: expression of the gelatinase increases upon malignant transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Aimes, R T; French, D L; Quigley, J P

    1994-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts secrete a 72 kDa progelatinase that displays all of the characteristics of a matrix metalloproteinase. Employing reverse-transcription PCR and degenerate oligonucleotide primers that are specific for two highly conserved sequences found in all matrix metalloproteinases, a DNA fragment specific for the chicken gelatinase was generated. Using this PCR product as a probe, cDNA clones were isolated from a chicken embryo cDNA library and the entire protein coding sequence was determined. The chicken progelatinase is 84% identical, at the amino acid level, with human and mouse 72 kDa progelatinase/type-IV procollagenase, with the greatest degree of similarity occurring in the propeptide and catalytic domains. The avian and mammalian proteinases diverge significantly in the C-terminal, hemopexin-like domain. The last 100 residues of the chicken gelatinase are only 66% identical with mammalian gelatinases. Mouse 72 kDa progelatinase, however, does not diverge significantly (> 98% identity) from human progelatinase in the hemopexin-like domain. The divergence in this domain of the chicken progelatinase may explain some of the distinct catalytic and inhibitory properties of the 72 kDa chicken progelatinase. Northern-blot analysis reveals that steady-state levels of the chicken progelatinase mRNA are increased 5-fold upon malignant transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and 3-fold by treatment with the tumour-promoting phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). This represents the first reported cloning of an avian matrix metalloproteinase. The increased expression of the chicken progelatinase by RSV transformation and the tumour promoter PMA suggests that the progelatinase is regulated differently in chicken cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:8010954

  17. Purification and characterization of the acid soluble 26-kDa polypeptide from soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Momma, M; Haraguchi, K; Saito, M; Chikuni, K; Harada, K

    1997-08-01

    Whey proteins from soybean seeds of Japanese varieties were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Among 11 varieties of soybean, three green and one black soybeans lacked a 26-kDa band that was found in all yellow soybeans. In this paper, the 26-kDa protein was named AS26k (acid soluble 26-kDa protein) temporarily. The AS26k protein was purified from Glycine max cv. Nattosyoryu, which is yellow soybean, through four purification steps: 30-35% saturated ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography on S Sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl Sepharose CL-4B. Purified AS26k was cleaved with V8 proteinase from Staphylococcus aureus or CNBr. The cleaved polypeptide contained two typical dehydrin motif sequences: DEYGNPV and (M)DKIKEKLPG, and a 19 amino acids sequence similar to a pea dehydrin. Native AS26k had a molecular mass of 32 kDa on gel filtration and a pl of 7.2 on two-dimensional PAGE. Similarly to other dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, AS26k was rich in hydrophilic amino acids, and highly heat stable. These results showed that AS26k was a dehydrin, a group II LEA protein in soybean seeds. PMID:9301109

  18. GS32, a novel Golgi SNARE of 32 kDa, interacts preferentially with syntaxin 6.

    PubMed

    Wong, S H; Xu, Y; Zhang, T; Griffiths, G; Lowe, S L; Subramaniam, V N; Seow, K T; Hong, W

    1999-01-01

    Syntaxin 1, synaptobrevins or vesicle-associated membrane proteins, and the synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) are key molecules involved in the docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. We report here the molecular, cell biological, and biochemical characterization of a 32-kDa protein homologous to both SNAP-25 (20% amino acid sequence identity) and the recently identified SNAP-23 (19% amino acid sequence identity). Northern blot analysis shows that the mRNA for this protein is widely expressed. Polyclonal antibodies against this protein detect a 32-kDa protein present in both cytosol and membrane fractions. The membrane-bound form of this protein is revealed to be primarily localized to the Golgi apparatus by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, a finding that is further established by electron microscopy immunogold labeling showing that this protein is present in tubular-vesicular structures of the Golgi apparatus. Biochemical characterizations establish that this protein behaves like a SNAP receptor and is thus named Golgi SNARE of 32 kDa (GS32). GS32 in the Golgi extract is preferentially retained by the immobilized GST-syntaxin 6 fusion protein. The coimmunoprecipitation of syntaxin 6 but not syntaxin 5 or GS28 from the Golgi extract by antibodies against GS32 further sustains the preferential interaction of GS32 with Golgi syntaxin 6. PMID:9880331

  19. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes bear the 75 kDa tumour necrosis factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, L.; Zambello, R.; Bulian, P.; Cerutti, A.; Enthammer, C.; Cassatella, M.; Nitti, D.; Lise, M.; Agostini, C.; Semenzato, G.

    1995-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine with a variety of immunological properties. The identification of two receptors for this molecule, i.e. the 75 kDa and the 55 kDa TNF receptors (TNF-R), recently clarified the mechanisms through which this cytokine provides its wide range of immunomodulatory activities. In this study we have investigated the expression and the functional properties of these receptors on tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) recovered from 17 patients with solid cancers (melanoma, colorectal carcinoma and lung cancer). To this end, TIL lines and freshly isolated TILs were evaluated for (a) the expression and the functional role of TNF receptors following culture in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and (b) the production of TNF-alpha following culture with IL-2 and the role of this cytokine in IL-2-driven TIL proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that TILs bear the 75 kDa TNF-R. Moreover, TIL lines express detectable messages for TNF-alpha and release this cytokine. Functional in vitro studies have shown that anti-TNF-alpha, as well as anti-75 kDa TNF-R antibodies, are able to inhibit the IL-2-induced TIL proliferation. These data demonstrate that TILs are equipped with a fully functional TNF-R system and suggest a putative role for this receptor and its ligand in the activation and expression of TILs following immunotherapy with IL-2. Images Figure 2 PMID:7841036

  20. Translocation of an 89-kDa periplasmic protein is associated with Holospora infection

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Koichi; Dohra, Hideo; Lang, B. Franz; Burger, Gertraud; Hori, Manabu; Fujishima, Masahiro . E-mail: fujishim@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2005-12-02

    The symbiotic bacterium Holospora obtusa infects the macronucleus of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. After ingestion by its host, an infectious form of Holospora with an electron-translucent tip passes through the host digestive vacuole and penetrates the macronuclear envelope with this tip. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of this process, we raised a monoclonal antibody against the tip-specific 89-kDa protein, sequenced this partially, and identified the corresponding complete gene. The deduced protein sequence carries two actin-binding motifs. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy shows that during escape from the host digestive vacuole, the 89-kDa proteins translocates from the inside to the outside of the tip. When the bacterium invades the macronucleus, the 89-kDa protein is left behind at the entry point of the nuclear envelope. Transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of fine fibrous structures that co-localize with the antibody-labeled regions of the bacterium. Our findings suggest that the 89-kDa protein plays a role in Holospora's escape from the host digestive vacuole, the migration through the host cytoplasm, and the invasion into the macronucleus.

  1. The fission yeast dis3+ gene encodes a 110-kDa essential protein implicated in mitotic control.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, N; Goebl, M; Yanagida, M

    1991-01-01

    The fission yeast mutant dis3-54 is defective in mitosis and fails in chromosome disjunction. Its phenotype is similar to that of dis2-11, a mutant with a mutation in the type 1 protein phosphatase gene. We cloned the dis3+ gene by transformation. Nucleotide sequencing predicts a coding region of 970 amino acids interrupted by a 164-bp intron at the 65th codon. The predicted dis3+ protein shares a weak but significant similarity with the budding yeast SSD1 or SRK1 gene product, the gene for which is a suppressor for the absence of a protein phosphatase SIT4 gene or the BCY1 regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Anti-dis3 antibodies recognized the 110-kDa dis3+ gene product, which is part of a 250- to 350-kDa oligomer and is enriched in the nucleus. The cellular localization of the dis3+ protein is reminiscent of that of the dis2+ protein, but these two proteins do not form a complex. A type 1 protein phosphatase activity in the dis3-54 mutant extracts is apparently not affected. The dis3+ gene is essential for growth; gene disruptant cells do not germinate and fail in cell division. Increased dis3+ gene dosage reverses the Ts+ phenotype of a cdc25 wee1 strain, as does increased type 1 protein phosphatase gene dosage. Double mutant dis3 dis2 is lethal even at the permissive temperature, suggesting that the dis2+ and dis3+ genes may be functionally overlapped. The role of the dis3+ gene product in mitosis is unknown, but this gene product may be directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of mitosis. Images PMID:1944266

  2. Multiple 40-kDa Heat-Shock Protein Chaperones Function in Tom70-dependent Mitochondrial Import

    PubMed Central

    Bhangoo, Melanie K.; Tzankov, Stefan; Fan, Anna C.Y.; Dejgaard, Kurt; Thomas, David Y.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial preproteins that are imported via the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom)70 receptor are complexed with cytosolic chaperones before targeting to the mitochondrial outer membrane. The adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) follows this pathway, and its purified mature form is identical to the preprotein. Purified ANT was reconstituted with chaperones in reticulocyte lysate, and bound proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In addition to 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90), a specific subset of cochaperones were found, but no mitochondria-specific targeting factors were found. Interestingly, three different Hsp40-related J-domain proteins were identified: DJA1, DJA2, and DJA4. The DJAs bound preproteins to different extents through their C-terminal regions. DJA dominant-negative mutants lacking the N-terminal J-domains impaired mitochondrial import. The mutants blocked the binding of Hsc70 to preprotein, but with varying efficiency. The DJAs also showed significant differences in activation of the Hsc70 ATPase and Hsc70-dependent protein refolding. In HeLa cells, the DJAs increased new protein folding and mitochondrial import, although to different extents. No single DJA was superior to the others in all aspects, but each had a profile of partial specialization. The Hsp90 cochaperones p23 and Aha1 also regulated Hsp90–preprotein interactions. We suggest that multiple cochaperones with similar yet partially specialized properties cooperate in optimal chaperone–preprotein complexes. PMID:17596514

  3. Deconstructing honeybee vitellogenin: novel 40 kDa fragment assigned to its N terminus

    PubMed Central

    Havukainen, Heli; Halskau, Øyvind; Skjaerven, Lars; Smedal, Bente; Amdam, Gro V.

    2011-01-01

    Vitellogenin, an egg-yolk protein precursor common to oviparous animals, is found abundantly in honeybee workers – a caste of helpers that do not usually lay eggs. Instead, honeybee vitellogenin (180 kDa) participates in processes other than reproduction: it influences hormone signaling, food-related behavior, immunity, stress resistance and longevity. The molecular basis of these functions is largely unknown. Here, we establish and compare the molecular properties of vitellogenin from honeybee hemolymph (blood) and abdominal fat body, two compartments that are linked to vitellogenin functions. Our results reveal a novel 40 kDa vitellogenin fragment in abdominal fat body tissue, the main site for vitellogenin synthesis and storage. Using MALDI-TOF combined with MS/MS mass-spectroscopy, we assign the 40 kDa fragment to the N terminus of vitellogenin, whereas a previously observed 150 kDa fragment corresponded to the remainder of the protein. We show that both protein units are N glycosylated and phosphorylated. Focusing on the novel 40 kDa fragment, we present a homology model based on the structure of lamprey lipovitellin that includes a conserved β-barrel-like shape, with a lipophilic cavity in the interior and two insect-specific loops that have not been described before. Our data indicate that the honeybee fat body vitellogenin experiences cleavage unlike hemolymph vitellogenin, a pattern that can suggest a tissue-specific role. Our experiments advance the molecular understanding of vitellogenin, of which the multiple physiological and behavioral effects in honeybees are well established. PMID:21270306

  4. The defective nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-gilford progeria syndrome disrupts the nucleocytoplasmic Ran gradient and inhibits nuclear localization of Ubc9.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Joshua B; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J; Paschal, Bryce M

    2011-08-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways. PMID:21670151

  5. HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 Is Required for Circadian Periodicity through the Promotion of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic mRNA Export in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Dana R.; Gould, Peter; Foreman, Julia; Griffiths, Jayne; Bird, Susannah; Page, Rhiannon; Stewart, Kelly; Steel, Gavin; Young, Jack; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Millar, Andrew J.; Halliday, Karen J.; Hall, Anthony J.; Penfield, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Cold acclimation has been shown to be attenuated by the degradation of the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 protein by the E3 ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES1 (HOS1). However, recent work has suggested that HOS1 may have a wider range of roles in plants than previously appreciated. Here, we show that hos1 mutants are affected in circadian clock function, exhibiting a long-period phenotype in a wide range of temperature and light environments. We demonstrate that hos1 mutants accumulate polyadenylated mRNA in the nucleus and that the circadian defect in hos1 is shared by multiple mutants with aberrant mRNA export, but not in a mutant attenuated in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of microRNAs. As revealed by RNA sequencing, hos1 exhibits gross changes to the transcriptome with genes in multiple functional categories being affected. In addition, we show that hos1 and other previously described mutants with altered mRNA export affect cold signaling in a similar manner. Our data support a model in which altered mRNA export is important for the manifestation of hos1 circadian clock defects and suggest that HOS1 may indirectly affect cold signaling through disruption of the circadian clock. PMID:24254125

  6. Crosslinking of hemin to a specific site on the 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jihjing; Thach, R.E. ); Patino, M.M.; Gaffield, L.; Walden. W.E. ); Smith, A. )

    1991-07-15

    Incubation of a 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein (FRP) with small amounts of radiolabeled hemin resulted in the formation of a strong interaction between the two that was stable to SDS/PAGE. Of seven other proteins tested individually, only apohemopexin and bovine serum albumin showed similar crosslinking ability, albeit to a much lower extent. ({sup 14}C)Hemin specifically crosslinked to FRP in the presence of a 50-fold excess of total wheat germ proteins. Inclusion of catalase did not prevent the reaction of hemin with FRP, suggesting that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not involved. The subsequent addition of a stoichiometric amount of apohemopexin did not reverse the reaction. Exhaustive digestion of the complex with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease produced a major labeled peptide of 17 kDa. These results show the existence of a highly specific, uniquely reactive hemin binding site on FRP.

  7. A 32-kDa protein associated with phospholipase A2-inhibitory activity from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Owada, M K; Sonobe, S; Kakunaga, T; Kawakatsu, H; Yano, J

    1987-11-01

    Two monomeric 32-kDa proteins, termed 32K-I (pI 5.8) and 32K-II (pI 5.1), were isolated from human placenta, which was solubilized by a Ca2+-chelator. Only 32K-I was associated with PLA2-inhibitory activity. CNBr peptide mapping indicated that 32K-I was distinct from 32K-II and two 36-kDa proteins, called calpactin I and II or lipocortin II and I, which have been shown to possess PLA2-inhibitory activity. 32K-I bound to PS in a Ca2+-dependent manner. 32K-I was detected in many tissues except brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle. PMID:3666152

  8. A 115 kDa calmodulin-binding protein is located in rat liver endosome fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Enrich, C; Bachs, O; Evans, W H

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of calmodulin-binding polypeptides in various rat liver subcellular fractions was investigated. Plasma-membrane, endosome, Golgi and lysosome fractions were prepared by established procedures. The calmodulin-binding polypeptides present in the subcellular fractions were identified by using an overlay technique after transfer from gels to nitrocellulose sheets. Distinctive populations of calmodulin-binding polypeptides were present in all the fractions examined except lysosomes. A major 115 kDa calmodulin-binding polypeptide of pI 4.3 was located to the endosome subfractions, and it emerges as a candidate endosome-specific protein. Partitioning of endosome fractions between aqueous and Triton X-114 phases indicated that the calmodulin-binding polypeptide was hydrophobic. Major calmodulin-binding polypeptides of 140 and 240 kDa and minor polypeptides of 40-60 kDa were present in plasma membranes. The distribution of calmodulin in the various endosome and plasma-membrane fractions was also analysed, and the results indicated that the amounts were high compared with those in the cytosol. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3214436

  9. Albumin interacts specifically with a 60-kDa microvascular endothelial glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, J E; Carley, W W; Palade, G E

    1988-01-01

    Confluent monolayers of microvascular endothelial cells, derived from the rat epididymal fat pad and grown in culture, were radioiodinated by using the lactoper-oxidase method. Their radioiodinated surface polypeptides were detected by NaDodSO4/PAGE (followed by autoradiography) and were characterized by both lectin affinity chromatography and protease digestion to identify the proteins involved in albumin binding. All detected polypeptides were sensitive to Pronase digestion, whereas several polypeptides were resistant to trypsin. Pronase treatment of the cell monolayer significantly reduced the specific binding of radioiodinated rat serum albumin, but trypsin digestion did not. Limax flavus, Ricinus communis, and Triticum vulgaris agglutinins competed significantly with radioiodinated rat serum albumin binding, whereas other lectins did not. A single 60-kDa glyco-protein was precipitated in common by these three lectins and was trypsin-resistant and Pronase-sensitive. Rat serum albumin affinity chromatography columns weakly but specifically bound a 60-kDa polypeptide from cell lysates derived from radioiodinated cell monolayers. These findings indicate that the 60-kDa glycoprotein is directly involved in a specific interaction of albumin with the cultured microvascular endothelial cells used in these experiments. Images PMID:3413125

  10. Intestinal mucins from normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis. Variable contents of the disulphide-bound 118 kDa glycoprotein and different reactivities with an anti-(118 kDa glycoprotein) antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, M; Stewart, G

    1989-01-01

    1. A specific antibody was developed against the disulphide-bound 118 kDa glycoprotein of human intestinal mucin and used to establish an e.l.i.s.a. Fourteen purified mucins [eight normal (N) and six cystic fibrosis (CF)] had the same affinity for the antibody in the e.l.i.s.a., but their relative immunoreactivities varied widely (approx. 100,000-fold). In general, CF mucins were more antigenic than N mucins. 2. Variations (approx. 10-fold) were detected in the 118 kDa glycoprotein content of both N and CF mucins (assessed from Coomassie Blue-stained polyacrylamide gels), but these did not appear to be responsible for the differences in mucin immunoreactivity. 3. Variations (approx. 6-fold) were also observed in the size of the 118 kDa peak produced by N and CF mucins on Western blots. These were mostly due to differences in the 118 kDa glycoprotein content of mucins, although a small proportion resulted from changes in the number of antigenic determinants within individual 118 kDa glycoproteins. 4. After concanavalin A affinity chromatography of four reduced mucins (two N and two CF), purified 118 kDa glycoprotein was recovered in the bound fractions from the column, specifically eluted by methyl alpha-mannoside. 5. The amounts of 118 kDa glycoprotein isolated from the four mucins varied as predicted from the size of their 118 kDa bands on Coomassie Blue-stained gels. 6. Three 118 kDa glycoproteins (one N and two CF) showed almost identical reactivity in the e.l.i.s.a.; the fourth had fewer antigenic determinants. 7. Since differences in 118 kDa glycoprotein content and in the number of antigenic determinants within the 118 kDa glycoprotein did not account for variations in the reactivity of native mucins in the e.l.i.s.a., it appeared that accessibility of the 118 kDa glycoprotein to antibody binding may be critical in determining mucin immunoreactivity. This suggests that the three-dimensional conformation of CF mucins may differ from that of N mucins, leading

  11. Interdependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and interactions of Dis3 with Rrp6, the core exosome and importin-alpha3.

    PubMed

    Graham, Amy C; Davis, Stephanie M; Andrulis, Erik D

    2009-05-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of exoribonucleases (RNAses) is an important control mechanism in the temporal and spatial regulation of RNA processing and decay. Despite much progress towards understanding RNAse substrates and functions, we know little of how RNAses are transported and assembled into functional, subcellularly restricted complexes. To gain insight into this issue, we are studying the exosome-binding protein Dis3, a processive 3' to 5' exoribonuclease. Here, we examine the interactions and subcellular localization of the Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 (dDis3) protein. N-terminal domain mutants of dDis3 abolish associations with the 'core' exosome, yet only reduce binding to the 'nuclear' exosome-associated factor dRrp6. We show that nuclear localization of dDis3 requires a C-terminal classic nuclear localization signal (NLS). Consistent with this, dDis3 specifically co-precipitates the NLS-binding protein importin-alpha3. Surprisingly, dDis3 constructs that lack or mutate the C-terminal NLS retain importin-alpha3 binding, suggesting that the interaction is indirect. Finally, we find that endogenous dDis3 and dRrp6 exhibit coordinated nuclear enrichment or exclusion, suggesting that dDis3, Rrp6 and importin-alpha3 interact in a complex independent of the core. We propose that the movement and deposition of this complex is important for the subcellular compartmentalization and regulation of the exosome core. PMID:19220816

  12. Interdependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and interactions of Dis3 with Rrp6, the core exosome, and importin-α3

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amy C.; Davis, Stephanie M.; Andrulis, Erik D.

    2009-01-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of exoribonucleases (RNases) is an important control mechanism in the temporal and spatial regulation of RNA processing and decay. Despite much progress towards understanding RNase substrates and functions, we know little of how RNases are transported and assembled into functional, subcellularly-restricted complexes. To gain insight into this issue, we are studying the exosome-binding protein Dis3, a processive 3' to 5' exoribonuclease. Here, we examine the interactions and subcellular localization of the Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 (dDis3) protein. N-terminal domain mutants of dDis3 abolish associations with the `core' exosome yet only reduce binding to the `nuclear' exosome-associated factor dRrp6. We show that nuclear localization of dDis3 requires a C-terminal classic nuclear localization signal (NLS). Consistent with this, dDis3 specifically co-precipitates the NLS-binding protein importin-α3. Surprisingly, dDis3 constructs that lack or mutate the C-terminal NLS retain importin-α3 binding, suggesting that the interaction is indirect. Finally, we find that endogenous dDis3 and dRrp6 exhibit coordinated nuclear enrichment or exclusion, suggesting that dDis3, Rrp6, and importin-α3 interact in a complex independent of the core. We propose that the movement and deposition of this complex is important for the subcellular compartmentalization and regulation of the exosome core. PMID:19220816

  13. Monocytes stimulated by 110-kDa fibronectin fragments suppress proliferation of anti-CD3-activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, Holly H; Porter, Wendy J; Trial, JoAnn; Rossen, Roger D

    2005-09-01

    One hundred ten to 120-kDa fragments of fibronectin (FNf), generated by proteases released in the course of tissue injury and inflammation, stimulate monocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines, promote mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) transendothelial migration, up-regulate monocyte CD11b and CD86 expression, and induce monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation. To investigate whether the proinflammatory consequences of FNf are offset by responses that can suppress proliferation of activated T lymphocytes, we investigated the effect of FNf-treated MNL on autologous T lymphocytes induced to proliferate by substrate-immobilized anti-CD3. FNf-stimulated MNL suppressed anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation through both contact-dependent and contact-independent mechanisms. Contact-independent suppression was mediated, at least in part, by IL-10 and TGF-beta released by the FNf-stimulated MNL. After 24-48 h exposure to FNf, activated T cells and monocytes formed clusters displaying CD25, CD14, CD3, and CD4 that were not dissociable by chelation of divalent cations. Killing monocytes with l-leucine methyl ester abolished these T cell-monocyte clusters and the ability of the FNf-stimulated MNL to suppress anti-CD3 induced T cell proliferation. Thus, in addition to activating MNL and causing them to migrate to sites of injury, FNf appears to induce suppressor monocytes. PMID:16116227

  14. [The nuclear matrix proteins (mol. mass 38 and 50 kDa) are transported by chromosomes in mitosis].

    PubMed

    Murasheva, M I; Chentsov, Iu S

    2010-01-01

    It was shown by immunofluorescence method that serum M68 and serum K43 from patients with autoimmune disease stain interphase nuclei and periphery of mitotic chromosomes of pig kidney cells. Western blotting reveals the polypeptide with mol. mass of 50 kDa in serum M68, and the polypeptide with mol. mass of 38 kDa in serum K43. In the nuclear protein matrix, the antibodies to protein with mol. mass of 38 kDa stained only nucleolar periphery, while the antibodies to the protein with mol. mass of 50 kDa stained both the nucleolar periphery and all the interphase nucleus. It shows that among all components of nuclear protein matrix (lamina, internuclear network, residual nucleoli) only nucleolar periphery contains the 38 kDa protein, while the 50 kDa protein is a part of residual nucleolar periphery and takes part in nuclear protein network formation. In the interphase cells, both proteins were in situ localized in the nuclei, but one of them with mol. mass of 50 kDa was in the form of small clearly outlined granules, while the other (38 kDa) was in the form of small bright granules against the background of diffusely stained nuclei. Both proteins were also revealed as continuous ring around nucleolar periphery. During all mitotic stages, the 50 kDa protein was seen on the chromosomal periphery as a cover, and the 38 kDa protein formed separate fragments and granules around them. After nuclear and chromosome decondensation induced by hypotonic treatment, both antibodies stain interphase nuclei in diffuse manner, but in mitotic cells they stained the surface of the swollen chromosomes. The polypeptide with mol. mass of 50 kDa maintained strong connection with chromosome periphery both in norm and under condition of decondensation induced by hypotonic treatment and at subsequent recondensation in isotonic medium. In contrast, the protein with mol. mass of 38 kDa partially lost the contact with a chromosome during recondensation appearing also in the form of granules in

  15. Crystal structure of the 500-kDa yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase holoenzyme dimer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jia; Tong, Liang

    2015-10-29

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) has crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACC (ScACC) is crucial for the production of very-long-chain fatty acids and the maintenance of the nuclear envelope. ACC contains biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT) activities, and its biotin is linked covalently to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP). Most eukaryotic ACCs are 250-kilodalton (kDa), multi-domain enzymes and function as homodimers and higher oligomers. They contain a unique, 80-kDa central region that shares no homology with other proteins. Although the structures of the BC, CT and BCCP domains and other biotin-dependent carboxylase holoenzymes are known, there is currently no structural information on the ACC holoenzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length, 500-kDa holoenzyme dimer of ScACC. The structure is remarkably different from that of the other biotin-dependent carboxylases. The central region contains five domains and is important for positioning the BC and CT domains for catalysis. The structure unexpectedly reveals a dimer of the BC domain and extensive conformational differences compared to the structure of the BC domain alone, which is a monomer. These structural changes reveal why the BC domain alone is catalytically inactive and define the molecular mechanism for the inhibition of eukaryotic ACC by the natural product soraphen A and by phosphorylation of a Ser residue just before the BC domain core in mammalian ACC. The BC and CT active sites are separated by 80 Å, and the entire BCCP domain must translocate during catalysis. PMID:26458104

  16. Molluscan mega-hemocyanin: an ancient oxygen carrier tuned by a ~550 kDa polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The allosteric respiratory protein hemocyanin occurs in gastropods as tubular di-, tri- and multimers of a 35 × 18 nm, ring-like decamer with a collar complex at one opening. The decamer comprises five subunit dimers. The subunit, a 400 kDa polypeptide, is a concatenation of eight paralogous functional units. Their exact topology within the quaternary structure has recently been solved by 3D electron microscopy, providing a molecular model of an entire didecamer (two conjoined decamers). Here we study keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH2) tridecamers to unravel the exact association mode of the third decamer. Moreover, we introduce and describe a more complex type of hemocyanin tridecamer discovered in fresh/brackish-water cerithioid snails (Leptoxis, Melanoides, Terebralia). Results The "typical" KLH2 tridecamer is partially hollow, whereas the cerithioid tridecamer is almost completely filled with material; it was therefore termed "mega-hemocyanin". In both types, the staggering angle between adjoining decamers is 36°. The cerithioid tridecamer comprises two typical decamers based on the canonical 400 kDa subunit, flanking a central "mega-decamer" composed of ten unique ~550 kDa subunits. The additional ~150 kDa per subunit substantially enlarge the internal collar complex. Preliminary oxygen binding measurements indicate a moderate hemocyanin oxygen affinity in Leptoxis (p50 ~9 mmHg), and a very high affinity in Melanoides (~3 mmHg) and Terebralia (~2 mmHg). Species-specific and individual variation in the proportions of the two subunit types was also observed, leading to differences in the oligomeric states found in the hemolymph. Conclusions In cerithioid hemocyanin tridecamers ("mega-hemocyanin") the collar complex of the central decamer is substantially enlarged and modified. The preliminary O2 binding curves indicate that there are species-specific functional differences in the cerithioid mega-hemocyanins which might reflect different physiological

  17. The human actin-related protein hArp5: Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and involvement in DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kitayama, Kumiko; Kamo, Mariko; Oma, Yukako; Matsuda, Ryo; Uchida, Takafumi; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Ohyama, Takashi; Winsor, Barbara; Harata, Masahiko

    2009-01-15

    Certain actin-related proteins (Arps) of budding yeast are localized in the nucleus, and have essential roles as stoichiometric components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and chromatin remodeling complexes. On the other hand, identification of vertebrate nuclear Arps and their functional analyses are just beginning. We show that human Arp5 (hArp5) proteins are localized in the nucleus, and that arp5{delta} yeast cells are partially complemented by hArp5. Thus, hArp5 is a novel member of the nuclear Arps of vertebrates, which possess evolutionarily conserved functions from yeast to humans. We show here that hArp5 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Furthermore, after the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), cell growth and the accumulation of phosphorylated histone H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) are impaired by hArp5 depletion. Association of hArp5 with the hIno80 chromatin remodeling enzyme and decrease of chromatin-bound hIno80 by hArp5-depletion indicate that hArp5 may have a role in the recruitment of the hINO80 complex to chromatin. Overexpression of hArp5 and hIno80 enhanced {gamma}-H2AX accumulation. These observations suggest that hArp5 is involved in the process of DSB repair through the regulation of the chromatin remodelling machinery.

  18. Novel Nuclear Localization Signal Regulated by Ambient Tonicity in Vertebrates*

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min Seong; Lee, Sang Do; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Colla, Emanuela; Choi, Yu Jeong; Suh, Pann-Ghil; Kwon, H. Moo

    2008-01-01

    TonEBP is a Rel domain-containing transcription factor implicated in adaptive immunity, viral replication, and cancer. In the mammalian kidney, TonEBP is a central regulator of water homeostasis. Animals deficient in TonEBP suffer from life-threatening dehydration due to renal water loss. Ambient tonicity (effective osmolality) is the prominent signal for TonEBP in a bidirectional manner; TonEBP activity decreases in hypotonicity, whereas it increases in hypertonicity. Here we found that TonEBP displayed nuclear export in response to hypotonicity and nuclear import in response to hypertonicity. The nuclear export of TonEBP was not mediated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1 or discrete nuclear export signal. In contrast, a dominant nuclear localization signal (NLS) was found in a small region of 16 amino acid residues. When short peptides containing the NLS were fused to constitutively cytoplasmic proteins, the fusion proteins displayed tonicity-dependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking like TonEBP. Thus, tonicity-dependent activation of the NLS is crucial in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of TonEBP. The novel NLS is present only in the vertebrates, indicating that it developed late in evolution. PMID:18579527

  19. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR. PMID:21570063

  20. The human 64-kDa polyadenylylation factor contains a ribonucleoprotein-type RNA binding domain and unusual auxiliary motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Takagaki, Y; MacDonald, C C; Shenk, T; Manley, J L

    1992-01-01

    Cleavage stimulation factor is one of the multiple factors required for 3'-end cleavage of mammalian pre-mRNAs. We have shown previously that this factor is composed of three subunits with estimated molecular masses of 77, 64, and 50 kDa and that the 64-kDa subunit can be UV-crosslinked to RNA in a polyadenylylation signal (AAUAAA)-dependent manner. We have now isolated cDNAs encoding the 64-kDa subunit of human cleavage stimulation factor. The 64-kDa subunit contains a ribonucleoprotein-type RNA binding domain in the N-terminal region and a repeat structure in the C-terminal region in which a pentapeptide sequence (consensus MEARA/G) is repeated 12 times and the formation of a long alpha-helix stabilized by salt bridges is predicted. An approximately 270-amino acid segment surrounding this repeat structure is highly enriched in proline and glycine residues (approximately 20% for each). When cloned 64-kDa subunit was expressed in Escherichia coli, an N-terminal fragment containing the RNA binding domain bound to RNAs in a polyadenylylation-signal-independent manner, suggesting that the RNA binding domain is directly involved in the binding of the 64-kDa subunit to pre-mRNAs. Images PMID:1741396

  1. Identification and purification of a novel 120-kDa protein that recognizes the cAMP-responsive element

    SciTech Connect

    Andrisani, O.; Dixon, J.E. )

    1990-02-25

    The TGACGTCA (CRE) motif required for function by a number of cellular (somatostatin, enkephalin, alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin) and viral (Ad5 E1A-inducible, HTLV-1 TAX-inducible) genes is the site of interaction of multiple sequence-specific complexes. A protocol has been developed for the fractionation and purification of these activities. We report here the purification from HeLa nuclear extracts of a novel 120-kDa polypeptide which by Southwestern blots, gel retardation, and UV cross-linking assays displays CRE-specific binding. The CRE-affinity purified 120-kDa protein displays properties distinct from those of the 43-kDa CREB/ATF polypeptide. The 120-kDa protein is readily phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C but not by protein kinase A, suggesting that this molecule may mediate cellular signals distinct from the cAMP-responsive pathway. In vitro transcription-complementation assays utilizing the purified 120-kDa protein failed to transactivate the cAMP-responsive somatostatin promoter suggesting that the mode of action of this 120-kDa polypeptide may require an activation step distinct from the cAMP-signaling pathway.

  2. Crystal Structure of the 25 kDa Subunit of Human Cleavage Factor I{m}

    SciTech Connect

    Coseno,M.; Martin, G.; Berger, C.; Gilmartin, G.; Keller, W.; Doublie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cleavage factor Im is an essential component of the pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing machinery in higher eukaryotes, participating in both the polyadenylation and cleavage steps. Cleavage factor Im is an oligomer composed of a small 25 kDa subunit (CF Im25) and a variable larger subunit of either 59, 68 or 72 kDa. The small subunit also interacts with RNA, poly(A) polymerase, and the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein. These protein-protein interactions are thought to be facilitated by the Nudix domain of CF Im25, a hydrolase motif with a characteristic {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} fold and a conserved catalytic sequence or Nudix box. We present here the crystal structures of human CF Im25 in its free and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) bound forms at 1.85 and 1.80 Angstroms, respectively. CF Im25 crystallizes as a dimer and presents the classical Nudix fold. Results from crystallographic and biochemical experiments suggest that CF Im25 makes use of its Nudix fold to bind but not hydrolyze ATP and Ap4A. The complex and apo protein structures provide insight into the active oligomeric state of CF Im and suggest a possible role of nucleotide binding in either the polyadenylation and/or cleavage steps of pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing.

  3. Crystallization and X-ray data analysis of the 10 kDa C-terminal lid subdomain from Caenorhabditis elegans Hsp70

    SciTech Connect

    Worrall, Liam; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2006-09-01

    Crystals of the C-terminal 10 kDa lid subdomain from the C. elegans chaperone Hsp70 have been obtained that diffract X-rays to ∼3.5 Å and belong to space group I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Analysis of X-ray data and initial heavy-atom phasing reveals 24 monomers in the asymmetric unit related by 432 non-crystallographic symmetry. Hsp70 is an important molecular chaperone involved in the regulation of protein folding. Crystals of the C-terminal 10 kDa helical lid domain (residues 542–640) from a Caenorhabditis elegans Hsp70 homologue have been produced that diffract X-rays to ∼3.4 Å. Crystals belong to space group I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 197, c = 200 Å. The Matthews coefficient, self-rotation function and Patterson map indicate 24 monomers in the asymmetric unit, showing non-crystallographic 432 symmetry. Molecular-replacement studies using the corresponding domain from rat, the only eukaryotic homologue with a known structure, failed and a mercury derivative was obtained. Preliminary MAD phasing using SHELXD and SHARP for location and refinement of the heavy-atom substructure and SOLOMON for density modification produced interpretable maps with a clear protein–solvent boundary. Further density-modification, model-building and refinement are currently under way.

  4. The 90-kDa junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum protein forms an integral part of a supramolecular triad complex in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Froemming, G R; Pette, D; Ohlendieck, K

    1999-08-11

    Although it is well established that voltage-sensing of the alpha(1)-dihydropyridine receptor triggers Ca(2+)-release via the ryanodine receptor during excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers, it remains to be determined which junctional components are responsible for the assembly, maintenance, and stabilization of triads. Here, we analyzed the expression pattern and neighborhood relationship of a novel 90-kDa sarcoplasmic reticulum protein. This protein is highly enriched in the triad fraction and is predominantly expressed in fast-twitching muscle fibers. Chronic low-frequency electro-stimulation induced a drastic decrease in the relative abundance of this protein. Chemical crosslinking showed a potential overlap between the 90-kDa junctional face membrane protein and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel, suggesting tight protein-protein interactions between these two triad components. Hence, Ca(2+)-regulatory muscle proteins have a strong tendency to oligomerize and the triad region of skeletal muscle fibers forms supramolecular membrane complexes involved in the regulation of Ca(2+)-homeostasis and signal transduction. PMID:10441473

  5. Identification of a 115kDa MAP-kinase activated by freezing and anoxic stresses in the marine periwinkle, Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-06-15

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade regulates changes in gene transcription by transmitting extracellular stimuli from the plasma membrane to the cell nucleus and has an important role to play in organismal responses to environmental stresses. The activities of MAPKs were investigated in the marine gastropod mollusk, Littorina littorea, a species that tolerates both extracellular freezing and long term oxygen deprivation. In-gel kinase assays revealed the presence of two MAPKs in foot muscle and hepatopancreas, a 42 and a 115kDa protein. Immunoblot analysis showed that both were MAPK proteins and that one was the periwinkle homologue of p42(ERK2). Size exclusion chromatography confirmed the 115kDa size of the novel snail MAPK and its role as the dominant MAPK activity in foot muscle. In-gel kinase assays, immunoblotting with phospho-specific ERK antibody, as well as kinase activity profiles from hydroxyapatite chromatography demonstrated that p115 MAPK kinase activity was increased in foot muscle in response to in vivo freezing or anoxia exposures. The results suggest a role for this novel kinase in environmental stress response. PMID:16620767

  6. Identification and preliminary characterization of a 75-kDa hemin- and hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Marie; Labrie, Josée; Rioux, Clément R; Dumas, France; Thibault, Pierre; Elkins, Christopher; Jacques, Mario

    2003-10-01

    The reference strains representing serotypes 1 to 12 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 were examined for their ability to utilize porcine hemoglobin (Hb) or porcine hemin (Hm) as iron sources for growth. In a growth promotion assay, all of the reference strains were able to use porcine Hb, and all strains except 2 were able to use porcine Hm. Using a preliminary characterization procedure with Hm- or Hb-agarose, Hm- and Hb-binding outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of approximately 75 kDa were isolated from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain 4074 grown under iron-restricted conditions. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed a number of common tryptic peptides between the Hb-agarose- and Hm-agarose-purified 75 kDa OMPs, strongly suggesting that these peptides originate from the same protein. A database search of these peptide sequences revealed identities with proteins from various Gram-negative bacteria, including iron-regulated OMPs, transporter proteins, as well as TonB-dependent receptors. Taken together, our data suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae synthesizes potential Hm- and Hb-binding proteins that could be implicated in the iron uptake from porcine Hb and Hm. PMID:14620863

  7. The 133-kDa N-terminal domain enables myosin 15 to maintain mechanotransducing stereocilia and is essential for hearing

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qing; Indzhykulian, Artur A; Mustapha, Mirna; Riordan, Gavin P; Dolan, David F; Friedman, Thomas B; Belyantseva, Inna A; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Camper, Sally A; Bird, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    The precise assembly of inner ear hair cell stereocilia into rows of increasing height is critical for mechanotransduction and the sense of hearing. Yet, how the lengths of actin-based stereocilia are regulated remains poorly understood. Mutations of the molecular motor myosin 15 stunt stereocilia growth and cause deafness. We found that hair cells express two isoforms of myosin 15 that differ by inclusion of an 133-kDa N-terminal domain, and that these isoforms can selectively traffic to different stereocilia rows. Using an isoform-specific knockout mouse, we show that hair cells expressing only the small isoform remarkably develop normal stereocilia bundles. However, a critical subset of stereocilia with active mechanotransducer channels subsequently retracts. The larger isoform with the 133-kDa N-terminal domain traffics to these specialized stereocilia and prevents disassembly of their actin core. Our results show that myosin 15 isoforms can navigate between functionally distinct classes of stereocilia, and are independently required to assemble and then maintain the intricate hair bundle architecture. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08627.001 PMID:26302205

  8. Hydrocortisone modulates the expression of c-ets-1 and 72 kDa type IV collagenase in chicken dermis during early feather morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Turque, N; Buttice, G; Beuscart, A; Stehelin, D; Crepieux, P; Desbiens, X

    1997-02-01

    At the onset of chicken feather morphogenesis, dermal cells migrate along bundles of collagen fibers to colonize areas where bud outgrowth takes place. Chicken embryos treated with hydrocortisone during the critical phase of dermal rearrangement show featherless skin areas in which the dermis exhibits an increase of interstitial collagen. We had previously demonstrated that c-ets-1 is a nuclear transcription factor expressed in the dermis at the beginning of feather morphogenesis. Here we study, by in situ mRNA hybridization, the expression of c-ets-1 in the dermis of chicken embryos treated with hydrocortisone. We found that, among the two distinct products (p54 and p68) encoded by the chicken c-ets-1, the expression of the p68 product increased while expression of p54 decreased after hydrocortisone treatment. Since Ets-1 regulates matrix-metalloproteinases genes, we analyzed the expression of the 72 kDa type IV collagenase in both normal and hydrocortisone-treated embryos. We demonstrated that 72 kDa type IV collagenase mRNA expression decreased in the dermis after hydrocortisone treatment and that its expression correlated with that of p54c-ets-1. Taken together, these results indicate that hydrocortisone modulates c-ets-1 expression. In addition, they raise the interesting possibility that c-ets-1 might be involved in an altered pattern of feather development mediated by the accumulation of collagen due to a decrease in collagenase activities. PMID:9074942

  9. Tissue Localization of Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Receptor-27.8 kDa and Its Expression Kinetics Induced by the Viral Infection in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Wu, Ronghua; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The 27.8 kDa membrane protein expressed in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill cells was proved to be a receptor mediating lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection. In this study, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting demonstrated that 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) was shared by flounder and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and immunohistochemistry showed that 27.8R was widely expressed in tested tissues of healthy turbot. The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that 27.8R expression was relatively higher in stomach, gill, heart, and intestine, followed by skin, head kidney, spleen, blood cells, kidney and liver, and lower in ovary and brain in healthy turbot, and it was significantly up-regulated after LCDV infection. Meanwhile, real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that LCDV was detected in heart, peripheral blood cells, and head kidney at 3 h post infection (p.i.), and then in other tested tissues at 12 h p.i. LCDV copies increased in a time-dependent manner, and were generally higher in the tissues with higher 27.8R expression. Additionally, IIFA showed that 27.8R and LCDV were detected at 3 h p.i. in some leukocytes. These results suggested that 27.8R also served as a receptor in turbot, and LCDV can infect some leukocytes which might result in LCDV spreading to different tissues in turbot. PMID:26556346

  10. Rapid purification and direct microassay of calbindin9kDa utilizing its solubility in perchloric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, M J

    1993-01-01

    The 9 kDa calcium-binding protein, calbindin9kDa, was found to be soluble in 7% (v/v) perchloric acid. Calbindin9kDa was easily purified from rat duodenum in 1 day with perchloric acid precipitation followed by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. The yield was 21.4 +/- 2.3 nmol/g wet weight of tissue (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 3) from normally fed 7-8-week-old rats (approx. 70% recovery). The purification was also effective with rabbit duodenum calbindin9kDa, but not with various other EF-hand calcium-binding proteins tested in the rat. Several criteria (h.p.l.c., u.v. spectrum, denaturing two-dimensional PAGE, N-terminal sequencing) indicated that the rat calbindin9kDa was purified to homogeneity and was not affected by proteolysis. High-affinity calcium-binding properties were retained and no evidence of isoforms or charge modification was observed. Residue 59, identified as Asn (not Asp as previously reported), was fully amidated. When adopted as a microassay with isocratic h.p.l.c., the perchloric acid procedure enabled rapid (less than 6 min) and direct (peptide bond absorbance) quantification of less than 1 pmol of calbindin9kDa. This new approach to purification and assay will be of particular utility for investigations of calbindin9kDa in previously intractable low-abundance sources (e.g. cultured cells). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8392333

  11. Chromosomal assignment of the gene encoding the human 58-kDa inhibitor (PRKRI) of the interferon-induced dsRNA-activated protein kinase to chromosome 13q32

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, M.J.; Katze, M.G.; Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.

    1996-01-15

    The 58-kDa inhibitor (p58) of the interferon-induced dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a cellular protein recruited by the influenza virus to down-regulate the activity of PKR during virus infection. The inhibitor also appears to play a role in the regulation of cellular gene expression in the absence of viral infection and has oncogenic properties when overexpressed. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have mapped the p58 gene (PRKRI) to human chromosome 13 band q32. Aberrations in the structure or number of chromosome 13 have been identified in a variety of human cancers, particularly in acute leukemia. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Sensitivity of EIA in the diagnosis of tuberculosis using 38-kDa antigen.

    PubMed

    Chander, J; Subrahmanyan, S; Gupta, R

    1996-10-01

    Patients, who reported to Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh with suspected signs and symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, were examined. Their sputum was investigated for the presence of acid-fast bacilli, using the routine Ziehl-Neelsen staining, for 3 consecutive days. The positive cases were referred for treatment and the rest were referred for supplementary tests like x-ray, Mantoux test, FNAC and the presence of IgG antibodies in their serum against recombinant 38-kDa antigen derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using micro-ELISA plates. It was found that 37.8% of the cases who were negative for acid-fast bacilli found to be positive for the presence of antimycobacterial IgG antibodies with an antibody titre greater than the cut off value in addition to one of the above mentioned positive supplementary finding. Hence, EIA for tuberculosis is more sensitive as compared to the routine acid-fast bacilli staining. PMID:9141876

  13. A 138-kDa glycoprotein from Dictyostelium membranes with folate deaminase and folate binding activity.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R A; Jacobs-Krahnen, D; Mutzel, R; Malchow, D; Wurster, B

    1992-03-15

    A 138-kDa glycoprotein comprising folate deaminase activity was purified to apparent homogeneity from membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum. Deaminase activity could be effectively inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate. This treatment protected folate from deamination and thus allowed investigation of folate binding to deaminase fractions. Two types of folate binding sites, differing in affinity and specificity, were detected on the folate deaminase glycoprotein. One type displays high affinity and binds folate stronger than N10-methylfolate. This binding site appears to be identical with the catalytic site of folate deaminase. The other type of binding site shows lower affinity but prefers N10-methylfolate relative to folate. A similar preference for N10-methylfolate was observed in chemotaxis tests pointing to the possibility that the second type of binding site is involved in chemotactic perception of folate compounds. Folate perception and deamination could thus be performed by activities residing on the same polypeptide. PMID:1544893

  14. PSI-O, a new 10-kDa subunit of eukaryotic photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Knoetzel, Jürgen; Mant, Alexandra; Haldrup, Anna; Jensen, Poul Erik; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2002-01-16

    A novel polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 9 kDa was detected after sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Arabidopsis photosystem I (PSI) and was N-terminally sequenced. Corresponding cDNA clones encode a precursor protein of 140 amino acid residues which was imported into isolated intact chloroplasts and processed to the mature protein, designated PSI-O. The mature protein has two transmembrane helices and a calculated mass of 10104 Da. The PSI-O protein was also shown to be present in PSI isolated from barley and spinach, and was essentially absent in chloroplast grana. Expressed sequences encoding similar proteins are available from many species of plants and green algae. PMID:11801243

  15. Purification and characterization of a novel 88 kDa protein from serum and vitreous of patients with Eales' disease.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, K N; Rajesh, M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2001-10-01

    Eales' disease is a perivasculitis that affects the peripheral retina of young adults and results in recurrent vitreous hemorrhage. Although increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense have been reported to be associated with Eales' disease, the exact cause for the disease and its pathogenesis are not known. Here is reported the identification, purification and characterization of a new protein from the serum and vitreous of patients with Eales' disease. This protein was purified using preparative electrophoresis and HPLC. The purified protein had a retention time of 9.2 min in RP HPLC. Its molecular weight as determined by gel permeation chromatography was 88 kDa hence, it was termed as 88 kDa protein. Alcian blue and Schiffs staining revealed 88 kDa protein to be a glycoprotein. Proteins purified from both serum and vitreous exhibited anti lipid peroxidation effect on erythrocyte when added during in vitro assay of thiobarbuteric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In addition to this property the protein also has Fe(2+)sequestering effect. The anti TBARS activity of 88 kDa protein was completely inhibited by 0.1 m M concentration of parachlromercuric benzoate (PCMB) and 5,5' dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) DTNB. The total thiol content (cysteine) of the purified 88 kDa protein was found to be 8% by mass. Eighty eight kDa protein from both the sources namely vitreous and serum are immunologically identical when studied using polyclonal antibodies raised in goat against purified serum protein. The N terminal sequence of 88 kDa protein by automated Edman's degradation chemistry is A D D P N S L S P S A F A E A L A L L R D S X L A R F V. The protein and DNA data base search revealed no match to 88 kDa protein and hence this was considered as unique protein. Further knowledge on the in vivo function of 88 kDa protein is very important to understand its role in the pathogenesis of Eales' disease. PMID:11825025

  16. Circulating non-22 kDa growth hormone isoforms after a repeated GHRH stimulus in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Coya, R; Algorta, J; Boguszewski, C L; Vela, A; Carlsson, L M S; Aniel-Quiroga, A; Busturia, M A; Martul, P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of non-22 kDa GH isoforms in relation to total GH concentration after a repeated GHRH stimulus in healthy subjects. We studied 25 normal volunteers (12 males and 13 females, mean age 13.1 years, range 6-35), who received two GHRH bolus (1.5 mug/kg body weight, i.v.) administered separately by an interval of 120 minutes. The proportion of non-22 kDa GH was determined by the 22 kDa GH exclusion assay (GHEA), which is based on immunomagnetic extraction of monomeric and dimeric 22 kDa GH from serum, and quantitation of non-22 kDa GH isoforms using a polyclonal GH assay. Samples were collected at baseline and at 15-30 min intervals up to 240 min for total GH concentration. Non-22 kDa GH isoforms were measured in samples where peak GH after GHRH was observed. Total GH peaked after the first GHRH bolus in all subjects (median 37.2 ng/ml; range: 10.4-94.6). According to GH response to the second GHRH stimulus, the study group was divided in "non-responders" (n=7; 28%), with GH peak levels lower than 10 ng/ml (median GH: 8.7 ng/ml; range 7.3-9.6) and "responders" (n=18; 72%), who showed a GH response greater than 10 ng/ml (median 17 ng/ml; range 10.1-47.0). The median proportion of non-22 kDa GH on the peak of GH secretion after the first GHRH administration was similar in both groups ("responders" median: 8.6%, range 7-10.9%; "non-responders" median: 8.7%, range 6.7-10.3%), independently of the type of response after the second GHRH. In contrast, the median proportion of non-22 kDa GH was greater at time of GH peak after the second GHRH bolus in the "non-responders" (median 11.4%; range 9.1-14.3%) in comparison with the "responders" (median 9.1%; range 6.7-11.9%; p=0.003). A significant negative correlation between the total GH secreted and the percentage of non-22 kDa isoforms was seen in the "non-responders" (p=0.003). These differences in GH response to repeated GHRH stimulation and in the pattern of GH isoforms at GH

  17. Agarose and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Methods for Molecular Mass Analysis of 5–500 kDa Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Bhilocha, Shardul; Amin, Ripal; Pandya, Monika; Yuan, Han; Tank, Mihir; LoBello, Jaclyn; Shytuhina, Anastasia; Wang, Wenlan; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; de la Motte, Carol; Cowman, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis systems for the molecular mass-dependent separation of hyaluronan (HA) in the size range of approximately 5–500 kDa have been investigated. For agarose-based systems, the suitability of different agarose types, agarose concentrations, and buffers systems were determined. Using chemoenzymatically synthesized HA standards of low polydispersity, the molecular mass range was determined for each gel composition, over which the relationship between HA mobility and logarithm of the molecular mass was linear. Excellent linear calibration was obtained for HA molecular mass as low as approximately 9 kDa in agarose gels. For higher resolution separation, and for extension to molecular masses as low as approximately 5 kDa, gradient polyacrylamide gels were superior. Densitometric scanning of stained gels allowed analysis of the range of molecular masses present in a sample, and calculation of weight-average and number-average values. The methods were validated for polydisperse HA samples with viscosity-average molecular masses of 112, 59, 37, and 22 kDa, at sample loads of 0.5 µg (for polyacrylamide) to 2.5 µg (for agarose). Use of the methods for electrophoretic mobility shift assays was demonstrated for binding of the HA-binding region of aggrecan (recombinant human aggrecan G1-IGD-G2 domains) to a 150 kDa HA standard. PMID:21684248

  18. The first echinoderm poly-U-binding factor 60 kDa (PUF60) from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus): Molecular characterization, inducible expression and involvement of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Ting; Sun, Hongyan; Jiang, Xiao; Hu, Chaoqun; Qian, Jing; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-11-01

    Poly-U-binding factor 60 kDa (PUF60), also known as Ro RNA binding protein (RoBPI) and FBP interacting repressor (FIR), is a multifunctional protein that is involved in a variety of nuclear processes including pre-mRNA splicing, apoptosis and transcription regulation. In this study, the first echinoderm PUF60 named StmPUF60 was identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus). The StmPUF60 cDNA is 4503 bp in length, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 34 bp, a 3'-UTR of 2963 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1506 bp that encoding a protein of 501 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 54.15 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.15. The putative StmPUF60 protein possesses all the main characteristics of known PUF60 proteins, including two RNA recognition motifs (RRM1 and RRM2), a C-terminal PUMP domain and two conserved nucleic acid-binding ribonucleoprotein sequences (RNP1 and RNP2). For the gene structure, StmPUF60 contains nine exons separated by eight introns. In addition, the highest level of StmPUF60 mRNA expression was noticed in the gonad, followed by coelomocytes, intestine, respiratory tree and body wall. In in vivo experiments, the expression of StmPUF60 mRNA in coelomocytes and intestine was significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge, suggesting that the sea cucumber PUF60 might play critical roles in the innate immune defense against bacterial infections. Moreover, we further confirmed that overexpressed StmPUF60 could induce apoptosis, and this function of StmPUF60 may be one of the innate immune defense mechanisms for sea cucumber against pathogen infections. PMID:26362209

  19. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2012-10-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases. PMID:22960171

  20. Expression, purification, and characterization of a bifunctional 99-kDa peptidoglycan hydrolase from Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042.

    PubMed

    García-Cano, Israel; Campos-Gómez, Manuel; Contreras-Cruz, Mariana; Serrano-Maldonado, Carlos Eduardo; González-Canto, Augusto; Peña-Montes, Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Sánchez, Sergio; Farrés, Amelia

    2015-10-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042 is a lactic acid bacteria that inhibits pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus through the production of two proteins with lytic activity, one of 110 kDa and the other of 99 kDa. The 99-kDa one has high homology to a putative peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) enzyme reported in the genome of P. acidilactici 7_4, where two different lytic domains have been identified but not characterized. The aim of this work was the biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme of 99 kDa. The enzyme was cloned and expressed successfully and retains its activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. It has a higher N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, but the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase can also be detected spectrophotometrically. The protein was then purified using gel filtration chromatography. Antibacterial activity showed an optimal pH of 6.0 and was stable between 5.0 and 7.0. The optimal temperature for activity was 60 °C, and all activity was lost after 1 h of incubation at 70 °C. The number of strains susceptible to the recombinant 99-kDa enzyme was lower than that susceptible to the mixture of the 110- and 99-kDa PGHs of P. acidilactici, a result that suggests synergy between these two enzymes. This is the first PGH from LAB that has been shown to possess two lytic sites. The results of this study will aid in the design of new antibacterial agents from natural origin that can combat foodborne disease and improve hygienic practices in the industrial sector. PMID:25940238

  1. Purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of 26kDa protein, a major allergen from Cicer arietinum.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Kriti; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2016-06-01

    Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE). Purification of CP 26kDa protein was done using a combination of fractionation and anion exchange chromatography. This protein was further characterized as "Chain A, crystal structure of a plant albumin" from Cicer arietinum with Mol wt 25.8kDa by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Further, allergenic potential of purified 25.8kDa protein was assessed using in vivo and in vitro model. Purified protein showed IgE-binding capacity with sensitized BALB/c mice and CP allergic patient's sera. Enhanced levels of specific and total IgE, MCP-1, MCPT-1, myeloperoxidase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and cysteinyl leukotriene were found in sera of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. Further, expressions of Th2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), transcription factors (i.e. GATA-3, STAT-6, SOCS-3) and mast cell signaling proteins (Lyn, cFgr, Syk, PLC-γ2, PI-3K, PKC) were also found increased at mRNA and protein levels in the intestines of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. In addition, enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene and prostaglandin D2 were observed in RBL2H3 cell line when treated (125μg) with CP 26kDa protein. Conclusively, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed the allergenic potential of purified CP 26kDa protein. Being a potential allergen, plant albumin may play a pivotal role in CP induced allergenicity. Current study will be helpful for better development of therapeutic approaches to

  2. Dynamics of re-constitution of the human nuclear proteome after cell division is regulated by NLS-adjacent phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Róna, Gergely; Borsos, Máté; Ellis, Jonathan J; Mehdi, Ahmed M; Christie, Mary; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Neubrandt, Máté; Tóth, Judit; Bozóky, Zoltán; Buday, László; Madarász, Emília; Bodén, Mikael; Kobe, Bostjan; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) adjacent to nuclear localization signals (NLSs) is an important mechanism of regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport. However, no systematic survey has yet been performed in human cells to analyze this regulatory process, and the corresponding cell-cycle dynamics have not yet been investigated. Here, we focused on the human proteome and found that numerous proteins, previously not identified in this context, are associated with Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation sites adjacent to their NLSs. Interestingly, these proteins are involved in key regulatory events of DNA repair, epigenetics, or RNA editing and splicing. This finding indicates that cell-cycle dependent events of genome editing and gene expression profiling may be controlled by nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. For in-depth investigations, we selected a number of these proteins and analyzed how point mutations, expected to modify the phosphorylation ability of the NLS segments, perturb nucleocytoplasmic localization. In each case, we found that mutations mimicking hyper-phosphorylation abolish nuclear import processes. To understand the mechanism underlying these phenomena, we performed a video microscopy-based kinetic analysis to obtain information on cell-cycle dynamics on a model protein, dUTPase. We show that the NLS-adjacent phosphorylation by Cdk1 of human dUTPase, an enzyme essential for genomic integrity, results in dynamic cell cycle-dependent distribution of the protein. Non-phosphorylatable mutants have drastically altered protein re-import characteristics into the nucleus during the G1 phase. Our results suggest a dynamic Cdk1-driven mechanism of regulation of the nuclear proteome composition during the cell cycle. PMID:25483092

  3. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a member of genus begomoviridae and its genome comprises of bipartite (two components, namely DNA-A and DNA-B), single-stranded, circular DNA of about 2.7 kb. During rolling circle replication (RCR) of the DNA, the stability of the genome and maintenance of the stem-loop structure of the replication origin is crucial. Hence the role of host single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), in the RCR of MYMIV was examined. Two RPA subunits, namely the RPA70 kDa and RPA32 kDa, were isolated from pea and their roles were validated in a yeast system in which MYMIV DNA replication has been modelled. Here, we present evidences that only the RPA32 kDa subunit directly interacted with the carboxy terminus of MYMIV-Rep both in vitro as well as in yeast two-hybrid system. RPA32 modulated the functions of Rep by enhancing its ATPase and down regulating its nicking and closing activities. The possible role of these modulations in the context of viral DNA replication has been discussed. Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay. PMID:17182628

  4. An early function of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein is required for the nuclear relocalization of the cellular p53 protein in adenovirus-infected normal human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, F.M.; Kato, Sayuri E.M.; Huang Wenying; Flint, S. Jane; Gonzalez, Ramon A.

    2008-09-01

    It is well established that the human subgroup C adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55 kDa protein can regulate the activity and concentration of the cellular tumor suppressor, p53. However, the contribution(s) of these functions of the E1B protein to viral reproduction remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we examined properties of p53 in normal human cells infected by E1B mutant viruses that display defective entry into the late phase or viral late mRNA export. The steady-state concentrations of p53 were significantly higher in cells infected by the E1B 55 kDa null mutant Hr6 or three mutants carrying small insertions in the E1B 55 kDa protein coding sequence than in Ad5-infected cells. Nevertheless, none of the mutants induced apoptosis in infected cells. Rather, the localization of p53 to E1B containing nuclear sites observed during infection by Ad5 was prevented by mutations that impair interaction of the E1B protein with p53 and/or with the E4 Orf6 protein. These results indicate that the E1B protein fulfills an early function that correlates efficient entry into the late phase with the localization of E1B and p53 in the nucleus of Ad5-infected normal human cells.

  5. Sequence and expression of an Eisenia-fetida-derived cDNA clone that encodes the 40-kDa fetidin antibacterial protein.

    PubMed

    Lassegues, M; Milochau, A; Doignon, F; Du Pasquier, L; Valembois, P

    1997-06-15

    Fetidins are 40-kDa and 45-kDa hemolytic and antibacterial glycoproteins present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei. By screening a cDNA library with a polyclonal antifetidin serum, we have cloned a cDNA that encoded the 40-kDa fetidin. The clone contains an insert of 1.44 kb encoding a protein of 34 kDa, which corresponds to the size of deglycosylated fetidins. The recombinant protein inhibits Bacillus megaterium growth. Restriction fragment polymorphisms were observed on Southern blots and correspond to a known protein polymorphism. The sequence of the cDNA contains a peroxidase signature and fetidins from earthworm coelomic fluid have peroxidase activity. The 40-kDa and 45-kDa fetidins therefore represent two related polymorphic defence factors in invertebrates. PMID:9219536

  6. Detrimental Effect of Fungal 60-kDa Heat Shock Protein on Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; Oliveira, Leandro Licursi de; Landgraf, Taise Natali; Peron, Gabriela; Costa, Marcelo Vieira; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete A M; Bonato, Vânia L D; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson

    2016-01-01

    The genus Paracoccidioides comprises species of dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. Here, we investigated whether administration of native 60-kDa heat shock protein of P. brasiliensis (nPbHsp60) or its recombinant counterpart (rPbHsp60) affected the course of experimental PCM. Mice were subcutaneously injected with nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 emulsified in complete's Freund Adjuvant (CFA) at three weeks after intravenous injection of P. brasiliensis yeasts. Infected control mice were injected with CFA or isotonic saline solution alone. Thirty days after the nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 administration, mice showed remarkably increased fungal load, tissue inflammation, and granulomas in the lungs, liver, and spleen compared with control mice. Further, rPbHsp60 treatment (i) decreased the known protective effect of CFA against PCM and (ii) increased the concentrations of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in the lungs. Together, our results indicated that PbHsp60 induced a harmful immune response, exacerbated inflammation, and promoted fungal dissemination. Therefore, we propose that PbHsp60 contributes to the fungal pathogenesis. PMID:27598463

  7. A 32 kDa surface antigen of Theileria parva: characterization and immunization studies.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R A; Musoke, A J; Wells, C W; Yagi, Y; Nene, V; Spooner, P R; Gachanja, J; Osaso, J; Bishop, R P; Morzaria, S P

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies using monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4C9 specific for a 32 kDa antigen (p32) of Theileria parva demonstrated expression of the antigen on the surface of the sporozoite, making it a potential antigen for sporozoite neutralization. A full-length cDNA encoding the major merozoite/piroplasm surface antigen (mMPSA) of T. parva was cloned and expressed in bacteria. The expressed product reacted strongly with mAb 4C9, demonstrating identity between the p32 and mMPSA of T. parva. Using immunoblot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy with mAb 4C9 it was shown that the mMPSA is a major antigen of the merozoite and piroplasm at the cell surface, while lower levels of antigen are expressed in the sporozoite and schizont stages. Upregulation of the mMPSA occurs at merogony and can be induced by culturing schizont-infected lymphocytes at 42 degrees C. Recombinant mMPSA of T. parva induced high titres of specific antibodies in cattle but failed to confer protection against a T. parva sporozoite stabilate challenge. The pre-challenge sera also failed to neutralize infectivity of sporozoites in an in vitro assay. Possible reasons for the lack of parasite neutralization in vivo and in vitro are discussed. PMID:10874718

  8. Distribution of 28 kDa Calbindin-Immunopositive Neurons in the Cat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Merkulyeva, Natalia; Veshchitskii, Aleksandr; Makarov, Felix; Gerasimenko, Yury; Musienko, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein (28 kDa calbindin) was investigated in cat lumbar and sacral spinal cord segments (L1-S3). We observed specific multi-dimensional distributions over the spinal segments for small immunopositive cells in Rexed laminae II-III and medium-to-large cells of varying morphology in lamina I and laminae V-VIII. The small neurons in laminae II-III were clustered into the columns along the dorsal horn curvature. The medium-to-large cells were grouped into four assemblages that were located in (1) the most lateral region of lamina VII at the L1-L4 level; (2) the laminae IV-V boundary at the L5-L7 level; (3) the lamina VII dorsal border at the L5-L7 level; and (4) the lamina VIII at the L5-S3 level. The data obtained suggest that the morphological and physiological heterogeneity of calbindin immunolabeling cells formed morpho-functional clusters over the gray matter. A significant portion of the lumbosacral enlargement had immunopositive neurons within all Rexed laminae, suggesting an important functional role within and among the spinal networks that control hindlimb movements. PMID:26858610

  9. Purification and biochemical characterization of a 17 kDa fibrinolytic enzyme from Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Park, In Suk; Park, Jeong Uck; Seo, Min Jeong; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Hye Hyeon; Kim, Sung Ryeal; Kang, Byoung Won; Choi, Yung Hyun; Joo, Woo Hong; Jeong, Yong Kee

    2010-12-01

    A fibrinolytic enzyme of the mushroom, Schizophyllum commune was purified with chromatographic methods, including a DEAE-Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange column and gel filtrations with Sephadex G-75 and Sephadex G-50 columns. The analysis of fibrin-zymography and SDS-PAGE showed that the enzyme was a monomeric subunit that was estimated to be approximately 17 kDa in size. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme in plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin plates was 1.25 and 0.44 U/ml, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was identified as HYNIXNSWSSFID, which was highly distinguished from known fibrinolytic enzymes. The relative activity of the purified enzyme with an addition of 5 mM EDTA, Phosphoramidon, and Bestatin was about 76, 64, and 52%, respectively, indicating that it is a metalloprotease. The optimum temperature for the purified enzyme was approximately 45°C, and over 87% of the enzymatic activity was maintained as a stable state in a pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. Therefore, our results suggest that the potential thrombolytic agent from S. commune is a unique type of fibrinolytic enzyme. PMID:21221943

  10. Translocator Protein 18kDA (TSPO): Molecular Sensor of Brain Injury & Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Kai; Guilarte, Tomás R.

    2008-01-01

    For over 15 years, the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), recently named translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) has been studied as a biomarker of reactive gliosis and inflammation associated with a variety of neuropathological conditions. Early studies documented that in the brain parenchyma, TSPO is exclusively localized in glial cells. Under normal physiological conditions, TSPO levels are low in the brain neuropil but they markedly increase at sites of brain injury and inflammation making it uniquely suited for assessing active gliosis. This research has generated significant efforts from multiple research groups throughout the world to apply TSPO as a marker of “active” brain pathology using in vivo imaging modalities such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in experimental animals and humans. Further, in the last few years, there has been an increased interest in understanding the molecular and cellular function(s) of TSPO in glial cells. The latest evidence suggests that TSPO may not only serve as a biomarker of active brain disease but also the use of TSPO-specific ligands may have therapeutic implications in brain injury and repair. This review presents an overview of the history and function of TSPO focusing on studies related to its use as a sensor of active brain disease in experimental animals and in human studies. PMID:18374421

  11. NMR characterization of a 72 kDa transcription factor using differential isotopic labeling.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sulakshana P; Borin, Brendan; Quintas, Pedro O; Dyson, H Jane

    2016-03-01

    NF-κB is a major transcription factor that mediates a number of cellular signaling pathways. Crystal structure analysis gives an incomplete picture of the behavior of the protein, particularly in the free state; free monomers or dimers of NF-κB have never been crystallized. NMR analysis gives insights into the structure and dynamics of the protein in solution, but a necessary first step is the assignment of resonances. The size of the heterodimer of the Rel homology regions of the NF-κB monomers p65 and p50 (72 kDa) prohibits the straightforward use of triple-resonance spectroscopy to obtain the assignments. However, the dynamic nature of the free heterodimer, in particular the independence of the DNA-binding and dimerization domains of each monomer, allows the assignments made on differentially labeled smaller domains to be mapped successfully onto the spectrum of the larger full-length RHR. Problematic areas such as the p65 nuclear localization sequence, which is disordered in the free protein, can be approached by residue-specific labeling and comparison with previously-published spectra of a short peptide with the same sequence. Overall, this NMR analysis of NF-κB has given valuable insights into the highly dynamic nature of the free state, which is likely to play an important role in the functional cycle of NF-κB in the cell. PMID:26647230

  12. Chimeric Avidin – NMR Structure and Dynamics of a 56 kDa Homotetrameric Thermostable Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tossavainen, Helena; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Määttä, Juha A. E.; Kähkönen, Niklas; Pihlajamaa, Tero; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Kulomaa, Markku S.; Permi, Perttu

    2014-01-01

    Chimeric avidin (ChiAVD) is a product of rational protein engineering remarkably resistant to heat and harsh conditions. In quest of the fundamentals behind factors affecting stability we have elucidated the solution NMR spectroscopic structure of the biotin–bound form of ChiAVD and characterized the protein dynamics through 15N relaxation and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of this and the biotin–free form. To surmount the challenges arising from the very large size of the protein for NMR spectroscopy, we took advantage of its high thermostability. Conventional triple resonance experiments for fully protonated proteins combined with methyl–detection optimized experiments acquired at 58°C were adequate for the structure determination of this 56 kDa protein. The model–free parameters derived from the 15N relaxation data reveal a remarkably rigid protein at 58°C in both the biotin–bound and the free forms. The H/D exchange experiments indicate a notable increase in hydrogen protection upon biotin binding. PMID:24959850

  13. The calmodulin-binding domain of the mouse 90-kDa heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Minami, Y; Kawasaki, H; Suzuki, K; Yahara, I

    1993-05-01

    The mouse 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) and Ca(2+)-calmodulin were cross-linked at an equimolar ratio using a carbodiimide zero-length cross-linker. To identify the calmodulin-binding domain(s) of HSP90, CNBr-cleaved peptide fragments of HSP90 were mixed with Ca(2+)-calmodulin and cross-linked. Amino acid sequence determination revealed that an HSP90 alpha-derived peptide starting at the 486th amino acid residue was contained in the cross-linked products, which contains a calmodulin-binding motif (from Lys500 to Ile520). A similar motif is present also in HSP90 beta (from Lys491 to Val511). The synthetic peptides corresponding to these putative calmodulin-binding sequences were found to be cross-linked with Ca(2+)-calmodulin and to prevent the cross-linking of HSP90 and Ca(2+)-calmodulin. Both HSP90 alpha and HSP90 beta bind Ca2+. The HSP90 peptides bind HSP90 and thereby inhibit the binding of Ca2+. In addition, the HSP90 peptides augment the self-oligomerization of HSP90 induced at elevated temperatures. These results suggest that the calmodulin-binding domain of HSP90 might interact with another part of the same molecule and that Ca(2+)-calmodulin might modulate the structure and function of HSP90 through abolishing the intramolecular interaction. PMID:8486648

  14. Translocator protein (18 kDa) TSPO: an emerging therapeutic target in neurotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Lecanu, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces physical, cognitive, and psychosocial deficits that affect millions of patients. TBI activates numerous cellular mechanisms and molecular cascades that produce detrimental outcomes, including neuronal death and loss of function. The mitochondrion is one of the major targets of TBI, as seen by increased mitochondrial activity in activated and proliferating microglia (due to high energy requirements and/or calcium overload) as well as increased reactive oxygen species, changes in mitochondrial permeability transition, release of cytochrome c, caspase activation, reduced ATP levels, and cell death in neurons. Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18-kDa outer mitochondrial membrane protein that interacts with the mitochondria permeability transition pore and binds with high affinity to cholesterol and various classes of drug ligands, including some benzodiazepines such as 4′-chlorodiazepam (Ro5-4864). Although TSPO levels in the brain are low, they are increased after brain injury and inflammation. This finding has led to the proposed use of TSPO expression as a marker of brain injury and repair. TSPO drug ligands have been shown to participate in the control of mitochondrial respiration and function, mitochondrial steroid and neurosteroid formation, as well as apoptosis. This review and commentary will outline our current knowledge of the benefits of targeting TSPO for TBI treatment and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of TSPO drug ligands in neurotrauma. PMID:19409385

  15. Mechanism of cholera toxin activation by a guanine nucleotide-dependent 19 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1990-05-16

    Cholera toxin causes the devastating diarrheal syndrome characteristic of cholera by catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, a GTP-binding regulatory protein, resulting in activation of adenylyl cyclase. ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha is enhanced by 19 kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. We investigated the effects of agents known to alter toxin-catalyzed activation of adenylyl cyclase on the stimulation of toxin- and toxin subunit-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha and other substrates by an ADP-ribosylation factor purified from a soluble fraction of bovine brain (sARF II). In the presence of GTP, sARF II enhanced activity of both the toxin catalytic unit and a reduced and alkylated fragment ('A1'), as a result of an increase in substrate affinity with no significant effects on Vmax. Activation of toxin was independent of Gs alpha and was stimulated 4-fold by sodium dodecyl sulfate, but abolished by Triton X-100. sARF II therefore serves as a direct allosteric activator of the A1 protein and may thus amplify the pathological effects of cholera toxin. PMID:2112955

  16. Renal Deletion of 12 kDa FK506-Binding Protein Attenuates Tacrolimus-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lazelle, Rebecca A; McCully, Belinda H; Terker, Andrew S; Himmerkus, Nina; Blankenstein, Katharina I; Mutig, Kerim; Bleich, Markus; Bachmann, Sebastian; Yang, Chao-Ling; Ellison, David H

    2016-05-01

    Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug that inhibits the phosphatase calcineurin when bound to the 12 kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12). When this binding occurs in T cells, it leads to immunosuppression. Tacrolimus also causes side effects, however, such as hypertension and hyperkalemia. Previously, we reported that tacrolimus stimulates the renal thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), which is necessary for the development of hypertension. However, it was unclear if tacrolimus-induced hypertension resulted from tacrolimus effects in renal epithelial cells directly or in extrarenal tissues, and whether inhibition of calcineurin was required. To address these questions, we developed a mouse model in which FKBP12 could be deleted along the nephron. FKBP12 disruption alone did not cause phenotypic effects. When treated with tacrolimus, however, BP and the renal abundance of phosphorylated NCC were lower in mice lacking FKBP12 along the nephron than in control mice. Mice lacking FKBP12 along the nephron also maintained a normal relationship between plasma potassium levels and the abundance of phosphorylated NCC with tacrolimus treatment. In cultured cells, tacrolimus inhibited dephosphorylation of NCC. Together, these results suggest that tacrolimus causes hypertension predominantly by inhibiting calcineurin directly in cells expressing NCC, indicating thiazide diuretics may be particularly effective for lowering BP in tacrolimus-treated patients with hypertension. PMID:26432904

  17. THE MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUPSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS 35 KDA PROTEIN PLAYS A ROLE IN INVASION OF BOVINE EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) enters intestinal epithelial cells of cattle and other ruminants via a mechanism that remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we observed that a gene encoding the M. paratuberculosis 35-kDa major membrane protein (MMP) is ...

  18. The "tobacco mosaic virus" 126-kDa protein associated with virus replication and movement suppresses RNA silencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic symptoms induced on "Nicotiana tabacum" cv. Xanthi by "Tobacco mosaic virus" (TMV) are modulated by one or both amino-coterminal viral 126- and 183-kDa proteins, proteins involved in virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. Here we compare the systemic accumulation and gene silencing c...

  19. Allergenic Characterization of 27-kDa Glycoprotein, a Novel Heat Stable Allergen, from the Pupa of Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mina; Lee, June Yong

    2016-01-01

    Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm. PMID:26770033

  20. Allergenic Characterization of 27-kDa Glycoprotein, a Novel Heat Stable Allergen, from the Pupa of Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, June Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm. PMID:26770033

  1. An 11-kDa form of human immunodeficiency virus protease expressed in Escherichia coli is sufficient for enzymatic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, M C; Lim, J J; Heimer, E P; Kramer, R A

    1988-01-01

    In order to define the protease domain of human immunodeficiency virus 1, various regions of the pol open reading frame were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Antiserum directed against the conserved retroviral protease active site was used to identify pol precursor and processed species containing the presumed protease domain. The smallest product that accumulates is about 11 kDa as measured by NaDodSO4/PAGE. This size agrees with that predicted from the presence in this region of two Phe-Pro sequences, which is one of the cleavage sites recognized by HIV protease. DNA encoding only the predicted 11-kDa protein was cloned, bypassing the need for autoprocessing, and the protein was expressed to a high level in E. coli. This form is active as demonstrated by its ability to specifically cleave protease-deficient pol protein in vivo in E. coli. Extracts of E. coli containing the 11-kDa protease also process human immunodeficiency virus gag substrates in vitro. These results demonstrate that the 11-kDa protease is sufficient for enzymatic activity and are consistent with a major role for this form in virus maturation. Images PMID:3282230

  2. Human transcription factor IIIC contains a polypeptide of 55 kDa specifically binding to Pol III genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H R; Waldschmidt, R; Seifart, K H

    1990-01-01

    Human transcription factor IIIC contains a 55 kDa polypeptide which specifically interacts with the Adenovirus 2 VAI gene promoter and which mimics most of the DNA binding properties of the entire factor. The specificity and affinity of this protein:DNA interaction was demonstrated by: (i) Separation of purified fractions of hTFIIIC by SDS PAGE, electrotransfer to nitrocellulose, renaturation of proteins and their subsequent binding to the VAI gene, (ii) recovery and renaturation of proteins from SDS gels and identification of a fraction of hTFIIIC with a molecular mass less than 68 kDa, which specifically binds to VAI DNA, (iii) correlating the differential binding activity of the renatured 55 kDa component of hTFIIIC to mutated Pol III promoters with the ability of the entire factor to form functional transcription complexes thereon, and finally by (iv) specific crosslinking of the 55 kDa DNA binding component of hTFIIIC to the photoaffinity labeled B-box promoter sequence of the VAI gene. Images PMID:2395640

  3. Schistosoma mansoni: anomalous immunogenic properties of a 27 kDa larval serine protease associated with protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Darani, H Y; Curtis, R H; McNeice, C; Price, H P; Sayers, J R; Doenhoff, M J

    1997-09-01

    A cationic Schistosoma mansoni cercarial antigen was shown to be a serine protease as it was capable of hydrolysing N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester (NAPBNE) after precipitation by immunoelectrophoresis, and this reaction was modulated by the serine protease inhibitors phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DEP). The antigen in the immunoprecipitin arcs could also be radio-isotope labelled with tritiated DFP. The peptidolytic enzyme identified in immunoelectrophoresis with polyspecific sera and radio-isotope labelled with tritiated DFP had a relative molecular size of approximately 27 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and evidence obtained after partial purification, SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting supported this size estimate for the enzyme. A rabbit antiserum raised against the peptidolytic antigen reacted against a doublet of antigens at 27/28 kDa in immunoelectrophoresis arcs and against an antigen of 60 kDa in Western immunoblots of crude cercarial homogenate. However, the latter serum precipitated the cationic antigen in immunoelectrophoresed cercarial homogenates only after pre-incubation of the homogenates with PMSF. Fractions containing the partially purified protease also degraded radio-isotope labelled human IgG. The reactivity of a range of polyspecific and monospecific rabbit antisera in Western blots with larval extracts indicated that antibody responses against the 27/28 kDa doublet may be modulated. When immunized with material which contained the 27 kDa enzyme as a major constituent, and which was secreted by S. mansoni cercariae during transformation, only 5 of 16 mice produced antibody to this antigen that was detectable in Western blots. The 5 antibody 'responder' mice were significantly (P < 0.001) protected against challenge with a percutaneous infection of S. mansoni cercariae compared with a group of a mice also immunized with CTF, but which had not produced

  4. Gene duplication confers enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein for endosperm modification in quality protein maize.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Chuanlong; Gong, Hao; Fan, Xingming; Qiu, Fazhan; Huang, Xuehui; Feng, Qi; Zheng, Xixi; Yuan, Ningning; Li, Changsheng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Deng, Yiting; Wang, Jiechen; Pan, Guangtang; Han, Bin; Lai, Jinsheng; Wu, Yongrui

    2016-05-01

    The maize opaque2 (o2) mutant has a high nutritional value but it develops a chalky endosperm that limits its practical use. Genetic selection for o2 modifiers can convert the normally chalky endosperm of the mutant into a hard, vitreous phenotype, yielding what is known as quality protein maize (QPM). Previous studies have shown that enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein in QPM is essential for endosperm modification. Taking advantage of genome-wide association study analysis of a natural population, linkage mapping analysis of a recombinant inbred line population, and map-based cloning, we identified a quantitative trait locus (qγ27) affecting expression of 27-kDa γ-zein. qγ27 was mapped to the same region as the major o2 modifier (o2 modifier1) on chromosome 7 near the 27-kDa γ-zein locus. qγ27 resulted from a 15.26-kb duplication at the 27-kDa γ-zein locus, which increases the level of gene expression. This duplication occurred before maize domestication; however, the gene structure of qγ27 appears to be unstable and the DNA rearrangement frequently occurs at this locus. Because enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein is critical for endosperm modification in QPM, qγ27 is expected to be under artificial selection. This discovery provides a useful molecular marker that can be used to accelerate QPM breeding. PMID:27092004

  5. Gene duplication confers enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein for endosperm modification in quality protein maize

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Chuanlong; Gong, Hao; Fan, Xingming; Qiu, Fazhan; Huang, Xuehui; Feng, Qi; Zheng, Xixi; Yuan, Ningning; Li, Changsheng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Deng, Yiting; Wang, Jiechen; Pan, Guangtang; Han, Bin; Lai, Jinsheng; Wu, Yongrui

    2016-01-01

    The maize opaque2 (o2) mutant has a high nutritional value but it develops a chalky endosperm that limits its practical use. Genetic selection for o2 modifiers can convert the normally chalky endosperm of the mutant into a hard, vitreous phenotype, yielding what is known as quality protein maize (QPM). Previous studies have shown that enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein in QPM is essential for endosperm modification. Taking advantage of genome-wide association study analysis of a natural population, linkage mapping analysis of a recombinant inbred line population, and map-based cloning, we identified a quantitative trait locus (qγ27) affecting expression of 27-kDa γ-zein. qγ27 was mapped to the same region as the major o2 modifier (o2 modifier1) on chromosome 7 near the 27-kDa γ-zein locus. qγ27 resulted from a 15.26-kb duplication at the 27-kDa γ-zein locus, which increases the level of gene expression. This duplication occurred before maize domestication; however, the gene structure of qγ27 appears to be unstable and the DNA rearrangement frequently occurs at this locus. Because enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein is critical for endosperm modification in QPM, qγ27 is expected to be under artificial selection. This discovery provides a useful molecular marker that can be used to accelerate QPM breeding. PMID:27092004

  6. The Use of Recombinant 31 kDa Antigens of Trichinella spiralis for Serodiagnosis of Experimental Trichinellosis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Li; TIAN, Xiang Yu; SUN, Ge Ge; LIU, Ruo Dan; LIU, Li Na; ZHANG, Xi; JIANG, Peng; WANG, Zhong Quan; CUI, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously reported that a 31 kDa protein was screened from the excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Tichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) by immunoproteomics using early infection sera, and the gene encoding a 31 kDa protein from T. spiralis was cloned and expressed in an E. coli expression system. In this study, the recombinant 31 kDa antigens were used for detection of anti-Trichinella antibodies in serum of experimentally infected mice by ELISA. Methods: Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in sera of mice infected with Trichinella were assayed by ELISA with recombinant 31 kDa antigens, and its sensitivity and specificity were compared with ELISA with ES antigen. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with recombinant antigens was 96.67% (29/30) and 96.87% (62/64), compared with 100% (30/30) and 98.44% (63/64) of ELISA with ES antigens was (P>0.05). In heavily, moderately and lightly infected mice (500, 300 and 100 larvae/mouse), anti-Trichinella antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with recombinant antigens at 8, 12 and 14 dpi, respectively; then increased rapidly with a detection rate of 100% respectively at 28, 22 and 30 dpi. While the antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with ES antigens at 10, 8 and 10 dpi, respectively, the antibody positive rate reached 100% at 14, 12 and 22 dpi, respectively. Conclusion: The recombinant 31 kDa antigens of T. spirali had a good sensitivity and specificity for detecting anti-Trichinella antibodies and might be the potential diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis. PMID:26246820

  7. Purification and characteristics of a 30 kDa Cd-binding protein from rat testis cytosol

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation was to purify the 30 kDa Cd-binding protein from rat testis cytosol (Cd-testin) in a form retaining 1 or more moles of Cd per mole of protein, following the addition of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ to cytosol in amounts just sufficient to saturate the 30 kDa peak. Two successful procedures were developed based on (1) ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration; or (2) heat treatment (90/sup 0/C, 5 min) and gel filtration. Application of Method 1 to cytosol labeled with /sup 65/ZnCL/sub 2/ showed that Zn formed a complex analogous to Cd-testin. The Cd content (moles/mole protein) in two preparations of 30 kDa protein was 2.1 to 2.6 (Method 1); Method 2 gave more variable results (1.1 to 3.4). In neither case was a 30 kDa polypeptide detected by 20 SDS PAGE, but a major subunit (22 kDa/pl 4.6) was observed in both preparations, along with smaller subunits. Method 1 gave higher purity (3 spots) but lower yield (about 4% of cytosolic 30 kDa Cd) whereas Method 2 gave a much higher yield (about 45%) but somewhat lower purity based on 2D SDS PAGE. On the basis of these results, Cd-testin consists of subunits rather than a single polypeptide chain. It is concluded that rat testis contains novel proteins binding Cd or Zn, and can be isolated in forms that retain a high Cd content. The manner in which the Cd is bound, and the subunits involved, have not been determined.

  8. Regulation and deregulation of mRNA translation during myeloid maturation.

    PubMed

    Khanna-Gupta, Arati

    2011-02-01

    Gene expression in the eukaryotic cell is regulated at a number of levels, including transcription of genomic DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA), nucleocytoplasmic export of mRNA, and translation of the exported mRNA into proteins in the cytoplasm by ribosomes. The role played by epigenetics and transcription factors associated with the control of gene expression in the developing neutrophil has been well documented and appreciated over the years. A wealth of information on the role played by transcription factors in myeloid biology has contributed to our understanding of both normal and abnormal neutrophil development. However, regulation of mRNA translation in myeloid cell maturation is much less well-studied. A better understanding of the translational control of myeloid gene expression may provide important insights into both normal and abnormal myeloid maturation. This review summarizes our current understanding of the regulation of myeloid gene expression at the mRNA translational level. PMID:21093533

  9. Partially Protective Immunity Induced by a 20 kDa Protein Secreted by Trichinella spiralis Stichocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Gu, Yuan; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis infection induces protective immunity against re-infection in animal models. Identification of the antigens eliciting acquired immunity during infection is important for vaccine development against Trichinella infection and immunodiagnosis. Methods and Findings The T. spiralis adult cDNA library was immunoscreened with sera from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 infective T. spiralis larvae. Total 43 positive clones encoding for 28 proteins were identified; one of the immunodominant proteins was 20 kDa Ts-ES-1 secreted by Trichinella stichocytes and existing in the excretory/secretory (ES) products of T. spiralis adult and muscle larval worms. Ts-ES-1 contains 172 amino acids with a typical signal peptide in the first 20 amino acids. The expression of Ts-ES-1 was detected in both the adult and muscle larval stages at the mRNA and protein expression levels. Mice immunized with recombinant Ts-ES-1 (rTs-ES-1) formulated with ISA50v2 adjuvant exhibited a significant worm reduction in both the adult worm (27%) and muscle larvae burden (42.1%) after a challenge with T. spiralis compared to the adjuvant control group (p<0.01). The rTs-ES-1-induced protection was associated with a high level of specific anti-Ts-ES-1 IgG antibodies and a Th1/Th2 mixed immune response. Conclusion The newly identified rTs-ES-1 is an immunodominant protein secreted by Trichinella stichocytes during natural infection and enables to the induction of partial protective immunity in vaccinated mice against Trichinella infection. Therefore, rTs-ES-1 is a potential candidate for vaccine development against trichinellosis. PMID:26288365

  10. Variation of expression defects in cell surface 190-kDa protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; Nomura, Ryota; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcus mutans, which consists of four serotypes, c, e, f, and k, possesses a 190-kDa cell surface protein antigen (PA) for initial tooth adhesion. We used Western blot analysis to determine PA expression in 750 S. mutans isolates from 150 subjects and found a significantly higher prevalence of the isolates with PA expression defects in serotypes f and k compared to serotypes c and e. Moreover, the defect patterns could be classified into three types; no PA expression on whole bacterial cells and in their supernatant samples (Type N1), PA expression mainly seen in supernatant samples (Type N2), and only low expression of PA in the samples of whole bacterial cells (Type W). The underlying reasons for the defects were mutations in the gene encoding PA as well as in the transcriptional processing of this gene for Type N1, defects in the sortase gene for Type N2, and low mRNA expression of PA for Type W. Since cellular hydrophobicity and phagocytosis susceptibility of the PA-defective isolates were significantly lower than those of the normal expression isolates, the potential implication of such defective isolates in systemic diseases involving bacteremia other than dental caries was suggested. Additionally, multilocus sequence typing was utilized to characterize S. mutans clones that represented a proportion of isolates with PA defects of 65-100%. Therefore, we described the molecular basis for variation defects in PA expression of S. mutans. Furthermore, we also emphasized the strong association between PA expression defects and serotypes f and k as well as the clonal relationships among these isolates. PMID:25792295

  11. An 18 kDa Scaffold Protein Is Critical for Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zobiak, Melanie; Büttner, Henning; Franke, Gefion; Christner, Martin; Saß, Katharina; Zobiak, Bernd; Henke, Hanae A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Bischoff, Markus; Bur, Stephanie; Hartmann, Torsten; Schaeffer, Carolyn R.; Fey, Paul D.; Rohde, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Virulence of the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is crucially linked to formation of adherent biofilms on artificial surfaces. Biofilm assembly is significantly fostered by production of a bacteria derived extracellular matrix. However, the matrix composition, spatial organization, and relevance of specific molecular interactions for integration of bacterial cells into the multilayered biofilm community are not fully understood. Here we report on the function of novel 18 kDa Small basic protein (Sbp) that was isolated from S. epidermidis biofilm matrix preparations by an affinity chromatographic approach. Sbp accumulates within the biofilm matrix, being preferentially deposited at the biofilm–substratum interface. Analysis of Sbp-negative S. epidermidis mutants demonstrated the importance of Sbp for sustained colonization of abiotic surfaces, but also epithelial cells. In addition, Sbp promotes assembly of S. epidermidis cell aggregates and establishment of multilayered biofilms by influencing polysaccharide intercellular-adhesin (PIA) and accumulation associated protein (Aap) mediated intercellular aggregation. While inactivation of Sbp indirectly resulted in reduced PIA-synthesis and biofilm formation, Sbp serves as an essential ligand during Aap domain-B mediated biofilm accumulation. Our data support the conclusion that Sbp serves as an S. epidermidis biofilm scaffold protein that significantly contributes to key steps of surface colonization. Sbp-negative S. epidermidis mutants showed no attenuated virulence in a mouse catheter infection model. Nevertheless, the high prevalence of sbp in commensal and invasive S. epidermidis populations suggests that Sbp plays a significant role as a co-factor during both multi-factorial commensal colonization and infection of artificial surfaces. PMID:25799153

  12. Deficiency of the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase impairs extinction of cued but not contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Susan; Narayanan, Rajeevan T; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Stork, Oliver; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2009-12-16

    Extinction procedures are clinically relevant for reducing pathological fear, and the mechanisms of fear regulation are a subject of intense research. The amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have all been suggested to be key brain areas in extinction of conditioned fear. GABA has particularly been implicated in extinction learning, and the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) may be important in elevating GABA levels in response to environmental signals. Extinction of conditioned fear was examined in Gad65(-/-) mice while recording local field potentials from the amygdala, hippocampus, and PFC simultaneously while monitoring behavior. Gad65(-/-) mice showed generalization of cued fear, as reported previously, and impaired extinction of cued fear, such that fear remained high across extinction training. This endurance in cued fear was associated with theta frequency synchronization between the amygdala and hippocampus. Extinction of contextual fear, however, was unaltered in Gad65(-/-) mice when compared with wild-type littermates. The data imply that GAD65 plays a critical role in regulating cued fear responses during extinction learning and that, during this process, GABAergic signaling is involved in modulating synchronized activity between the amygdala and hippocampus. In view of the more pronounced effect on cued versus contextual fear extinction, these influences may rely more on GABAergic mechanisms in the amygdala. PMID:20016086

  13. Extraribosomal Functions Associated with the C Terminus of the 37/67 kDa Laminin Receptor are Required for Maintaining Cell Viability

    SciTech Connect

    J Scheiman; K Jamieson; J Ziello; J Tseng; D Meruelo

    2011-12-31

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of knocking down endogenous LAMR, which include inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In addition, we generated a C-terminal-truncated silent mutant LAMR construct structurally homologous to the Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2 ribosomal protein and missing the C-terminal 75 residues of LAMR, which displays more sequence divergence. We found that HT1080 cells stably expressing either silent mutant LAMR construct still undergo arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle when treated with siRNA. However, the expression of full-length silent mutant LAMR rescues cell viability, whereas the expression of the C-terminal-truncated LAMR does not. Interestingly, we also found that both silent mutant constructs restore protein translation and localize to the nucleus. Our findings indicate that the ability of LAMR to regulate viability is associated with its C-terminal 75 residues. Furthermore, this function is distinct from its role in cell proliferation, independent of its ribosomal functions, and may be regulated by a nonnuclear localization.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kelch Proteins and Bud14 Protein Form a Stable 520-kDa Formin Regulatory Complex That Controls Actin Cable Assembly and Cell Morphogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Christopher J.; Chesarone-Cataldo, Melissa; Alioto, Salvatore L.; Salin, Bénédicte; Sagot, Isabelle; Goode, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Formins perform essential roles in actin assembly and organization in vivo, but they also require tight regulation of their activities to produce properly functioning actin structures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bud14 is one member of an emerging class of formin regulators that target the FH2 domain to inhibit actin polymerization, but little is known about how these regulators are themselves controlled in vivo. Kelch proteins are critical for cell polarity and morphogenesis in a wide range of organisms, but their mechanistic roles in these processes are still largely undefined. Here, we report that S. cerevisiae Kelch proteins, Kel1 and Kel2, associate with Bud14 in cell extracts to form a stable 520-kDa complex with an apparent stoichiometry of 2:2:1 Bud14/Kel1/Kel2. Using pairwise combinations of GFP- and red fluorescent protein-tagged proteins, we show that Kel1, Kel2, and Bud14 interdependently co-localize at polarity sites. By analyzing single, double, and triple mutants, we show that Kel1 and Kel2 function in the same pathway as Bud14 in regulating Bnr1-mediated actin cable formation. Loss of any component of the complex results in long, bent, and hyper-stable actin cables, accompanied by defects in secretory vesicle traffic during polarized growth and septum formation during cytokinesis. These observations directly link S. cerevisiae Kelch proteins to the control of formin activity, and together with previous observations made for S. pombe homologues tea1p and tea3p, they have broad implications for understanding Kelch function in other systems. PMID:24828508

  15. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  16. Phosphorylation Status of 72 kDa MMP-2 Determines Its Structure and Activity in Response to Peroxynitrite

    PubMed Central

    Jacob-Ferreira, Anna Laura; Kondo, Marcia Yuri; Baral, Pravas Kumar; James, Michael N. G.; Holt, Andrew; Fan, Xiaohu; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a key intra- and extra-cellular protease which contributes to several oxidative stress related pathologies. A molecular understanding of 72 kDa MMP-2 activity, directly mediated by S-glutathiolation of its cysteine residues in the presence of peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and by phosphorylation of its serine and threonine residues, is essential to develop new generation inhibitors of intracellular MMP-2. Within its propeptide and collagen binding domains there is an interesting juxtaposition of predicted phosphorylation sites with nearby cysteine residues which form disulfide bonds. However, the combined effect of these two post-translational modifications on MMP-2 activity has not been studied. The activity of human recombinant 72 kDa MMP-2 (hrMMP-2) following in vitro treatments was measured by troponin I proteolysis assay and a kinetic activity assay using a fluorogenic peptide substrate. ONOO− treatment in the presence of 30 µM glutathione resulted in concentration-dependent changes in MMP-2 activity, with 0.1–1 µM increasing up to twofold and 100 µM attenuating its activity. Dephosphorylation of MMP-2 with alkaline phosphatase markedly increased its activity by sevenfold, either with or without ONOO−. Dephosphorylation of MMP-2 also affected the conformational structure of the enzyme as revealed by circular dichroism studies, suggesting an increase in the proportion of α-helices and a decrease in β-strands compared to the phosphorylated form of MMP-2. These results suggest that ONOO− activation (at low µM) and inactivation (at high µM) of 72 kDa MMP-2, in the presence or absence of glutathione, is also influenced by its phosphorylation status. These insights into the role of post-translational modifications in the structure and activity of 72 kDa MMP-2 will aid in the development of inhibitors specifically targeting intracellular MMP-2. PMID:24013357

  17. A 43-kDa TDP-43 species is present in aggregates associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Patrick J; Boyer, Philip J; Mishra, Priya

    2013-01-01

    The transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of the abnormal intracellular inclusions that occur in two common neurodegenerative diseases of humans: (1) a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Genetics, experiments in cultured cells and animals, and analogy with other neurodegenerative diseases indicate that the process of TDP-43 aggregation is fundamental to the pathogenesis of these 2 diseases, but the process by which this aggregation occurs is not understood. Biochemical fractionation has revealed truncated, phosphorylated and ubiquitinated forms of TDP-43 in a detergent-insoluble fraction from diseased CNS tissue, while these forms are absent from controls. However, a large amount of the normally predominant 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is present in the detergent-insoluble fraction even from control brains, so it has not been possible to determine if this form of TDP-43 is part of pathological aggregates in frontotemporal lobe degeneration. We used semi-denaturing detergent-agarose gel electrophoresis to isolate high molecular weight aggregates containing TDP-43 that are present in the cerebral cortex of individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration but not that of controls. These aggregates include the same covalently modified forms of TDP-43 seen in detergent-insoluble extracts. In addition, aggregates include a 43-kDa TDP-43 species. This aggregated 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is absent or present only at low levels in controls. The presence of 43-kDa TDP-43 in aggregates raises the possibility that covalent modification is not a primary step in the pathogenic aggregation of TDP-43 associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23704877

  18. Localization of the 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein to human 1p21-p22 and mouse 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, J.; Kearns, W.; Rosenberg, C.; Pearson, P.; Valle, D. ); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PXMPI) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. In humans, mutations in this gene may be responsible for a subset of patients with Zellweger syndrome, a lethal inborn error of peroxisome assembly. The PXMPI gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p21-p22 by in situ hybridization and its murine homologue (Pxmp-1) to chromosome 3 by interspecific backcross analysis. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  19. A 43-kDa TDP-43 Species Is Present in Aggregates Associated with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bosque, Patrick J.; Boyer, Philip J.; Mishra, Priya

    2013-01-01

    The transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of the abnormal intracellular inclusions that occur in two common neurodegenerative diseases of humans: (1) a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Genetics, experiments in cultured cells and animals, and analogy with other neurodegenerative diseases indicate that the process of TDP-43 aggregation is fundamental to the pathogenesis of these 2 diseases, but the process by which this aggregation occurs is not understood. Biochemical fractionation has revealed truncated, phosphorylated and ubiquitinated forms of TDP-43 in a detergent-insoluble fraction from diseased CNS tissue, while these forms are absent from controls. However, a large amount of the normally predominant 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is present in the detergent-insoluble fraction even from control brains, so it has not been possible to determine if this form of TDP-43 is part of pathological aggregates in frontotemporal lobe degeneration. We used semi-denaturing detergent-agarose gel electrophoresis to isolate high molecular weight aggregates containing TDP-43 that are present in the cerebral cortex of individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration but not that of controls. These aggregates include the same covalently modified forms of TDP-43 seen in detergent-insoluble extracts. In addition, aggregates include a 43-kDa TDP-43 species. This aggregated 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is absent or present only at low levels in controls. The presence of 43-kDa TDP-43 in aggregates raises the possibility that covalent modification is not a primary step in the pathogenic aggregation of TDP-43 associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23704877

  20. A human nuclear uracil DNA glycosylase is the 37-kDa subunit of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer-Siegler, K.; Mauro, D.J.; Seal, G.; Wurzer, J.; DeRiel, J.K.; Sirover, M.A. )

    1991-10-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized a plasmid (pChug 20.1) that contains the cDNA of a nuclear uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) gene isolated from normal human placenta. This cDNA directed the synthesis of a fusion protein that exhibited UDG activity. The enzymatic activity was specific for a uracil-containing polynucleotide substrate and was inhibited by a glycosylase antibody or a {beta}-galactosidase antibody. Sequence analysis demonstrated an open reading frame that encoded a protein of 335 amino acids of calculated M{sub r} 36,050 and pI 8.7, corresponding to the M{sub r} 37,000 and pI 8.1 of purified human placental UDG. Surprisingly, a search of the GenBank data base revealed that the cDNA of UDG was completely homologous with the 378-kDa subunit of human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Human erythrocyte glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was obtained commercially in its tetrameric form. A 37-kDa subunit was isolated form it and shown to possess UDG activity equivalent to that seen for the purified human placental UDG. The multiple functions of this 37-kDa protein as here and previously reported indicate that it possesses a series of activities, depending on its oligomeric state. Accordingly, mutation(s) in the gene of this multifunctional protein may conceivably result in the diverse cellular phenotypes of Bloom syndrome.

  1. [Stimulation of cell cultures recovery after cryopreservation by the cattle cord blood FRACTION (below 5 kDa) or Actovegin].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The capacities of the cattle cord blood low-molecular fraction (below 5 kDa) and Actovegin (the vealer blood fraction (below 5 kDa)) for recovering functions of cell cultures after cryopreservation compared. Their influence proliferation of the flozen-thawed cell cultures, certain stages of their growth, cell attachment, rate of cell spreading, and mitotic regiment has been studied. Both the cord blood low-molecular fraction and Actovegin were shown to stimulate growth of the cell cultures after cryopreservation more efficiently at the concentration of 224 μg/ml. However, despite the stimulating effect discovered, their application did not bring proliferative indices on the 1st passage after cryopreservation to the values of the native culture. The effects of the cord blood low-molecular fraction and Actovegin on the human fibroblast culture were identical by the following parameters: cell attachment, rates of cell spreading and proliferation. In culture BHK-21 clone 13/04 the efficiency of Actovegin was low, while the cord blood low-molecular fraction has a conspicuous stimulating effect on its adhesion and proliferation. The investigations carried out can serve as a basis for the development of regenerative media containing the cattle cord blood low-molecular fraction (below 5 kDa) or Actovegin as active components at the concentration of 224 μg/ml with the purpose of fast recovery of culture prolifetative properties after cryopreservation. PMID:25508566

  2. [Stimulation of cell cultures recovery after cryopreservation by the cattle cord blood FRACTION (below 5 kDa) or Actovegin].

    PubMed

    Gulevskiĭ, A K; Trifonova, A V; Lavrik, A A

    2013-01-01

    The capacities of the cattle cord blood low-molecular fraction (below 5 kDa) and Actovegin (the vealer blood fraction (below 5 kDa)) for recovering functions of cell cultures after cryopreservation compared. Their influence proliferation of the flozen-thawed cell cultures, certain stages of their growth, cell attachment, rate of cell spreading, and mitotic regiment has been studied. Both the cord blood low-molecular fraction and Actovegin were shown to stimulate growth of the cell cultures after cryopreservation more efficiently at the concentration of 224 μg/ml. However, despite the stimulating effect discovered, their application did not bring proliferative indices on the 1st passage after cryopreservation to the values of the native culture. The effects of the cord blood low-molecular fraction and Actovegin on the human fibroblast culture were identical by the following parameters: cell attachment, rates of cell spreading and proliferation. In culture BHK-21 clone 13/04 the efficiency of Actovegin was low, while the cord blood low-molecular fraction has a conspicuous stimulating effect on its adhesion and proliferation. The investigations carried out can serve as a basis for the development of regenerative media containing the cattle cord blood low-molecular fraction (below 5 kDa) or Actovegin as active components at the concentration of 224 μg/ml with the purpose of fast recovery of culture prolifetative properties after cryopreservation. PMID:25470939

  3. Localization and Characterization of a 7.3-kDa Region of Caldesmon Which Reversibly Inhibits Actomyosin ATPase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Chalovich, Joseph M.; Bryan, Joseph; Benson, Caryl E.; Velaz, Laly

    2005-01-01

    Cleavage of caldesmon with chymotrypsin yields a series of fragments which bind both calmodulin and actin and inhibit the binding of myosin subfragments to actin and the subsequent stimulation of ATPase activity. Several of these fragments have been purified by cation exchange chromatography and their amino-terminal sequences determined. The smallest fragment has a molecular mass of about 7.3 kDa and extends from Leu597 to Phe665. This polypeptide inhibits the actin-activated ATPase of myosin S-1; this inhibition is augmented by smooth muscle tropomyosin and relieved by Ca2+-calmodulin. The binding of the 7.3-kDa fragment to actin is competitive with the binding of S - 1 to actin. Thus, this polypeptide has several of the important features characteristic of intact caldesmon. However, although an intact caldesmon molecule covers between six and nine actin monomers, the 7.3-kDa fragment binds to actin in a 1:1 complex. Comparison of this fragment with others suggests that a small region of caldesmon is responsible for at least part of the interaction with both calmodulin and actin. PMID:1386604

  4. The mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein in marine invertebrates: biochemical purification and molecular characterization

    PubMed Central

    Choresh, Omer; Loya, Yossi; Müller, Werner E.G.; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Azem, Abdussalam

    2004-01-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates undergo constant direct exposure to the surrounding environmental conditions, including local and global environmental fluctuations that may lead to fatal protein damage. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitutes an important defense mechanism that protects these organisms from deleterious stress conditions. In a previous study, we reported the immunological detection of a 60-kDa Hsp (Hsp60) in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (formerly called Anemonia sulcata) and studied its expression under a variety of stress conditions. In the present study, we show that the sponge Tetilla sp. from tidal habitats with a highly variable temperature regime is characterized by an increased level of Hsp60. Moreover, we show the expression of Hsp60 in various species among Porifera and Cnidaria, suggesting a general importance of this protein among marine invertebrates. We further cloned the hsp60 gene from A viridis, using a combination of conventional protein isolation methods and screening of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid library by polymerase chain reaction. The cloned sequence (1764 bp) encodes for a protein of 62.8 kDa (588 amino acids). The 62.8-kDa protein, which contains an amino terminal extension that may serve as a mitochondrial targeting signal, shares a significant identity with mitochondrial Hsp60s from several animals but less identity with Hsp60s from either bacteria or plants. PMID:15270076

  5. The structure and peroxidase activity of a 33-kDa catalase-related protein from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Gao, Benlian; Boeglin, William E; Brash, Alan R; Newcomer, Marcia E

    2009-01-01

    True catalases are tyrosine-liganded, usually tetrameric, hemoproteins with subunit sizes of ∼55–84 kDa. Recently characterized hemoproteins with a catalase-related structure, yet lacking in catalatic activity, include the 40–43 kDa allene oxide synthases of marine invertebrates and cyanobacteria. Herein, we describe the 1.8 Å X-ray crystal structure of a 33 kDa subunit hemoprotein from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (annotated as MAP-2744c), that retains the core elements of the catalase fold and exhibits an organic peroxide-dependent peroxidase activity. MAP-2744c exhibits negligible catalatic activity, weak peroxidatic activity using hydrogen peroxide (20/s) and strong peroxidase activity (∼300/s) using organic hydroperoxides as co-substrate. Key amino acid differences significantly impact prosthetic group conformation and placement and confer a distinct activity to this prototypical member of a group of conserved bacterial “minicatalases”. Its structural features and the result of the enzyme assays support a role for MAP-2744c and its close homologues in mitigating challenge by a variety of reactive oxygen species. PMID:19827095

  6. Antioxidant activities of trypsin inhibitor, a 33 KDa root storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. Tainong 57).

    PubMed

    Hou, W C; Chen, Y C; Chen, H J; Lin, Y H; Yang, L L; Lee, M H

    2001-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitors (TIs), root storage proteins, were purified from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas[L.] Lam cv. Tainong 57) roots by trypsin affinity column according to the methods of Hou and Lin (Plant Sci. 1997, 126, 11-19 and Plant Sci. 1997, 128, 151-158). A single band of 33 kDa TI was obtained by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. This purified 33 kDa TI had scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. There was positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (2 to 22%) and amounts of 33 kDa TI (1.92 to 46 pmol). The scavenging activities of 33 kDa TI against DPPH were calculated from linear regression to be about one-third of those of glutathione between 5 and 80 pmol. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detection, it was found that 33 kDa TI could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of EPR signal were significantly decreased from 1.5 to 6 pmol of 33 kDa TI compared to those of the controls. It is suggested that 33 kDa TI, one of the sweet potato root storage proteins, may play a role as an antioxidant in roots and may be beneficial to health when it is consumed. PMID:11409996

  7. Myotubularin-related Proteins 3 and 4 Interact with Polo-like Kinase 1 and Centrosomal Protein of 55 kDa to Ensure Proper Abscission*

    PubMed Central

    St-Denis, Nicole; Gupta, Gagan D.; Lin, Zhen Yuan; Gonzalez-Badillo, Beatriz; Pelletier, Laurence; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The myotubularins are a family of phosphatases that dephosphorylate the phosphatidylinositols phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,5-phosphate. Several family members are mutated in disease, yet the biological functions of the majority of myotubularins remain unknown. To gain insight into the roles of the individual enzymes, we have used affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry to identify protein–protein interactions for the myotubularins. The myotubularin interactome comprises 66 high confidence (false discovery rate ≤1%) interactions, including 18 pairwise interactions between individual myotubularins. The results reveal a number of potential signaling contexts for this family of enzymes, including an intriguing, novel role for myotubularin-related protein 3 and myotubularin-related protein 4 in the regulation of abscission, the final step of mitosis in which the membrane bridge remaining between two daughter cells is cleaved. Both depletion and overexpression of either myotubularin-related protein 3 or myotubularin-related protein 4 result in abnormal midbody morphology and cytokinesis failure. Interestingly, myotubularin-related protein 3 and myotubularin-related protein 4 do not exert their effects through lipid regulation at the midbody, but regulate abscission during early mitosis, by interacting with the mitotic kinase polo-like kinase 1, and with centrosomal protein of 55 kDa (CEP55), an important regulator of abscission. Structure-function analysis reveals that, consistent with known intramyotubularin interactions, myotubularin-related protein 3 and myotubularin-related protein 4 interact through their respective coiled coil domains. The interaction between myotubularin-related protein 3 and polo-like kinase 1 relies on the divergent, nonlipid binding Fab1, YOTB, Vac1, and EEA1 domain of myotubularin-related protein 3, and myotubularin-related protein 4 interacts with CEP55 through a short GPPXXXY motif, analogous to

  8. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of a 14-kDa bile acid-binding protein from rat ileal cytosol.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Y Z; Everett, E T; Schwartz, D A; Norris, J S; Wilson, F A

    1994-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the major intestinal cytosolic 14-kDa bile acid-binding protein (14-kDa I-BABP) was isolated from a rat ileal lambda gt22A library following immunoscreening using a monospecific antiserum raised against a 14-kDa polypeptide found in the rat ileal cytosol. One clone of 516 bp encoded a 128-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 14,544 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of 14-kDa I-BABP showed 100% homology to rat intestinal 15-kDa protein (I-15P) and 72% homology to porcine 15-kDa gastrotropin, whereas comparison of I-BABP to rat 14-kDa fatty acid-binding proteins of liver, intestine, and heart revealed homologies of 44%, 25%, and 28%, respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed a single transcript of approximately 0.5 kb in ileum and ovary; however, the abundance of I-BABP mRNA was much greater in ileum than in ovary. No transcript was seen in RNA extracted from stomach, jejunum, colon, liver, adrenal, brain, heart, kidney, or testis. Transfection of the I-BABP cDNA into COS-7 cells resulted in the expression of a 14-kDa protein that was identical to the ileal cytosolic I-BABP as determined by immunoblotting. Photoaffinity labeling of expressed 14-kDa protein was saturable with respect to increasing concentrations of 7,7-azo[3H]taurocholate (Km, 83.3 microM; Vmax, 6.7 pmol/mg per 5 min). Taurocholate inhibited 7,7-azotaurocholate labeling by > 96% with lesser inhibition by taurochenodeoxycholate (83.1%), chenodeoxycholate (74.6%), cholate (50.5%), and progesterone (38.5%), whereas oleic acid and estradiol did not inhibit binding. Images PMID:8197128

  9. Cell Proliferation and Motility Are Inhibited by G1 Phase Arrest in 15-kDa Selenoprotein-Deficient Chang Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jeyoung; Huh, Jang Hoe; Na, Ji-Woon; Lu, Qiao; Carlson, Bradley A.; Tobe, Ryuta; Tsuji, Petra A.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2015-01-01

    The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) is a selenoprotein residing in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and implicated in quality control of protein folding. Herein, we established an inducible RNAi cell line that targets Sep15 mRNA in Chang liver cells. RNAi-induced Sep15 deficiency led to inhibition of cell proliferation, whereas cell growth was resumed after removal of the knockdown inducer. Sep15-deficient cells were arrested at the G1 phase by upregulating p21 and p27, and these cells were also characterized by ER stress. In addition, Sep15 deficiency led to the relocation of focal adhesions to the periphery of the cell basement and to the decrease of the migratory and invasive ability. All these changes were reversible depending on Sep15 status. Rescuing the knockdown state by expressing a silent mutant Sep15 mRNA that is resistant to siRNA also reversed the phenotypic changes. Our results suggest that SEP15 plays important roles in the regulation of the G1 phase during the cell cycle as well as in cell motility in Chang liver cells, and that this selenoprotein offers a novel functional link between the cell cycle and cell motility. PMID:25728752

  10. The methionine-rich domain of the 54 kDa subunit of signal recognition particle is sufficient for the interaction with signal sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Lütcke, H; High, S; Römisch, K; Ashford, A J; Dobberstein, B

    1992-01-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) binds to signal sequences when they emerge from a translating ribosome and targets the complex of ribosome, nascent chain and SRP to the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) allowing the co-translational translocation of the nascent chain. By photo-crosslinking it has been shown that the signal sequence of preprolactin (PPL) only interacts with the methionine-rich (M) domain of the 54 kDa protein subunit (SRP54) of SRP. Here we show that (i) a signal-anchor sequence is likewise crosslinked only to the methionine-rich domain of SRP54, (ii) free SRP54 can interact with signal sequences independently of the other components of SRP, (iii) its M domain suffices to perform this function, and (iv) an essentially intact M domain is required for signal sequence recognition. Alkylation of the N+G domain in intact SRP54 with N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), but not after cleavage with V8 protease, prevents the binding of a signal sequence to the M domain. This suggests a proximity between the N+G and M domains of SRP54 and raises the possibility that the role of the N+G domain may be to regulate the binding and/or the release of signal sequences. Images PMID:1314169

  11. The second metal-binding site of 70 kDa heat-shock protein is essential for ADP binding, ATP hydrolysis and ATP synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xueji; Yano, Mihiro; Washida, Hiroyo; Kido, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The chaperone activity of Hsp70 (70 kDa heat-shock protein) in protein folding and its conformational switch, including oligomeric and monomeric interconversion, are regulated by the hydrolysis of ATP and the ATP-ADP exchange cycle. The crystal structure of human ATPase domain shows two metal-binding sites, the first for ATP binding and a second, in close proximity to the first, whose function remains unknown [Sriram, Osipiuk, Freeman, Morimoto and Joachimiak (1997) Structure 5, 403-414]. In this study, we have characterized the second metal-binding motif by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of ATP and ADP binding, and found that the second metal-binding site, comprising a loop co-ordinated by His-227, Glu-231 and Asp-232, participates both in ATP hydrolysis and ATP-synthetic activities, in co-operation with the first metal-binding site. The first metal-binding site, a catalytic centre, is essential for ATP binding and the second site for ADP binding in the reactions of ATP hydrolysis and ATP synthesis. PMID:14664695

  12. Backbone 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of the 39 kDa staphylococcal hemoglobin receptor IsdH.

    PubMed

    Spirig, Thomas; Clubb, Robert T

    2012-10-01

    During infections Stahpylococcus aureus preferentially uses heme as an iron source, which it captures from human hemoglobin using the Iron regulated surface determinant (Isd) system. On the cell surface two related staphylococcal surface receptors called IsdH and IsdB bind to hemoglobin and extract its heme. Both receptors contain multiple NEAr iron Transporter (NEAT) domains that either bind to hemoglobin, or to heme. All previous structural studies have investigated individual NEAT domains and have not explored how the domains might interact with one another to synergistically extract heme from hemoglobin. Here, we report the near complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone resonance assignments of a bi-domain unit from IsdH that contains the N2 and N3 NEAT domains, which bind to hemoglobin and heme, respectively (IsdH(N2N3), residues 326-660, 39 kDa). The assigned backbone resonances lay the foundation for future NMR studies that will explore the molecular basis of IsdH function. PMID:22101872

  13. A peptide inhibitor of exportin1 blocks shuttling of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein but not export of viral late mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S.J. . E-mail: sjflint@molbio.princeton.edu; Huang, Wenying; Goodhouse, Joseph; Kyin, Saw

    2005-06-20

    The human subgroup C adenoviral E1B 55 kDa and E4 Orf6 proteins are required for efficient nuclear export of viral late mRNAs, but the cellular pathway that mediates such export has not been identified. As a first step to develop a general approach to address this issue, we have assessed the utility of cell-permeable peptide inhibitors of cellular export receptors. As both E1B and E4 proteins have been reported to contain a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), we synthesized a cell-permeable peptide containing such an NES. This peptide induced substantial inhibition of export of the E1B protein, whereas a control, non-functional peptide did not. However, under the same conditions, the NES peptide had no effect on export of viral late mRNAs. These observations establish that viral late mRNAs are not exported by exportin1, as well as the value of peptide inhibitors in investigation of mRNA export regulation in adenovirus-infected cells.

  14. 67-kDa laminin receptor-dependent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation elicits melanoma-specific antitumor activity overcoming drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Huang, Yuhui; Umeda, Daisuke; Yamada, Shuhei; Yamashita, Shuya; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Kim, Yoonhee; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2014-11-21

    The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway has been identified as a major, druggable regulator of melanoma. Mutational activation of BRAF is the most prevalent genetic alteration in human melanoma, resulting in constitutive melanoma hyperproliferation. A selective BRAF inhibitor showed remarkable clinical activity in patients with mutated BRAF. Unfortunately, most patients acquire resistance to the BRAF inhibitor, highlighting the urgent need for new melanoma treatment strategies. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits cell proliferation independently of BRAF inhibitor sensitivity, suggesting that increased understanding of the anti-melanoma activity of EGCG may provide a novel therapeutic target. Here, by performing functional genetic screening, we identified protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a critical factor in the suppression of melanoma cell proliferation. We demonstrated that tumor-overexpressed 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) activates PP2A through adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway eliciting inhibitions of oncoproteins and activation of tumor suppressor Merlin. Activating 67LR/PP2A pathway leading to melanoma-specific mTOR inhibition shows strong synergy with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 in the drug-resistant melanoma. Moreover, SET, a potent inhibitor of PP2A, is overexpressed on malignant melanoma. Silencing of SET enhances 67LR/PP2A signaling. Collectively, activation of 67LR/PP2A signaling may thus be a novel rational strategy for melanoma-specific treatment. PMID:25294877

  15. Characterization and Modeling of the Oligomeric State and Ligand Binding Behavior of Purified Translocator Protein 18 kDa from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein that has been identified as a key player in cholesterol and porphyrin transport, apoptotic signaling, and cancer development, as well as neurological inflammation and disease. Despite a number of TSPO ligands whose effects have been studied with respect to these varied biological activities, the nature of their interactions with TSPO and the molecular mechanism of their effects remain controversial, in part because of the lack of an atomic-resolution structure. We expressed and purified the homologue of mammalian TSPO from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RsTSPO), as well as a mutant form in a proposed drug binding loop, RsTSPOW38C. We characterized their binding behaviors with endogenous ligands and a series of compounds that affect apoptosis by using a sensitive tryptophan fluorescence quenching assay. Our results show that RsTSPO behaves as a dimer in the purified state and binds with low micromolar affinity to many of these ligands, including retinoic acid, curcumin, and a known Bcl-2 inhibitor, gossypol, suggesting a possible direct role for TSPO in their regulation of apoptosis. A computational model of the RsTSPO dimer is constructed using EM-Fold, Rosetta, and a cryo-electron microscopy density map. Binding behaviors of known ligands are discussed in the context of the model with respect to regions that may be involved in binding. PMID:23952237

  16. The proteolytic fragments of the Alzheimer's disease-associated presenilin-1 form heterodimers and occur as a 100-150-kDa molecular mass complex.

    PubMed

    Capell, A; Grünberg, J; Pesold, B; Diehlmann, A; Citron, M; Nixon, R; Beyreuther, K; Selkoe, D J; Haass, C

    1998-02-01

    Mutations in the presenilin (PS) genes are linked to early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). PS-1 proteins are proteolytically processed by an unknown protease to two stable fragments of approximately 30 kDa (N-terminal fragment (NTF)) and approximately 20 kDa (C-terminal fragment (CTF)) (Thinakaran, G., Borchelt, D. R., Lee, M. K., Slunt, H. H., Spitzer, L., Kim, G., Ratovitsky, T., Davenport, F., Nordstedt, C., Seeger, M., Hardy, J., Levey, A. I., Gandy, S. E., Jenkins, N. A., Copeland, N. G., Price, D. L., and Sisodia, S. S. (1996) Neuron 17, 181-190). Here we show that the CTF and NTF of PS-1 bind to each other. Fractionating proteins from 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid-extracted membrane preparations by velocity sedimentation reveal a high molecular mass SDS and Triton X-100-sensitive complex of approximately 100-150 kDa. To prove if both proteolytic fragments of PS-1 are bound to the same complex, we performed co-immunoprecipitations using multiple antibodies specific to the CTF and NTF of PS-1. These experiments revealed that both fragments of PS-1 occur as a tightly bound non-covalent complex. Upon overexpression, unclipped wild type PS-1 sediments at a lower molecular weight in glycerol velocity gradients than the endogenous fragments. In contrast, the non-cleavable, FAD-associated PS-1 Deltaexon 9 sediments at a molecular weight similar to that observed for the endogenous proteolytic fragments. This result may indicate that the Deltaexon 9 mutation generates a mutant protein that exhibits biophysical properties similar to the naturally occurring PS-1 fragments. This could explain the surprising finding that the Deltaexon 9 mutation is functionally active, although it cannot be proteolytically processed (Baumeister, R., Leimer, U., Zweckbronner, I., Jakubek, C., Grünberg, J., and Haass, C. (1997) Genes & Function 1, 149-159; Levitan, D., Doyle, T., Brousseau, D., Lee, M., Thinakaran, G., Slunt, H., Sisodia, S., and

  17. cDNA sequence analysis of a 29-kDa cysteine-rich surface antigen of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Torian, B.E.; Stroeher, V.L.; Stamm, W.E. ); Flores, B.M. ); Hagen, F.S. )

    1990-08-01

    A {lambda}gt11 cDNA library was constructed from poly(U)-Spharose-selected Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite RNA in order to clone and identify surface antigens. The library was screened with rabbit polyclonal anti-E. histolytica serum. A 700-base-pair cDNA insert was isolated and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA revealed a cysteine-rich protein. DNA hybridizations showed that the gene was specific to E. histolytica since the cDNA probe reacted with DNA from four axenic strains of E. histolytica but did not react with DNA from Entamoeba invadens, Acanthamoeba castellanii, or Trichomonas vaginalis. The insert was subcloned into the expression vector pGEX-1 and the protein was expressed as a fusion with the C terminus of glutathione S-transferase. Purified fusion protein was used to generate 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a mouse polyclonal antiserum specific for the E. histolytica portion of the fusion protein. A 29-kDa protein was identified as a surface antigen when mAbs were used to immunoprecipitate the antigen from metabolically {sup 35}S-labeled live trophozoites. The surface location of the antigen was corroborated by mAb immunoprecipitation of a 29-kDa protein from surface-{sup 125}I-labeled whole trophozoites as well as by the reaction of mAbs with live trophozoites in an indirect immunofluorescence assay performed at 4{degree}C. Immunoblotting with mAbs demonstrated that the antigen was present on four axenic isolates tested. mAbs recognized epitopes on the 29-kDa native antigen on some but not all clinical isolates tested.

  18. Purification and Immunobiochemical Characterization of a 31 kDa Cross-Reactive Allergen from Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney Bean)

    PubMed Central

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, Anand Bahadur; Lavasa, Shakuntala; Nagendra, Komarla; Arora, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Background Legumes are a rich source of proteins but are also potential elicitors of IgE-mediated food allergy. This study aimed to isolate and characterize a major allergen of Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and determine its allergenicity. Methodology Kidney bean allergen was purified using Q Sepharose column (anion exchanger) and eluates with high intensity were pooled to purify protein using Superdex 75 (gel filtration) and C18 column (RP-HPLC). Patients with history of kidney bean allergy were skin prick tested (SPT) with crude kidney bean extract and the purified protein. Specific IgE was estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Characterization of purified protein and its cross-reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of purified protein was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry. Principal Findings Purified protein appeared as a single band at 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE and showed IgE binding to 88% patients’ sera by ELISA and immunoblotting. SPT with purified protein identified 78% hypersensitive patients of kidney bean. Significant release of histamine from sensitized basophils was observed after challenge with purified protein. PAS staining suggested it to be a glycoprotein, but no change in IgE binding was observed after periodate oxidation. The 31 kDa protein remained stable for 60 min on incubation with pepsin. The purified protein had high allergenic potential since it required only 102 ng of self protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Mass spectrometric analysis identified it as Phytohemagglutinin. It also showed hemagglutination with human RBCs. Cross-reactivity was observed with peanut and black gram with IC50 of 185 and 228 ng respectively. Conclusion/Significance A 31 kDa major allergen of kidney bean was purified and identified as phytohemagglutinin with cross-reactivity to peanut and black gram. PMID:23671655

  19. Soluble recombinant merozoite surface antigen-142kDa of Plasmodium vivax: An improved diagnostic antigen for vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Mirahmadi, Hadi; Fallahi, Shirzad; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad

    2016-04-01

    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), as a serological test, can be a beneficial tool for epidemiological studies by screening blood donors and diagnosis of specific antibodies from Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) infected cases. Since P. vivax cannot easily be acquired in vitro, ELISA assays using total or semi-purified antigens are seldom used. On the basis of this restriction, we examined whether recombinant protein 42 kDa related to C-terminal region of the merozoite surface antigen-1 of P. vivax (MSA-1(42)) could be suitable for serological detection of vivax malaria infection. Purified recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) (GST-MSA-1(42)) was examined for its ability to bind to IgG antibodies of individuals with patent P. vivax infection. The method was tested with 262 serum samples collected from individuals living in the south and southeastern regions of Iran where malaria is endemic. Samples exposed to Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) infection and patients with other infectious disease (toxoplasmosis, Leishmania infantum infection, echinococcosis and FUO (fever with unknown origin)) except for P. falciparum were residing in non- malaria endemic areas in Iran. Generally, the sensitivity of ELISA evaluated with sera from naturally infected individuals was 86.9%. The specificity value of the ELISA determined with sera from healthy individuals and from individuals with other infectious diseases was 94.05%. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) provided, and the diagnostic efficiency of anti-rPvMSA-1(42) antibody using indirect ELISA were determined 93.58, 87.77 and 91.06% respectively. Our study demonstrated that, because MSA-1(42) kDa contains both the 33 and 19 kDa fragments in its structure, it can serve as the basis for the development of a sensitive serological test which can be used for epidemiological studies, screening blood donors and diagnosis of P. vivax malaria. PMID:26851675

  20. Immunogenicity of a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding 42kDa fragment of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Inayat Hussain; Kaushal, Deep C; Chandra, Deepak; Kaushal, Nuzhat A

    2016-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the second major human malaria parasite that inflicts debilitating morbidity and consequent economic impact in South-East Asian countries. The relapsing nature of P. vivax along with the emergence of drug-resistant P. vivax strains has emphasized the urgent need for a vaccine. However, the development of an effective vivax vaccine is seriously hampered due to the diversity and variation in parasite antigens and non-availability of suitable animal models. DNA based vaccines represent an alternative approach in inducing immunity to multiple targets from different stages of malaria parasite. DNA prime-boosting strategies induce both antibody mediated and cell-mediated immune responses that are the major mechanisms of protection against malaria parasites. We have earlier studied the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the soluble and refolded forms of recombinant 42kDa fragment of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP-142) using P. cynomolgi rhesus monkey model. In the present study, we have constructed a recombinant DNA vaccine encoding 42kDa fragment of P. vivax MSP-1 and studied the immunogenicity of PvMSP-142 DNA vaccine construct in mice. The 42kDa gene fragment of PvMSP-1 was PCR amplified using gene specific primers and subcloned into pcDNA 3.1 (+) eukaryotic expression vector. In vitro expression of PvMSP-142 plasmid construct was checked by transfection in COS-1 cell line. Indirect immunofluorescence of transfected COS-1 cells probed with monoclonal antibodies against PvMSP-142 exhibited positive fluorescence. Immunization of BALB/c mice with PvMSP-142-pcDNA vaccine construct revealed the immunogenicity of recombinant vaccine plasmid that can be enhanced by prime boosting with recombinant protein corresponding to the DNA vaccine as evidenced by significant elevation of antibody and the cytokines responses. PMID:27311385

  1. A 67 kDa non-hormone binding estradiol receptor is present in human mammary cancers.

    PubMed

    Castoria, G; Migliaccio, A; Bilancio, A; Pagano, M; Abbondanza, C; Auricchio, F

    1996-03-01

    The presence of large amounts of a 67 kDa estradiol receptor that does not bind hormone was observed in 8 to 37 human mammary tumors (34 malignant and 3 benign). This form of receptor was detected by its conversion to hormone binding receptor by an endogenous tyrosine kinase in vitro. All 8 tumors were malignant. In these, the incubation of cytosol with ATP was seen to cause a 1- to 5-fold increase in estradiol-specific binding sites. These sites bound estradiol with physiological affinity, and their appearance was associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of estradiol receptor. The enzyme converting the non-hormone binding receptor into the hormone binding receptor is largely present in cytosol and scarce in membranes. It has been extensively purified. It is a 67 kDa protein under denaturating conditions, binds calmodulin-Sepharose in a Ca2+-dependent manner, is stimulated by Ca2+ and calmodulin, phosphorylates exogenous actin, is activated by the estradiol-receptor complex. The enzyme interacts with antibodies directed against the carboxy-terminal and catalytic domains of c-src. Therefore, it is a putative new member of the large c-src-related kinase family. Human mammary cancers with significant amounts of 67 kDa non-hormone binding receptor show relatively low levels of hormone binding estradiol receptor. The presence of non-hormone binding receptor that can be activated by in vitro tyrosine phosphorylation suggests that functional interaction of estradiol receptor with tyrosine kinases is altered in malignant tumors and has bearing on loss of hormone dependence and progression of the mammary cancer malignancy. PMID:8598306

  2. Cloning and characterization of the 5'-upstream sequence governing the cell cycle-dependent transcription of mouse DNA polymerase alpha 68 kDa subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, N S; Izumi, M; Uchida, H; Yokoi, M; Miyazawa, H; Hanaoka, F

    2000-04-01

    We have isolated the genomic DNA fragment spanning the 5-end and the first four exons encoding the 68 kDa subunit (p68) of the mouse DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex [corrected]. The p68 promoter region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes, but contains a GC-rich sequence, two palindrome sequences and two putative E2F-binding sites [corrected]. A series of transient expression assays using a luciferase reporter gene indicated that a region from nucleotide position -89 to -30 (-89/-30) with respect to the transcription initiation site is crucial for basal transcription of the p68 gene in proliferating NIH 3T3 cells. In particular, part of the GC-rich sequence (-57/-46) and the palindrome (-81/-62) elements were necessary for promoter activity, both of which share homology with the E-box sequence. Gel mobility shift assays using NIH 3T3 nuclear extracts revealed that the upstream stimulatory factor, known as an E-box-binding protein, binds to these sites. Moreover, we observed binding of E2F to two sites near the transcription initiation site (-11/-3 and +9/+16). A transient luciferase expression assay using synchronized NIH 3T3 cells in G(0)phase revealed that these E2F sites are essential for transcription induction of the p68 gene after serum stimulation, but are dispensable for basal transcription. These results indicate that growth-dependent regulation of transcription of the mouse p68 and p180 genes is mediated by a common factor, E2F; however, basal transcription of the genes, interestingly, is regulated by different transcription factors. PMID:10710418

  3. 58-kDa Microspherule Protein (MSP58) Is Novel Brahma-related Gene 1 (BRG1)-associated Protein That Modulates p53/p21 Senescence Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Che-Chia; Lee, Yi-Chao; Yeh, Shiu-Hwa; Chen, Chang-Han; Wu, Chih-Ching; Wang, Tsui-Ying; Chen, Yu-Nong; Hung, Liang-Yi; Liu, Yao-Wen; Chen, Han-Ku; Hsiao, Yi-Ting; Wang, Wei-Sheng; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Tsou, Yi-Huan; Wu, Mei-Hsiang; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lin, Ding-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The nucleolar 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) protein is a candidate oncogene implicated in modulating cellular proliferation and malignant transformation. In this study, we show that knocking down MSP58 expression caused aneuploidy and led to apoptosis, whereas ectopic expression of MSP58 regulated cell proliferation in a context-dependent manner. Specifically, ectopic expression of MSP58 in normal human IMR90 and Hs68 diploid fibroblasts, the H184B5F5/M10 mammary epithelial cell line, HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and immortalized NIH3T3 fibroblasts resulted in induction of premature senescence, an enlarged and flattened cellular morphology, and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. MSP58-driven senescence was strictly dependent on the presence of functional p53 as revealed by the fact that normal cells with p53 knockdown by specific shRNA or cells with a mutated or functionally impaired p53 pathway were effective in bypassing MSP58-induced senescence. At least two senescence mechanisms are induced by MSP58. First, MSP58 activates the DNA damage response and p53/p21 signaling pathways. Second, MSP58, p53, and the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling subunit Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) form a ternary complex on the p21 promoter and collaborate to activate p21. Additionally, MSP58 protein levels increased in cells undergoing replicative senescence and stress-induced senescence. Notably, the results of analyzing expression levels of MSP58 between tumors and matched normal tissues showed significant changes (both up- and down-regulation) in its expression in various types of tumors. Our findings highlight new aspects of MSP58 in modulating cellular senescence and suggest that MSP58 has both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive properties. PMID:22563078

  4. Separate photosensitizers mediate degradation of the 32-kDa photosystem II reaction center protein in the visible and UV spectral regions

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.; Canaani, O.; Malkin, S.; Mattoo, A.K.; Edelman, M. )

    1989-09-01

    A component of the photosystem II reaction center, the 32-kDa protein, is rapidly turned over in the light. The mechanism of its light-dependent metabolism is largely unknown. We quantified the rate of 32-kDa protein degradation over a broad spectral range (UV, visible, and far red). The quantum yield for degradation was highest in the UVB (280-320 nm) region. Spectral evidence demonstrates two distinctly different photosensitizers for 32-kDa protein degradation. The data implicate the bulk photosynthetic pigments (primarily chlorophyll) in the visible and far red regions, and plastoquinone (in one or more of its redox states) in the UV region. A significant portion of 32-kDa protein degradation in sunlight is attributed to UVB irradiance.

  5. Transport of proteins into chloroplasts. Import and maturation of precursors to the 33-, 23-, and 16-kDa proteins of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex.

    PubMed

    James, H E; Bartling, D; Musgrove, J E; Kirwin, P M; Herrmann, R G; Robinson, C

    1989-11-25

    The 33-, 23-, and 16-kDa proteins of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and transported into the thylakoid lumen of higher plant chloroplasts. In this report we have analyzed the import and maturation of these precursors, using reconstituted protein import assays and partially purified preparations of the processing peptidases involved. Precursors of the 33- and 23-kDa proteins from Spinacia and Triticum aestivum are processed by a stromal peptidase to intermediate forms; polypeptides of similar size are observed during the transport of these precursors and possibly that of the 16-kDa protein, into isolated chloroplasts. Complete maturation of the 33- and 23-kDa proteins is carried out by a thylakoidal peptidase shown previously to be involved in plastocyanin biogenesis. The data support an import mechanism involving successive cleavages by the stromal and thylakoidal processing peptidases. PMID:2684958

  6. Nano-LC FTICR tandem mass spectrometry for top-down proteomics: routine baseline unit mass resolution of whole cell lysate proteins up to 72 kDa.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Jeremiah D; Tran, John C; Catherman, Adam D; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Durbin, Kenneth R; Lee, Ji Eun; Kellie, John F; Kelleher, Neil L; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Marshall, Alan G

    2012-03-01

    Current high-throughput top-down proteomic platforms provide routine identification of proteins less than 25 kDa with 4-D separations. This short communication reports the application of technological developments over the past few years that improve protein identification and characterization for masses greater than 25 kDa. Advances in separation science have allowed increased numbers of proteins to be identified, especially by nanoliquid chromatography (nLC) prior to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Further, a goal of high-throughput top-down proteomics is to extend the mass range for routine nLC MS analysis up to 80 kDa because gene sequence analysis predicts that ~70% of the human proteome is transcribed to be less than 80 kDa. Normally, large proteins greater than 50 kDa are identified and characterized by top-down proteomics through fraction collection and direct infusion at relatively low throughput. Further, other MS-based techniques provide top-down protein characterization, however at low resolution for intact mass measurement. Here, we present analysis of standard (up to 78 kDa) and whole cell lysate proteins by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (nLC electrospray ionization (ESI) FTICR MS). The separation platform reduced the complexity of the protein matrix so that, at 14.5 T, proteins from whole cell lysate up to 72 kDa are baseline mass resolved on a nano-LC chromatographic time scale. Further, the results document routine identification of proteins at improved throughput based on accurate mass measurement (less than 10 ppm mass error) of precursor and fragment ions for proteins up to 50 kDa. PMID:22356091

  7. Positive charges on lysine residues of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein are important to its electrostatic interaction with spinach photosystem II membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin-Peng; Yong, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Feng; Ruan, Kang-Cheng; Xu, Chun-He; Chen, Gen-Yun

    2005-11-01

    To determine the contribution of charged amino acids to binding with the photosystem II complex (PSII), the amino or carboxyl groups of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein were modified with N-succinimidyl propionate (NSP) or glycine methyl ester (GME) in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide, respectively. Based on isoelectric point shift, 4-10 and 10-14 amino groups were modified in the presence of 2 and 4 mM NSP, respectively. Similarly, 3-4 carboxyl groups were modified by reaction with 100 mM GME. Neutralization of negatively charged carboxyl groups with GME did not alter the binding activity of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein. However, the NSP-modified 18 kDa protein, in which the positively charged amino groups had been modified to uncharged methyl esters, failed to bind with the PSII membrane in the presence of the extrinsic 23 kDa protein. This defect can not be attributed to structural or conformational alterations imposed by chemical modification, as the fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra among native, GME- and NSP-modified extrinsic 18 kDa proteins were similar. Thus, we have concluded that the positive charges of lysyl residues in the extrinsic 18 kDa protein are important for its interaction with PSII membranes in the presence of the extrinsic 23 kDa protein. Furthermore, it was found that the negative charges of carboxyl groups of this protein did not participate in binding with the extrinsic 23 kDa protein associated with PSII membranes. PMID:16270152

  8. Insulin rapidly stimulates phosphorylation of a 46-kDa membrane protein on tyrosine residues as well as phosphorylation of several soluble proteins in intact fat cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haering, H.U.; White, M.F.; Machicao, F.; Ermel, B.; Schleicher, E.; Obermaier, B.

    1987-01-01

    It is speculated that the transmission of an insulin signal across the plasma membrane of cells occurs through activation of the tyrosine-specific receptor kinase, autophosphorylation of the receptor, and subsequent phosphorylation of unidentified substrates in the cell. In an attempt to identify possible substrates, the authors labeled intact rat fat cells with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate and used an antiphosphotyrosine antibody to identify proteins that become phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in an insulin-stimulated way. In the membrane fraction of the fat cells, they found, in addition to the 95-kDa ..beta..-subunit of the receptor, a 46-kDa phosphoprotein that is phosphorylated exclusively on tyrosine residues. This protein is not immunoprecipitated by antibodies against different regions of the insulin receptor and its HPLC tryptic peptide map is different from the tryptic peptide map of the insulin receptor, suggesting that it is not derived from the receptor ..beta..-subunit. Insulin stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 46-kDa protein within 150 sec in the intact cell 3- to 4-fold in a dose-dependent way at insulin concentrations between 0.5 nM and 100 nM. Insulin (0.5 nM, 100 nM) stimulated within 2 min the /sup 32/P incorporation into a 116-kDa band, a 62 kDa band, and three bands between 45 kDa and 50 kDa 2- to 10-fold. They suggest that the 46-kDa membrane protein and possibly also the soluble proteins are endogenous substrates of the receptor tyrosine kinase in fat cells and that their phosphorylation is an early step in insulin signal transmission.

  9. Cloning, expression and protective capacity of 37 kDa outer membrane protein gene (ompH) of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2.

    PubMed

    Tan, H Y; Nagoor, N H; Sekaran, S D

    2010-12-01

    The major outer membrane protein (OmpH) of 4 local Malaysian strains of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 were characterized in comparison to ATCC strains. Three major peptide bands of MW 26, 32 and 37 kDa were characterized using SDSPAGE. Two of these fragments, the 32 kDa and 37 kDa were observed to be more reactive with a mouse polyclonal antiserum in all of the local isolates as well as the ATCC strains in a Western blot. However, the 32 kDa fragment was found to cross react with other Gram negative bacteria. Therefore, the 37 kDa OmpH was selected as vaccine candidate. The 37 kDa ompH gene of the isolated strain 1710 was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector to produce large amounts of recombinant OmpH (rOmpH). The 37 kDa ompH gene of strain 1710 was sequenced. In comparison to a reference strain X-73 of the ompH of P. multocida, 39bp was found deleted in the 37 kDa ompH gene. However, the deletion did not shift the reading frame or change the amino acid sequence. The rOmpH was used in a mice protection study. Mice immunized and challenged intraperitoneally resulted 100% protection against P. multocida whilst mice immunized subcutaneously and challenged intraperitoneally only resulted 80% protection. The rOmpH is therefore a suitable candidate for vaccination field studies. The same rOmpH was also used to develop a potential diagnostic kit in an ELISA format. PMID:21399583

  10. Cardiac sodium channel regulator MOG1 regulates cardiac morphogenesis and rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Wang, Longfei; Zuo, Mengxia; Wang, Xiaojing; Ahmed, Abu Shufian Ishtiaq; Chen, Qiuyun; Wang, Qing K.

    2016-01-01

    MOG1 was initially identified as a protein that interacts with the small GTPase Ran involved in transport of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. In addition, we have established that MOG1 interacts with the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 and regulates cell surface trafficking of Nav1.5. Here we used zebrafish as a model system to study the in vivo physiological role of MOG1. Knockdown of mog1 expression in zebrafish embryos significantly decreased the heart rate (HR). Consistently, the HR increases in embryos with over-expression of human MOG1. Compared with wild type MOG1 or control EGFP, mutant MOG1 with mutation E83D associated with Brugada syndrome significantly decreases the HR. Interestingly, knockdown of mog1 resulted in abnormal cardiac looping during embryogenesis. Mechanistically, knockdown of mog1 decreases expression of hcn4 involved in the regulation of the HR, and reduces expression of nkx2.5, gata4 and hand2 involved in cardiac morphogenesis. These data for the first time revealed a novel role that MOG1, a nucleocytoplasmic transport protein, plays in cardiac physiology and development. PMID:26903377

  11. Identification of a 34 kDa protein altered in the LF-1 mutant as the herbicide-binding D1 protein of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, J.; Pakrasi, H.; Seibert, M.; Arntzen, C.

    1986-04-01

    The LF-1 mutant of Scenedesmus has a complete block on the oxidizing side of its PSII reaction center. However, the reaction center as well as the reducing side of PSII is fully functional in this mutant. Compared to the wildtype (WT) the only detected protein difference in the PSII complex of LF-1 is the change in mobility of a 34 kDa protein to 36 kDa. This protein has been implicated to have a major role in Mn-binding and water-oxidation. The authors have recently shown that photoaffinity labeling of thylakoids with azido-(/sup 14/C)-atrazine tags the 34 kDa protein in WT and the 36 kDa protein in LF-1. It has been shown that the azido-atrazine labeled protein, called D1, functions in herbicide binding and Q/sub A/ to Q/sub B/ electron transfer on the reducing side of PSII. Polyclonal antibodies directed against the D1 protein of Amaranthus hybridus (Ohad, et al., EMBOJ 1985) were found to recognize the Scenedesmus 34 kDa (WT) and 36 kDa (LF-1) proteins. The implied dual function for the D1 protein on the reducing as well as the oxidizing side of PSII reaction center will be discussed.

  12. Differential localization of processed fragments of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen and further processing of its N-terminal 47 kDa fragment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Mitamura, Toshihide; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J; Horii, Toshihiro

    2002-12-01

    The serine repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum is a blood stage malaria vaccine candidate. It has been shown that 120 kDa SERA was proteolytically processed into N-terminal 47 kDa fragment (P47), central 56 kDa fragment (P56) that was further converted to 50 kDa (P50), and C-terminal 18 kDa fragment (P18). Here, we have examined the processing of SERA and the localization of its processed fragments by using mouse antibodies directed against recombinant proteins corresponding to different domains of SERA. Western blot analysis showed that all the processing events occurred inside parasitized erythrocytes at the stage just prior to the schizont rupture, that P47 was further processed into two 25 kDa fragments and that the two fragments, which were linked to P18 through disulfide bonds, were associated with the merozoite. In contrast, P50 was completely shed into culture medium and absent from the merozoite. This observation was further supported by the results of indirect immunofluorescence assay. These results could account for the findings that antibodies against P47 were inhibitory to the parasite growth in vitro but those against P50 were not. Finally, we demonstrated that the further processing of P47 is allelic type-dependent. The results of the present study would help in vaccine designing based on SERA. PMID:12421632

  13. Isolation and characterization of three forms of 36-kDa Ca2+-dependent actin- and phospholipid-binding proteins from human placenta membrane.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Sonobe, S; Owada, M K; Kakunaga, T

    1987-07-31

    We purified three forms of 36-kDa proteins, two monomeric 36-kDa proteins, which had pIs of 7.5 (36K-I) and 6.4 (36K-II), and one 36-kDa complex (36K-C) consisting of two subunits, 36-kDa (pI 7.5) and 12-kDa (pI 5.8), from human placenta membrane. The 36-kDa subunit of 36K-C was identical to 36K-I as judged by pI, cyanogen bromide peptide mapping and immunological cross-reactivity. The three proteins showed F-actin- and phosphatidylserine-binding abilities dependent on Ca2+ concentrations at millimolar and micromolar levels, respectively. They all had phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity. Only 36K-II was phosphorylated extensively at tyrosine residue in Ca2+- and EGF- dependent manners in the membrane fraction of A431 cells. 36K-I was the best substrate for src kinase, whereas 36K-II was the best for fps kinase. However, 36K-C was not phosphorylated by any kinases used here. PMID:3619909

  14. 78 kDa receptor for Man6P-independent lysosomal enzyme targeting: Biosynthetic transport from endoplasmic reticulum to 'high-density vesicles'

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso . E-mail: gonor@biomedicas.unam.mx; Ortega Cuellar, Daniel D.; Michalak, Colette

    2006-04-15

    Recent work has shown that the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate and the 78 kDa receptors for lysosomal enzyme targeting are located in different cell compartments. While the mannose 6-phosphate receptor is enriched in the Percoll fractions that contain Golgi apparatus, most of the 78 kDa receptor is localized in a heavy fraction at the bottom of the Percoll gradient. This report presents the biosynthetic transport of the 78 kDa receptor. Newly synthesized 78 kDa receptor was transported to Golgi from endoplasmic reticulum with a half life of 5 min. From the Golgi apparatus, the receptor takes two routes; about 15-25% is transported to the plasma membrane, and the rest migrates to late endosomes, subsequently to prelysosomes and finally to the dense vesicles. The 78 kDa receptor starts appearing at the dense vesicles 120 min after biosynthesis and reaches a maximum of 40-50% of the total receptor. Treatment of cells with NH{sub 4}Cl causes depletion of the receptor from the dense vesicles and prelysosomes and corresponding augmentation in endosomes and plasma membrane. These results suggest that the 78 kDa receptor cycles between compartments and that the dense vesicles seem to represent the most distal compartment in the biosynthetic pathway of this receptor.

  15. Different effects of 25-kDa amelogenin on the proliferation, attachment and migration of various periodontal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiting; Shu, Rong; Liu, Dali; Jiang, Shaoyun

    2010-04-09

    Previous studies have assumed that amelogenin is responsible for the therapeutic effect of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in periodontal tissue healing and regeneration. However, it is difficult to confirm this hypothesis because both the EMD and the amelogenins are complex mixtures of multiple proteins. Further adding to the difficulties is the fact that periodontal tissue regeneration involves various types of cells and a sequence of associated cellular events including the attachment, migration and proliferation of various cells. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of a 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin (rPAm) on primarily cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF), gingival fibroblasts (GF) and gingival epithelial cells (GEC). The cells were treated with 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/mL. We found that rPAm significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of PDLF, but not their adhesion. Similarly, the proliferation and adhesion of GF were significantly enhanced by treatment with rPAm, while migration was greatly inhibited. Interestingly, this recombinant protein inhibited the growth rate, cell adhesion and migration of GEC. These data suggest that rPAm may play an essential role in periodontal regeneration through the activation of periodontal fibroblasts and inhibition of the cellular behaviors of gingival epithelial cells.

  16. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) monotherapy: a novel agent for chronic hepatitis C therapy.

    PubMed

    Zeuzem, S; Heathcote, J E; Martin, N; Nieforth, K; Modi, M

    2001-12-01

    Current therapy for hepatitis C remains far from optimal. The modification of IFN by the attachment of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety has produced long-lasting IFNs. A 40 kDa branched peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) (PEG-IFN alfa-2a) has unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PEG-IFN alfa-2a is absorbed in a sustained manner and its clearance is reduced substantially compared with IFN alfa-2a, resulting in sustained serum drug concentrations. These constant serum drug levels stay above the EC(50) values (effective concentration 50%) needed for antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory actions. Sustained virological responses were significantly greater in patients who received PEG-IFN alfa-2a versus IFN alfa-2a, with a similar side effect profile. Histological improvements were seen in patients who achieved sustained virological responses and were frequently observed among patients who did not achieve a virological response. The advantages of PEG-IFN alfa-2a were also seen in patients with cirrhosis or hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. PMID:11772316

  17. Automated resonance assignment of the 21 kDa stereo-array isotope labeled thioldisulfide oxidoreductase DsbA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Elena; Ikeya, Teppei; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Löhr, Frank; Buchner, Lena; Ito, Yutaka; Kainosho, Masatsune; Güntert, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The automated chemical shift assignment algorithm FLYA has been extended for use with stereo-array isotope labeled (SAIL) proteins to determine the sequence-specific resonance assignments of large proteins. Here we present the assignment of the backbone and sidechain chemical shifts of the 21 kDa thioldisulfide oxidoreductase DsbA from Escherichia coli that were determined with the SAIL-FLYA algorithm in conjunction with automated peak picking. No manual corrections of peak lists or assignments were applied. The assignments agreed with manually determined reference assignments in 95.4% of the cases if 16 input spectra were used, 94.1% if only 3D 13C/15N-resolved NOESY, CBCA(CO)NH, and 2D [13C/15N,1H]-HSQC were used, and 86.8% if exclusively 3D 13C/15N-resolved NOESY spectra were used. Considering only the assignments that are classified as reliable by the SAIL-FLYA algorithm, the degrees of agreement increased to 97.5%, 96.5%, and 94.2%, respectively. With our approach it is thus possible to automatically obtain almost complete and correct assignments of proteins larger than 20 kDa.

  18. A 127-kDa protein (UV-DDB) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Sukegawa, J; Sukegawa, I; Tomita, S; Iijima, K; Oguchi, S; Suzuki, T; Nairn, A C; Greengard, P

    1999-02-01

    Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein with a short cytoplasmic domain of 47 amino acids. It is hoped that identification of proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain will provide new insights into the physiological function of APP and, in turn, into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To identify proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of APP, we employed affinity chromatography using an immobilized synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 645-694 of APP695 and identified a protein of approximately 130 kDa in rat brain cytosol. Amino acid sequencing of the protein revealed the protein to be a rat homologue of monkey UV-DDB (UV-damaged DNA-binding protein, calculated molecular mass of 127 kDa). UV-DDB/p127 co-immunoprecipitated with APP using an anti-APP antibody from PC12 cell lysates. APP also co-immunoprecipitated with UV-DDB/p127 using an anti-UV-DDB/p127 antibody. These results indicate that UV-DDB/p127, which is present in the cytosolic fraction, forms a complex with APP through its cytoplasmic domain. In vitro binding experiments using a glutathione S-transferase-APP cytoplasmic domain fusion protein and several mutants indicated that the YENPTY motif within the APP cytoplasmic domain, which is important in the internalization of APP and amyloid beta protein secretion, may be involved in the interaction between UV-DDB/p127 and APP. PMID:9930726

  19. A Broad Set of Different Llama Antibodies Specific for a 16 kDa Heat Shock Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Trilling, Anke K.; de Ronde, Hans; Noteboom, Linda; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Roelse, Margriet; Srivastava, Saurabh K.; Haasnoot, Willem; Jongsma, Maarten A.; Kolk, Arend; Zuilhof, Han; Beekwilder, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Background Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) binding to M. tuberculosis antigens were isolated. Two phage display selection strategies were followed: one direct selection using semi-purified protein antigen, and a depletion strategy with lysates, aiming to avoid cross-reaction to other mycobacteria. Both panning methods selected a set of binders with widely differing complementarity determining regions. Selected recombinant VHHs were produced in E. coli and shown to bind immobilized lysate in direct Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests and soluble antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. All tested VHHs were specific for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis) and exclusively recognized an immunodominant 16 kDa heat shock protein (hsp). The highest affinity VHH had a dissociation constant (KD) of 4×10−10 M. Conclusions/Significance A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for 16 kDa heat shock protein of M. tuberculosis is available. This protein is highly stable and abundant in M. tuberculosis. The VHH that detect this protein are applied in a robust SPR sensor for identification of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria. PMID:22046343

  20. Extractable low mass proteins <30kDa from peanut display elevated antigenicity (IgG-binding) and allergenicity (IgE-binding) in vitro and are attenuated by thermal reactivity with non-peanut food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Lee, Alvin

    2016-03-01

    Human allergic reactions to peanut proteins and the associated risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis requires vigilant management of peanuts in food processing. Processed forms of peanuts with attenuated antigenicity and less severe immunogenic responses may lower the risk. Molecular subfractions of raw (UP), blanched (BP) and roasted (RP) peanuts were prepared including water-insoluble (P1), water-soluble high mass (>30kDa, P2) and water-soluble low mass (<30kDa, P3) fractions. Products were screened by measuring binding to IgG (polyclonal antibody against peanut allergen) and IgE (sera from peanut-allergic donors, RAST>3). The results showed that IgE titres were highest for total extracts of RP, particularly for P3 fractions of UP and RP, and were affected by further heating. Antigenicity was also modulated by heating in the presence of either peanut oil or non-peanut food ingredients (lactose, coconut oil). Results support several alternative methods for regulating peanut antigenicity using food processing approaches but require further substantiation in larger numbers of allergic and control donor sera. PMID:26471622

  1. Nuclear PTEN functions as an essential regulator of SRF-dependent transcription to control smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Horita, Henrick; Wysoczynski, Christina L; Walker, Lori A; Moulton, Karen S; Li, Marcella; Ostriker, Allison; Tucker, Rebecca; McKinsey, Timothy A; Churchill, Mair E A; Nemenoff, Raphael A; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular disease progression is associated with marked changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and function. SMC contractile gene expression and, thus differentiation, is under direct transcriptional control by the transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF); however, the mechanisms dynamically regulating SMC phenotype are not fully defined. Here we report that the lipid and protein phosphatase, PTEN, has a novel role in the nucleus by functioning as an indispensible regulator with SRF to maintain the differentiated SM phenotype. PTEN interacts with the N-terminal domain of SRF and PTEN-SRF interaction promotes SRF binding to essential promoter elements in SM-specific genes. Factors inducing phenotypic switching promote loss of nuclear PTEN through nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation resulting in reduced myogenically active SRF, but enhanced SRF activity on target genes involved in proliferation. Overall decreased expression of PTEN was observed in intimal SMCs of human atherosclerotic lesions underlying the potential clinical importance of these findings. PMID:26940659

  2. Solution Structure of the 128 kDa Enzyme I Dimer from Escherichia coli and its 146 kDa Complex With HPr Using Residual Dipolar Couplings and Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Schwieters, Charles D.; Suh, Jeong-Yong; Grishaev, Alexander; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Takayama, Yuki; Clore, G. Marius

    2010-01-01

    The solution structures of free Enzyme I (EI, ∼128 kDa, 575×2 residues), the first enzyme in the bacterial phosphotransferse system and its complex with HPr (∼146 kDa) have been solved using novel methodology that makes use of prior structural knowledge (namely, the structures of the dimeric EIC domain and the isolated EIN domain both free and complexed to HPr), combined with residual dipolar coupling (RDC), small (SAXS) and wide (WAXS) angle X-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data. The calculational strategy employs conjoined rigid body/torsion/Cartesian simulated annealing, and incorporates improvements in calculating and refining against SAXS/WAXS data that take into account complex molecular shapes in the description of the solvent layer resulting in a better representation of the SAXS/WAXS data. The RDC data orient the symmetrically related EIN domains relative to the C2 symmetry axis of the EIC dimer, while translational, shape and size information is provided by SAXS/WAXS. The resulting structures are independently validated by SANS. Comparison of the structures of the free EI and the EI-HPr complex with that of the crystal structure of a trapped phosphorylated EI intermediate reveals large (∼70-90°) hinge body rotations of the two subdomains comprising the EIN domain, as well as of the EIN domain relative to the dimeric EIC domain. These large-scale interdomain motions shed light on the structural transitions that accompany the catalytic cycle of EI. PMID:20731394

  3. Identification of the Interactors of Human Nibrin (NBN) and of Its 26 kDa and 70 kDa Fragments Arising from the NBN 657del5 Founder Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Rosa; Pallotta, Valeria; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antoccia, Antonio; Zolla, Lello; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Nibrin (also named NBN or NBS1) is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, which is involved in early steps of DNA double strand breaks sensing and repair. Mutations within the NBN gene are responsible for the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS). The 90% of NBS patients are homozygous for the 657del5 mutation, which determines the synthesis of two truncated proteins of 26 kDa (p26) and 70 kDa (p70). Here, HEK293 cells have been exploited to transiently express either the full-length NBN protein or the p26 or p70 fragments, followed by affinity chromatography enrichment of the eluates. The application of an unsupervised proteomics approach, based upon SDS-PAGE separation and shotgun digestion of protein bands followed by MS/MS protein identification, indicates the occurrence of previously unreported protein interacting partners of the full-length NBN protein and the p26 fragment containing the FHA/BRCT1 domains, especially after cell irradiation. In particular, results obtained shed light on new possible roles of NBN and of the p26 fragment in ROS scavenging, in the DNA damage response, and in protein folding and degradation. In particular, here we show that p26 interacts with PARP1 after irradiation, and this interaction exerts an inhibitory effect on PARP1 activity as measured by NAD+ levels. Furthermore, the p26-PARP1 interaction seems to be responsible for the persistence of ROS, and in turn of DSBs, at 24 h from IR. Since some of the newly identified interactors of the p26 and p70 fragments have not been found to interact with the full-length NBN, these interactions may somehow contribute to the key biological phenomena underpinning NBS. PMID:25485873

  4. Protective effect of recombinant Trichinella 53-kDa protein in sepsis and the effect on macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuwei; Liu, Hui; Li, Xiangdong; Sui, Shaoguang; Liu, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    The survival rate of the recombinant Trichinella 53-kDa protein infected by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in rats and the expression difference of macrophages were analyzed. Eighteen clean SD rats were selected for the present study. The rats were divided into the sham operation (n=5), control (n=5) and experimental (n=8) groups. The rats in the sham operation group underwent cecum division and suture with routine therapy for cure. The rats in the control and experimental groups were placed in the CLP model of sepsis in rats. The experimental group was administered recombinant Trichinella 53-kDa protein in advance, and the control group was administered the same dose of placebo. The survival rate of the rats within 6 and 12 h, the macrophage expression ratio, and the differences of the expression levels Th1-type cytokines IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and the Th2 type cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 were analyzed. The survival rate of rats in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The expression ratio of the macrophages received from the different handling methods of the rats in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression levels of the Th1-type cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α of the rats in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group, while the expression level of the Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 was higher than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, recombinant Trichinella 53-kDa protein can increase the survival rate following infection with CLP sepsis, which may be associated with the improvement of the macrophages and the adjustment of the expression of Th2 cytokines. PMID:27446304

  5. Expression of a low-molecular-weight (10 kDa) calcium binding protein in glial cells of the brain of the trout (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Manso, M J; Becerra, M; Becerra, M; Anadón, R

    1997-11-01

    Calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand family are widely distributed in the vertebrate central nervous system. In the present study of the trout brain, immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against chick gut calbindin-28k and a polyclonal antibody against bovine S100 protein specifically stained ependymocytes and radial glia cells with identical patterns. Western blot analysis of trout brain extracts with the antibodies to S100 and calbindin stained the same low-molecular-weight (10 kDa) protein band. In rat brain extracts, however, the monoclonal antibody to calbindin recognized a major protein band with molecular weight corresponding to that of calbindin-28k. This indicates that the trout protein is a new calcium-binding-like (calbindin-like) molecule that is immunologically related to both S100 and calbindin. Immunocytochemical studies of the trout brain using the antibodies to CaB and S100 showed that ependymocytes were stained in most ventricular regions, except in a few specialized ependymal areas of the ventral telencephalon, epithalamus, hypothalamus (including the paraventricular organ and saccus vasculosus) and brain stem. Immunocytochemistry also indicated the presence of calbindin-like protein in radial glia cells of several regions of the brain (thalamus, pretectal region, optic tectum, and rhombencephalon). Differences in immunoreactivity between neighbouring ependymal areas suggest that this protein may be a useful marker of different territories. All immunoreactive glial cells were nicotin-adenin-dinucleotide-phosphate diaphorase-positive, although this enzymohistochemical reaction is not specific for these glial cells since it reveals oligodendrocytes and some neurons. Immunoreactivity appears at different developmental stages in the different brain regions, with a broadly caudorostral gradient, suggesting that the expression of this protein is developmentally regulated. Comparison of the distribution of the calbindin-like protein with

  6. Phosphorylation of the 27-kDa heat shock protein via p38 MAP kinase and MAPKAP kinase in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J K; Yamboliev, I A; Weber, L A; Gerthoffer, W T

    1997-11-01

    The 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27) is expressed in a variety of tissues in the absence of stress and is thought to regulate actin filament dynamics, possibly by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanism. HSP27 has also been suggested to be involved in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle. We have investigated phosphorylation of HSP27 in airway smooth muscle in response to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Carbachol increased 32P incorporation into canine tracheal HSP27 and induced a shift in the distribution of charge isoforms on two-dimensional gels to more acidic, phosphorylated forms. The canine HSP27 amino acid sequence includes three serine residues corresponding to sites in human HSP27 known to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-2. To determine whether muscarinic receptors are coupled to a "stress response" pathway in smooth muscle culminating in phosphorylation of HSP27, we assayed MAPKAP kinase-2 activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, the enzyme thought to activate MAPKAP kinase-2. Recombinant canine HSP27 expressed in Escherichia coli was a substrate for MAPKAP kinase-2 in vitro as well as a substrate for endogenous smooth muscle HSP27 kinase, which was activated by carbachol. Carbachol also increased tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. SB-203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinases, reduced activation of endogenous HSP27 kinase activity and blocked the shift in HSP27 charge isoforms to acidic forms. We suggest that HSP27 in airway smooth muscle, in addition to being a stress response protein, is phosphorylated by a receptor-initiated signaling cascade involving muscarinic receptors, tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, and activation of MAPKAP kinase-2. PMID:9374719

  7. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa preβHDL (Lp1-AI) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Yang, Yunhuang; Neville, T.; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-06-12

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI, 243-residues) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. This important property of apoAI is related to its roles in reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Two initial conformational states of apoAI are lipid-free apoAI and apoAI/preβHDL that recruit phospholipids and cholesterol to form HDL particles. In particular, lipid-free apoAI specifically binds to phospholipids to form lipid-poor apoAI, including apoAI/preβ-HDL (~37 kDa). As a unique class of lipid poor HDL, both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that apoAI/preβ-HDLs are the most effective acceptors specifically for free cholesterol in human plasma and serves as the precursor of HDL particles (2). Here we report a complete backbone spectral assignment of human apoAI/preβHDL. Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that apoAI/preβHDL displays a two-domain structure: the N-terminal four helix-bundle domain (residues 1-186) and the C-terminal flexible domain (residues 187-243). A structure of apoAI/preβ-HDL is the first lipid-associated structure of apoAI and is critical for us to understand how apoAI recruits cholesterol to initialize HDL formation. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15093.

  8. Plant-originated glycoprotein (24 kDa) has an inhibitory effect on proliferation of BNL CL.2 cells in response to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2011-08-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is one of the many environmental chemicals that are widely used in polyvinyl chloride products, vinyl flooring, food packaging and infant toys. They cause cell proliferation or dysfunction of human liver. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of a glycoprotein (24 kDa) isolated from Zanthoxylum piperitum DC (ZPDC) on proliferation of liver cell in the DEHP-induced BNL CL. 2 cells. [³H]-thymidine incorporation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular Ca²⁺ mobilization and activity of protein kinase C (PKC) were measured using radioactivity and fluorescence method respectively. The expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)], activator protein (AP)-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cell cycle-related factors (cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase [CDK] 4) were evaluated using Western blotting or electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The results in this study showed that the levels of [³H]-thymidine incorporation, intracellular ROS, intracellular Ca²⁺ mobilization and activity of PKCα were inhibited by ZPDC glycoprotein (100 µg/ml) in the DEHP-induced BNL CL. 2 cells. Also, activities of ERK, JNK and AP-1 were reduced by ZPDC glycoprotein (100 µg/ml). With regard to cell proliferation, activities of PCNA and cyclin D1/CDK4 were significantly suppressed at treatment with ZPDC glycoprotein (100 µg/ml) in the presence of DEHP. Taken together, these findings suggest that ZPDC glycoprotein significantly normalized activities of PCNA and cyclin D1/CDK4, which relate to cell proliferation factors. Thus, ZPDC glycoprotein appears to be one of the compounds derived from natural products that are able to inhibit cell proliferation in the phthalate-induced BNL CL. 2 cells. PMID:21721021

  9. Recombinant CHIK virus E1 coat protein of 11 KDa with antigenic domains for the detection of Chikungunya.

    PubMed

    Yathi, Krishna Kammara; Joseph, Julia Mary; Bhasker, Salini; Kumar, Ramesh; Chinnamma, Mohankumar

    2011-09-30

    Chikungunya is an acute febrile illness caused by an alpha virus technically called as CHIK virus. A smaller size of CHIK virus E1 coat protein -11 kDa was expressed in prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant protein was purified and confirmed by western blot analysis. The positions of the antigenic domain in the protein were identified and the immunoreactivity of recombinant protein with anti-CHIK IgM antibodies was ascertained. The antigen showed an 88% sensitivity and 100% specificity by Indirect ELISA. No cross reactivity of the antigen was observed with anti-Dengue virus serum samples. The results strongly support that the recombinant CHIK coat protein could be used as a diagnostic antigen for the detection of Chikungunya by Indirect ELISA. The relevance of a smaller size recombinant antigen highlights its large scale application in serodiagnosis of CHIK virus since bacterial expression is more simple and cost effective than eukaryotic system. PMID:21798263

  10. Expression, purification and immunologic analysis of three Pasteurella haemolytica A1 28-30 kDa lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Dabo, S M; Confer, A W; Styre, D; Murphy, G L

    1994-09-01

    Three genes, tandemly arranged on the Pasteurella haemolytica A1 chromosome and encoding similar 28-30 kDa proteins, were previously cloned and sequenced by our laboratory. In this study, we demonstrate that the cloned genes encode lipoproteins, as previously suggested by DNA sequence analysis. To further analyze the bovine immune response to these proteins, the individual genes were cloned separately into an expression vector and recombinant forms of the three proteins were purified after expression in Escherichia coli. Sera from cattle vaccinated with live P. haemolytica or P. haemolytica bacterins and from cattle naturally exposed to P. haemolytica recognized each of the recombinant proteins. Vaccination with live or killed whole bacteria did not elicit an immune response of the same quality as that which developed in response to natural infection. A statistically significant correlation existed between resistance to challenge and a high antibody response to one of these three proteins. PMID:7700132

  11. Role of the 52 KDa thioredoxin protein disulfide isomerase of Toxoplasma gondii during infection to human cells.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Diego; Arenas, Aylan; Acosta, Alejandro; Molina, Diego; Hernández, Alejandro; Cardona, Néstor; Gomez-Yepes, Mónica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    Toxoplasma protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a 52 KDa thioredoxin of interest because have a great immunogenicity for humans. We cloned and produced a recombinant protein (recTgPDI) used to test its effect during infection to different human cell lines (epithelial and retinal). We also determine if there were differences in gen expression during in vitro infection. Expression of the gen was lower after entry into the host cells. PDI's inhibitors bacitracin and nitroblue tetrazolium reduced the percent of infected cells and small amounts of recTgPDI proteins interfered with the invasion step. All these results support a role of Toxoplasma PDI during the first steps of infection (adhesion and invasion). Toxoplasma PDI is a protein linked to early steps of invasion, it would be of importance to identify the host proteins substrates during invasion steps. PMID:26896642

  12. Wound healing by a 3.2 kDa recombinant polypeptide from velvet antler of Cervus nippon Temminck.

    PubMed

    Zha, Enhui; Gao, Shenyang; Pi, Yuzhen; Li, Xingxia; Wang, Yutain; Yue, Xiqing

    2012-04-01

    Velvet antler (VA) is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a wide range of ailments including the enhancement of wound healing. A 3.2 kDa recombinant polypeptide of VA from sika deer was purified and compared to native polypeptides stimulation growth of NIH3T3 cells. Both stimulated growth in a dose-dependent manner (10-100 μg/ml). To study its wound healing properties, burn-wounded rats were topically administered with recombinant VA polypeptide or native polypeptide. Rats treated with 0.05 and 0.1% (w/w) polypeptides exhibited significant wound healing. As the yield of recombinant polypeptide was 40-fold higher than that of the native polypeptide, it may therefore be a useful biopharmaceutical. PMID:22198348

  13. Structure of the gene encoding the 14.5 kDa subunit of human RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Acker, J; Wintzerith, M; Vigneron, M; Kedinger, C

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the gene encoding the 14.5 kDa subunit of the human RNA polymerase II (or B) has been elucidated. The gene consists of six exons, ranging from 52 to over 101 bp, interspaced with five introns ranging from 84 to 246 bp. It is transcribed into three major RNA species, present at low abundance in exponentially growing HeLa cells. The corresponding messenger RNAs contain the same open reading frame encoding a 125 amino acid residue protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 14,523 Da. This protein (named hRPB14.5) shares strong homologies with the homologous polymerase subunits encoded by the Drosophila (RpII15) and yeast (RPB9) genes. Cysteines characteristic of two zinc fingers are conserved in all three corresponding sequences and, like the yeast protein, the hRPB14.5 subunit exhibits zinc-binding activity. Images PMID:8265347

  14. Induction of the 47 kDa platelet substrate of protein kinase C during differentiation of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tyers, M; Rachubinski, R A; Sartori, C S; Harley, C B; Haslam, R J

    1987-01-01

    Immunoblot analysis showed that the 47 kDa platelet substrate of protein kinase C (P47) was expressed at low levels in undifferentiated HL-60 leukaemia cells. Treatment of these cells with dimethyl sulphoxide, 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or retinoic acid caused progressive increases in P47 content. Retinoic acid (1 microM) elicited the largest response, a 4-fold increase in P47 protein after 7 days that was accompanied by an increase in translatable P47 mRNA. The induction of P47 by retinoic acid preceded cessation of cell proliferation and development of the capacity to reduce Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, indicating that its expression is an early event in the myeloid differentiation of HL-60 cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:3606573

  15. The C-terminal domain of 72 kDa gelatinase A is not required for catalysis, but is essential for membrane activation and modulates interactions with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, G; Willenbrock, F; Ward, R V; Cockett, M I; Eaton, D; Docherty, A J

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant 72 kDa gelatinase A and a truncated form lacking the C-terminal domain were shown to be activated by organomercurials and to possess similar activities towards a number of substrates. The truncated proenzyme differed from the full-length gelatinase in that it could not be activated by a membrane activator and did not bind tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2. Kinetic studies also showed that the inhibition of the activated truncated enzyme, by both TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, was considerably decreased compared with the full-length enzyme. We conclude that the C-terminal domain plays an important role in the regulation of gelatinase A by a potential physiological activator and inhibitors. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1317162

  16. A rabbit autoantibody specific for the 46-kDa form of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Möller, J R; Ramaswamy, S G; Jacobowitz, D M; Quarles, R H

    1992-05-01

    An autoantibody occurring in the serum of an apparently normal rabbit that immunocytochemically stains myelin sheaths and oligodendrocytes in rat brain was shown to react specifically with the 46-kDa isoform of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) (EC 3.1.4.37) in a number of species. Identification of the shorter isoform of the enzyme (CNP1) as the antigen was achieved by comparing the immunostaining of Western blots by the autoantibody with that of a well-characterized anti-CNP antiserum. The 46-kDa antigen reacting with the autoantibody exhibited the same Mr and pI as the small isoform of CNP on two-dimensional gels and showed a similar enrichment in purified CNS myelin. The autoantibody has very high affinity for CNP1 and is capable of detecting the very low amounts of this enzyme in peripheral nerve, spleen, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, and intestine. Testing the reactivity of the autoantibody with synthetic peptides by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that it reacted with the N-acetylated decapeptide corresponding to the N-terminus of CNP1, but did not react if the peptide was not acetylated or if the acetyl group was replaced with a palmityl group. The lack of reactivity with CNP2, which differs from CNP1 by a 20-amino acid extension at the N-terminus of the protein as a result of alternative splicing, may be due to the absence of the N-acetyl moiety that is part of the epitope and/or blocking of antibody binding to the decapeptide by extension of the polypeptide chain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1373178

  17. Discovery of new small molecules inhibiting 67 kDa laminin receptor interaction with laminin and cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Pesapane, Ada; Di Giovanni, Carmen; Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Alfano, Daniela; Formisano, Luigi; Ragno, Pia; Selleri, Carmine; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a non-integrin receptor for laminin (LM) that derives from a 37 kDa precursor (37LRP). 67LR expression is increased in neoplastic cells and correlates with an enhanced invasive and metastatic potential. We used structure-based virtual screening (SB-VS) to search for 67LR inhibitory small molecules, by focusing on a 37LRP sequence, the peptide G, able to specifically bind LM. Forty-six compounds were identified and tested on HEK-293 cells transfected with 37LRP/67LR (LR-293 cells). One compound, NSC47924, selectively inhibited LR-293 cell adhesion to LM with IC50 and Ki values of 19.35 and 2.45 μmol/L. NSC47924 engaged residues W176 and L173 of peptide G, critical for specific LM binding. Indeed, NSC47924 inhibited in vitro binding of recombinant 37LRP to both LM and its YIGSR fragment. NSC47924 also impaired LR-293 cell migration to LM and cell invasion. A subsequent hierarchical similarity search with NSC47924 led to the identification of additional four compounds inhibiting LR-293 cell binding to LM: NSC47923, NSC48478, NSC48861, and NSC48869, with IC50 values of 1.99, 1.76, 3.4, and 4.0 μmol/L, respectively, and able to block in vitro cancer cell invasion. These compounds are promising scaffolds for future drug design and discovery efforts in cancer progression. PMID:26062445

  18. ATPase active-site electrostatic interactions control the global conformation of the 100 kDa SecA translocase

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dorothy M.; Zheng, Haiyan; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Hunt, John F.

    2013-01-01

    SecA is an intensively studied mechanoenzyme that uses ATP hydrolysis to drive processive extrusion of secreted proteins through a protein-conducting channel in the cytoplasmic membrane of eubacteria. The ATPase motor of SecA is strongly homologous to that in DEAD-box RNA helicases. It remains unclear how local chemical events in its ATPase active site control the overall conformation of an ~100 kDa multidomain enzyme and drive protein transport. In this paper, we use biophysical methods to establish that a single electrostatic charge in the ATPase active site controls the global conformation of SecA. The enzyme undergoes an ATP-modulated endothermic conformational transition (ECT) believed to involve similar structural mechanics to the protein transport reaction. We have characterized the effects of an isosteric glutamate-to-glutamine mutation in the catalytic base, which mimics the immediate electrostatic consequences of ATP hydrolysis in the active site. Calorimetric studies demonstrate that this mutation facilitates the ECT in E. coli SecA and triggers it completely in B. subtilis SecA. Consistent with the substantial increase in entropy observed in the course of the ECT, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry demonstrates that it increases protein backbone dynamics in domain-domain interfaces at remote locations from the ATPase active site. The catalytic glutamate is one of ~250 charged amino acids in SecA, and yet neutralization of its sidechain charge is sufficient to trigger a global order-disorder transition in this 100 kDa enzyme. The intricate network of structural interactions mediating this effect couples local electrostatic changes during ATP hydrolysis to global conformational and dynamic changes in SecA. This network forms the foundation of the allosteric mechanochemistry that efficiently harnesses the chemical energy stored in ATP to drive complex mechanical processes. PMID:23167435

  19. Structural and functional studies of a 50 kDa antigenic protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Choong, Yee Siew; Lim, Theam Soon; Chew, Ai Lan; Aziah, Ismail; Ismail, Asma

    2011-04-01

    The high typhoid incidence rate in developing and under-developed countries emphasizes the need for a rapid, affordable and accessible diagnostic test for effective therapy and disease management. TYPHIDOT®, a rapid dot enzyme immunoassay test for typhoid, was developed from the discovery of a ∼50 kDa protein specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. However, the structure of this antigen remains unknown till today. Studies on the structure of this antigen are important to elucidate its function, which will in turn increase the efficiency of the development and improvement of the typhoid detection test. This paper described the predictive structure and function of the antigenically specific protein. The homology modeling approach was employed to construct the three-dimensional structure of the antigen. The built structure possesses the features of TolC-like outer membrane protein. Molecular docking simulation was also performed to further probe the functionality of the antigen. Docking results showed that hexamminecobalt, Co(NH(3))(6)(3+), as an inhibitor of TolC protein, formed favorable hydrogen bonds with D368 and D371 of the antigen. The single point (D368A, D371A) and double point (D368A and D371A) mutations of the antigen showed a decrease (single point mutation) and loss (double point mutations) of binding affinity towards hexamminecobalt. The architecture features of the built model and the docking simulation reinforced and supported that this antigen is indeed the variant of outer membrane protein, TolC. As channel proteins are important for the virulence and survival of bacteria, therefore this ∼50 kDa channel protein is a good specific target for typhoid detection test. PMID:21371926

  20. A 31-kDa seminal plasma heparin-binding protein reduces cold shock stress during cryopreservation of cross-bred cattle bull semen.

    PubMed

    Patel, M K; Cheema, R S; Bansal, A K; Gandotra, V K

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a 31-kDa protein, purified from cattle bull seminal plasma heparin-binding proteins (SP-HBP), was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Raw semen of six cross-bred bulls was treated with 31-kDa HBP before cryopreservation to observe its effect on motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test, acrosome integrity, in vitro capacitation/acrosome reaction, and oxidative stress at pre-freeze and frozen-thawed phases of cryopreservation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 31-kDa protein eluted and purified from SP-HBP (separated on acrylamide gels) resulted in a single band of 40 kDa. In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis, 12 peptides were identified with matching significantly (P < 0.05) to interlukin-6 of bovine with a top score of 55. Addition of 25 μg/mL of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated 31-kDa protein to raw semen and incubation at 37 °C for 20 minutes before cryopreservation resulted in its binding mainly to head region. Treatment of semen with 31-kDa HBP resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) average increase of 9.2%, 6.8%, and 11.7% and 5.5%, 6.5%, and 11.0% in motile, viable, hypo-osmotic swelling-responsive spermatozoa in six bulls at pre-freeze and frozen-thawed phases of cryopreservation, respectively. Percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes nonsignificantly enhanced in the semen treated with 31-kDa HBP at both phases of cryopreservation. An average nonsignificant increase of 3.1% in in vitro capacitated and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was obtained in semen supplemented with 31-kDa HBP. Addition of 31-kDa HBP also nonsignificantly reduced Malonadialdehyde (MDA) level by 10.7 and 19.3 μM/10(9) spermatozoa in prefrozen and frozen-thawed semen, respectively. The results obtained here indicate to conclude that treatment of cross-bred cattle bull semen with 31-kDa HBP protects the spermatozoa

  1. Evolution of a transcriptional regulator from a transmembrane nucleoporin.

    PubMed

    Franks, Tobias M; Benner, Chris; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Marchetto, Maria C N; Young, Janet M; Malik, Harmit S; Gage, Fred H; Hetzer, Martin W

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) emerged as nuclear transport channels in eukaryotic cells ∼1.5 billion years ago. While the primary role of NPCs is to regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, recent research suggests that certain NPC proteins have additionally acquired the role of affecting gene expression at the nuclear periphery and in the nucleoplasm in metazoans. Here we identify a widely expressed variant of the transmembrane nucleoporin (Nup) Pom121 (named sPom121, for "soluble Pom121") that arose by genomic rearrangement before the divergence of hominoids. sPom121 lacks the nuclear membrane-anchoring domain and thus does not localize to the NPC. Instead, sPom121 colocalizes and interacts with nucleoplasmic Nup98, a previously identified transcriptional regulator, at gene promoters to control transcription of its target genes in human cells. Interestingly, sPom121 transcripts appear independently in several mammalian species, suggesting convergent innovation of Nup-mediated transcription regulation during mammalian evolution. Our findings implicate alternate transcription initiation as a mechanism to increase the functional diversity of NPC components. PMID:27198230

  2. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Naoyuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate), Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells. PMID:26308057

  3. Enhanced T cell responsiveness to Mycobacterium bovis BCG r32-kDa Ag correlates with successful anti-tuberculosis treatment in humans.

    PubMed

    Sai Priya, V Hari; Latha, G Suman; Hasnain, Seyed E; Murthy, K J R; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2010-12-01

    Th1 and Th2 cytokines play key role in protection from and pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection and their dynamic changes may predict clinical outcome of the patient. Patients with tuberculosis (TB) have a poorer cellular immune response to recombinant 32-kDa antigen (Ag) of Mycobacterium bovis (r32-kDa M. bovis) than do healthy volunteers. The basis for this observation was studied by evaluating the Th1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) produced in response to the r32-kDa Ag M. bovis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with pulmonary TB (n=20), extra-pulmonary TB (n=13) and from healthy volunteers (n=9). Recombinant 32-kDa M. bovis stimulated PBMC from TB patients produced significantly lower levels of IFN-γ at 0 month, and increased at 2-4, and 6 months of treatment and were highly significant (p<0.000) compared to the responses in controls. The ratios of IFN-γ to IL-10 were low in patients newly diagnosed and improved both during and after treatment. The present study concludes that the levels of in vitro response to M. bovis BCG r32-kDa Ag leading to the specific release of IFN-γ increased after anti-tuberculosis treatment and seems to reflect the clinical status of the patient, thus reiterating the utility of this antigen in T cell based assays as a surrogate marker of cell mediated responses. PMID:20797873

  4. Evolutionary analyses of the 12-kDa acidic ribosomal P-proteins reveal a distinct protein of higher plant ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Szick, Kathleen; Springer, Mark; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    1998-01-01

    The P-protein complex of eukaryotic ribosomes forms a lateral stalk structure in the active site of the large ribosomal subunit and is thought to assist in the elongation phase of translation by stimulating GTPase activity of elongation factor-2 and removal of deacylated tRNA. The complex in animals, fungi, and protozoans is composed of the acidic phosphoproteins P0 (35 kDa), P1 (11–12 kDa), and P2 (11–12 kDa). Previously we demonstrated by protein purification and microsequencing that ribosomes of maize (Zea mays L.) contain P0, one type of P1, two types of P2, and a distinct P1/P2 type protein designated P3. Here we implemented distance matrices, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining analyses to assess the evolutionary relationships between the 12 kDa P-proteins of maize and representative eukaryotic species. The analyses identify P3, found to date only in mono- and dicotyledonous plants, as an evolutionarily distinct P-protein. Plants possess three distinct groups of 12 kDa P-proteins (P1, P2, and P3), whereas animals, fungi, and protozoans possess only two distinct groups (P1 and P2). These findings demonstrate that the P-protein complex has evolved into a highly divergent complex with respect to protein composition despite its critical position within the active site of the ribosome. PMID:9482893

  5. Ca2+ release by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is blocked by the K(+)-channel blockers apamin and tetrapentylammonium ion, and a monoclonal antibody to a 63 kDa membrane protein: reversal of blockade by K+ ionophores nigericin and valinomycin and purification of the 63 kDa antibody-binding protein.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, F; Soons, K; Flaumenhauft, R; Watras, J; Baio-Larue, C; Matthews, E; Feinstein, M B

    1994-06-15

    Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release from platelet membrane vesicles was blocked by apamin, a selective inhibitor of low-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, and by tetrapentylammonium ion, and was weakly inhibited by tetraethylammonium ion. Other K(+)-channel blockers, i.e. charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridine and glybenclamide were ineffective. A monoclonal antibody (mAb 213-21) obtained by immunizing mice with the InsP3-sensitive membrane fraction from platelets also blocked Ca2+ release by InsP3 from membrane vesicles obtained from platelets, cerebellum, aortic smooth muscle, HEL cells and sea-urchin eggs. ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and binding of [3H]InsP3 to platelet membranes was unaffected by either K(+)-channel blockers or mAb 213-21. Blockade of Ca2+ release by apamin, tetrapentylammonium and mAb 213-21 was not affected by the Na+/H+ carrier monensin or the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), but could be completely reversed by the K+/H+ ionophore nigericin and partially reversed by the K+ carrier valinomycin. The antibody-binding protein (ABP) solubilized from platelets, cerebellum, and smooth muscle chromatographed identically on gel filtration, anion-exchange and heparin-TSK h.p.l.c. ABP was purified to apparent homogeneity from platelets and aortic smooth muscle as a 63 kDa protein by immunoaffinity chromatography on mAb 213-21-agarose. These results suggest that optimal Ca2+ release by InsP3 from platelet membrane vesicles may require the tandem function of a K+ channel. A counterflow of K+ ions could prevent the build-up of a membrane potential (inside negative) that would tend to oppose Ca2+ release. The 63 kDa protein may function to regulate K+ permeability that is coupled to the Ca2+ efflux via the InsP3 receptor. PMID:8010949

  6. Characterization of a cDNA encoding a 34-kDa Purkinje neuron protein recognized by sera from patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Furneaux, H.M.; Dropcho, E.J.; Barbut, D.; Chen, Yaotseng; Rosenblum, M.K.; Old, L.J.; Posner, J.B. )

    1989-04-01

    Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a neurological disorder of unknown cause occurring in patients with an identified or occult cancer. An autoimmune etiology is likely since autoantibodies directed against the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum have been found in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of some patients. Two Purkinje cell-specific antigens are recognized by these autoantibodies, a major antigen of 62 kDa (CDR 62, cerebellar degeneration-related 62-kDa protein) and a minor antigen of 34 kDa (CDR 34). Previous studies have described the isolation and characterization of a human cerebellar cDNA that encodes an epitope recognized by sera from patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. The authors have now established by two independent methods that this gene is uniquely expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and corresponds to the minor antigen CDR 34. This antigen is also expressed in tumor tissue from a patient with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.

  7. Regulation of thymosin beta 4 in chicken macrophages by toll like receptor activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thymosin beta 4 (TB4) is a 5kDa peptide that binds to the cytoskeletal protein actin and regulates cell motility. At the extracellular level it also promotes chemotaxis, wound healing and angiogenesis. However, the mechanism responsible for the regulation of TB4 production and its secretion to the e...

  8. Silencing the Nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc Transferase Reduces Proliferation, Adhesion, and Migration of Cancer and Fetal Human Colon Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Steenackers, Agata; Olivier-Van Stichelen, Stéphanie; Baldini, Steffi F; Dehennaut, Vanessa; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; El Yazidi-Belkoura, Ikram; Lefebvre, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is regulated by a unique couple of enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) transfers the GlcNAc residue from UDP-GlcNAc, the final product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes it. This study and others show that OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are increased in cancer cell lines. In that context, we studied the effect of OGT silencing in the colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 and the primary colon cell line CCD841CoN. Herein, we report that OGT silencing diminished proliferation, in vitro cell survival and adhesion of primary and cancer cell lines. SiOGT dramatically decreased HT29 and CCD841CoN migration, CCD841CoN harboring high capabilities of migration in Boyden chamber system when compared to HT29 and HCT116. The expression levels of actin and tubulin were unaffected by OGT knockdown but siOGT seemed to disorganize microfilament, microtubule, and vinculin networks in CCD841CoN. While cancer cell lines harbor higher levels of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation to fulfill their proliferative and migratory properties, in agreement with their higher consumption of HBP main substrates glucose and glutamine, our data demonstrate that OGT expression is not only necessary for the biological properties of cancer cell lines but also for normal cells. PMID:27252680

  9. Silencing the Nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc Transferase Reduces Proliferation, Adhesion, and Migration of Cancer and Fetal Human Colon Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Steenackers, Agata; Olivier-Van Stichelen, Stéphanie; Baldini, Steffi F.; Dehennaut, Vanessa; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; El Yazidi-Belkoura, Ikram; Lefebvre, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is regulated by a unique couple of enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) transfers the GlcNAc residue from UDP-GlcNAc, the final product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes it. This study and others show that OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are increased in cancer cell lines. In that context, we studied the effect of OGT silencing in the colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 and the primary colon cell line CCD841CoN. Herein, we report that OGT silencing diminished proliferation, in vitro cell survival and adhesion of primary and cancer cell lines. SiOGT dramatically decreased HT29 and CCD841CoN migration, CCD841CoN harboring high capabilities of migration in Boyden chamber system when compared to HT29 and HCT116. The expression levels of actin and tubulin were unaffected by OGT knockdown but siOGT seemed to disorganize microfilament, microtubule, and vinculin networks in CCD841CoN. While cancer cell lines harbor higher levels of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation to fulfill their proliferative and migratory properties, in agreement with their higher consumption of HBP main substrates glucose and glutamine, our data demonstrate that OGT expression is not only necessary for the biological properties of cancer cell lines but also for normal cells. PMID:27252680

  10. The 59 kDa FK506-binding protein, a 90 kDa heat shock protein binding immunophilin (FKBP59-HBI), is associated with the nucleus, the cytoskeleton and mitotic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Perrot-Applanat, M; Cibert, C; Géraud, G; Renoir, J M; Baulieu, E E

    1995-05-01

    FKBP59-HBI, a 59 kDa FK506 binding protein which binds the 90 kDa heat shock protein hsp90 and thus is a heat shock protein binding immunophilin (HBI), was originally discovered in association with unliganded steroid receptors in their heat shock protein containing heterooligomer form. It belongs to a growing family including other FKBPs which bind the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin, and cyclophilins which bind cyclosporin A, all having rotamase (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) activity which may be involved in protein folding. Targets for drug-immunophilin complexes have been mostly studied in vivo in T lymphocytes; however, immunophilins are present in all cell types, where their role and distribution are still unknown. Here we report the localization of FKBP59-HBI in various non lymphoid cells (mouse fibroblasts (L-929), monkey kidney cells (Cos-7), Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCK), and mouse neuronal cells (GT1)). Two polyclonal antipeptide antibodies directed against the C-terminal end (amino acids 441-458) (Ab 173) or the sequence 182-201 (Ab 790) of the FKBP59-HBI were used in light and confocal laser immunofluorescence. FKBP59-HBI was found in the cytoplasm and nucleus of interphase cells. Specific immunofluorescence was much stronger in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus when using Ab 173, and stronger in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm with Ab 790. Detailed observations of L-cells, which have a particularly flat morphology, showed a punctate as well as a fibrous cytoskeletal staining in the cytoplasm using antibody 173, a result which suggests interactions of FKBP59-HBI with an organized network. Colocalization experiments (using antibodies against tubulin, vimentin or actin) and use of cytoskeletal-disrupting drugs revealed partial association of FKBP59-HBI with the microtubules. Western blot experiments confirmed that the protein was present in the subcellular fractions containing either 'soluble' proteins released from

  11. Correlation between phosphorylation level of a hippocampal 86kDa protein and extinction of a behaviour in a model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pires, Rita G W; Pereira, Sílvia R C; Carvalho, Fabiana M; Oliveira-Silva, Ieda F; Ferraz, Vany P; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2007-06-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol and thiamine deficiency, alone or associated, on hippocampal protein phosphorylation profiles ranging in molecular weight from 30 to 250kDa molecular weight, in stimulated (high K(+) concentration) and unstimulated (basal) conditions were investigated. These treatments significantly changed the phosphorylation level of an 86kDa phosphoprotein. Thiamine deficiency, but not chronic ethanol, induced a decrease in a behavioural extinction index, which is significantly correlated to the phosphorylation level of the p86 protein. These data add to and extend previous findings by our laboratory implicating the involvement of hippocampal neurotransmission components in extinction of a behaviour which involves learning of environmental spatial cues. PMID:17395279

  12. The 53-kDa proteolytic product of precursor starch-hydrolyzing enzyme of Aspergillus niger has Taka-amylase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Ravi-Kumar, K; Venkatesh, K S; Umesh-Kumar, S

    2007-04-01

    The 53-kDa amylase secreted by Aspergillus niger due to proteolytic processing of the precursor starch-hydrolyzing enzyme was resistant to acarbose, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. The enzyme production was induced when A. niger was grown in starch medium containing the inhibitor. Antibodies against the precursor enzyme cross-reacted with the 54-kDa Taka-amylase protein of A. oryzae. It resembled Taka-amylase in most of its properties and also hydrolyzed starch to maltose of alpha-anomeric configuration. However, it did not degrade maltotriose formed during the reaction and was not inhibited by zinc ions. PMID:17123073

  13. Characterizations of two distinct Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins of 68-kDa isolated from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Owada, M K; Sonobe, S; Kakunaga, T

    1989-10-15

    Two distinct 68-kDa proteins, named 68K-I (pI 6.4) and 68K-II (pI 5.6), were solubilized from human placenta by treatment with 5 mM EGTA. On DE52 cellulose column chromatography at pH 7.4, 68K-I in the EGTA eluate was recovered in the unadsorbed fractions, whereas 68K-II was retained on the column and eluted with 0.2 M NaCl. The 68K-I protein was obtained in more than 95% purity by further hydroxylapatite and cation exchange chromatographies, while the 68K-II protein was purified further by gel filtration and hydroxylapatite chromatographies. Partial amino acid sequence data showed that 68K-I protein was a novel protein which shared the same sequences as lipocortin I and that 68K-II was the same as human p68/67-kDa calelectrin (Crompton, M. R., Owens, R. J., Totty, N. F., Moss, S. E., Waterfield, M.D., and Crumpton, M. J. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 21-27; Südhof, T. C., Slaughter, C. A., Leznicki, I., Barjon, P., and Reynolds, G. A. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 664-668). The two proteins bound to acidic phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylinositol, but not to phosphatidylcholine, in the presence of micromolar levels of Ca2+. 68K-I bound to phosphatidylinositol preferentially to phosphatidylserine, whereas 68K-II bound only to phosphatidylserine. Both 68K-I and 68K-II inhibited phospholipase A2 activity, and the inhibition by 68K-II was detectable only in the presence of 100 mM KCl. 68K-I, but not 68K-II, was found to bind to F-actin in a Ca2+-dependent (1 mM) manner. Moreover 68K-I, but not 68K-II, was phosphorylated in vitro at tyrosine residues by fps kinase and by epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase, the latter reaction being dependent on Ca2+ and epidermal growth factor. Western blot analysis with affinity purified anti-68K-I and anti-68K-II antibodies showed that 68K-I was located in only certain tissues, especially human placenta, whereas 68K-II was present in many human and rat tissues. PMID:2529258

  14. Class IIa Histone Deacetylases Are Conserved Regulators of Circadian Function*

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Paul C. M.; O'Neill, John S.; Dobrzycki, Tomasz; Calvert, Shaun; Lord, Emma C.; McIntosh, Rebecca L. L.; Elliott, Christopher J. H.; Sweeney, Sean T.; Hastings, Michael H.; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the activity of many transcription factors to influence liver gluconeogenesis and the development of specialized cells, including muscle, neurons, and lymphocytes. Here, we describe a conserved role for class IIa HDACs in sustaining robust circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila and cellular rhythms in mammalian cells. In mouse fibroblasts, overexpression of HDAC5 severely disrupts transcriptional rhythms of core clock genes. HDAC5 overexpression decreases BMAL1 acetylation on Lys-537 and pharmacological inhibition of class IIa HDACs increases BMAL1 acetylation. Furthermore, we observe cyclical nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC5 in mouse fibroblasts that is characteristically circadian. Mutation of the Drosophila homolog HDAC4 impairs locomotor activity rhythms of flies and decreases period mRNA levels. RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 in Drosophila clock cells also dampens circadian function. Given that the localization of class IIa HDACs is signal-regulated and influenced by Ca2+ and cAMP signals, our findings offer a mechanism by which extracellular stimuli that generate these signals can feed into the molecular clock machinery. PMID:25271152

  15. The 51 kDa FADS3 is secreted in the ECM of hepatocytes and blood in rat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Hélène; Boulier-Monthéan, Nathalie; Legrand, Philippe; Pédrono, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase (Fads) cluster is composed of three genes encoding for the Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and FADS3. The two former proteins are involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis; the latter one shares a high sequence identity but has still no attributed function. In a previous work performed in rat, we described three isoforms of FADS3 expressed in a tissue-dependent manner. In the present study, we demonstrated a specific subcellular targeting depending on the isoform. In cultured hepatocytes, which mainly expressed the 51 kDa protein, FADS3 was unexpectedly present in the cytosolic fraction, but was also secreted in the extracellular matrix on fibronectin-containing fibers. The secretion pathway was investigated and we determined the presence of exosome-like vesicles on the FADS3-stained fibers. In parallel, FADS3 was detected in blood of hepatic vessel, and particularly in serum. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a very specific intra- and extracellular location of FADS3 in comparison with the Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases, suggesting a unique function for this putative desaturase, even if no activity has been yet identified neither in the extracellular matrix of hepatocytes nor in serum. PMID:23966218

  16. Control of crystal polymorph in microfluidics using molluscan 28 kDa Ca²(+)-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bozhi; Cusack, Maggie; Freer, Andy; Dobson, Phil S; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Yin, Huabing

    2010-10-01

    Biominerals produced by biological systems in physiologically relevant environments possess extraordinary properties that are often difficult to replicate under laboratory conditions. Understanding the mechanism that underlies the process of biomineralisation can lead to novel strategies in the development of advanced materials. Using microfluidics, we have demonstrated for the first time, that an extrapallial (EP) 28 kDa protein, located in the extrapallial compartment between mantle and shell of Mytilus edulis, can influence, at both micro- and nanoscopic levels, the morphology, structure and polymorph that is laid down in the shell ultrastructure. Crucially, this influence is predominantly dependent on the existence of an EP protein concentration gradient and its consecutive interaction with Ca²(+) ions. Novel lemon-shaped hollow vaterite structures with a clearly defined nanogranular assembly occur only where particular EP protein and Ca²(+) gradients co-exist. Computational fluid dynamics enabled the progress of the reaction to be mapped and the influence of concentration gradients across the device to be calculated. Importantly, these findings could not have been observed using conventional bulk mixing methods. Our findings not only provide direct experimental evidence of the potential influence of EP proteins in crystal formation, but also offer a new biomimetic strategy to develop functional biomaterials for applications such as encapsulation and drug delivery. PMID:20820629

  17. A stable and functional single peptide phycoerythrin (15.45 kDa) from Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Joshi, Meghna; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-03-01

    A functional and stable truncated-phycoerythrin (T-PE) was found as a result of spontaneous in vitro truncation. Truncation was noticed to occur during storage of purified native-phycoerythrin (N-PE) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. SDS and native-PAGE analysis revealed the truncation of N-PE, containing α (19.0 kDa)--and β (21.5 kDa)--subunits to the only single peptide of ∼15.45 kDa (T-PE). The peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MS/MS analysis indicated that T-PE is the part of α-subunit of N-PE. UV-visible absorption peak of N-PE was found to split into two peaks (540 and 565 nm) after truncation, suggesting the alterations in its folded state. The emission spectra of both N-PE and T-PE show the emission band centered at 581 nm (upon excitation at 559 nm) suggested the maintenance of fluorescence even after significant truncation. Urea-induced denaturation and Gibbs-free energy (ΔGD°) calculations suggested that the folding and structural stability of T-PE was almost similar to that of N-PE. Presented bunch of evidences revealed the truncation in N-PE without perturbing its folding, structural stability and functionality (fluorescence), and thereby suggested its applicability in fluorescence based biomedical techniques where smaller fluorescence molecules are more preferable. PMID:25485942

  18. Microsporidia, amitochondrial protists, possess a 70-kDa heat shock protein gene of mitochondrial evolutionary origin.

    PubMed

    Peyretaillade, E; Broussolle, V; Peyret, P; Méténier, G; Gouy, M; Vivarès, C P

    1998-06-01

    An intronless gene encoding a protein of 592 amino acid residues with similarity to 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70s) has been cloned and sequenced from the amitochondrial protist Encephalitozoon cuniculi (phylum Microsporidia). Southern blot analyses show the presence of a single gene copy located on chromosome XI. The encoded protein exhibits an N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence and two motifs shared by proteobacterial and mitochondrially expressed HSP70 homologs. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and evolutionary distances place the E. cuniculi sequence in the cluster of mitochondrially expressed HSP70s, with a higher evolutionary rate than those of homologous sequences. Similar results were obtained after cloning a fragment of the homologous gene in the closely related species E. hellem. The presence of a nuclear targeting signal-like sequence supports a role of the Encephalitozoon HSP70 as a molecular chaperone of nuclear proteins. No evidence for cytosolic or endoplasmic reticulum forms of HSP70 was obtained through PCR amplification. These data suggest that Encephalitozoon species have evolved from an ancestor bearing mitochondria, which is in disagreement with the postulated presymbiotic origin of Microsporidia. The specific role and intracellular localization of the mitochondrial HSP70-like protein remain to be elucidated. PMID:9615449

  19. Ultrahigh-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations of Conformers for Proteins above 10 kDa: Onset of Dipole Alignment?

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2014-11-04

    Biomacromolecules tend to assume numerous structures in solution or the gas phase. It has been possible to resolve disparate conformational families but not unique geometries within each, and drastic peak broadening has been the bane of protein analyses by chromatography, electrophoresis, and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The new differential IMS (FAIMS) approach using hydrogen-rich gases was recently found to separate conformers of a small protein ubiquitin with same peak width and resolving power up to ~400 as for peptides. Present work explores the reach of this approach for larger proteins, exemplified by cytochrome c and myoglobin. Resolution similar to that for ubiquitin was largely achieved with longer separations, while the onset of peak broadening and coalescence with shorter separations suggests the limitation of present technique to proteins under ~20 kDa. This capability may enable distinguishing whole proteins with differing residue sequences or localizations of posttranslational modifications. Small features at negative compensation voltages that markedly grow from cytochrome c to myoglobin indicate the dipole alignment of rare conformers in accord with theory, further supporting the concept of pendular macroions in FAIMS.

  20. Reduction of Gap Junctional Conductance by Microinjection of Antibodies against the 27-kDa Liver Gap Junction Polypeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, E. L.; Spray, D. C.; Bennett, M. V. L.

    1985-04-01

    Antibody raised against isolated rat liver gap junctions was microinjected into coupled cells in culture to assess its influence on gap junctional conductance. A rapid inhibition of fluorescent dye transfer and electrical coupling was produced in pairs of freshly dissociated adult rat hepatocytes and myocardial cells as well as in pairs of superior cervical ganglion neurons from neonatal rats cultured under conditions in which electrotonic synapses form. The antibodies have been shown by indirect immunofluorescence to bind to punctate regions of the plasma membrane in liver. By immunoreplica analysis of rat liver homogenates, plasma membranes, and isolated gap junctions resolved on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels, binding was shown to be specific for the 27-kDa major polypeptide of gap junctions. This and similar antibodies should provide a tool for further investigation of the role of cell-cell communication mediated by gap junctions and indicate that immunologically similar polypeptides comprise gap junctions in adult mammalian cells derived from all three germ layers.

  1. Locus NMB0035 codes for a 47-kDa surface-accessible conserved antigen in Neisseria.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Jesús; Abel, Ana; Sánchez, Sandra; Alcalá, Belén; Criado, María T; Ferreirós, Carlos M

    2006-12-01

    A47 kDa neisserial outer-membrane antigenic protein (P47) was purified to homogeneity and used to prepare polyclonal anti-P47 antisera. Protein P47 was identified by MALDI-TOF fingerprinting analysis as the hypothetical lipoprotein NMB0035. Two-dimensional diagonal SDS-PAGE results suggested that, contrary to previous findings, P47 is not strongly associated with other proteins in membrane complexes. Western blotting with the polyclonal monospecific serum showed that linear P47 epitopes were expressed in similar amounts in the 27 Neisseria meningitidis strains tested and, to a lesser extent, in commensal Neisseria, particularly N. lactamica. However, dot-blotting assays with the same serum demonstrated binding variability between meningococcal strains, indicating differences in surface accessibility or steric hindrance by other surface structures. Specific anti-P47 antibodies were bactericidal against the homologous strain but had variable activity against heterologous strains, consistent with the results from dot-blotting experiments. An in-depth study of P47 is necessary to evaluate its potential as a candidate for new vaccine designs. PMID:17236161

  2. Antigenicity, cross-reactivity and surface exposure of the Neisseria meningitidis 37 kDa protein (Fbp).

    PubMed

    Gómez, J A; Agra, C; Ferrón, L; Powell, N; Pintor, M; Criado, M T; Ferreirós, C M

    1996-10-01

    The 37 kDa iron-repressible protein, Fbp, was purified from two Neisseria meningitidis strains by metal-affinity chromatography and used to obtain mouse monospecific polyclonal immune sera. Dot-blot, immunoblotting and whole cell ELISA results demonstrate that the Fbp is present in all 16 N. meningitidis and four commensal Neisseria species tested, is highly antigenic in mouse when injected in pure form, and shows intra- and inter-species antigenic homogeneity, anti-Fbp antibodies being fully cross-reactive using the techniques mentioned. We also found that Fbp molecules (or parts of them) are surface exposed, in disagreement with the proposed exclusively periplasmic localization, although anti-Fbp antibodies seem unable to block iron uptake or to induce complement-mediated killing of the meningococci. Taken along with the high immunogenicity of the purified protein and the complete cross-reactivity of the antibodies elicited, this suggests that the protective effect of the purified Fbp must be further studied to evaluate its inclusion in future vaccine trials. PMID:9004443

  3. Reduction of gap junctional conductance by microinjection of antibodies against the 27-kDa liver gap junction polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Hertzberg, E L; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V

    1985-01-01

    Antibody raised against isolated rat liver gap junctions was microinjected into coupled cells in culture to assess its influence on gap junctional conductance. A rapid inhibition of fluorescent dye transfer and electrical coupling was produced in pairs of freshly dissociated adult rat hepatocytes and myocardial cells as well as in pairs of superior cervical ganglion neurons from neonatal rats cultured under conditions in which electrotonic synapses form. The antibodies have been shown by indirect immunofluorescence to bind to punctate regions of the plasma membrane in liver. By immunoreplica analysis of rat liver homogenates, plasma membranes, and isolated gap junctions resolved on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels, binding was shown to be specific for the 27-kDa major polypeptide of gap junctions. This and similar antibodies should provide a tool for further investigation of the role of cell-cell communication mediated by gap junctions and indicate that immunologically similar polypeptides comprise gap junctions in adult mammalian cells derived from all three germ layers. Images PMID:2986116

  4. Synthetic biology design to display an 18 kDa rotavirus large antigen on a modular virus-like particle.

    PubMed

    Lua, Linda H L; Fan, Yuanyuan; Chang, Cindy; Connors, Natalie K; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2015-11-01

    Virus-like particles are an established class of commercial vaccine possessing excellent function and proven stability. Exciting developments made possible by modern tools of synthetic biology has stimulated emergence of modular VLPs, whereby parts of one pathogen are by design integrated into a less harmful VLP which has preferential physical and manufacturing character. This strategy allows the immunologically protective parts of a pathogen to be displayed on the most-suitable VLP. However, the field of modular VLP design is immature, and robust design principles are yet to emerge, particularly for larger antigenic structures. Here we use a combination of molecular dynamic simulation and experiment to reveal two key design principles for VLPs. First, the linkers connecting the integrated antigenic module with the VLP-forming protein must be well designed to ensure structural separation and independence. Second, the number of antigenic domains on the VLP surface must be sufficiently below the maximum such that a "steric barrier" to VLP formation cannot exist. This second principle leads to designs whereby co-expression of modular protein with unmodified VLP-forming protein can titrate down the amount of antigen on the surface of the VLP, to the point where assembly can proceed. In this work we elucidate these principles by displaying the 18.1 kDa VP8* domain from rotavirus on the murine polyomavirus VLP, and show functional presentation of the antigenic structure. PMID:26387437

  5. A plastid-targeted heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein interacts with the Abutilon mosaic virus movement protein

    SciTech Connect

    Krenz, Bjoern; Windeisen, Volker; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger; Kleinow, Tatjana

    2010-05-25

    The movement protein (MP) of bipartite geminiviruses facilitates cell-to-cell as well as long-distance transport within plants and influences viral pathogenicity. Yeast two-hybrid assays identified a chaperone, the nuclear-encoded and plastid-targeted heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein (cpHSC70-1) of Arabidopsis thaliana, as a potential binding partner for the Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) MP. In planta, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis showed cpHSC70-1/MP complexes and MP homooligomers at the cell periphery and co-localized with chloroplasts. BiFC revealed cpHSC70-1 oligomers associated with chloroplasts, but also distributed at the cellular margin and in filaments arising from plastids reminiscent of stromules. Silencing the cpHSC70 gene of Nicotiana benthamiana using an AbMV DNA A-derived gene silencing vector induced minute white leaf areas, which indicate an effect on chloroplast stability. Although AbMV DNA accumulated within chlorotic spots, a spatial restriction of these occurred, suggesting a functional relevance of the MP-chaperone interaction for viral transport and symptom induction.

  6. Characterisation and expression of a cDNA encoding the 80-kDa large subunit of Schistosoma japonicum calpain.

    PubMed

    Scott, J C; McManus, D P

    2000-01-01

    We describe the cloning of a full length calpain-encoding cDNA constructed from two truncated cDNAs isolated from a cDNA library prepared with mRNA isolated from adult worms of the Philippine strain of Schistosoma japonicum. The cDNA sequence is 2.456 kb in length and predicts a protein of 758 residues with a molecular mass of 86.61 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.34. Probes spanning the entire calpain cDNA hybridised to multiple bands in genomic DNAs of Philippine (SjP) and Chinese (SjC) S. japonicum, with some restriction fragment length polymorphisms evident between the two strains. Northern hybridisation analysis indicated that the cDNA codes for a single RNA transcript between 2.6 and 3.6 kb in size in the SjP and SjC genomes. After subcloning in the QIA express vectors pQE-31 and pQE-40 and subsequent expression, the recombinant protein was purified and shown to bind calcium. The availability of recombinant S. japonicum calpain will allow its future evaluation as a vaccine candidate, especially in light of recent work with the S. mansoni homologue which has provided evidence that this protein may be a target of protective immunity. PMID:11227760

  7. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

  8. The Small Molecule R-(-)-β-O-Methylsynephrine Binds to Nucleoporin 153 kDa and Inhibits Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Pham, Ngoc Bich; Quinn, Ronald J.; Shim, Joong Sup; Cho, Hee; Cho, Sung Min; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Jeong Hun; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Oh, Jong-Won; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2015-01-01

    R-(-)-β-O-methylsynephrine (OMe-Syn) is a naturally occurring small molecule that was identified in a previous screen as an inhibitor of angiogenesis. In this study, we conducted two animal model experiments to investigate the in vivo antiangiogenic activity of OMe-Syn. OMe-Syn significantly inhibited angiogenesis in a transgenic zebrafish model as well as in a mouse retinopathy model. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the antiangiogenic activity of OMe-Syn, we used phage display cloning to isolate potential OMe-Syn binding proteins from human cDNA libraries and identified nucleoporin 153 kDa (NUP153) as a primary binding partner of OMe-Syn. OMe-Syn competitively inhibited mRNA binding to the RNA-binding domain of NUP153. Furthermore, depletion of NUP153 in human cells or zebrafish embryos led to an inhibition of angiogenesis, in a manner similar to that seen in response to OMe-Syn treatment. These data suggest that OMe-Syn is a promising candidate for the development of a novel antiangiogenic agent and that inhibition of NUP153 is possibly responsible for the antiangiogenic activity of OMe-Syn. PMID:26221075

  9. The effects of PK11195 on meningioma was associated with allopregnanolone biosynthesis, which was mediated by translocator protein 18 KDa.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Bin; Lin, Qing; Qin, Qiang; Liang, Yao-Jun; Zhou, Lu; Luo, Min

    2016-01-01

    Meningioma is one of the common brain tumors in adults. It had been shown that the allopregnanolone biosynthesis was associated with tumorigenesis and PK11195, the translocator protein 18 KDa (TSPO) antagonist, had the effects of the allopregnanolone biosynthesis. However, little is known about the association between the effects of PK11195 on meningioma and the allopregnanolone biosynthesis. To evaluate this, the meningioma cell line IOMM-LEE was applied. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by CCK-8 assay. The IC50 of PK11195 on the IOMM-LEE was 1.505 ± 0.08 nM. The cell viability and proliferation of AC-5216 (TSPO selective ligand, 2 and 4 nM) was blocked by PK11195 (1.5 nM). Further, we evaluated the role of allopregnanolone biosynthesis in the effects of TSPO on meningioma. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) was used in the measurement of the allopregnanolone level. It showed that the allopregnanolone level was increased by AC-5216 (2 and 4 nM) and the increase was reversed by PK11195 (1.5 nM). Collectedly, it firstly indicated that the effects of PK11195 on meningioma were relevant to the decrease of allopregnanolone biosynthesis, which was mediated by TSPO. PMID:26835706

  10. Identification of a novel sarcoglycan gene at 5q33 encoding a sarcolemmal 35 kDa glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nigro, V; Piluso, G; Belsito, A; Politano, L; Puca, A A; Papparella, S; Rossi, E; Viglietto, G; Esposito, M G; Abbondanza, C; Medici, N; Molinari, A M; Nigro, G; Puca, G A

    1996-08-01

    Mutations in any of the genes encoding the alpha, beta or gamma-sarcoglycan components of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins result in both sporadic and familial cases of either limb-girdle muscular dystrophy or severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy. The collective name 'sarcoglycanopathies' has been proposed for these forms. We report the identification of a fourth member of the human sarcoglycan family. We named this novel cDNA delta-sarcoglycan. Its mRNA expression is abundant in striated and smooth muscles, with a main 8 kb transcript, encoding a predicted basic transmembrane glycoprotein of 290 amino acids. Antibodies specifically raised against this protein recognized a single band at 35 kDa on western blots of human and mouse muscle. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a unique sarcolemmal localization. FISH, radiation hybrid and YAC mapping concordantly linked the delta-sarcoglycan gene to 5q33, close to D5S487 and D5S1439. The gene spans at least 100 kb and is composed of eight exons. The identification of a novel sarcoglycan component modifies the current model of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. PMID:8842738

  11. Characterization of a 60-kDa Thermally Stable Antigenic Protein as a Marker for the Immunodetection of Bovine Plasma-Derived Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2015-08-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (Bb3D6 and Bb6G12) that recognize a 60-kDa antigenic protein in bovine blood was previously developed for detecting bovine blood in animal feed for the prevention of mad cow disease. This study sought to establish the identity of this 60-kDa antigenic protein and consequently determine the suitability of the sELISA for detecting bovine plasma-derived food ingredients (BPFIs), which are widely used in dietary products without explicit labeling. Results from western blot confirmed the 60-kDa protein to be present in the plasma fraction of bovine blood. Further proteomic analyses involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) and amino acid sequencing revealed the 60-kDa protein to be bovine serum albumin (BSA). The sELISA proved capable of detecting BPFIs in all the commercial dietary supplements tested, including those that were formulated with hydrolyzed BPFIs. The assay could also detect 0.01% and 0.5% of different BPFIs in spiked raw and cooked ground beef, respectively. This assay based on the detection of BSA therefore has the potential to become a valuable analytical tool to protect consumers who avoid consuming BPFIs for religious, health, or ethical reasons. PMID:26172875

  12. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for carrot extensin and a proline-rich 33-kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Varner, J.E.

    1985-07-01

    Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins associated with most dicotyledonous plant cell walls. To isolate cDNA clones encoding extensin, the authors started by isolating poly(A) RNA from carrot root tissue, and then translating the RNA in vitro, in the presence of tritiated leucine or proline. A 33-kDa peptide was identified in the translation products as a putative extensin precursor. From a cDNA library constructed with poly(A) RNA from wounded carrots, one cDNA clone (pDC5) was identified that specifically hybridized to poly(A) RNA encoding this 33-kDa peptide. They isolated three cDNA clones (pDC11, pDC12, and pDC16) from another cDNA library using pCD5 as a probe. DNA sequence data, RNA hybridization analysis, and hybrid released in vitro translation indicate that the cDNA clones pDC11 encodes extensin and that cDNA clones pDC12 and pDC16 encode the 33-kDa peptide, which as yet has an unknown identity and function. The assumption that the 33-kDa peptide was an extensin precursor was invalid. RNA hybridization analysis showed that RNA encoded by both clone types is accumulated upon wounding.

  13. A DOUBLE KNOCKOUT; A NOVEL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING STRESS-INDUCIBLE 70 KDA HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS (HSP70S) ON DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heat and chemical toxicants which disrupt spermatogenesis and cause male infertility are thought to induce the expression of Hsp70-1 and 70-3, the major inducible heat shock proteins of the 70kDa family. Previous studies from several laboratories including our own have characteri...

  14. Looking into laminin receptor: critical discussion regarding the non-integrin 37/67-kDa laminin receptor/RPSA protein.

    PubMed

    DiGiacomo, Vincent; Meruelo, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LAMR/RPSA) was originally identified as a 67-kDa binding protein for laminin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that provides cellular adhesion to the basement membrane. LAMR has evolutionary origins, however, as a 37-kDa RPS2 family ribosomal component. Expressed in all domains of life, RPS2 proteins have been shown to have remarkably diverse physiological roles that vary across species. Contributing to laminin binding, ribosome biogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and nuclear functions, this protein governs critical cellular processes including growth, survival, migration, protein synthesis, development, and differentiation. Unsurprisingly given its purview, LAMR has been associated with metastatic cancer, neurodegenerative disease and developmental abnormalities. Functioning in a receptor capacity, this protein also confers susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection. LAMR is clearly a molecule of consequence in human disease, directly mediating pathological events that make it a prime target for therapeutic interventions. Despite decades of research, there are still a large number of open questions regarding the cellular biology of LAMR, the nature of its ability to bind laminin, the function of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal region and its conversion from 37 to 67 kDa. This review attempts to convey an in-depth description of the complexity surrounding this multifaceted protein across functional, structural and pathological aspects. PMID:25630983

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ACCUMULATION OF A 60KDA STRESS PROTEIN AND SCOPE-FOR-GROWTH IN MYTILIS EDULIS EXPOSED TO A RANGE OF COPPER CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed in the laboratory for 7 days to a range of Cu concentrations (O to 100 ug/liter) to test the feasibility of using the accumulation of a 60 kDa stress protein, also referred to as heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) as a molecular indicator of ...

  16. Identification of a Region of the Polypeptide Chain of Na,K-ATPase α-Subunit Interacting with 67-kDa Melittin-Like Protein.

    PubMed

    Kamanina, Yu V; Klimanova, E A; Dergousova, E A; Petrushanko, I Yu; Lopina, O D

    2016-03-01

    It was shown earlier that a 67-kDa protein purified from mouse kidney using polyclonal antibodies against melittin (a peptide from bee venom) interacted with Na,K-ATPase from rabbit kidney. In this study, a 43-kDa proteolytic fragment of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit interacting with the 67-kDa melittin-like protein was found. The α-subunit was hydrolyzed by trypsin in the presence of 0.5 mM ouabain (E2-conformation of Na,K-ATPase). A proteolytic fragment interacting with the 67-kDa melittin-like protein that was identified by mass-spectrometry is a region of the cytoplasmic domain of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit located between amino acid residues 591 and 775. The fragment includes a conservative DPPRA motif that occurs in many P-type ATPases. It was shown earlier that this motif of H,K-ATPase from gastric mucosa binds to melittin. We suggest that namely this motif of P-type ATPases is able to interact with proteins containing melittin-like modules. PMID:27262194

  17. RNAi silencing of the 14 kDa trypsin inhibitor protein in maize and its effect on host resistance against Aspergillus flavus infection/aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the major crops susceptible to Aspergillus flavus Link ex. Fries infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Previous studies found the expression of an antifungal 14 kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) was associated with maize aflatoxin resistance. To further investigate...

  18. Expression of 9 kDa lipid transfer protein genes in developing wheat grains is enhanced by high temperature but not by post-anthesis fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of EST databases identified sixteen 9 kDa non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) expressed in developing grains from the US spring wheat Butte 86. Two of the most prevalent sequences encoded nsLTPs similar to proteins identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometr...

  19. An auxin-binding protein is localized to the plasma membrane of maize coleoptile cells: Identification by photoaffinity labeling and purification of a 23-kDa polypeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Feldwisch, J.; Zettl, R.; Hesse, F.; Schell, J.; Palme, K. )

    1992-01-15

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile tissue by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for homogeneity by the use of membrane-specific enzymatic assays. Using 5-azido-(7-{sup 3}H)indole-3-acetic acid (({sup 3}H)N{sub 3}IAA), the authors identified several IAA-binding proteins with the molecular masses of 60 kDa (pm60), 58 kDa (pm58), and 23 kDa (pm23). Using Triton X-114, they were able to selectively extract pm23 from the plasma membrane. They show that auxins and functional analogues compete with ({sup 3}H)N{sub 3}IAA for binding to pm23. They found that PAB130, a polyclonal antibody raised against auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP-1), recognized ABP-1 as well as pm23. This suggests that pm23 shares common epitopes with ABP-1. In addition, they identified an auxin-binding protein with a molecular mass of 24 kDa (pm24), which was detected in microsomal but not in plasma membrane vesicle preparations. Like pm23 this protein was extracted from membrane vesicles with Triton X-114. They designed a purification scheme allowing simultaneous purification of pm23 and pm24. Homogeneous pm23 and pm24 were obtained from coleoptile extracts after 7,000-fold purification.

  20. Tobacco mosaic virus 126-kDa protein increases the susceptibility of Nicotiana tabacum to other viruses and its dosage affects virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Harries, Phillip A; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Bhat, Sumana; Nelson, Richard S

    2008-12-01

    The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 126-kDa protein is a suppressor of RNA silencing previously shown to delay the silencing of transgenes in Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a 126-kDa protein-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion (126-GFP) in N. tabacum increases susceptibility to a broad assortment of viruses, including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Brome mosaic virus, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), and Potato virus X. Given its ability to enhance TRV infection in tobacco, we tested the effect of 126-GFP expression on TRV-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and demonstrate that this protein can enhance silencing phenotypes. To explain these results, we examined the poorly understood effect of suppressor dosage on the VIGS response and demonstrated that enhanced VIGS corresponds to the presence of low levels of suppressor protein. A mutant version of the 126-kDa protein, inhibited in its ability to suppress silencing, had a minimal effect on VIGS, suggesting that the suppressor activity of the 126-kDa protein is indeed responsible for the observed dosage effects. These findings illustrate the sensitivity of host plants to relatively small changes in suppressor dosage and have implications for those interested in enhancing silencing phenotypes in tobacco and other species through VIGS. PMID:18986250

  1. The adenovirus E1A proteins induce apoptosis, which is inhibited by the E1B 19-kDa and Bcl-2 proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, L; Debbas, M; Sabbatini, P; Hockenbery, D; Korsmeyer, S; White, E

    1992-01-01

    Cooperation between the adenovirus E1A and E1B oncogenes is required for transformation of primary quiescent rodent cells. Although expression of E1A alone will stimulate cell proliferation sufficient to initiate transformed focus formation, proliferation fails to be sustained and foci degenerate. Coexpression of either the 19-kDa or 55-kDa E1B oncoproteins with E1A permits high-frequency transformation by overcoming this cytotoxic response. Without E1B 19-kDa protein expression, however, transformants remain susceptible to induction of cell death. Rapid loss of viability is coincident with nucleolytic cleavage of DNA in intranucleosomal regions and chromatin condensation, hallmarks of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Furthermore, overexpression of a known suppressor of apoptosis, the Bcl-2 protooncogene, can rescue E1A-induced focus degeneration. Thus E1A-dependent stimulation of cell proliferation is accompanied by apoptosis and thereby insufficient to singly induce transformation. High-frequency transformation requires a second function encoded by the E1B 19-kDa protein to block apoptosis. Images PMID:1457005

  2. IgE binding to a new cross-reactive structure: a 35 kDa protein in birch pollen, exotic fruit and other plant foods.

    PubMed

    Wellhausen, A; Schöning, B; Petersen, A; Vieths, S

    1996-12-01

    Food allergies in birch pollen allergic patients have been shown to be due to cross-reactivities of specific IgE antibodies which are directed against birch pollen allergens with related proteins in fruit, nuts and vegetables. We identified a new cross-reactive structure of 35 kDa in birch pollen and some plant food extracts by Enzyme Allergosorbent Test (EAST) and immunoblot inhibition studies. The 35 kDa birch pollen protein is a minor allergen to which approximately 10-15% of birch pollen allergic individuals have specific IgE. Our data demonstrate that there is cross-reactivity of this protein with proteins of comparable size from lychee, mango, banana, orange, apple, pear and carrot. While the 35 kDa protein is immunologically independent of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, we also observed IgE binding to a 34 kDa structure which appears to be a Bet v 1 dimer. PMID:9000332

  3. Isolation of the murine S100 protein MRP14 (14 kDa migration-inhibitory-factor-related protein) from activated spleen cells: characterization of post-translational modifications and zinc binding.

    PubMed Central

    Raftery, M J; Harrison, C A; Alewood, P; Jones, A; Geczy, C L

    1996-01-01

    MRP14 (macrophage migration-inhibitory factor-related protein of molecular mass 14 kDa) is an S100 calcium binding protein constitutively expressed in human neutrophils which may be associated with cellular activation/inflammation. Murine MRP14 expression was up-regulated following concanavalin A activation of spleen cells, and the protein was isolated from conditioned medium in high yield (approx. 500 ng/ml). MRP14 had a mass of 12972 +/- 2 Da by electrospray ionization MS, whereas the theoretical mass derived from the cDNA sequence, after removal of the initiator Met, was 12918 Da, suggesting that the protein was post-translationally modified. We identified four post-translational modifications of MRP14: removal of the N-terminal Met, N-terminal acetylation, disulphide bond formation between Cys79 and Cys90, and 1-methylation of His106; the calculated mass was then 12971.8 Da. Methylation of His106 was further characterized after incubation of spleen cells with L-[methyl-3H]Met during concanavalin A stimulation. Sequential analysis of a peptide (obtained by digestion with Lys C) containing methylated His indicated that > 80% of the label in the cycle corresponded to His106, suggesting that the methyl residue was transferred from S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Comparison of the C18 reverse-phase HPLC retention times of phenylthiocarbamoyl derivatives of a hydrolysed digest peptide of MRP14 with those of standards confirmed methyl substitution on the 1-position of the imidazole ring. MRP14 bound more 85Zn2+ than the same amounts of the 10 kDa chemotactic protein (CP10) or S100 beta. Ca2+ decreased Zn2+ binding in S100 beta but it did not influence binding to MRP14, suggesting that the Zn2+ binding site was distinct from and independent of the two Ca2+ binding domains. PMID:8645219

  4. The 21.5-kDa isoform of myelin basic protein has a non-traditional PY-nuclear-localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Graham S.T.; Seymour, Lauren V.; Boggs, Joan M.; Harauz, George

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full-length 21.5-kDa MBP isoform is translocated to the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hypothesized that the exon-II-encoded sequence contained the NLS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We mutated this sequence in RFP-tagged constructs and transfected N19-cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Abolition of two key positively-charged residues resulted in loss of nuclear-trafficking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 21.5-kDa isoform of classic MBP contains a non-traditional PY-NLS. -- Abstract: The predominant 18.5-kDa classic myelin basic protein (MBP) is mainly responsible for compaction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system, but is multifunctional, having numerous interactions with Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin, actin, tubulin, and SH3-domains, and can tether these proteins to a lipid membrane in vitro. The full-length 21.5-kDa MBP isoform has an additional 26 residues encoded by exon-II of the classic gene, which causes it to be trafficked to the nucleus of oligodendrocytes (OLGs). We have performed site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues within this segment in red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged constructs, which were then transfected into the immortalized N19-OLG cell line to view protein localization using epifluorescence microscopy. We found that 21.5-kDa MBP contains two non-traditional PY-nuclear-localization signals, and that arginine and lysine residues within these motifs were involved in subcellular trafficking of this protein to the nucleus, where it may have functional roles during myelinogenesis.

  5. Resolution of two native monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina and the sequence of two napA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; McKinzie, Audra A.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Two monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina. {yields} Sequence of napA from napEDABC-type operon and napA from NapDAGHB-type operon. {yields} Isolation of NAP as NapA or NapAB correlated with NapA P47E amino acid substitution. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90 kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90 kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90 kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.

  6. Modeling and Docking Studies on Novel Mutants (K71L and T204V) of the ATPase Domain of Human Heat Shock 70 kDa Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Elengoe, Asita; Naser, Mohammed Abu; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of exploring protein interactions between human adenovirus and heat shock protein 70 is to exploit a potentially synergistic interaction to enhance anti-tumoral efficacy and decrease toxicity in cancer treatment. However, the protein interaction of Hsp70 with E1A32 kDa of human adenovirus serotype 5 remains to be elucidated. In this study, two residues of ATPase domain of human heat shock 70 kDa protein 1 (PDB: 1 HJO) were mutated. 3D mutant models (K71L and T204V) using PyMol software were then constructed. The structures were evaluated by PROCHECK, ProQ, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA modules. All evidence suggests that all protein models are acceptable and of good quality. The E1A32 kDa motif was retrieved from UniProt (P03255), as well as subjected to docking interaction with NBD, K71L and T204V, using the Autodock 4.2 program. The best lowest binding energy value of −9.09 kcal/mol was selected for novel T204V. Moreover, the protein-ligand complex structures were validated by RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds and salt bridge analysis. This revealed that the T204V-E1A32 kDa motif complex was the most stable among all three complex structures. This study provides information about the interaction between Hsp70 and the E1A32 kDa motif, which emphasizes future perspectives to design rational drugs and vaccines in cancer therapy. PMID:24758925

  7. Mastoparan binds to glycogen phosphorylase to regulate sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Yutaka; Atsumi, Masanori; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2003-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor, a Ca(2+)-releasing channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), plays an important role in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle. In a previous study [Hirata, Nakahata and Ohizumi (2000) Mol. Pharmacol. 57, 1235-1242], we reported that mastoparan caused Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptor from the heavy fraction of SR (HSR) isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle, and that it specifically bound to a 97 kDa protein which was distinct from Ca(2+)-pump or triadin. The present study was undertaken to identify and characterize the 97 kDa mastoparan-binding protein. The 97 kDa protein was purified from solubilized HSR by DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography and preparative SDS/PAGE. The partial amino acid sequence of the purified 97 kDa protein was matched with that of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). The proteolytic cleavage pattern of the 97 kDa protein was identical with that of GP. Furthermore, [(125)I-Tyr(3)]mastoparan specifically bound to GP. Interestingly, mastoparan-induced Ca(2+) release was inhibited by exogenous addition of GP-a, and mastoparan dissociated GP from HSR. These results indicate that the 97 kDa mastoparan-binding protein is GP, which negatively regulates Ca(2+) release from HSR. There may be a functional cross-talk between Ca(2+) release from HSR and glycogenolysis for energy supply mediated through GP in skeletal muscles. PMID:12519071

  8. Cytoplasmic and extracellular expression of pharmaceutical-grade mycobacterial 65-kDa heat shock protein in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, M S P; Rocha, C S; Electo, N; Pontes, D S; Molfetta, J B; Gonçalves, E D C; Azevedo, V; Silva, C L; Miyoshi, A

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an attractive and safe alternative for the expression of heterologous proteins, as they are nonpathogenic and endotoxin-free organisms. Lactococcus lactis, the LAB model organism, has been extensively employed in the biotechnology field for large-scale production of heterologous proteins, and its use as a "cell factory" has been widely studied. We have been particularly interested in the use of L. lactis for production of heat shock proteins (HSPs), which reportedly play important roles in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. However, this activity has been questioned, as LPS contamination appears to be responsible for most, if not all, immunostimulatory activity of HSPs. In order to study the effect of pure HSPs on the immune system, we constructed recombinant L. lactis strains able to produce and properly address the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa HSP (Hsp65) to the cytoplasm or to the extracellular medium, using a xylose-induced expression system. Approximately 7 mg/L recombinant Hsp65 was secreted. Degradation products related to lactococcal HtrA activity were not observed, and the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay demonstrated that the amount of LPS in the recombinant Hsp65 preparations was 10-100 times lower than the permitted levels established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. These new L. lactis strains will allow investigation of the effects of M. leprae Hsp65 without the interference of LPS; consequently, they have potential for a variety of biotechnological, medical and therapeutic applications. PMID:22614283

  9. Solution NMR Structure of the 48-kDa IIAMannose-HPr Complex of the Escherichia coli Mannose Phosphotransferase System*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David C.; Cai, Mengli; Suh, Jeong-Yong; Peterkofsky, Alan; Clore, G. Marius

    2005-01-01

    The solution structure of the 48-kDa IIAMan-HPr complex of the mannose branch of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase system has been solved by NMR using conjoined rigid body/torsion angle-simulated annealing on the basis of intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancement data and residual dipolar couplings. IIAMan is dimeric and has two symmetrically related binding sites per dimer for HPr. A convex surface on HPr, formed primarily by helices 1 and 2, interacts with a deep groove at the interface of the two subunits of IIAMan. The interaction surface on IIAMan is predominantly helical, comprising helix 3 from the subunit that bears the active site His-10 and helices 1, 4, and 5 from the other subunit. The total buried accessible surface area at the protein-protein interface is 1450 Å2. The binding sites on the two proteins are complementary in terms of shape and distribution of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and charged residues. The active site histidines, His-10 of IIAMan and His-15 (italics indicate HPr residues) of HPr, are in close proximity. An associative transition state involving a pentacoordinate phosphoryl group with trigonal bipyramidal geometry bonded to the N-ε2 atom of His-10 and the N-δ1 atom of His-15 can be readily formed with negligible displacement in the backbone coordinates of the residues immediately adjacent to the active site histidines. Comparing the structures of complexes of HPr with three other structurally unrelated phosphotransferase system proteins, enzymes I, IIAglucose, and IIAmannitol, reveals a number of common features that provide a molecular basis for understanding how HPr specifically recognizes a wide range of diverse proteins. PMID:15788390

  10. Fluorescence and solution NMR study of the active site of a 160-kDa group II intron ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Gumbs, Orlando H.; Padgett, Richard A.; Dayie, Kwaku T.

    2006-01-01

    We have reconstructed the group II intron from Pylaiella littoralis (PL) into a hydrolytic ribozyme, comprising domains 1–3 (D123) connected in cis plus domain 5 (D5) supplied in trans that efficiently cleaves spliced exon substrates. Using a novel gel-based fluorescence assay and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we monitored the direct binding of D5 to D123, characterized the kinetics of the spliced exon hydrolysis reaction (which is mechanistically analogous to the reverse of the second catalytic step of splicing), and identified the binding surface of D123 on D5. This PL ribozyme acts as an RNA endonuclease even at low monovalent (100 mM KCl) and divalent ion concentrations (1–10 mM MgCl2). This is in contrast to other group II intron ribozyme systems that require high levels of salt, making NMR analysis problematic. D5 binds tightly to D123 with a K d of 650 ± 250 nM, a K m of ∼300 nM, and a K cat of 0.02 min−1 under single turnover conditions. Within the ∼160-kDa D123–D5 binary complex, site-specific binding to D123 leads to dramatic chemical shift perturbation of residues localized to the tetraloop and internal bulge within D5, suggesting a structural switch model for D5-assisted splicing. This minimal ribozyme thus recapitulates the essential features of the reverse of the second catalytic step and represents a well-behaved system for ongoing high-resolution structural work to complement folding and catalytic functional studies. PMID:16894219

  11. Expanded test method for peptides >2 kDa employing immunoaffinity purification and LC-HRMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Tretzel, Laura; Brinkkötter, Paul; Fichant, Eric; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides with an approximate molecular mass of 2-12 kDa are of considerable relevance in sports drug testing. Such peptides have been used to manipulate several potential performance-enhancing processes in the athlete's body and include for example growth hormone releasing hormones (sermorelin, CJC-1293, CJC-1295, tesamorelin), synthetic/animal insulins (lispro, aspart, glulisine, glargine, detemir, degludec, bovine and porcine insulin), synthetic ACTH (synacthen), synthetic IGF-I (longR(3) -IGF-I) and mechano growth factors (human MGF, modified human MGF, 'full-length' MGF). A combined initial test method using one analytical procedure is a desirable tool in doping controls and related disciplines as requests for higher sample throughput with utmost comprehensiveness preferably at reduced costs are constantly issued. An approach modified from an earlier assay proved fit-for-purpose employing pre-concentration of all target analytes by means of ultrafiltration, immunoaffinity purification with coated paramagnetic beads, nano-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation, and subsequent detection by means of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The method was shown to be applicable to blood and urine samples, which represent the most common doping control specimens. The method was validated considering the parameters specificity, recovery (11-69%), linearity, imprecision (<25%), limit of detection (5-100 pg in urine, 0.1-2 ng in plasma), and ion suppression. The analysis of administration study samples for insulin degludec, detemir, aspart, and synacthen provided the essential data for the proof-of-principle of the method. PMID:26382721

  12. Unique N-Glycan Moieties of the 66-kDa Cell Wall Glycoprotein from the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Arad, Shoshana (Malis); Harvey, David J.; Parsons, Thomas B.; Fairbanks, Antony; Tekoah, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    We report here the structural determination of the N-linked glycans in the 66-kDa glycoprotein, part of the unique sulfated complex cell wall polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. Structures were elucidated by a combination of normal phase/reverse phase HPLC, positive ion MALDI-TOF MS, negative ion electrospray ionization, and MS/MS. The sugar moieties of the glycoprotein consisted of at least four fractions of N-linked glycans, each composed of the same four monosaccharides, GlcNAc, Man, 6-O-MeMan, and Xyl, with compositions Man8–9Xyl1–2Me3GlcNAc2. The present study is the first report of N-glycans with the terminal Xyl attached to the 6-mannose branch of the 6-antenna and to the 3-oxygen of the penultimate (core) GlcNAc. Another novel finding was that all four glycans contain three O-methylmannose residues in positions that have never been reported before. Although it is known that some lower organisms are able to methylate terminal monosaccharides in glycans, the present study on Porphyridium sp. is the first describing an organism that is able to methylate non-terminal mannose residues. This study will thus contribute to understanding of N-glycosylation in algae and might shed light on the evolutionary development from prokaryotes to multicellular organisms. It also may contribute to our understanding of the red algae polysaccharide formation. The additional importance of this research lies in its potential for biotechnological applications, especially in evaluating the use of microalgae as cell factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. PMID:21515680

  13. Specific interaction between adenoviral 55-kDa E1B protein and in vivo produced p53 fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Chumakov, A; Koeffler, H P

    1993-09-15

    Several protein fusion systems have been used in recent years to study protein-protein and DNA-protein interactions. Most of them use bacterially produced proteins which have several inherent disadvantages, notably, the absence of correct post-translational modifications and the frequent insolubility of recombinant proteins. We sought to develop a system to study proteins interacting with the nuclear phosphoprotein p53, which is believed to be a tumor suppressor. To prepare fusions of p53, we developed a convenient system that permits both in vivo and in vitro production and easy affinity purification of peptides and protein fragments as glutathione-transferase fusions. We placed the coding sequence of the Schistosoma japonica glutathione S-transferase (GST) under the control of the strong CMV/T7 promoter and SV40 splice and polyadenylation signals. An extensive polylinker (MCS) at the 3' end of the GST gene is preceded by the sequence encoding the cleavage site of the site-specific protease. We cloned the complete coding sequences of human wild-type p53, as well as p53 mutants representing all four mutational hotspots (codons 141, 175, 248, and 273), into our expression vector. In vitro transcription using the upstream T7 promoter and translation in reticulocyte lysates form an easy way to produce hybrid proteins; affinity purification on a glutathione-agarose column removes proteins that are present in reticulocyte lysates. We have also studied specific in vivo interactions of human p53 with the adenoviral 55-kDa E1B protein by transfecting expression constructs of GST-p53 fusions into human Ad5-transformed 293 cells. PMID:8406015

  14. Myocardial accumulation and localization of the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein, Hsp70, following exercise

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, S.; Noble, E. G.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise increases the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) in the myocardium, and this exercise-induced increase is associated with significantly improved cardiac recovery following insult. However, while heat shock has been shown to elevate Hsp70 primarily in the cardiac vasculature of the myocardium, the localization following exercise is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats performed continuous treadmill running at 30 m/min for 60 min (2% incline) on either 1 or 5 consecutive days. At 30 min and 24 h following exercise, hearts were extirpated, and the left ventricle was isolated, OCT-cork mounted, and sectioned for immunofluorescent analysis. Whereas immunofluorescent analysis revealed little to no Hsp70 in control hearts and 30 min postexercise, the accumulation of Hsp70 24 h after a single exercise bout or 5 days of training was predominantly located in large blood vessels and, in particular, colocalized with a marker of smooth muscle. Furthermore, higher core temperatures attained during exercise led to more abundant accumulation in smaller vessels and the endothelium. It is concluded that the accumulation of myocardial Hsp70 following acute exercise predominantly occurs in a cell type-specific manner, such that changes in the cardiac vasculature account for much of the increase. This accumulation appears first in the smooth muscle of larger vessels and then increases in smaller vessels and the endothelium, as core temperature attained during exercise increases. This finding supports the observations after heat shock and further suggests that the vasculature is a primary target in exercise-induced cardioprotection. PMID:22773766

  15. Expression of a unique 56-kDa polypeptide by neurons in the subplate zone of the developing cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Naegele, J R; Barnstable, C J; Wahle, P R

    1991-01-01

    In the mammalian cerebral cortex, neurons destined for layers 2-6 are generated only after the period of genesis for a group of transient neurons that populate the subplate and marginal zones. Although a number of molecular markers for the subplate zone exist, most are also expressed by other cell populations in the cortical plate. To begin to study molecular properties of the subplate, we generated monoclonal antibodies against homogenates of cat cortical subplate zone. One monoclonal antibody, termed subplate 1 (SP1), recognized a polypeptide of 56 kDa. This antigen was strongly expressed within the subplate neurons only during a 3-week period beginning at birth and extending until 3 weeks after birth. From postnatal day 1, the number of SP1-immunoreactive neurons below the visual cortex increased until the end of second postnatal week and then declined thereafter. This period coincides with the period when a majority of the subplate neurons undergo naturally occurring cell death. The antigen was not expressed by subplate neurons surviving in the adult white matter. At the peak of antigen expression, 14% or less of the immunoreactive neurons also coexpressed gamma-aminobutyric acid, somatostatin, or neuropeptide Y. Biochemical and immunocytochemical properties of the SP1 antigen were also compared with the Alz-50 antigen (A68), a marker for dying neurons. On Western blots, SP1- and Alz-50-reactive polypeptides were selectively enriched in cytosolic fractions of kitten cerebral cortex, but each marker recognized different molecular weight polypeptides. In tissue sections many subplate, cortical plate, and layer 1 neurons were Alz-50 immunoreactive. In contrast, a rarer subpopulation of neurons restricted to the subplate was labeled by SP1. We propose that the SP1 antigen is a protein expressed within dying cortical subplate neurons, at the commencement of cell death. Images PMID:1703294

  16. A 32-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein shows a protease-dependent increase in dead boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Tomohito; Shidara, Osamu; Harayama, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Boar sperm TyrP32 is a 32-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that increases during the capacitation and acrosome reaction and during cryocapacitation. However, it is still unclear whether the increase in TyrP32 is an event that is limited to the process of sperm fertilization, including cryocapacitation. The aims of the present study were to demonstrate that TyrP32 is increased in dead spermatozoa after freeze-thawing without a cryoprotectant and to find the causal factors for this increase. Washed spermatozoa were resuspended in a salt solution and then frozen. The frozen samples were rapidly thawed in a warm water bath and then used for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)/Western blotting to detect TyrP32, SDS-PAGE/silver staining of sperm proteins and staining of acrosomal contents with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). In the samples before freezing, TyrP32 was barely detectable, and the distribution of the acrosomal contents was normal in most spermatozoa. One cycle of freeze-thawing induced an increase in TyrP32, a decrease in major sperm proteins and disorder in the acrosomal contents. However, the addition of a protease inhibitor (APMSF, 1 mM) suppressed the increase in TyrP32 and the decrease in the major sperm proteins, although it did not have any influence on the disorder in the acrosomal contents. Additionally, the spermatozoa did not exhibit any flagellar movement after freeze-thawing, which showed that almost all of them were dead. These results indicate that TyrP32 can show a protease-dependent increase in dead spermatozoa after freeze-thawing without a cryoprotectant even though the dead spermatozoa do not undergo cryocapacitation. PMID:18787309

  17. Human 60-kDa Lysophospholipase Contains an N-terminal l-Asparaginase Domain That Is Allosterically Regulated by l-Asparagine*

    PubMed Central

    Karamitros, Christos S.; Konrad, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The structural and functional characterization of human enzymes that are of potential medical and therapeutic interest is of prime significance for translational research. One of the most notable examples of a therapeutic enzyme is l-asparaginase, which has been established as an antileukemic protein drug for more than four decades. Up until now, only bacterial enzymes have been used in therapy despite a plethora of undesired side effects mainly attributed to the bacterial origins of these enzymes. Therefore, the replacement of the currently approved bacterial drugs by human homologs aiming at the elimination of adverse effects is of great importance. Recently, we structurally and biochemically characterized the enzyme human l-asparaginase 3 (hASNase3), which possesses l-asparaginase activity and belongs to the N-terminal nucleophile superfamily of enzymes. Inspired by the necessity for the development of a protein drug of human origin, in the present study, we focused on the characterization of another human l-asparaginase, termed hASNase1. This bacterial-type cytoplasmic l-asparaginase resides in the N-terminal subdomain of an overall 573-residue protein previously reported to function as a lysophospholipase. Our kinetic, mutagenesis, structural modeling, and fluorescence labeling data highlight allosteric features of hASNase1 that are similar to those of its Escherichia coli homolog, EcASNase1. Differential scanning fluorometry and urea denaturation experiments demonstrate the impact of particular mutations on the structural and functional integrity of the l-asparaginase domain and provide a direct comparison of sites critical for the conformational stability of the human and E. coli enzymes. PMID:24657844

  18. Somatic cell-oocyte interactions in mouse oogenesis: stage-specific regulation of mouse oocyte protein phosphorylation by granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Colonna, R; Cecconi, S; Tatone, C; Mangia, F; Buccione, R

    1989-05-01

    The relative rate of synthesis of a number of proteins and the protein phosphorylation pattern of growing and fully grown oocytes were influenced by the presence of granulosa cells. In particular, a 74-kDa phosphorylated protein was detected only in granulosa cell-enclosed growing mouse oocytes. When reaggregated with granulosa cells, the growing oocyte displayed the phosphorylated form of the 74-kDa protein but when oocytes were cultured on Sertoli cell monolayers or in granulosa cell-conditioned medium the 74-kDa protein was not phosphorylated. We propose that (1) granulosa cells regulate protein phosphorylation in mouse oocytes; (2) a 74-kDa protein is phosphorylated only in growing oocytes when surrounded by granulosa cells; and (3) granulosa cells, but not Sertoli cells, are competent to send the appropriate "signal" to the growing oocyte. PMID:2707483

  19. Lysine-acetylation as a fundamental regulator of Ran function: Implications for signaling of proteins of the Ras-superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Knyphausen, Philipp; Kuhlmann, Nora; de Boor, Susanne; Lammers, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The small GTP-binding protein Ran is involved in the regulation of essential cellular processes in interphase but also in mitotic cells: Ran controls the nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins and RNA, it regulates mitotic spindle formation and nuclear envelope assembly. Deregulations in Ran dependent processes were implicated in the development of severe diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. To understand how Ran-function is regulated is therefore of highest importance. Recently, several lysine-acetylation sites in Ran were identified by quantitative mass-spectrometry, some being located in highly important regions such as the P-loop, switch I, switch II and the G5/SAK motif. We recently reported that lysine-acetylation regulates nearly all aspects of Ran-function such as RCC1 catalyzed nucleotide exchange, intrinsic nucleotide hydrolysis, its interaction with NTF2 and the formation of import- and export-complexes. As a hint for its biological importance, we identified Ran-specific lysine-deacetylases (KDACs) and -acetyltransferases (KATs). Also for other small GTPases such as Ras, Rho, Cdc42, and for many effectors and regulators thereof, lysine-acetylation sites were discovered. However, the functional impact of lysine-acetylation as a regulator of protein function has only been marginally investigated so far. We will discuss recent findings of lysine-acetylation as a novel modification to regulate Ras-protein signaling. PMID:26507377

  20. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF THE TRANSLOCATOR PROTEIN (18 KDA), VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT ANION CHANNEL, AND DIAZEPAM BINDING INHIBITOR IN THE GONAD OF LARGEMOUTH BASS (MICROPTERUS SALMOIDES) ACROSS THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    PubMed Central

    Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membrane is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in vertebrates. Previous studies in fish have characterized expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, however the function and regulation of other genes and proteins involved in piscine cholesterol transport have not been evaluated. In the current study, mRNA sequences of the 18 kDa translocator protein (tspo; formerly peripheral benzodiazepine receptor), voltage-dependent anion channel (vdac), and diazepam binding inhibitor (dbi; also acyl-CoA binding protein) were cloned from largemouth bass. Gonadal expression was examined across reproductive stages to determine if expression is correlated with changes in steroid levels and with indicators of reproductive maturation. In testis, transcript abundance of tspo and dbi increased with reproductive maturation (6- and 23-fold maximal increase, respectively) and expression of tspo and dbi was positively correlated with reproductive stage, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and circulating levels of testosterone. Testis vdac expression was positively correlated with reproductive stage and GSI. In females, gonadal tspo and vdac expression was negatively correlated with GSI and levels of plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Ovarian dbi expression was not correlated with indicators of reproductive maturation. These studies represent the first investigation of the steroidogenic role of tspo, vdac, and dbi in fish. Findings suggest that cholesterol transport in largemouth bass testis, but not ovary, may be transcriptionally-regulated, however further investigation will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of these genes in largemouth bass steroidogenesis. PMID:21600210

  1. O-GlcNAc modification is essential for the regulation of autophagy in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Park, Sujin; Lee, Yangsin; Pak, Jin Won; Kim, Hanbyeol; Choi, Hyeonjin; Kim, Jae-woo; Roth, Jürgen; Cho, Jin Won

    2015-08-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that takes place on ser/thr residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAcylation regulates almost all cellular events as a nutrient sensor, a transcriptional and translational regulator, and a disease-related factor. Although the role of O-GlcNAcylation in insulin signaling and metabolism are well established, the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and autophagy is largely unknown. Here, we manipulated O-GlcNAcylation in Drosophila and found that it regulates autophagy through Akt/dFOXO signaling. We demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation and the levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) are increased during starvation. Furthermore, Atg proteins and autolysosomes are increased in OGT-reduced flies without fasting. Atg proteins and autophagosomes are reduced in OGT-overexpressing flies. Our results suggest that not only autophagy gene expression but also autophagic structures are regulated by OGT through Akt and dFOXO. These data imply that O-GlcNAcylation is important in modulating autophagy as well as insulin signaling in Drosophila. PMID:25840568

  2. [Stimulatory effect of the cord blood fraction below 5 kDa and "Actovegin" on the growth of continuous cell lines].

    PubMed

    Gulevskiĭ, A K; Trifonova, A V; Lavrik, A A

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the cattle cord blood fraction with molecular weight of components below 5 kDa on adhesive and proliferative properties of continuous cell lines BHK-21 clone q3/04 and PK-15-IECVM was investigated in comparison with the preparation "Actovegin". It was shown that adding this fraction as well as "Actovegin" to growth media did not affect the efficiency of culture attachment, promoted culture spreading, improved cell morphology and stimulated mitotic activity of the cultures. The efficiency of the cord blood fraction below 5 kDa estimated by the induces studied was found to be higher than the "Actovegin" efficiency when cells being cultivated in the media different contents of blood serum. PMID:21516820

  3. cDNA cloning and expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin binding 120 kDa aminopeptidase N from Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, K; Nakanishi, K; Kadotani, T; Imamura, M; Koizumi, N; Iwahana, H; Sato, R

    1999-01-18

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin binds to a 120 kDa putative receptor protein in the Bombyx mori midgut. Recently, this protein was purified and identified as glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored aminopeptidase N (APN). In this study, a full-length cDNA thought to encode this 120 kDa APN was isolated and sequenced. It has a 2958 bp ORF encoding 986 amino acids. In the deduced amino acid sequence, we identified GPI-anchor and zinc-metallopeptidase signals, which are the same as those of APNs of other insects that are reported to be putative Cry1 toxin receptors. The B. mori APN amino acid sequence also has a high similarity with those of the other APNs. Subsequently, the recombinant APN was expressed by Escherichia coli and its Cry1Aa toxin binding ability was analyzed. Ligand blotting showed that Cry1Aa toxin bound to the recombinant APN. PMID:9931470

  4. Clara Cell 10-kDa Protein Gene Transfection Inhibits NF-κB Activity in Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Nan; Zhen, Hong-Tao; Cui, Yong-Hua; Liu, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Clara cell 10-kDa protein (CC10) is a multifunctional protein with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Induction of CC10 expression by gene transfection may possess potential therapeutic effect. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays a key role in the inflammatory processes of airway diseases. Method/Results To investigate potential therapeutic effect of CC10 gene transfection in controlling airway inflammation and the underlying intracellular mechanisms, in this study, we constructed CC10 plasmid and transfected it into bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B cells and CC10 knockout mice. In BEAS-2B cells, CC10's effect on interleukin (IL)-1β induced IL-8 expression was explored by means of RT-PCR and ELISA and its effect on NF-κB classical signaling pathway was studied by luciferase reporter, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assay. The effect of endogenous CC10 on IL-1β evoked IL-8 expression was studied by means of nasal explant culture. In mice, CC10's effect on IL-1β induced IL-8 and nuclear p65 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. First, we found that the CC10 gene transfer could inhibit IL-1β induced IL-8 expression in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, we found that CC10 repressed IL-1β induced NF-κB activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκB-α but not IκB kinase-α/β in BEAS-2B cells. Nevertheless, we did not observe a direct interaction between CC10 and p65 subunit in BEAS-2B cells. In nasal explant culture, we found that IL-1β induced IL-8 expression was inversely correlated with CC10 levels in human sinonasal mucosa. In vivo study revealed that CC10 gene transfer could attenuate the increase of IL-8 and nuclear p65 staining in nasal epithelial cells in CC10 knockout mice evoked by IL-1β administration. Conclusion These results indicate that CC10 gene transfer may inhibit airway inflammation through suppressing the activation of NF-κB, which may provide us a new consideration in the therapy of airway

  5. Proline Substitutions and Threonine Pseudophosphorylation of the SH3 Ligand of 18.5-kDa Myelin Basic Protein Decrease Its Affinity for the Fyn-SH3 Domain and Alter Process Development and Protein Localization in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham S.T.; De Avila, Miguel; Paez, Pablo M.; Spreuer, Vilma; Wills, Melanie K.B.; Jones, Nina; Boggs, Joan M.; Harauz, George

    2012-01-01

    The developmentally regulated myelin basic proteins (MBPs), which arise from the golli (gene of oligodendrocyte lineage) complex, are highly positively charged, intrinsically disordered, multifunctional proteins having several alternatively spliced isoforms and posttranslational modifications, and they play key roles in myelin compaction. The classic 18.5-kDa MBP isoform has a proline-rich region comprising amino acids 92–99 (murine sequence –T92PRTPPPS99–) that contains a minimal SH3 ligand domain. We have previously shown that 18.5-kDa MBP binds to several SH3 domains, including that of Fyn, a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases involved in a number of signaling pathways during CNS development. To determine the physiological role of this binding as well as the role of phosphorylation of Thr92 and Thr95, in the current study we have produced several MBP variants specifically targeting phosphorylation sites and key structural regions of MBP’s SH3 ligand domain. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we have demonstrated that, compared with the wild-type protein, these variants have lower affinity for the SH3 domain of Fyn. Moreover, overexpression of N-terminal-tagged GFP versions in immortalized oligodendroglial N19 and N20.1 cell cultures results in aberrant elongation of membrane processes and increased branching complexity and inhibits the ability of MBP to decrease Ca2+ influx. Phosphorylation of Thr92 can also cause MBP to traffic to the nucleus, where it may participate in additional protein–protein interactions. Coexpression of MBP with a constitutively active form of Fyn kinase resulted in membrane process elaboration, a phenomenon that was abolished by point amino acid substitutions in MBP’s SH3 ligand domain. These results suggest that MBP’s SH3 ligand domain plays a key role in intracellular protein interactions in vivo and may be required for proper membrane elaboration of developing oligodendrocytes and, further, that

  6. Iron-regulated envelope proteins of mycobacteria grown in vitro and their occurrence in Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium leprae grown in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sritharan, M; Ratledge, C

    1990-01-01

    Several iron-regulated envelope proteins (IREPs), 11-180 kDa, have been detected in preparations of walls and membranes of Mycobacterium smegmatis, in an armadillo-derived mycobacterium (ADM) and in M. avium. The same sized proteins from M. vacae appeared under both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Two larger proteins, of 240 and 250 kDa, appeared in the membranes of M. smegmatis and M. avium only when grown iron-sufficiently but were constitutively present in both ADM and M. vaccae. The IREPs from M. smegmatis were not induced under zinc-deficient growth conditions. Three of the four IREPs (14, 21 and 29 kDa) recognized in M. avium grown in vitro were also recovered from membrane fractions of the same strain grown in mice. In addition, these membranes contained both the high-molecular-mass proteins associated with iron-sufficient growth conditions. Membranes of M. leprae, recovered from infected armadillos, showed the faint presence of a possible IREP at 29 kDa and wall preparations showed the presence of a 21-kDa protein. Membranes also contained the two larger proteins at 240 and 250 kDa. An explanation for the simultaneous occurrence of both low-iron-regulated and high-iron-regulated proteins is offered. PMID:2202378

  7. Binding of the 60-kDa Ro autoantigen to Y RNAs: evidence for recognition in the major groove of a conserved helix.

    PubMed

    Green, C D; Long, K S; Shi, H; Wolin, S L

    1998-07-01

    The 60-kDa Ro autoantigen is normally complexed with small cytoplasmic RNAs known as Y RNAs. In Xenopus oocytes, the Ro protein is also complexed with a large class of variant 5S rRNA precursors that are folded incorrectly. Using purified baculovirus-expressed protein, we show that the 60-kDa Ro protein binds directly to both Y RNAs and misfolded 5S rRNA precursors. To understand how the protein recognizes these two distinct classes of RNAs, we investigated the features of Y RNA sequence and structure that are necessary for protein recognition. We identified a truncated Y RNA that is stably bound by the 60-kDa Ro protein. Within this 39-nt RNA is a conserved helix that is proposed to be the binding site for the Ro protein. Mutagenesis of this minimal Y RNA revealed that binding by the 60-kDa Ro protein requires specific base pairs within the conserved helix, a singly bulged nucleotide that disrupts the helix, and a three-nucleotide bulge on the opposing strand. Chemical probing experiments using diethyl pyrocarbonate demonstrated that, in the presence of the two bulges, the major groove of the conserved helix is accessible to protein side chains. These data are consistent with a model in which the Ro protein recognizes specific base pairs in the conserved helix by binding in the major groove of the RNA. Furthermore, experiments in which dimethyl sulfate was used to probe a naked and protein-bound Y RNA revealed that a structural alteration occurs in the RNA upon Ro protein binding. PMID:9671049

  8. Conjugation of 10 kDa Linear PEG onto Trastuzumab Fab' Is Sufficient to Significantly Enhance Lymphatic Exposure while Preserving in Vitro Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Linda J; Ascher, David B; Yadav, Rajbharan; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Williams, Charlotte C; Porter, Christopher J H; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2016-04-01

    The lymphatic system is a major conduit by which many diseases spread and proliferate. There is therefore increasing interest in promoting better lymphatic drug targeting. Further, antibody fragments such as Fabs have several advantages over full length monoclonal antibodies but are subject to rapid plasma clearance, which can limit the lymphatic exposure and activity of Fabs against lymph-resident diseases. This study therefore explored ideal PEGylation strategies to maximize biological activity and lymphatic exposure using trastuzumab Fab' as a model. Specifically, the Fab' was conjugated with single linear 10 or 40 kDa PEG chains at the hinge region. PEGylation led to a 3-4-fold reduction in binding affinity to HER2, but antiproliferative activity against HER2-expressing BT474 cells was preserved. Lymphatic pharmacokinetics were then examined in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing at 2 mg/kg, and the data were evaluated via population pharmacokinetic modeling. The Fab' displayed limited lymphatic exposure, but conjugation of 10 kDa PEG improved exposure by approximately 11- and 5-fold after intravenous (15% dose collected in thoracic lymph over 30 h) and subcutaneous (9%) administration, respectively. Increasing the molecular weight of the PEG to 40 kDa, however, had no significant impact on lymphatic exposure after intravenous (14%) administration and only doubled lymphatic exposure after subcutaneous administration (18%) when compared to 10 kDa PEG-Fab'. The data therefore suggests that minimal PEGylation has the potential to enhance the exposure and activity of Fab's against lymph-resident diseases, while no significant benefit is achieved with very large PEGs. PMID:26871003

  9. Identification of a 67 kDa protein that binds specifically to the pre-rRNA primary processing site in a higher plant.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, M; Lahmy, S

    1995-12-25

    In radish pre-rRNA primary processing cleavage occurs at a UUUUCGCGC element (motif P) mapped in the 5'-external transcribed spacer (Delcasso-Tremousaygue et al., 1988). Significantly, motif P is part of a cluster of homologous elements including three UUUUCCGG elements (motifs A123) and a single UUUUGCCCC element (motif B). Here we used the EMSA to identify in radish extracts an RNA-binding activity, NF C, that specifically interacts with the pre-rRNA A123BP sequence. Using different RNA probes and competitors we show that NF C recognises a 38 base RNA sequence including the 3'-end of motif A3 and motifs B and P. NF C binds to poly U, but not to poly A, poly C or poly G. Therefore we used poly (U) Sepharose chromatography as a final step to obtain pure NF C fractions. These, analysed by SDS-PAGE, revealed two major polypeptides of 67 and 60 kDa. According to UV cross-linking analysis the 67 kDa polypeptide corresponds to NF C activity, while the 60 kDa species is a proteolysed form of this protein. We also showed that NF C is enriched in nuclear extracts. Based on its stringent RNA substrate specificity and its nuclear localisation we propose that NF C is involved in pre-rRNA primary processing in plants. PMID:8559652

  10. The location of a disease-associated polymorphism and genomic structure of the human 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus (SSA1)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugu, H.; Horowitz, R.; Gibson, N.

    1994-12-01

    Sera from approximately 30% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) contain high titers of autoantibodies that bind to the 52-kDa Ro/SSA protein. We previously detected polymorphisms in the 52-kDa Ro/SSA gene (SSA1) with restriction enzymes, one of which is strongly associated with the presence of SLE (P < 0.0005) in African Americans. A higher disease frequency and more severe forms of the disease are commonly noted among these female patients. To determine the location and nature of this polymorphism, we obtained two clones that span 8.5 kb of the 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus including its upstream regulatory region. Six exons were identified, and their nucleotide sequences plus adjacent noncoding regions were determined. No differences were found between these exons and the coding region of one of the reported cDNAs. The disease-associated polymorphic site suggested by a restriction enzyme map and confirmed by DNA amplification and nucleotide sequencing was present upstream of exon 1. This polymorphism may be a genetic marker for a disease-related variation in the coding region for the protein or in the upstream regulatory region of this gene. Although this RFLP is present in Japanese, it is not associated with lupus in this race. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Vaccination of ducks with recombinant outer membrane protein (OmpA) and a 41 kDa partial protein (P45N') of Riemerella anatipestifer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Subramaniam, Sumathi; Frey, Joachim; Loh, Hilda; Tan, Hai-Meng; Fernandez, Charlene J; Kwang, Jimmy; Chua, Kim-Lee

    2002-01-23

    The generation of protective immunity against Riemerella anatipestifer infection in ducks were investigated by immunizations with recombinant glutathione sulfatransferase (GST) fusion's proteins of OmpA, a 42kDa major outer membrane protein, and P45N', a 41kDa N-terminal fragment of a newly identified 45kDa potential surface protein from R. anatipestifer. The DNA encoding OmpA and P45N' were isolated from R. anatipestifer serotype 15 (field strain 110/89) and serotype 19 (reference strain 30/90), respectively. Immunoblotting and ELISA results showed that the purified recombinant proteins induced the production of antibodies in immunized ducks. However, neither was protective against subsequent challenge with the virulent serotype 15 strain, 34/90. All the five ducks immunized with formalinized R. anatipestifer strain 34/90 survived the challenge with the homologous strain whereas six out of seven ducks in the non-immunized control group died within a week following the challenge. PMID:11731174

  12. Observation of large, non-covalent globin subassemblies in the approximately 3600 kDa hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Green, B N; Gotoh, T; Suzuki, T; Zal, F; Lallier, F H; Toulmond, A; Vinogradov, S N

    2001-06-01

    A non-covalent globin subassembly comprising 12 globin chains (204 to 214 kDa) was observed directly by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the native hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins from the oligochaetes Lumbricus terrestris and Tubifex tubifex, the polychaetes Tylorrhynchus heterochaetus, Arenicola marina, Amphitrite ornata and Alvinella pompejana, the leeches Macrobdella decora, Haemopis grandis and Nephelopsis oscura and the chlorocruorin from the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum, over the pH range 3.5-7.0. The Hb from the deep-sea polychaete Alvinella exhibited in addition, peaks at approximately 107 kDa and at approximately 285 kDa, which were assigned to subassemblies of six globin chains and of 12 globin chains with three non-globin linker chains, respectively. The experimental masses decreased slightly with increased de-clustering potential (60 to 160 V) and were generally 0.1 to 0.2 % higher than the calculated masses, due probably to complexation with cations and water molecules. PMID:11397079

  13. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the. alpha. subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G. )

    1988-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the {alpha} subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost, a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5{prime}-({alpha}-{sup 32}P)triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an {alpha} subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera.

  14. Nucleoporin 35 regulates cardiomyocyte pH homeostasis by controlling Na+-H+ exchanger-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Pan, Lei; Li, Jun; Huang, Bijun; Feng, Jing; Li, Changming; Wang, Shiyi; The, Erlinda; Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Tianyou; Zhen, Lixiao; Liang, Dandan; Liu, Yi; Li, Li; Cui, Yingyu; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Peng, Luying; Chen, Yi-Han

    2015-10-01

    The mammalian nuclear pore complex is comprised of ∼ 30 different nucleoporins (Nups). It governs the nuclear import of gene expression modulators and the export of mRNAs. In cardiomyocytes, Na(+)-H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE1) is an integral membrane protein that exclusively regulates intracellular pH (pHi) by exchanging one intracellular H(+) for one extracellular Na(+). However, the role of Nups in cardiac NHE1 expression remains unknown. We herein report that Nup35 regulates cardiomyocyte NHE1 expression by controlling the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of nhe1 mRNA. The N-terminal domain of Nup35 determines nhe1 mRNA nuclear export by targeting the 5'-UTR (-412 to -213 nt) of nhe1 mRNA. Nup35 ablation weakens the resistance of cardiomyocytes to an acid challenge by depressing NHE1 expression. Moreover, we identify that Nup35 and NHE1 are simultaneously downregulated in ischemic cardiomyocytes both in vivo and in vitro. Enforced expression of Nup35 effectively counteracts the anoxia-induced intracellular acidification. We conclude that Nup35 selectively regulates cardiomyocyte pHi homeostasis by posttranscriptionally controlling NHE1 expression. This finding reveals a novel regulatory mechanism of cardiomyocyte pHi, and may provide insight into the therapeutic strategy for ischemic cardiac diseases. PMID:26260029

  15. Cell cycle regulation of Greatwall kinase nuclear localization facilitates mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Galan, Jacob A.; Normandin, Karine; Bonneil, Éric; Hickson, Gilles R.; Roux, Philippe P.; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cell division requires the coordination of critical protein kinases and phosphatases. Greatwall (Gwl) kinase activity inactivates PP2A-B55 at mitotic entry to promote the phosphorylation of cyclin B–Cdk1 substrates, but how Gwl is regulated is poorly understood. We found that the subcellular localization of Gwl changed dramatically during the cell cycle in Drosophila. Gwl translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in prophase. We identified two critical nuclear localization signals in the central, poorly characterized region of Gwl, which are required for its function. The Polo kinase associated with and phosphorylated Gwl in this region, promoting its binding to 14-3-3ε and its localization to the cytoplasm in prophase. Our results suggest that cyclin B–Cdk1 phosphorylation of Gwl is also required for its nuclear exclusion by a distinct mechanism. We show that the nucleo-cytoplasmic regulation of Gwl is essential for its functions in vivo and propose that the spatial regulation of Gwl at mitotic entry contributes to the mitotic switch. PMID:23857770

  16. USP2 regulates the intracellular localization of PER1 and circadian gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaoming; Duguay, David; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Cermakian, Nicolas; Wing, Simon S

    2014-08-01

    Endogenous 24-h rhythms in physiology are driven by a network of circadian clocks located in most tissues. The molecular clock mechanism is based on feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Posttranslational modifications, including ubiquitination, are important for regulating the clock feedback mechanism. Recently, we showed that the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 (USP2) associates with clock proteins and deubiquitinates PERIOD1 (PER1) but does not affect its overall stability. Mice devoid of USP2 display defects in clock function. Here, we show that USP2 regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear retention of PER1 and its repressive role on the clock transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1. The rhythm of nuclear entry of PER1 in Usp2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) was advanced but with reduced nuclear accumulation of PER1. Although Per1 mRNA expression rhythm remained intact in the Usp2 KO MEFs, the expression profiles of other core clock genes were altered. This was also true for the expression of clock-controlled genes (e.g., Dbp, Tef, Hlf, E4bp4). A similar phase advance of PER1 nuclear localization rhythm and alteration of clock gene expression profiles were also observed in livers of Usp2 KO mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel function of USP2 in the molecular clock in which it regulates PER1 function by gating its nuclear entry and accumulation. PMID:25238854

  17. Opposing actions of the synapse-associated protein of 97-kDa molecular weight (SAP97) and Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) on Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Boccitto, M; Doshi, S; Newton, I P; Nathke, I; Neve, R; Dong, F; Mao, Y; Zhai, J; Zhang, L; Kalb, R

    2016-06-21

    It has been suggested that synapse-associated protein of 97-kDa molecular weight (SAP97) is a susceptibility factor for childhood and adult neuropsychiatric disorders. SAP97 is a scaffolding protein that shares direct and indirect binding partners with the Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene product, a gene with strong association with neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated the possibility that these two proteins converge upon a common molecular pathway. Since DISC1 modifies Wnt/β-catenin signaling via changes in glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) phosphorylation, we asked if SAP97 impacts Wnt/β-catenin signaling and GSK3β phosphorylation. We find that SAP97 acts as inhibitor of Wnt signaling activity and can suppress the stimulatory effects of DISC1 on β-catenin transcriptional activity. Reductions in SAP97 abundance also decrease GSK3β phosphorylation. In addition, we find that over expression of DISC1 leads to an increase in the abundance of SAP97, by inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. Our findings suggest that SAP97 and DISC1 contribute to maintaining Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity within a homeostatic range by regulating GSK3β phosphorylation. PMID:27026592

  18. Genetic Regulation of Acquired Immune Responses to Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a Study of Twins in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Annette; Fowler, Amanda; Banya, Winston; Singh, Mahavir; Bennett, Steve; Whittle, Hilton; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2001-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in clinical tuberculosis is increasingly recognized; how such factors regulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in healthy individuals is unclear. In this study of 255 adult twin pairs residing in The Gambia, West Africa, it is apparent that memory T-cell responses to secreted mycobacterial antigens (85-kDa antigen complex, “short-term culture filtrate,” and peptides from the ESAT-6 protein), as well as to the 65-kDa heat shock protein, are subject to effective genetic regulation. The delayed hypersensitivity response to intradermal tuberculin also demonstrates significant genetic variance, while quantitative T-cell and antibody responses to the 38-kDa cell membrane protein appear to be determined largely by environmental factors. Such findings have implications for vaccine development. PMID:11349068

  19. Protection against filarial infection by 45-49 kDa molecules of Brugia malayi via IFN-γ-mediated iNOS induction.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shiv K; Joseph, Sujith K; Verma, Richa; Kushwaha, Vikas; Parmar, Naveen; Yadav, Pawan K; Thota, Jagadeshwar Reddy; Kar, Susanta; Murthy, P Kalpana

    2015-01-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediated mechanisms have been implicated in killing of some life-stages of Brugia malayi/Wuchereria bancrofti and protect the host through type 1 responses and IFN-γ stimulated toxic mediators' release. However, the identity of NO stimulating molecules of the parasites is not known. Three predominantly NO-stimulating SDS-PAGE resolved fractions F8 (45.24-48.64 kDa), F11 (33.44-38.44 kDa) and F12 (28.44-33.44 kDa) from B. malayi were identified and their proteins were analyzed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Tropomyosin, calponin and de novo peptides were identified by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF in F8 and immunization with F8 conferred most significant protection against L3-initiated infection in Mastomys coucha. Immunized animals showed upregulated F8-induced NO, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β release, cellular proliferative responses and specific IgG and IgG1. Anti-IFN-γ, anti-TNF-α, and anti-IL-1β significantly reduced F8-mediated NO generation and iNOS induction at protein levels. Anti-IFN-γ treated cells showed maximum reduction (>74%) in NO generation suggesting a predominant role of IFN-γ in iNOS induction. In conclusion, the findings suggest that F8 which contains tropomyosin, calponin and de novo peptides protects the host via IFN-γ mediated iNOS induction and may hold promise as vaccine candidate(s). This is also the first report of identification of tropomyosin and calponin in B. malayi. PMID:25454090

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Bacillus thuringiensis Strains and Characterization of a Putative 41.9-kDa Insecticidal Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the genome sequencing of two Bacillus thuringiensis strains using Illumina next-generation sequencing technology (NGS). Strain Hu4-2, toxic to many lepidopteran pest species and to some mosquitoes, encoded genes for two insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins, cry1Ia and cry9Ea, and a vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) gene, vip3Ca2. Strain Leapi01 contained genes coding for seven Cry proteins (cry1Aa, cry1Ca, cry1Da, cry2Ab, cry9Ea and two cry1Ia gene variants) and a vip3 gene (vip3Aa10). A putative novel insecticidal protein gene 1143 bp long was found in both strains, whose sequences exhibited 100% nucleotide identity. The predicted protein showed 57 and 100% pairwise identity to protein sequence 72 from a patented Bt strain (US8318900) and to a putative 41.9-kDa insecticidal toxin from Bacillus cereus, respectively. The 41.9-kDa protein, containing a C-terminal 6× HisTag fusion, was expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for the first time against four lepidopteran species (Mamestra brassicae, Ostrinia nubilalis, Spodoptera frugiperda and S. littoralis) and the green-peach aphid Myzus persicae at doses as high as 4.8 µg/cm2 and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively. At these protein concentrations, the recombinant 41.9-kDa protein caused no mortality or symptoms of impaired growth against any of the insects tested, suggesting that these species are outside the protein’s target range or that the protein may not, in fact, be toxic. While the use of the polymerase chain reaction has allowed a significant increase in the number of Bt insecticidal genes characterized to date, novel NGS technologies promise a much faster, cheaper and efficient screening of Bt pesticidal proteins. PMID:24784323

  1. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Intact Proteins Larger than 100 kDa

    PubMed Central

    Signor, Luca; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Effectively determining masses of proteins is critical to many biological studies (e.g. for structural biology investigations). Accurate mass determination allows one to evaluate the correctness of protein primary sequences, the presence of mutations and/or post-translational modifications, the possible protein degradation, the sample homogeneity, and the degree of isotope incorporation in case of labelling (e.g. 13C labelling). Electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for mass determination of denatured proteins, but its efficiency is affected by the composition of the sample buffer. In particular, the presence of salts, detergents, and contaminants severely undermines the effectiveness of protein analysis by ESI-MS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS is an attractive alternative, due to its salt tolerance and the simplicity of data acquisition and interpretation. Moreover, the mass determination of large heterogeneous proteins (bigger than 100 kDa) is easier by MALDI-MS due to the absence of overlapping high charge state distributions which are present in ESI spectra. Here we present an accessible approach for analysing proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-time of flight (TOF). We illustrate the advantages of using a mixture of two matrices (i.e. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the utility of the thin layer method as approach for sample deposition. We also discuss the critical role of the matrix and solvent purity, of the standards used for calibration, of the laser energy, and of the acquisition time. Overall, we provide information necessary to a novice for analysing intact proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-MS. PMID:24056304

  2. O-Glycosylated 24-kDa human growth hormone (hGH) has a mucin-like biantennary disialylated tetrasaccharide attached at Thr-60

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Leticia; Carroll, Christopher A.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Aguilar, Roberto M.; Muñoz, Jesus; Martinez, Andrew O.; Haro, Luis S.

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the 24-kDa human growth hormone (hGH) glycoprotein isoform and determine the locus of O-linked oligosaccharide attachment, the oligosaccharide branching topology, and the monosaccharide sequence. MALDI-TOF/MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses of glycosylated 24-kDa hGH tryptic peptides showed that this hGH isoform is a product of the hGH normal gene (hGH-N). Analysis of the glycoprotein hydrolysate by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and HPLC with fluorescent detection for NeuAc, yielded the oligosaccharide composition (NeuAc2, GalNAc1, Gal1). After β-elimination to release the oligosaccharide from glycosylated 24-kDa hGH, collision-induced dissociation of tryptic glycopeptide T6 indicated that there had been an O-linked oligosaccharide attached to Thr-60. The sequence and branching structure of the oligosaccharide were determined by ESI-MS/MS analysis of tryptic glycopeptide T6. The mucin-like O-oligosaccharide sequence linked to Thr-60 begins with GalNAc and branches in a bifurcated topology with one appendage consisting of Gal followed by NeuAc and the other consisting of a single NeuAc. The oligosaccharide moiety lies in the high-affinity binding site 1 structural epitope of hGH that interfaces with both the GH and prolactin receptors and is predicted to sterically affect receptor interactions and alter the biological actions of hGH. PMID:19579232

  3. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and characterization of an 18-kDa hemagglutinin and amebocyte aggregation factor from Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Fujii, N; Minetti, C A; Nakhasi, H L; Chen, S W; Barbehenn, E; Nunes, P H; Nguyen, N Y

    1992-11-01

    An 18-kDa hemagglutinin which possesses the property of inducing both aggregation of amebocytes and agglutination of erythrocytes has been isolated from Limulus polyphemus amebocytes and purified by ion exchange chromatography. This nonglycosylated, single chain polypeptide with an M(r) of 18,506 and isoelectric point of 8.3 is stored exclusively in the large secretory granules of amebocytes. Based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of 63 residues, DNA probes have been synthesized for screening a pBR322 cDNA library constructed from Limulus amebocytes. The cDNA coding for this protein reveals the presence of a 19-residue signal peptide preceding the 153-residue open reading frame. Northern blot analysis indicates the presence of a single mRNA species. The primary structure derived from the corresponding cDNA sequence reveals an internal homology consisting of two consensus sequences, Val-Asn-Asp/Ser-Trp-Asp and Glu-Asp-Arg-Arg-Trp. The formation of 5 disulfide bonds between 10 half-cysteines divides the molecule into three looped domains each containing the Glu-Asp-Arg-Arg-Trp repeating unit. One of the novel features of this protein is that it shares 37% identity with a 22-kDa mammalian extracellular matrix protein isolated from fetal bovine skin (Neame, P.J., Choi, H.U., and Rosenberg, L.C. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 5474-5479). The two proteins exhibit a similar pattern of looped domains, each domain containing a homologous consensus sequence (i.e. Glu-Asp-Arg-Arg-Trp). The overall structure of both proteins seems to be highly related, with the exception of an N-terminal tyrosine-rich region present only in the mammalian extracellular matrix protein. The functional properties of the two proteins are similar in that the Limulus 18-kDa protein agglutinates horse erythrocytes and aggregates Limulus amebocytes, and the mammalian 22-kDa protein is an effective adhesion promoter for dermal fibroblasts. On the basis of these unique properties, the newly

  4. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric determination of the molecular mass of the approximately 200-kDa globin dodecamer subassemblies in hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Green, B N; Bordoli, R S; Hanin, L G; Lallier, F H; Toulmond, A; Vinogradov, S N

    1999-10-01

    Hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins (Hbs) are approximately 3.6-MDa complexes of approximately 17-kDa globin chains and 24-32-kDa, nonglobin linker chains in a approximately 2:1 mass ratio found in annelids and related species. Studies of the dissociation and reassembly of Lumbricus terrestris Hb have provided ample evidence for the presence of a approximately 200-kDa linker-free subassembly consisting of monomer (M) and disulfide-bonded trimer (T) subunits. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of the subassemblies obtained by gel filtration of partially dissociated L. terrestris and Arenicola marina Hbs showed the presence of noncovalent complexes of M and T subunits with masses in the 213. 3-215.4 and 204.6-205.6 kDa ranges, respectively. The observed mass of the L. terrestris subassembly decreased linearly with an increase in de-clustering voltage from approximately 215,400 Da at 60 V to approximately 213,300 Da at 200 V. In contrast, the mass of the A. marina complex decreased linearly from 60 to 120 V and reached an asymptote at approximately 204,600 Da (180-200 V). The decrease in mass was probably due to the progressive removal of complexed water and alkali metal cations. ESI-MS at an acidic pH showed both subassemblies to consist of only M and T subunits, and the experimental masses demonstrated them to have the composition M(3)T(3). Because there are three isoforms of M and four isoforms of T in Lumbricus and two isoforms of M and 5 isoforms of T in Arenicola, the masses of the M(3)T(3) subassemblies are not unique. A random assembly model was used to calculate the mass distributions of the subassemblies, using the known ESI-MS masses and relative intensities of the M and T subunit isforms. The expected mass of randomly assembled subassemblies was 213,436 Da for Lumbricus Hb and 204,342 Da for Arenicola Hb, in good agreement with the experimental values. PMID:10497174

  5. [Purification of antigenic fraction 27-28 kDa from the metabolic antigen from metabolic secreted-excreted from Fasciola hepatica].

    PubMed

    Antitupa, Isidro; Quispe, William; Mayo, Jhon; Valverde, Fanny; Sanchez, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Antigenic fractions of 27-28 kDa from Fasciola hepatica were purified by size-exclusion chromatography for use in the diagnosis of human fasciolosis. Excretion and secretion antigens were obtained from living adult flukes collected from sheep and cattle liver, and cultured in minimum essential medium. The reactivity of the purified antigen and efficacy were assessed by immunoblot test using four sera with human fascioliasis; four sera with other parasites, and two negative sera. We conclude that the purified antigenic fractions do not cross-react with other parasites by immunoblot. Therefore, purified proteins are considered as potential candidates to be used for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. PMID:25123868

  6. Structural features, IgE binding and preliminary clinical findings of the 7kDa Lipid Transfer Protein from tomato seeds.

    PubMed

    Giangrieco, Ivana; Alessandri, Claudia; Rafaiani, Chiara; Santoro, Mario; Zuzzi, Sara; Tuppo, Lisa; Tamburrini, Maurizio; D'Avino, Rossana; Ciardiello, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Adriano

    2015-08-01

    Allergic reactions caused by 9kDa Lipid Transfer Proteins (9k-LTP), such as Pru p 3, have been widely investigated, whereas a possible contribution of components of 7kDa LTP (7k-LTP) sub-family in triggering allergic symptoms has been overlooked so far. With the aim to investigate the contribution of 7k-LTPs to the food allergies, we have identified, isolated and characterised a tomato seed 7k-LTP (Sola l 7k-LTP). The protein was purified by chromatographic separations, identified by direct protein sequencing and mass spectrometry and a molecular model was built. Functional evaluation of the allergen has been performed by skin testing. Sola l 7k-LTP consists of 68 amino acids producing a molecular mass of 7045Da and displays 41% sequence identity with Pru p 3, the allergenic 9k-LTP from peach. IgE antibodies specifically recognising Sola l 7k-LTP were found within the population claiming tomato ingestion-related symptoms, but also in subjects tolerant on tomato exposure. A few subjects were mono-sensitised to Sola l 7k-LTP, which is biologically active as shown by the positive skin test. In line with the immunological results, the molecular model shows structural similarities between the IgE binding regions of the two sub-families. Therefore, Sola l 7k-LTP shares some structural and immunological features with Pru p 3, but it also displays individual features that could be responsible for mono-specific IgE binding. In conclusion, Sola l 7k-LTP is a new identified allergenic LTP, the description of which may contribute to the improvement of allergy diagnosis and to the formulation of a safe and personalised diet. In addition, to avoid current confusing classifications, a new nomenclature policy for LTP sub-families is proposed in this paper. We now suggest that 7-kDa LTP (so far named LTP2) be renamed 7k-LTP and 9-kDa LTP (so far named LTP1) be renamed 9k-LTP. PMID:25791776

  7. Cytoplasmic loop three of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator contributes to regulation of chloride channel activity.

    PubMed

    Seibert, F S; Linsdell, P; Loo, T W; Hanrahan, J W; Riordan, J R; Clarke, D M

    1996-11-01

    To examine the contribution of the large cytoplasmic loops of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to channel activity, the three point-mutations (S945L, H949Y, G970R) were characterized that have been detected in the third cytoplasmic loop (CL3, residues 933-990) in patients with cystic fibrosis. Chinese hamster ovary cell lines stably expressing wild-type CFTR or mutant G970R-CFTR yielded polypeptides with apparent masses of 170 kDa as the major products, whereas the major products of mutants S945L-CFTR and H949Y-CFTR had apparent masses of 150 kDa. The 150-kDa forms of CFTR were sensitive to endoglycosidase H digestion, indicating that these mutations interfered with maturation of the protein. Increased levels of mature CFTR (170 kDa) could be obtained for mutant H949Y when cells were grown at a lower temperature (26 degrees C) or incubated in the presence of 10% glycerol. For all mutants, the open probability (P0) of the CFTR channels was significantly altered. S945L-CFTR and G970R-CFTR showed a severe reduction in the P0, whereas the H949Y mutation doubled the P0 relative to wild-type. The changes in P0 predominantly resulted from an alteration of the mean burst durations which suggests that CL3 is involved in obtaining and/or maintaining stability of the open state. In addition, mutants S945L and G970R had current-voltage relationships that were not completely linear over the range +/-80 mV, but showed slight outward rectification. The fact that CL3 mutations can have subtle effects on channel conductance indicates that this region may be physically close to the inner mouth of the pore. PMID:8910333

  8. The 94- to 97-kDa mouse macrophage membrane protein that recognizes oxidized low density lipoprotein and phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes is identical to macrosialin, the mouse homologue of human CD68.

    PubMed Central

    Ramprasad, M P; Fischer, W; Witztum, J L; Sambrano, G R; Quehenberger, O; Steinberg, D

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported the partial purification of a 94- to 97-kDa plasma membrane protein from mouse peritoneal macrophages that binds oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes. We have now identified that protein as macrosialin, a previously cloned macrophage-restricted membrane protein in the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family (mouse homologue of human CD68). Early in the course of purification of the 94- to 97-kDa protein, a new OxLDL-binding band at 190-200 kDa appeared and copurified with the 94- to 97-kDa protein. The HPLC pattern of tryptic peptides from this higher molecular mass ligand-binding band closely matched that derived from the 94- to 97-kDa band. Specifically, the same three macrosialin-derived tryptic peptides (9, 9, and 15 residues) were present in the purified 94- to 97-kDa band and in the 190- to 200-kDa band and antisera raised against peptide sequences in macrosialin recognized both bands. An antiserum against macrosialin precipitated most of the 94- to 97-kDa OxLDL-binding material. We conclude that the binding of OxLDL to mouse macrophage membranes is in part attributable to macrosialin. Our previous studies show that OxLDL competes with oxidized red blood cells and with apoptotic thymocytes for binding to mouse peritoneal macrophages. Whether macrosialin plays a role in recognition of OxLDL and oxidatively damaged cells by intact macrophages remains uncertain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568176

  9. Small GTP-binding protein Ran is regulated by posttranslational lysine acetylation

    PubMed Central

    de Boor, Susanne; Knyphausen, Philipp; Kuhlmann, Nora; Wroblowski, Sarah; Brenig, Julian; Scislowski, Lukas; Baldus, Linda; Nolte, Hendrik; Krüger, Marcus; Lammers, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ran is a small GTP-binding protein of the Ras superfamily regulating fundamental cellular processes: nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, nuclear envelope formation and mitotic spindle assembly. An intracellular Ran•GTP/Ran•GDP gradient created by the distinct subcellular localization of its regulators RCC1 and RanGAP mediates many of its cellular effects. Recent proteomic screens identified five Ran lysine acetylation sites in human and eleven sites in mouse/rat tissues. Some of these sites are located in functionally highly important regions such as switch I and switch II. Here, we show that lysine acetylation interferes with essential aspects of Ran function: nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, subcellular Ran localization, GTP hydrolysis, and the interaction with import and export receptors. Deacetylation activity of certain sirtuins was detected for two Ran acetylation sites in vitro. Moreover, Ran was acetylated by CBP/p300 and Tip60 in vitro and on transferase overexpression in vivo. Overall, this study addresses many important challenges of the acetylome field, which will be discussed. PMID:26124124

  10. Hnrpab regulates neural development and neuron cell survival after glutamate stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sinnamon, John R.; Waddell, Catherine B.; Nik, Sara; Chen, Emily I.; Czaplinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that govern the timing and fate of neural stem-cell differentiation toward the distinct neural lineages of the nervous system are not well defined. The contribution of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression to neural stem-cell maintenance and differentiation, in particular, remains inadequately characterized. The RNA-binding protein Hnrpab is highly expressed in developing nervous tissue and in neurogenic regions of the adult brain, but its role in neural development and function is unknown. We raised a mouse that lacks Hnrpab expression to define what role, if any, Hnrpab plays during mouse neural development. We performed a genome-wide quantitative analysis of protein expression within the hippocampus of newborn mice to demonstrate significantly altered gene expression in mice lacking Hnrpab relative to Hnrpab-expressing littermates. The proteins affected suggested an altered pattern of neural development and also unexpectedly indicated altered glutamate signaling. We demonstrate that Hnrpab−/− neural stem and progenitor cells undergo altered differentiation patterns in culture, and mature Hnrpab−/− neurons demonstrate increased sensitivity to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We also demonstrate that Hnrpab nucleocytoplasmic distribution in primary neurons is regulated by developmental stage. PMID:22332140

  11. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated /sup 32/P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. /sup 32/P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice.

  12. The biochemical properties of the ATPase activity of a 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) are governed by the C-terminal domains

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Buesa, Pascual; Pfund, Christine; Craig, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    The cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s), Ssa and Ssb, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are functionally distinct. Here we report that the ATPase activities of these two classes of Hsp70s exhibit different kinetic properties. The Ssa ATPase has properties similar to those of other Hsp70s studied, such as DnaK and Hsc70. Ssb, however, has an unusually low steady-state affinity for ATP but a higher maximal velocity. In addition, the ATPase activity of Hsp70s, like that of Ssa1, depends on the addition of K+ whereas Ssb activity does not. Suprisingly, the isolated 44-kDa ATPase domain of Ssb has a Km and Vmax for ATP hydrolysis similar to those of Ssa, rather than those of full length Ssb. Analysis of Ssa/Ssb fusion proteins demonstrates that the Ssb peptide-binding domain fused to the Ssa ATPase domain generates an ATPase of relatively high activity and low steady-state affinity for ATP similar to that of native Ssb. Therefore, at least some of the biochemical differences between the ATPases of these two classes of Hsp70s are not intrinsic to the ATPase domain itself. The differential influence of the peptide-binding domain on the ATPase domain may, in part, explain the functional uniqueness of these two classes of Hsp70s. PMID:9860955

  13. The identification and characterization of epitopes in the 30-34 kDa Trypanosoma cruzi proteins recognized by antibodies in the serum samples of chagasic patients.

    PubMed

    Verissimo da Costa, Giovani Carlo; Lery, Leticia Miranda Santos; da Silva, Manuela Leal; Moura, Hércules; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; von Krüger, Wanda Maria Almeida; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Barr, John R; Peralta, José Mauro

    2013-03-27

    Trypanosoma cruzi proteins with molecular weight between 30 and 34 kDa have shown high reactivity in western blot assays with serum samples from chagasic individuals. However, in-depth analysis of the constituents of these protein fractions has not been performed. This is the first report of an immunoaffinity proteomic approach to identify the immunodominant 30-34 kDa proteins of T. cruzi that could eventually be used for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. We used two different sample preparation protocols for protein digestion coupled to mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the protein fraction. The immunodominant proteins and their respective epitopes were then identified by co-immunoprecipitation and excision-epitope mapping/mass spectrometry, using human sera followed by the prediction and three-dimensional structural modeling of reactive epitopes. The use of different sample preparation methods allowed the identification of a relatively high number of proteins, some of which were only identified after one or multiple sample preparation and digestion protocols. Seven immunodominant proteins were identified by co-immunoprecipitation with purified IgGs from chagasic serum samples. Moreover, six reactive peptide epitopes were detected in four of these proteins by excision-epitope mapping/mass spectrometry. Three-dimensional structural models were obtained for the immunoreactive peptides, which correlated well with the linear B-cell epitope prediction tools. PMID:23159400

  14. High-resolution solution structure of the 18 kDa substrate-binding domain of the mammalian chaperone protein Hsc70.

    PubMed

    Morshauser, R C; Hu, W; Wang, H; Pang, Y; Flynn, G C; Zuiderweg, E R

    1999-06-25

    The three-dimensional structure for the substrate-binding domain of the mammalian chaperone protein Hsc70 of the 70 kDa heat shock class (HSP70) is presented. This domain includes residues 383-540 (18 kDa) and is necessary for the binding of the chaperone with substrate proteins and peptides. The high-resolution NMR solution structure is based on 4150 experimental distance constraints leading to an average root-mean-square precision of 0.38 A for the backbone atoms and 0.76 A for all atoms in the beta-sandwich sub-domain. The protein is observed to bind residue Leu539 in its hydrophobic substrate-binding groove by intramolecular interaction. The position of a helical latch differs dramatically from what is observed in the crystal and solution structures of the homologous prokaryotic chaperone DnaK. In the Hsc70 structure, the helix lies in a hydrophobic groove and is anchored by a buried salt-bridge. Residues involved in this salt-bridge appear to be important for the allosteric functioning of the protein. A mechanism for interdomain allosteric modulation of substrate-binding is proposed. It involves large-scale movements of the helical domain, redefining the location of the hinge area that enables such motions. PMID:10373374

  15. Identification of a 23 kDa protein from maize photoaffinity-labelled with 5-azido-[7-3H]indol-3-ylacetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Feldwisch, J; Zettl, R; Campos, N; Palme, K

    1995-01-01

    A 23 kDa protein (p23) was identified in microsomal extracts from maize coleoptiles by photoaffinity labelling with 5-azido-[7-3H]indol-3-ylacetic acid ([3H]N3IAA). Labelling of p23 was blocked by unlabelled IAA, N3IAA, indol-3-ylbutyric acid and indol-3-yl-lactate. In addition, labelling was efficiently decreased by tryptophan, as well as by the scavenger p-aminobenzoic acid. Labelling was, however, not affected by synthetic auxins such as 1-naphthylacetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Competition data suggest that the label was probably bound via the indole ring, and hence labelling was not specific for auxins. The 23 kDa protein was solubilized from crude microsomes by extraction with Triton X-100 and purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange, size-exclusion and reversed-phase chromatography. After electroblotting, the amino acid sequences of the p23 N-terminus as well as the several tryptic peptides were obtained. Database comparisons revealed sequence identity with a maize manganese superoxide dismutase. We conclude that photoaffinity labelling of p23 was pseudo-affinity, and therefore the binding site for IAA is not specific. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7848285

  16. Aggregation of the 35-kDa fragment of TDP-43 causes formation of cytoplasmic inclusions and alteration of RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Che, Mei-Xia; Jiang, Ya-Jun; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Lei-Lei; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2011-07-01

    TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a nuclear factor functioning in RNA processing. It is also a major deposited protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin (FTLD-U). To understand the mechanism underlying the inclusion body formation and possible functional alteration, we studied some TDP-43 fragments and their effects on RNA processing in cell models. The results show that the 35-kDa fragment of TDP-43 (namely TDP-35, residues 90-414), but not TDP-25A (184-414), is capable of forming cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and altering pre-mRNA splicing. The inclusions formed by TDP-35 can also recruit full-length TDP-43 to cytoplasmic deposition from functionally nuclear localization. The in vitro studies demonstrate that TDP-35, rather than TDP-43 and TDP-25A, is prone to aggregation, and it further serves as a seed to facilitate aggregation of full-length TDP-43. This suggests that fragmentation of TDP-43 leads to cellular redistribution, inclusion body formation, and altered RNA processing, which are implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of ALS and FTLD. PMID:21450909

  17. Reversible cAMP-induced translocation of cytoskeleton-associated 300- to 350-kDa proteins from nucleus to cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Tokiko; Nishizawa, Kimiko; Sato, Chicako )

    1988-08-01

    The authors previously reported that treatment of SV-3Y1 cells in an exponential growth state with db-cAMP plus theophylline induced reversible disappearance of nuclear dots stained by monoclonal anti-microtubule-associated protein (MAP)-1 antibody. In the present study, the authors examined the relation between the intracellular localization and phosphorylation of 300- to 350-kDa proteins that are intracellular antigens for our anti-Map-1 and -2 antibodies. Treatment with db-cAMP plus theophylline was found to result in a reversible decrease in immunofluorescent staining of the nucleus with polyclonal MAP-1 or -2 antibody, and a reversible increase in that of the cytoplasm. Simultaneous treatment with colchicine, colcemid, putrescine, or {alpha}-naphthyl phosphate in the presence of db-cAMP plus theophylline almost prevented this effect of db-cAMP plus theophylline. They examined the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions by immunoperoxidase staining, immunoprecipitation, and {sup 125}I-protein A with anti-MAP-1 and -2 antibodies. The present research indicated that treatment with db-cAMP plus theophylline resulted in the reversible translocation of 300- to 350-kDa proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm accompanied by the dephosphorylation of these proteins.

  18. Influence of serum on the immune recognition of a synthetic lipopeptide mimetic of the 19-kDa lipoprotein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Schromm, Andra B; Reiling, Norbert; Howe, Jörg; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Roessle, Manfred; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    The innate immune response provides a critical first-line defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen that represents a major health threat world-wide. A synthetic lipopeptide (LP) mimicking the lipid moiety of the cell-wall associated 19-kDa lipoprotein from M. tuberculosis has recently been assigned an important role in the induction of an antibacterial immune response in host macrophages. Here, we present experimental data on the biological activities and the biophysical mechanisms underlying cell activation by synthetic 19-kDa M. tuberculosis-derived lipopeptide (Mtb-LP). Investigation of the geometry of the LP (i.e. the molecular conformation and supramolecular aggregate structure) and the preference for membrane intercalation provide an explanation for the biological activities of the mycobacterial LP. Cell activation by low concentrations of Mtb-LP was enhanced by the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and CD14. However, surprisingly, we found that activation of human macrophages to induce pro- as well as antiinflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-alpha, Interleukin(IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in response to the Mtb-LP is strongly reduced in the presence of serum. This observation could be confirmed for the immune response of murine macrophages which showed a strongly enhanced TNF-alpha release in the absence of serum, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms of immune recognition of the Mtb-LP are tailored to the ambient conditions of the lung. PMID:19710101

  19. Phosphorylation of a cytosolic 65-kDa protein induced by interleukin 1 in glucocorticoid pretreated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushima, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Copeland, T.D.; Akahoshi, T.; Oppenheim, J.J.

    1987-11-15

    The authors have previously observed that glucocorticoids dramatically increase the number of interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptors on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) without significant change in the binding affinity. They, therefore, used such a receptor-enriched glucocorticoid-pretreated PBMC to investigate whether IL-1 induces/increases the phosphorylation of any cell-associated proteins, including possible autophosphorylation of IL-1 receptors. Extraction of /sup 125/I-labeled IL-1..cap alpha.. cross-linked to IL-1 receptor on steroid-treated PBMC yielded two bands estimated to be 60 and 70 kDa in molecular mass. No molecules were significantly cross-linked with /sup 125/I-labeled IL-1..gamma.. on untreated PBMC. Fractionation of extracts of IL-1-stimulated prednisolone-pretreated PMBC by ultracentrifugation showed that pp65 is located in the cytosol, suggesting that pp65 is not the IL-1 receptor itself. Protein kinase inhibitors, HA1004 and W-7, but not H07, significantly inhibited the induction of the phosphorylation of 65-kDa protein by IL-1. These data indicate that the glucocorticoid-induced IL-1 receptor is functional and either contains or is closely associated with a serine kinase that is distinct from protein kinase C.

  20. Medium optimization for a novel 58 kDa dimeric keratinase from Bacillus licheniformis ER-15: biochemical characterization and application in feather degradation and dehairing of hides.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Ekta; Gupta, Rani

    2010-08-01

    A novel dimeric 58 kDa keratinase is reported from Bacillus licheniformis ER-15. The bacterium produced 244 U/ml keratinase in 48 h which was increased by eight fold (1962 U/ml) after medium optimization by one-variable-at-a-time and response surface methodology. Enzyme was concentrated by ultrafiltration followed by acetone precipitation and purified by gel filtration chromatography. It had subunit of 30 and 28 kDa and pI of 8.4. Enzyme was maximally active at pH 11 and 70 degrees C. It hydrolyzed various complex proteins viz. haemoglobin, feather, hooves, fibrin and meat protein. It was a thiol activated serine protease and 6.25-fold enhancement in activity was observed in presence of 5mM mercaptoethanol. Nearly 1200 U keratinase degraded 1.5 g feather in 12h at pH 8, 50 degrees C in redox free environment. This enzyme also dehaired buffalo hide within 16 h in presence of 3% Ca (OH)(2). PMID:20347294

  1. The Lassa fever virus L gene: nucleotide sequence, comparison, and precipitation of a predicted 250 kDa protein with monospecific antiserum

    PubMed Central

    Lukashevich, Igor S.; Djavani, Mahmoud; Shapiro, Keli; Sanchez, Anthony; Ravkov, Eugene; Nichol, Stuart T.; Salvato, Maria S.

    2008-01-01

    The large (L) RNA segment of Lassa fever virus (LAS) encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or L protein). Similar to other arenaviruses, the LAS L protein is encoded on the genome-complementary strand and is predicted to be 2218 amino acids in length (253 kDa). It has an unusually large non-coding region adjacent to its translation start site. The LAS L protein contains six motifs of conserved amino acids that have been found among arenavirus L proteins and core RdRp of other segmented negative-stranded (SNS) viruses (Arena-, Bunya- and Orthomyxoviridae). Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRp of 20 SNS viruses reveals that arenavirus L proteins represent a distinct cluster divided into LAS–lymphocytic choriomeningitis and Tacaribe–Pichinde virus lineages. Monospecific serum against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the most conserved central domain precipitates a 250 kDa product from LAS and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected cells. PMID:9049403

  2. Enhancement of choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activities by guanyl nucleotides and a 19-kDa membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S C; Noda, M; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1987-01-01

    Choleragen activates adenylate cyclase by catalyzing, in the presence of NAD, the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, the stimulatory guanyl nucleotide-binding protein of the cyclase system. Kahn and Gilman [Kahn, R. A. & Gilman, A. G. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7906-7911] identified another guanyl nucleotide-binding protein termed ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) that stimulated this reaction. It was proposed that the toxin substrate is an ARF-Gs alpha complex and that ARF may have a physiological role in regulation of Gs alpha activity. We have found that purified ARF from bovine brain enhances not only the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha but also Gs alpha-independent choleragen-catalyzed reactions. These are (i) ADP-ribosylation of agmatine, a low molecular weight guanidino compound; (ii) ADP-ribosylation of several proteins unrelated to Gs alpha; and (iii) auto-ADP-ribosylation of the toxin A1 peptide. These reactions, as well as the ADP-ribosylation of ARF itself, were stimulated by GTP or stable GTP analogues such as guanyl-5'-yl imido-beta gamma-diphosphate and guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate; GDP and guanosine 5'-O-[beta-thio]diphosphate were inactive. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that ARF interacts directly with the A subunit of choleragen in a GTP-dependent fashion thereby enhancing catalytic activity manifest as transfer of ADP-ribose to Gs alpha and other proteins, to the toxin A1 peptide, or to agmatine. It is tempting to speculate that ARF may be involved in regulating one or another of the ADP-ribosyltransferases found in animal cells. Images PMID:3110784

  3. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  4. Tissue distribution of HSPA9/mortalin in avian species and its regulation by gender, genotype and heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat shock 70kDa protein 9 (HSPA9)/mortalin is a multipotent chaperone regulating cellular processes ranging from stress response to energy homeostasis. HSPA9 has been extensively studied in mammals however there is a paucity of information in avian species. The present study aimed to characterize H...

  5. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  6. Nuclear Export of Smads by RanBP3L Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fenfang; Lin, Xia; Xu, Pinglong; Zhang, Zhengmao; Chen, Yanzhen; Wang, Chao; Han, Jiahuai; Zhao, Bin; Xiao, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play vital roles in regulating stem cell maintenance and differentiation. BMPs can induce osteogenesis and inhibit myogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Canonical BMP signaling is stringently controlled through reversible phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 (Smad1/5/8). However, how the nuclear export of Smad1/5/8 is regulated remains unclear. Here we report that the Ran-binding protein RanBP3L acts as a nuclear export factor for Smad1/5/8. RanBP3L directly recognizes dephosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and mediates their nuclear export in a Ran-dependent manner. Increased expression of RanBP3L blocks BMP-induced osteogenesis of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and promotes myogenic induction of C2C12 mouse myoblasts, whereas depletion of RanBP3L expression enhances BMP-dependent stem cell differentiation activity and transcriptional responses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RanBP3L, as a nuclear exporter for BMP-specific Smads, plays a critical role in terminating BMP signaling and regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. PMID:25755279

  7. A novel 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni is a prospective antigen for diagnosis and serosurvey of canine babesiosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Jia, Honglin; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Goo, Younkyoung; Kuriki, Ken; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2007-10-21

    We isolated a novel single copy gene encoding a 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP57). The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 2387 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1644 bp encoding a 57-kDa predicted polypeptide having 547 amino acid residues. The recombinant BgP57 (rBgP57) without a predicted signal peptide was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Western blotting showed that the corresponding native protein was 57-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of predicted mature polypeptide. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rBgP57 detected specific antibodies in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected with B. gibsoni. Moreover, the antigen did not cross-react with antibodies to B. canis sub-species and closely related apicomplexan parasites indicating that the rBgP57 was a specific antigen for B. gibsoni antibodies. The diagnostic performance of ELISA based on rBgP57 using 107 sera from B. gibsoni-naturally infected dogs was the same as the previously identified rBgP32 but performed better than the previously studied rBgP50. Although, seminested PCR detected higher proportions (82%) of positive samples than the ELISAs, the Mcnemar's chi-square test showed that there was no significant difference in relative effectiveness of rBgP57-ELISA and seminested PCR (chi(2)=2.70; P=0.1003) in identifying positive samples. The rBgP57-ELISA when used in combination with rBgP32-ELISA and rBgP50-ELISA appeared to improve sensitivity of the rBgP57-ELISA for detection of B. gibsoni antibodies. Overall, the rBgP57-ELISA and seminested PCR when used in combination, could improve epidemiological surveys and clinical diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection. PMID:17706873

  8. Characterization of a new IgE-binding 35-kDa protein from birch pollen with cross-reacting homologues in various plant foods.

    PubMed

    Vieths, S; Frank, E; Scheurer, S; Meyer, H E; Hrazdina, G; Haustein, D

    1998-03-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to obtain molecular data of a new immunoglobulin (Ig)E-binding birch pollen protein with a mass of 35 kDa. In a previous study, this protein showed IgE cross-reactivity with 34- and 35-kDa proteins in apples, pears, carrots, bananas and other exotic fruits. Since the protein was N-terminally blocked, it was purified by preparative SDS-PAGE, and multiple proteolytic fragments were subsequently generated by in-gel digestion with the endoproteinases Glu C, Lys C and Clostripain. After electrophoretic separation and blotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), the resulting polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid microsequencing. The internal sequences obtained showed a high degree of sequence identity to isoflavone reductases (IFR) and isoflavone reductase-like proteins (IRL) from several plants which also had a similar size. For a stretch of 25 consecutive residues this identity ranged from 56% for IFR from peas and chick peas and an IRL from maize, to 80% for a tobacco IRL. A 453 bp fragment was amplified from total birch pollen RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers derived from the nucleotide sequence of the tobacco IRL. The deduced 151 amino acid sequence represented approximately 50% of the protein and confirmed the sequence identities obtained by Edman degradation. Moreover, the 25 amino acid sequence was included in the cloned fragment. Deduced and determined amino acids showed only one mismatch, which was due to a single nucleotide exchange. At the antibody level, the immunological relationship of the birch pollen protein to IRL and IFR was demonstrated by immunoblotting with a rabbit antiserum against a pea IFR which recognized the same birch protein as patients' IgE. The rabbit antiserum also reproduced the cross-reactivity pattern previously observed with patients' IgE by recognizing related proteins in specific plant foods, including some exotic fruits. We therefore suggest that the 35

  9. Characterization of the binding between a 70-kDa heat shock protein, HspA1A, and phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    McCallister, Chelsea; Kdeiss, Brianna; Oliverio, Ryan; Nikolaidis, Nikolas

    2016-03-25

    HspA1A, a seventy-kilodalton heat shock protein, binds to specific anionic lipids and this interaction regulates important physiological phenomena like apoptosis, tumor growth, and lysosomal rescue. However, whether HspA1A binds to phosphoinositides has yet to be established and quantified. Therefore, in this study, we determined the binding affinity of HspA1A to several phosphoinositides and characterized five aspects of their molecular interaction. First, we established that HspA1A binds phosphatidylinositol monophosphates with higher affinity than di- and triphosphorylated inositides. Second, using high concentrations of potassium we found that HSPA1A embeds within the lipid bilayer of all phosphoinositides tested. However, the effects of the high salt concentrations were significantly different between the different phosphoinositides. Third, using calcium and reaction buffers equilibrated at different pH values we found that these differentially affected HspA1A-phosphoinositide binding, revealing a lipid-specific pattern of binding. Fourth, by assessing the binding properties of the two HspA1A domains, the nucleotide-binding domain and the substrate-binding domain, we determined that in most cases the full-length protein is necessary for binding to phosphoinositides. Fifth, by including in the reactions nucleotides and protein substrates we determined that they minimally and differentially affected phosphoinositide-binding. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest that the HspA1A-phosphoinositide binding is complex yet specific, is mediated by both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, is not related to the lipid-head charge, and depends on the physicochemical properties of the lipid. PMID:26923070

  10. The selective post-translational processing of transcription factor Nrf1 yields distinct isoforms that dictate its ability to differentially regulate gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiguo; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Qiu, Lu; Zhao, Huakan; Hayes, John D

    2015-01-01

    Upon translation, the N-terminal homology box 1 (NHB1) signal anchor sequence of Nrf1 integrates it within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whilst its transactivation domains [TADs, including acidic domain 1 (AD1), the flanking Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and AD2] are transiently translocated into the ER lumen, whereupon the NST domain is glycosylated to yield an inactive 120-kDa glycoprotein. Subsequently, these TADs are retrotranslocated into extra-luminal subcellular compartments, where Nrf1 is deglycosylated to yield an active 95-kDa isoform. Herein, we report that AD1 and AD2 are required for the stability of the 120-kDa Nrf1 glycoprotein, but not that of the non-glycosylated/de-glycosylated 95-kDa isoform. Degrons within AD1 do not promote proteolytic degradation of the 120-kDa Nrf1 glycoprotein. However, repositioning of AD2-adjoining degrons (i.e. DSGLS-containing SDS1 and PEST2 sequences) into the cyto/nucleoplasm enables selective topovectorial processing of Nrf1 by the proteasome and/or calpains to generate a cleaved active 85-kDa Nrf1 or a dominant-negative 36-kDa Nrf1γ. Production of Nrf1γ is abolished by removal of SDS1 or PEST2 degrons, whereas production of the cleaved 85-kDa Nrf1 is blocked by deletion of the ER luminal-anchoring NHB2 sequence (aa 81-106). Importantly, Nrf1 activity is positively and/or negatively regulated by distinct doses of proteasome and calpain inhibitors. PMID:26268886

  11. The selective post-translational processing of transcription factor Nrf1 yields distinct isoforms that dictate its ability to differentially regulate gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiguo; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Qiu, Lu; Zhao, Huakan; Hayes, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Upon translation, the N-terminal homology box 1 (NHB1) signal anchor sequence of Nrf1 integrates it within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whilst its transactivation domains [TADs, including acidic domain 1 (AD1), the flanking Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and AD2] are transiently translocated into the ER lumen, whereupon the NST domain is glycosylated to yield an inactive 120-kDa glycoprotein. Subsequently, these TADs are retrotranslocated into extra-luminal subcellular compartments, where Nrf1 is deglycosylated to yield an active 95-kDa isoform. Herein, we report that AD1 and AD2 are required for the stability of the 120-kDa Nrf1 glycoprotein, but not that of the non-glycosylated/de-glycosylated 95-kDa isoform. Degrons within AD1 do not promote proteolytic degradation of the 120-kDa Nrf1 glycoprotein. However, repositioning of AD2-adjoining degrons (i.e. DSGLS-containing SDS1 and PEST2 sequences) into the cyto/nucleoplasm enables selective topovectorial processing of Nrf1 by the proteasome and/or calpains to generate a cleaved active 85-kDa Nrf1 or a dominant-negative 36-kDa Nrf1γ. Production of Nrf1γ is abolished by removal of SDS1 or PEST2 degrons, whereas production of the cleaved 85-kDa Nrf1 is blocked by deletion of the ER luminal-anchoring NHB2 sequence (aa 81–106). Importantly, Nrf1 activity is positively and/or negatively regulated by distinct doses of proteasome and calpain inhibitors. PMID:26268886

  12. Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa (ESAT-6) protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in lung epithelial cells via protein kinase signaling and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Boggaram, Vijay; Gottipati, Koteswara R; Wang, Xisheng; Samten, Buka

    2013-08-30

    Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical for the virulence and pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis. IL-8, a major chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils and T lymphocytes, plays important roles in the development of lung injury. To further understand the role of ESAT-6 in lung pathology associated with tuberculosis development, we studied the effects of ESAT-6 on the regulation of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells. ESAT-6 induced IL-8 expression by increasing IL-8 gene transcription and mRNA stability. ESAT-6 induction of IL-8 promoter activity was dependent on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding and sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of PKC and ERK and p38 MAPK pathways. ESAT-6 activated ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and rapidly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Dimethylthiourea but not mannitol inhibited IL-8 induction by ESAT-6, further supporting the involvement of ROS in the induction of IL-8 expression. Exposure of mice to ESAT-6 induced localized inflammatory cell aggregate formation with characteristics of early granuloma concomitant with increased keratinocyte chemoattractant CXCL1 staining in bronchiolar and alveolar type II epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Our studies have identified a signal transduction pathway involving ROS, PKC, ERK, and p38 MAPKs and NF-κB and AP-1 in the ESAT-6 induction of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells. This has important implications for the understanding of lung innate immune responses to tuberculosis and the pathogenesis of lung injury in tuberculosis. PMID:23867456

  13. The PRE-Derived NMR Model of the 38.8-kDa Tri-Domain IsdH Protein from Staphylococcus aureus Suggests That It Adaptively Recognizes Human Hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Sjodt, Megan; Macdonald, Ramsay; Spirig, Thomas; Chan, Albert H; Dickson, Claire F; Fabian, Marian; Olson, John S; Gell, David A; Clubb, Robert T

    2016-03-27

    Staphylococcus aureus is a medically important bacterial pathogen that, during infections, acquires iron from human hemoglobin (Hb). It uses two closely related iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins to capture and extract the oxidized form of heme (hemin) from Hb, IsdH and IsdB. Both receptors rapidly extract hemin using a conserved tri-domain unit consisting of two NEAT (near iron transporter) domains connected by a helical linker domain. To gain insight into the mechanism of extraction, we used NMR to investigate the structure and dynamics of the 38.8-kDa tri-domain IsdH protein (IsdH(N2N3), A326-D660 with a Y642A mutation that prevents hemin binding). The structure was modeled using long-range paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) distance restraints, dihedral angle, small-angle X-ray scattering, residual dipolar coupling and inter-domain NOE nuclear Overhauser effect data. The receptor adopts an extended conformation wherein the linker and N3 domains pack against each other via a hydrophobic interface. In contrast, the N2 domain contacts the linker domain via a hydrophilic interface and, based on NMR relaxation data, undergoes inter-domain motions enabling it to reorient with respect to the body of the protein. Ensemble calculations were used to estimate the range of N2 domain positions compatible with the PRE data. A comparison of the Hb-free and Hb-bound forms reveals that Hb binding alters the positioning of the N2 domain. We propose that binding occurs through a combination of conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms that may promote hemin release from Hb by altering the position of its F helix. PMID:25687963

  14. A surrogate 15 kDa JC kappa protein is expressed in combination with mu heavy chain by human B cell precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Francés, V; Pandrau-Garcia, D; Guret, C; Ho, S; Wang, Z; Duvert, V; Saeland, S; Martinez-Valdez, H

    1994-01-01

    A novel kappa protein, encoded by a germline JC kappa transcript, is expressed by normal and leukemic human B cell precursors. The transcript displays an open reading frame initiated by a non-AUG codon, and predicts a 15 kDa molecule which could be readily confirmed by in vitro translation. Cellular expression was demonstrated by immunofluorescence, precipitation and Western blotting. Furthermore, 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed that germline JC kappa can covalently associate with mu heavy chain at the surface of pre-B cells. We therefore propose that during B cell lymphopoiesis, two alternative pathways could be operative in which mu heavy chain can either associate with lambda 5 or germ-line JC kappa. Images PMID:7813432

  15. The amino acid sequence of a 20 kDa bifunctional subtilisin/alpha-amylase inhibitor from bran [correction of brain] of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, K; Richardson, M

    1992-08-31

    A 20 kDa bifunctional inhibitor of the microbial proteinase, subtilisin, and the alpha-amylase from the larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) was purified from bran of rice seeds by saline extraction, precipitation with ammonium sulphate, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose and Toyopearl CM-650, and preparative HPLC on Vydac C18. The complete primary structure was determined by automatic degradation of the intact, reduced and S-alkylated protein, and by manual DABITC/PITC micro-sequencing of peptides obtained from the protein following separate enzymic digestions with trypsin, pepsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and the protease from S. aureus V8. The protein sequence, which contained 176 residues, showed strong homology with similar bifunctional inhibitors previously isolated from wheat and barley which are related to the Kunitz family of proteinase inhibitors from legume seeds. PMID:1511747

  16. Enhancement of angiogenesis by a 27 kDa lectin from perivitelline fluid of horseshoe crab embryos through upregulation of VEGF and its receptor.

    PubMed

    Surekha, K L; Waghchoude, Meenal; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-25

    Angiogenesis, the expansion of a capillary network, is implicated in several pathological conditions. Drug-based inhibition of angiogenesis is being explored as therapy. Conversely, therapeutic angiogenesis contributes to control conditions such as ischemia. Here we report pro-angiogenic activity of perivitelline fluid (PVF) from Indian horseshoe crab embryos and one of its purified fractions, a 27 kDa lectin, using the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane assay. Enhancement in number and diameter of blood vessels after treatment with PVF and lectin suggested their pro-angiogenic effect. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that this effect is mediated through modulation of expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2/kinase domain receptor genes. PMID:23316979

  17. Characterization Based on the 56-Kda Type-Specific Antigen Gene of Orientia tsutsugamushi Genotypes Isolated from Leptotrombidium Mites and the Rodent Host Post-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Takhampunya, Ratree; Tippayachai, Bousaraporn; Promsathaporn, Sommai; Leepitakrat, Surachai; Monkanna, Taweesak; Schuster, Anthony L.; Melendrez, Melanie C.; Paris, Daniel H.; Richards, Allen L.; Richardson, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) genes of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) from three naturally infected, laboratory-reared mite colonies comprising three species (Leptotrombidium deliense [Ld], Leptotrombidium imphalum [Li], and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis [Lc]) has revealed the presence of single and coexisting OT genotypes found in individual chiggers. The Karp genotype was found in all of the chiggers examined, whereas Gilliam and UT302 genotypes were only observed in combination with the Karp genotype. From analysis of these OT genotypes after transmission from chiggers to mice it was determined that with the Lc and Li mites, the OT genotype composition in the rodent spleens post-infection had not changed and therefore resembled that observed in the feeding chiggers. However, only the Karp genotype was found in rodents after feeding by Ld chiggers carrying Karp and Gilliam genotypes. The current findings reveal a complex association among the host, pathogen, and vector. PMID:24297814

  18. [Effects of noopept and cortexin on the behavior of matured rats treated with corticoliberin or 70-kDa heat shock proteins in early ontogeny].

    PubMed

    Shabanov, P D; Lebedev, A A; Stetsenko, V P; Lavrov, N V; Sablina, G V; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovaskaia, R U

    2007-01-01

    Young Wistar rats aged 4 days were injected intraperitoneally with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), which is an agent activating the stress system, or 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP-70)--intracellular shaperons, possessing antistress properties. In grown adult rats aged 90-100 days, the effects of nootropic drugs noopept and cortexin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed. The activation of stress or antistress systems with CRH or HSP-70 significantly altered the drug action. The effects were different in males and females and depended on animal gender. The spectrum of pharmacological activity of noopept and cortexin changed: noopept demonstrated preferable psychoactivating and antiaggressive effects, whereas cortexin showed mild anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. It is suggested that the behavioral effects of nootropes depend on the conditions of the stress system formation in early ontogeny. PMID:17402584

  19. The influence of low-molecular fraction from cord blood (below 5 kDa) on functional and biochemical parameters of cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gulevsky, A K; Moisieieva, N N; Gorina, O L; Akhatova, J S; Lavrik, A A; Trifonova, A V

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a low-molecular fraction (below 5 kDa) from the cattle cord blood (CBF) on functional activity of phagocytes, human embryonic fibroblasts, mesenchymal stromal cells and BHK-21 clone 13/04 and PK-15 cells was studied. The low-molecular fraction added to culture medium increases the growth rate of cell cultures. The incubation of leukoconcentrate in the CBF-containing medium results in an increase in phagocytic indices ofneutrophils in the presence of a phagocytosis inhibitor--sodium iodoacetate, leading to a significant increase in intracellular glucose content and alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to the control and the reference drug Actovegin®. PMID:25816617

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a 40 kDa N-terminal fragment of the yeast prion-remodeling factor Hsp104

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sukyeong; Tsai, Francis T. F.

    2007-09-01

    An N-terminal fragment of S. cerevisiae Hsp104 has been crystallized. This is the first report of the crystallization of a eukaryotic member of the Hsp100 family of molecular chaperones. A 40 kDa N-terminal fragment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp104 was crystallized in two different crystal forms. Native 1 diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.6, b = 75.8, c = 235.7 Å. Native 2 diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = 179.1, b = 179.1, c = 69.7 Å. This is the first report of the crystallization of a eukaryotic member of the Hsp100 family of molecular chaperones.

  1. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of a 40 kDa N-Terminal Fragment of the Yeast Prion-Remodeling Factor Hsp104

    SciTech Connect

    Lee,S.; Tsai, F.

    2007-01-01

    A 40 kDa N-terminal fragment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp104 was crystallized in two different crystal forms. Native 1 diffracted to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.6, b = 75.8, c = 235.7 {angstrom}. Native 2 diffracted to 2.9 {angstrom} resolution and belonged to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = 179.1, b = 179.1, c = 69.7 {angstrom}. This is the first report of the crystallization of a eukaryotic member of the Hsp100 family of molecular chaperones.

  2. Expression and characterization of a new isoform of the 9 kDa allergenic lipid transfer protein from tomato (variety San Marzano).

    PubMed

    Volpicella, Mariateresa; Leoni, Claudia; Fanizza, Immacolata; Rinalducci, Sara; Placido, Antonio; Ceci, Luigi R

    2015-11-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are food allergens found first in fruits of the Rosaceae family and later identified in other food plants. Their high structural stability causes them to behave as allergens in cooked and processed foods. Allergenic LTPs have been identified in tomato fruits as well, but studies of their thermal stability and structural characteristics are limited. In this article we report the identification of the coding region for a novel 9 kDa LTP isoform in the tomato variety San Marzano, together with the expression of the recombinant mature protein. The purified recombinant protein was further characterized for its thermal stability and was found to bind 1-palmitoil-2-lysophosphatidylcholine (Lyso-C16) after thermal treatments up to 105 °C. Analysis of a modeling derived structure of the protein allowed the identification of possible epitope regions on the molecular surface. PMID:26232648

  3. Isolation of a 25-kDa protein binding to a curved DNA upstream the origin of the L strand replication in the rat mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Gadaleta, G; D'Elia, D; Capaccio, L; Saccone, C; Pepe, G

    1996-06-01

    The presence of a curved DNA sequence in the gene for the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2 of rat mitochondrial genome, upstream from the origin of the light strand replication have been demonstrated through theoretical analysis and experimental approaches. Gel retardation assays showed that this structure makes a complex with a protein component extracted from the mitochondrial matrix. The isolation and purification of this protein is reported. With a Sepharose CL-6B and magnetic DNA affinity chromatography a polypeptide was purified to homogeneity having 25-kDa mass as shown by gel electrophoresis. To functionally characterize this protein, its capability to bind to other sequences of the homologous or heterologous DNA and to specific riboprobes was also investigated. A role for this protein as a trans-acting agent required for the expression of the mammalian mitochondrial genome is suggested. PMID:8662779

  4. Structural and functional division into two domains of the large (100- to 115-kDa) chains of the clathrin-associated protein complex AP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhausen, T; Nathanson, K L; Matsui, W; Vaisberg, A; Chow, E P; Burne, C; Keen, J H; Davis, A E

    1989-01-01

    The clathrin-associated protein complex 2 (AP-2 complex) is a group of proteins associated with clathrin-coated vesicles and believed to interact with cytoplasmic domains of receptors found in the plasma membrane. AP-2 was purified as an assembly of several polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, AP50, and AP17), of which only the alpha and beta chains (100-115 kDa) show significant heterogeneity. We have obtained cDNA clones for two distinct rat brain beta chains. We have also studied the domain organization of bovine brain AP-2 complexes by selective proteolysis. Results of these studies show that the alpha and beta chains have a similar two-domain organization. Their amino-terminal domains are relatively invariant whereas their carboxyl-terminal domains are variable in both sequence and length. We propose that the variable domains select receptors for inclusion in coated vesicles. Images PMID:2495531

  5. Requirements for stress granule recruitment of fused in sarcoma (FUS) and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43).

    PubMed

    Bentmann, Eva; Neumann, Manuela; Tahirovic, Sabina; Rodde, Ramona; Dormann, Dorothee; Haass, Christian

    2012-06-29

    Cytoplasmic inclusions containing TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) or Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and several subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FUS-positive inclusions in FTLD and ALS patients are consistently co-labeled with stress granule (SG) marker proteins. Whether TDP-43 inclusions contain SG markers is currently still debated. We determined the requirements for SG recruitment of FUS and TDP-43 and found that cytoplasmic mislocalization is a common prerequisite for SG recruitment of FUS and TDP-43. For FUS, the arginine-glycine-glycine zinc finger domain, which is the protein's main RNA binding domain, is most important for SG recruitment, whereas the glycine-rich domain and RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain have a minor contribution and the glutamine-rich domain is dispensable. For TDP-43, both the RRM1 and the C-terminal glycine-rich domain are required for SG localization. ALS-associated point mutations located in the glycine-rich domain of TDP-43 do not affect SG recruitment. Interestingly, a 25-kDa C-terminal fragment of TDP-43, which is enriched in FTLD/ALS cortical inclusions but not spinal cord inclusions, fails to be recruited into SG. Consistently, inclusions in the cortex of FTLD patients, which are enriched for C-terminal fragments, are not co-labeled with the SG marker poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP-1), whereas inclusions in spinal cord, which contain full-length TDP-43, are frequently positive for this marker protein. PMID:22563080

  6. Antiparallel β-Sheet Structure within the C-Terminal Region of 42-Residue Alzheimer's Amyloid-β Peptides When They Form 150-kDa Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danting; Zimmerman, Maxwell I; Martin, Patricia K; Nix, A Jeremy; Rosenberry, Terrone L; Paravastu, Anant K

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the molecular structures of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers and underlying assembly pathways will advance our understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the molecular level. This understanding could contribute to disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies, as oligomers play a central role in AD pathology. We have recently presented a procedure for production of 150-kDa oligomeric samples of Aβ(1-42) (the 42-residue variant of the Aβ peptide) that are compatible with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, and we have shown that these oligomers and amyloid fibrils differ in intermolecular arrangement of β-strands. Here we report new solid-state NMR constraints that indicate antiparallel intermolecular alignment of β-strands within the oligomers. Specifically, 150-kDa Aβ(1-42) oligomers with uniform (13)C and (15)N isotopic labels at I32, M35, G37, and V40 exhibit β-strand secondary chemical shifts in 2-dimensional (2D) finite-pulse radiofrequency-driven recoupling NMR spectra, spatial proximities between I32 and V40 as well as between M35 and G37 in 2D dipolar-assisted rotational resonance spectra, and close proximity between M35 H(α) and G37 H(α) in 2D CHHC spectra. Furthermore, 2D dipolar-assisted rotational resonance analysis of an oligomer sample prepared with 30% labeled peptide indicates that the I32-V40 and M35-G37 contacts are between residues on different molecules. We employ molecular modeling to compare the newly derived experimental constraints with previously proposed geometries for arrangement of Aβ molecules into oligomers. PMID:25889972

  7. A 130-kDa membrane protein of sperm flagella is the receptor for asterosaps, sperm-activating peptides of starfish Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Nishigaki, T; Chiba, K; Hoshi, M

    2000-03-01

    Spermatozoa of the starfish, Asterias amurensis, have a specific receptor for asterosap, a sperm-activating peptide isolated from the jelly coat of homologous eggs. We characterized the receptor by using several asterosap derivatives. Analysis of equilibrium binding of radioactive di-iodinated Bolton-Hunter reagent-labeled asterosap ((125)I(2)-BHP15) to the spermatozoa indicated that the cell has 1.1 x 10(5) binding sites of high affinity (K(d) = 57 pM), and also the receptor showed positive cooperativity for asterosap binding. When spermatozoa were treated with fluorophore-labeled asterosap, the sperm flagella were labeled, indicating that the receptors are mostly localized in the sperm tail. When spermatozoa were reacted with radioactive asterosap prelabeled with photoaffinity cross-linkers, a single 130-kDa membrane protein of sperm flagella was specifically radiolabeled. This result was reproducible regardless of the length of spacer arm of cross-linkers so far studied. Therefore, the 130-kDa protein is likely to be the receptor for asterosaps. Modification of asterosap at the N-terminal region with bulky molecules such as carboxyfluorescein did not affect the activity of asterosap, suggesting that the N-terminus of asterosap is not involved in the ligand-receptor interaction. On the other hand, S-alkylated asterosaps did not compete with (125)I(2)-BHP15 for binding to the receptor, indicating that disulfide linkage of asterosap is essential for the ligand-receptor interaction. The properties of the receptor, high affinity and high concentration, enabled us to apply the fluorescence polarization technique to study the molecular interaction between asterosap and the receptor. Using this method, we performed binding experiments in almost real time and found that divalent cations are significantly involved in the interaction between asterosap and the receptor. PMID:10677262

  8. Identification of a 50-kDa systemin-binding protein in tomato plasma membranes having Kex2p-like properties.

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, A; Ryan, C A

    1994-01-01

    A protein of 50-kDa (SBP50) was identified in plasma membranes of tomato leaves which resembles proteases of the family of Kex2p-like prohormone convertases. To our knowledge, proteases of this class have not been reported in plants previously. A biotinylated derivative of systemin, the 18-aa polypeptide inducer of proteinase inhibitors in tomato and potato leaves, was bound by SBP50 with high specificity. When a systemin derivative was labeled with biotin at residue 8 and with [35S]methionine at position 15, the biotin moiety but not the radioactive label was bound by SBP50. At least 4 aa from the C terminus that included [35S]methionine were missing, indicating that proteolytic cleavage had occurred. Whereas residues in systemin most important for binding SBP50 appear to be located in the N-terminal half of the molecule, amino acids crucial for proteinase inhibitor induction are located within the C terminus. The residues important for binding include a cleavage site for furin, a member of the family of Kex2p-like prohormone-processing enzymes. Processing of systemin at the predicted furin cleavage site was confirmed in vitro. An antiserum against a Kex2p-like protease from Drosophila inhibited binding of biotinylsystemin to SBP50 and recognized a protein of about 60 kDa in Western blot analyses of tomato plasma membrane proteins. The data suggest a possible role for a membrane bound, furin-like protease in the mechanism of defense gene signaling by systemin. Images PMID:7991538

  9. Expression of interstitial collagenase, 92-kDa gelatinase, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum.

    PubMed

    Saarialho-Kere, U K; Chang, E S; Welgus, H G; Parks, W C

    1993-03-01

    Granuloma annular (GA) and necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (NLD) are disorders characterized by granulomatous inflammation and degenerative changes in collagen and elastic fibers. Because these disorders have often been described as being associated with altered extracellular matrix deposition, we studied the in situ expression of interstitial collagenase, 92-kDa gelatinase, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1. Twelve lesions each of GA and NLD of different histopathologic types and durations were examined. Interstitial collagenase mRNA was seen in histiocyte-like cells in one-third of the cases of both diseases, typically in younger lesions. In GA, collagenase mRNA was only detected in lesions of the palisading type. Signal for 92-kDa gelatinase mRNA was observed in eosinophils, which were present in low numbers in five of 12 GA and three of 12 NLD samples. The signal for this enzyme and the presence of eosinophils did not correlate with the age of lesion. TIMP-1 mRNA was consistently expressed by histiocyte-like cells in both disorders. In GA, TIMP-1 mRNA was detected at the outer edge of the palisading granulomas, but in NLD, inhibitor expression was seen in the perivascular and periadnexal accumulation of inflammatory cells. Our data indicate that collagenase and TIMP are expressed early in these disorders and that these proteins may contribute to stromal remodeling associated with necrobiotic lesions. Our results further indicate that the localization of TIMP-1 production may provide a distinction between the two disorders, whereas metalloproteinase expression is not sufficiently specific to aid in the differential diagnosis of GA and NLD. PMID:8382717

  10. Differential expression during development of ADP-ribosylation factors, 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding protein activators of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Tsuchiya, M; Chang, P P; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1991-05-01

    Cholera toxin exerts its effects on cells in large part through the ADP-ribosylation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation is enhanced by approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins termed ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are allosteric activators of the toxin catalytic unit. Rabbit antiserum against a purified bovine brain ARF (sARF II) reacted on immunoblots with two approximately 20-kDa ARF-like proteins (sARF I and II) in tissue extracts from bovine, rat, frog, and chicken. Levels of ARF were higher in brain than in non-neural tissues. In rat brain, on the second postnatal day, amounts of sARF I and II were similar. By the 10th postnatal day and thereafter, sARF II predominated. Relative levels of ARF determined by immunoreactivity were in agreement with levels assessed in functional assays of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Based on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of human and bovine cDNAs, there appear to be at least six different ARF-like genes. Northern blots of rat brain poly(A)+ RNA were hybridized with cDNA and oligonucleotide probes specific for each of the human and bovine ARF genes. From the second to the 27th postnatal day, ARF 3 mRNA increased, whereas mRNAs for ARFs 2 and 4 decreased; and those for ARFs 1, 5, and 6 were apparently unchanged. Partial amino acid sequence of sARF II is consistent with it being either the ARF 1 or 3 gene product. The developmental changes in rat brain ARF parallel neuronal maturation and synapse formation. PMID:1902473

  11. HISTONE DEACETYLASE 7 (HDAC7) REGULATES MYOCYTE MIGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengzhuo; Liu, Yu; Lam, Minh; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Summary Class IIa HDACs including HDAC7 play a role in gene expression, cell differentiation, and animal development through their association with transcription factors such as myogenic enhancer factors 2 (MEF2s). In this study, we show that endogenous HDAC7 localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of C2C12 myoblasts, but is exclusively retained in the cytoplasm of myotubes after completion of differentiation process. To elucidate the role of differential distribution of HDAC7 during myogenesis, we examined the effects of stably expressed HDAC7 mutants on myogenesis. Expression of nuclear-retained HDAC7 mutants significantly inhibits myogenesis in C2C12 cells and reduces the expression of muscle-specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myogenin. The inhibition in myocyte differentiation can be partially relieved by introduction of a mutation disrupting HDAC7:MEF2 interaction. Since phosphorylation of HDAC7 plays an important role in its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, we further investigated the expression and distribution of phosphorylated HDAC7. To our surprise, the phosphorylation levels of HDAC7 at S344 and S479 were slightly decreased upon differentiation, whereas the phosphorylation of S178 was unchanged. Interestingly, a significant fraction of pS344- and/or pS479-HDAC7 localizes to plasma membrane of myotubes. In addition, Ser178-phosphorylated (pS178) HDAC7 shows a predominant actin filament-like staining prior to muscle differentiation and cytoplasmic and plasma membrane staining after differentiation. Consistent with this notion, HDAC7 partially co-localizes with actin filaments; in particular, pS178-HDAC7 largely colocalizes with actin filaments as indicated by phalloidin counter staining in myocytes. Furthermore, C2C12 cells expressing nuclear-retained HDAC7 display defects in migration. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanisms that regulate myocyte differentiation and migration by controlling the subcellular distribution of HDAC7 in

  12. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: occurrence of iron-regulated envelope proteins as potential receptors for iron uptake.

    PubMed

    Hall, R M; Sritharan, M; Messenger, A J; Ratledge, C

    1987-08-01

    Cell-envelope fractions were isolated from the rapidly growing saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis following growth in glycerol/asparagine medium under both iron-limited (0.02 microgram Fe ml-1) and iron-sufficient (2.0 to 4.0 micrograms Fe ml-1) conditions. Examination of these preparations by SDS-PAGE demonstrated the production of at least four additional proteins when iron was limiting. These iron-regulated envelope proteins (IREPs) were ascribed apparent molecular masses of 180 kDa (protein I), 84 kDa (protein II), 29 kDa (protein III) and 25 kDa (protein IV). All four proteins were present in both cell-wall and membrane preparations but spheroplast preparations were devoid of the 29 kDa protein. Attempts at labelling the proteins with 55FeCl3 or 55Fe-exochelin, the siderophore for iron uptake, were unsuccessful, though this was attributed to the denatured state of the proteins following electrophoresis. Antibodies were raised to each of the four proteins: the one raised to protein III inhibited exochelin-mediated iron uptake into iron-deficiently grown cells by 70% but was ineffective against iron uptake into iron-sufficiently grown cells. As exochelin is taken up into both types of cells by a similar process, protein III may not be a simple receptor for iron uptake though the results imply some function connected with this process. The role of the other IREPs is less certain. PMID:3127539

  13. Lamin A/C and emerin regulate MKL1-SRF activity by modulating actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chin Yee; Jaalouk, Diana E; Vartiainen, Maria K; Lammerding, Jan

    2013-05-23

    Laminopathies, caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C, represent a diverse group of diseases that include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome. Most LMNA mutations affect skeletal and cardiac muscle by mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Loss of structural function and altered interaction of mutant lamins with (tissue-specific) transcription factors have been proposed to explain the tissue-specific phenotypes. Here we report in mice that lamin-A/C-deficient (Lmna(-/-)) and Lmna(N195K/N195K) mutant cells have impaired nuclear translocation and downstream signalling of the mechanosensitive transcription factor megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 (MKL1), a myocardin family member that is pivotal in cardiac development and function. Altered nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of MKL1 was caused by altered actin dynamics in Lmna(-/-) and Lmna(N195K/N195K) mutant cells. Ectopic expression of the nuclear envelope protein emerin, which is mislocalized in Lmna mutant cells and also linked to EDMD and DCM, restored MKL1 nuclear translocation and rescued actin dynamics in mutant cells. These findings present a novel mechanism that could provide insight into the disease aetiology for the cardiac phenotype in many laminopathies, whereby lamin A/C and emerin regulate gene expression through modulation of nuclear and cytoskeletal actin polymerization. PMID:23644458

  14. Lamin A/C and emerin regulate MKL1/SRF activity by modulating actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chin Yee; Jaalouk, Diana E.; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Lammerding, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Laminopathies, caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C, represent a diverse group of diseases that include Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS).1 The majority of LMNA mutations affect skeletal and cardiac muscle by mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Loss of structural function and disturbed interaction of mutant lamins with (tissue-specific) transcription factors have been proposed to explain the tissue-specific phenotypes.1 We report here that lamin A/C-deficient (Lmna−/−) and Lmna N195K mutant cells have impaired nuclear translocation and downstream signaling of the mechanosensitive transcription factor megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 (MKL1), a myocardin family member that is pivotal in cardiac development and function.2 Disturbed nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of MKL1 was caused by altered actin dynamics in Lmna−/− and N195K mutant cells. Ectopic expression of the nuclear envelope protein emerin, which is mislocalized in Lmna mutant cells and also linked to EDMD and DCM, restored MKL1 nuclear translocation and rescued actin dynamics in mutant cells. These findings present a novel mechanism that could provide insight into the disease etiology for the cardiac phenotype in many laminopathies, whereby lamins A/C and emerin regulate gene expression through modulation of nuclear and cytoskeletal actin polymerization. PMID:23644458

  15. The CMS-associated 16 kDa protein encoded by orfH522 in the PET1 cytoplasm is also present in other male-sterile cytoplasms of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Horn, R; Hustedt, J E; Horstmeyer, A; Hahnen, J; Zetsche, K; Friedt, W

    1996-02-01

    In sunflower plants carrying the PET1 cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) is associated with a new open reading frame (orfH522) in the 3'-flanking region of the atpA gene and an additional 16 kDa protein. Twenty-seven male-sterile cytoplasms of different origin were studied for the expression of the 16 kDa protein. In addition to the PET1 cytoplasm nine other male-sterile cytoplasms express the CMS-associated protein. These CMS sources originate from different interspecific crosses, from spontaneously occurring male-sterile plants in wild sunflower and from induced mutagenesis. Polyclonal antisera were raised against fusion proteins which contain 421 bp of the 3'-coding region of orfH522 to verify by immunological methods the identity of the other CMS cytoplasms. The anti-ORFH522 antiserum showed a positive reaction in the immunoblot with all CMS cytoplasms which expressing the 16 kDa protein. Investigations of the mitochondrial DNA demonstrated that all ten CMS cytoplasms which express the 16 kDa protein have the same organization at the atpA locus. OrfH522 as probes gave the same transcript pattern for the investigated CMS cytoplasms, just as for PET1. The MAX1 cytoplasm has an orfH522-related sequence but does not synthesize the 16 kDa protein. Using the sodium carbonate treatment the 16 kDa protein proved to be membrane-bound. Computer analyses predict that the hydrophobic N-terminal region of ORFH522 may form a transmembrane helix functioning as membrane anchor. PMID:8605303

  16. Nuclear Compartmentalization of Serine Racemase Regulates D-Serine Production: IMPLICATIONS FOR N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE (NMDA) RECEPTOR ACTIVATION.

    PubMed

    Kolodney, Goren; Dumin, Elena; Safory, Hazem; Rosenberg, Dina; Mori, Hisashi; Radzishevsky, Inna; Radzishevisky, Inna; Wolosker, Herman

    2015-12-25

    D-Serine is a physiological co-agonist that activates N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and is essential for neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. D-Serine may also trigger NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity, and its dysregulation may play a role in neurodegeneration. D-Serine is synthesized by the enzyme serine racemase (SR), which directly converts L-serine to D-serine. However, many aspects concerning the regulation of D-serine production under physiological and pathological conditions remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms regulating the synthesis of D-serine by SR in paradigms relevant to neurotoxicity. We report that SR undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and that this process is dysregulated by several insults leading to neuronal death, typically by apoptotic stimuli. Cell death induction promotes nuclear accumulation of SR, in parallel with the nuclear translocation of GAPDH and Siah proteins at an early stage of the cell death process. Mutations in putative SR nuclear export signals (NESs) elicit SR nuclear accumulation and its depletion from the cytosol. Following apoptotic insult, SR associates with nuclear GAPDH along with other nuclear components, and this is accompanied by complete inactivation of the enzyme. As a result, extracellular D-serine concentration is reduced, even though extracellular glutamate concentration increases severalfold. Our observations imply that nuclear translocation of SR provides a fail-safe mechanism to prevent or limit secondary NMDAR-mediated toxicity in nearby synapses. PMID:26553873

  17. An Ancient Bacterial Signaling Pathway Regulates Chloroplast Function to Influence Growth and Development in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sugliani, Matteo; Ke, Hang; Bouveret, Emmanuelle; Robaglia, Christophe; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast originated from the endosymbiosis of an ancient photosynthetic bacterium by a eukaryotic cell. Remarkably, the chloroplast has retained elements of a bacterial stress response pathway that is mediated by the signaling nucleotides guanosine penta- and tetraphosphate (ppGpp). However, an understanding of the mechanism and outcomes of ppGpp signaling in the photosynthetic eukaryotes has remained elusive. Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that ppGpp is a potent regulator of chloroplast gene expression in vivo that directly reduces the quantity of chloroplast transcripts and chloroplast-encoded proteins. We then go on to demonstrate that the antagonistic functions of different plant RelA SpoT homologs together modulate ppGpp levels to regulate chloroplast function and show that they are required for optimal plant growth, chloroplast volume, and chloroplast breakdown during dark-induced and developmental senescence. Therefore, our results show that ppGpp signaling is not only linked to stress responses in plants but is also an important mediator of cooperation between the chloroplast and the nucleocytoplasmic compartment during plant growth and development. PMID:26908759

  18. Temperature-Regulated Protein Synthesis by Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Nally, Jarlath E.; Timoney, John F.; Stevenson, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is an important mammalian pathogen. Transmission from an environmental source requires adaptations to a range of new environmental conditions in the organs and tissues of the infected host. Since many pathogenic bacteria utilize temperature to discern their environment and regulate the synthesis of appropriate proteins, we investigated the effects of temperature on protein synthesis in L. interrogans. Bacteria were grown for several days after culture temperatures were shifted from 30 to 37°C. Triton X-114 cellular fractionation identified several proteins of the cytoplasm, periplasm, and outer membrane for which synthesis was dependent on the culture temperature. Synthesis of a cytoplasmic protein of 20 kDa was switched off at 37°C, whereas synthesis of a 66-kDa periplasmic protein was increased at the higher temperature. Increased synthesis of a 25-kDa outer membrane protein was observed when the organisms were shifted from 30 to 37°C. A 36-kDa protein synthesized at 30 but not at 37°C was identified as LipL36, an outer membrane lipoprotein. In contrast, expression of another lipoprotein, LipL41, was the same at either temperature. Immunoblotting with convalescent equine sera revealed that some proteins exhibiting thermoregulation of synthesis elicited antibody responses during infection. Our results show that sera from horses which aborted as a result of naturally acquired infection with L. interrogans serovar pomona type kennewicki recognize periplasmic and outer membrane proteins which are differentially synthesized in response to temperature and which therefore may be important in the host-pathogen interaction during infection. PMID:11119530

  19. Differential regulation of IGF-binding proteins in rabbit costal chondrocytes by IGF-I and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Koedam, J A; Hoogerbrugge, C M; Van Buul-Offers, S C

    2000-06-01

    Cartilage is a primary target tissue for the IGFs. The mitogenic activity of these peptides is regulated by a family of high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6). We characterized the IGFBPs produced by cultured chondrocytes derived from rib cartilage of prepubertal rabbits. Culture medium, which had been conditioned by these cells for 48 h showed bands of 22 kDa, 24 kDa and a 31/32 kDa doublet by Western ligand blotting with [(125)I]IGF-II. When the cells were grown in the presence of increasing amounts of IGF-I or IGF-II, the 31/32 kDa doublet increased in intensity (reaching a plateau of about 11-fold stimulation between 2 and 10 nM IGF-I). The 22 kDa and 24 kDa bands increased only slightly while a 26 kDa band became faintly visible. By Western immunoblotting the 31/32 kDa doublet was identified as IGFBP-5. An IGF-I analog with reduced affinity for IGFBPs, Long-R3 IGF-I, also induced IGFBP-5, while insulin was less effective (2.2-fold stimulation at 10 nM). IGF-I protected IGFBP-5 against proteolytic degradation by conditioned medium. IGF-I also enhanced the level of IGFBP-5 mRNA. LY294002, a specific inhibitor of the intracellular signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, inhibited stimulation of IGFBP-5 by IGF-I. Dexamethasone suppressed IGFBP-5 (by 70% at 20 nM) but, at the same time, a 39/41 kDa doublet (presumably IGFBP-3) was induced. IGFBP-5 has been shown in several cell types to enhance the mitogenic activity of IGF-I. IGFBP-3 generally acts as a growth inhibitor. Therefore, the differential effects of dexamethasone on these regulatory proteins could account, at least in part, for the growth-arresting effect of this glucocorticoid. PMID:10828839

  20. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of 40kDa PEG and PEGylated rFVIII (N8-GP) in rats.

    PubMed

    Bjørnsdottir, Inga; Sternebring, Ola; Kappers, Wendela A; Selvig, Helle; Kornø, Hanne T; Kristensen, Jesper B; Bagger, Morten A

    2016-05-25

    The biologic fate of the [(3)H]PEG-moiety incorporated into N8-GP was evaluated based on single i.v. bolus doses to rats. Furthermore, the 40kDa [(3)H]PEG-moiety was given separately to rats by single i.v. bolus doses, to investigate if the pharmacokinetics were dose-dependent. For both compounds, plasma pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion pathways were investigated, based on total radioactivity measurements ([(3)H]N8-GP: 0.17-4.1mg/kg;~1300-30,000U/kg, PEG load of ~0.03-0.7mg/kg); ([(3)H]PEG: 0.6, 1, 12, 100 and 200mg/kg). The plasma concentration of the intact N8-GP conjugate was also measured by ELISA. After single i.v. administration to rats, both [(3)H]N8-GP and [(3)H]PEG were shown to be widely distributed, mainly in highly vascularized tissues, with the lowest levels of radioactivity found in the CNS. Though a slow elimination of radioactivity was observed over the 12-week study period, approximately half of the radioactive dose of either compound was removed from the body 1week post-dose. The radioactivity was eliminated mainly via the kidney into urine but also via the liver into feces, with a larger fraction found in the feces for [(3)H]N8-GP. Elimination of the 40kDa PEG-moiety was shown to be dose-dependent with faster elimination at lower dose levels. The clinical dose of N8-GP provides a substantially lower PEG exposure (50-75U/kg; PEG load of <0.002mg/kg) when compared to the PEG doses investigated in this paper (0.03-200mg/kg). This may imply an even faster clearance of the PEG-moiety after N8-GP administration of clinically relevant doses. PMID:26517963

  1. Polyphenols from green tea prevent antineuritogenic action of Nogo-A via 67-kDa laminin receptor and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H; Barseghian, Barsegh A; Tzeng, William S; Rayudu, David V; Cadenas, Enrique; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2015-01-01

    Axonal regeneration after injury to the CNS is hampered by myelin-derived inhibitors, such as Nogo-A. Natural products, such as green tea, which are neuroprotective and safe for long-term therapy, would complement ongoing various pharmacological approaches. In this study, using nerve growth factor-differentiated neuronal-like Neuroscreen-1 cells, we show that extremely low concentrations of unfractionated green tea polyphenol mixture (GTPP) and its active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), prevent both the neurite outgrowth-inhibiting activity and growth cone-collapsing activity of Nogo-66 (C-terminal domain of Nogo-A). Furthermore, a synergistic interaction was observed among GTPP constituents. This preventive effect was dependent on 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) to which EGCG binds with high affinity. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and cell-permeable catalase abolished this preventive effect of GTPP and EGCG, suggesting the involvement of sublethal levels of H2 O2 in this process. Accordingly, exogenous sublethal concentrations of H2 O2 , added as a bolus dose (5 μM) or more effectively through a steady-state generation (1-2 μM), mimicked GTPP in counteracting the action of Nogo-66. Exogenous H2 O2 mediated this action by bypassing the requirement of 67LR. Taken together, these results show for the first time that GTPP and EGCG, acting through 67LR and elevating intracellular sublethal levels of H2 O2 , inhibit the antineuritogenic action of Nogo-A. Currently, several agents are being evaluated for overcoming axonal growth inhibitors to promote functional recovery after stroke and spinal cord injury. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), present in green tea polyphenol mixture (GTPP), prevents antineuritogenic activity of Nogo-A, a myelin-derived axonal growth inhibitor. The preventive action of EGCG involves the cell-surface-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor and H2 O2 . GTPP may complement ongoing efforts to treat neuronal injuries.> PMID

  2. Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Clonorchis sinensis Hexokinase, an Unusual Trimeric 50-kDa Glucose-6-Phosphate-Sensitive Allosteric Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tingjin; Ning, Dan; Sun, Hengchang; Li, Ran; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Mao, Qiang; Li, Ye; Deng, Chuanhuan; Wang, Lexun; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, which is induced by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Because the available examination, treatment and interrupting transmission provide limited opportunities to prevent infection, it is urgent to develop integrated strategies to prevent and control clonorchiasis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was characterized in this study. The calculated molecular mass (Mr) of CsHK was 50.0 kDa. The obtained recombinant CsHK (rCsHK) was a homotrimer with an Mr of approximately 164 kDa, as determined using native PAGE and gel filtration. The highest activity was obtained with 50 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 10 and 100 mM Tris-HCl at pH 8.5 and 10. The kinetics of rCsHK has a moderate thermal stability. Compared to that of the corresponding negative control, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by praziquantel (PZQ) and anti-rCsHK serum. rCsHK was homotropically and allosterically activated by its substrates, including glucose, mannose, fructose, and ATP. ADP exhibited mixed allosteric effect on rCsHK with respect to ATP, while inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) displayed net allosteric activation with various allosteric systems. Fructose behaved as a dose-dependent V activator with the substrate glucose. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) displayed net allosteric inhibition on rCsHK with respect to ATP or glucose with various allosteric systems in a dose-independent manner. There were differences in both mRNA and protein levels of CsHK among the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis, suggesting different energy requirements during different development stages. Our study furthers the understanding of the biological functions of CsHK and supports the need to screen for small molecule inhibitors

  3. Release of DR molecules from complexes with invariant chain through the formation of a C-terminal 25 kDa invariant chain fragment.

    PubMed

    Demotz, S; Danieli, C

    1993-12-01

    To investigate how class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are released from complexes with invariant chain (Ii), we studied a 25 kDa Ii fragment (p25) detected by Western blotting in affinity chromatographed DR preparations. The p25 species corresponds to the non-transmembrane, C-terminal Ii fragment 107-232. It was determined by gel filtration chromatography that the p25 fragment has a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 46 kDa, indicating that this Ii fragment is present as dimers in B cell lysate. Two independent approaches were followed to demonstrate that generation of the p25 fragment takes place shortly before, or concomitantly to, loading of class II MHC molecules with antigen fragments. First, it was shown that a fraction of the p25 molecules is resistant to endoglycosidase H digestion, indicating that the p25 polypeptide can exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is transported at least to the cis-Golgi compartment. Second, treatment of class II MHC-positive B cells with leupeptin blocks the formation of p25, further indicating that this Ii fragment is generated in the endosomal compartment. The role of the p25 Ii species in the assembly of complexes between peptides and DR molecules was then investigated. While the p25 fragment was totally unable to prevent binding of a synthetic tetanus toxin peptide to DR molecules, the full-length Ii species (p33/35) effectively inhibited peptide binding, indicating that, by contrast with the p33/35 species, the p25 fragment does not occlude the peptide binding site of DR molecules. We concluded that the p25 fragment, which is produced by proteolytic cleavage at the N-terminal side of Methionine 107, has a decreased affinity for DR molecules as compared with the p33/35 species. Dissociation of the p25 fragment from DR molecules exposes the peptide binding site, which is thus made accessible for antigen fragments. This model of the complexes between DR and antigen fragments proposes that a stretch of

  4. Detection of Tuberculosis in HIV Co-infected Individuals: Use of Multiple ELISA Responses to 38kDa, Lipoarabinomannan and ESAT– 6 of M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gutlapalli, Ravi; Sykam, Aparna; Tenali, Sandeep P; Chandran, Priscilla; Suneetha, Sujai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a constant search for more sensitive and specific laboratory markers for tuberculosis (TB) infection. The early detection of TB in HIV co infected individuals is a diagnostic challenge. This is further compounded in those harbouring extrapulmonary disease. Aim To evaluate the use of multiple Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) quantifying antibody responses to 38kDa, LAM and ESAT-6 M.tb antigens in detection of TB in patients with TB and HIV-TB co-infection. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Hyderabad, India. Patient groups included 124 HIV-TB {62 with pulmonary TB (PTB) and 62 with extrapulmonary TB (ETB)}, 39 TB, 56 HIV and 57 healthy subjects (HS). A combination of anti 38kDa and LAM ELISAs measuring IgG, IgM and IgA levels and another ELISA measuring anti ESAT-6 combined antibody levels of IgG, IgM and IgA were evaluated. One-way ANOVA was performed to compare antibody responses among groups. To assess the efficacy of multiple ELISAs in detecting TB, concomitant seropositivity of an individual for all four ELISAs were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Results A single ELISA carried out to detect TB in HIV patients showed a sensitivity ranging from 39% to 72%. The sensitivities of concomitant evaluation of multiple ELISAs were 92% for any single, 72% for any two, 44% for any three and 14% for any four. Based on the specificities, a simple algorithm for TB detection can be deduced. When four ELISAs are positive (specificity 100%) in a patient-confirmed TB; when three ELISAs are positive (specificity 98%) – probably TB; when two ELISAs are positive (specificity 95%) – possibly TB; and when one ELISA is positive (specificity 70%) – suspicion of TB. Conclusion The present study establishes the value of combining two or more M.tb antigen based ELISAs to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of TB detection in patients with tuberculosis as well as in those co-infected with HIV. PMID

  5. Preschool Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Health and Human Services, Lincoln.

    Published by the Department of Health and Human Services, as required by Nebraska law, this guide details regulations for the physical well-being, safety, and protection of children and defines the minimum levels of acceptable services to be provided in Nebraska preschools. The first section of the guide lists specific preschool regulations,…

  6. Human inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase isoform B (IP3KB) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein specifically enriched at cortical actin filaments and at invaginations of the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Nalaskowski, Marcus M; Fliegert, Ralf; Ernst, Olga; Brehm, Maria A; Fanick, Werner; Windhorst, Sabine; Lin, Hongying; Giehler, Susanne; Hein, Jamin; Lin, Yuan-Na; Mayr, Georg W

    2011-02-11

    Recent studies have shown that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase isoform B (IP3KB) possesses important roles in the development of immune cells. IP3KB can be targeted to multiple cellular compartments, among them nuclear localization and binding in close proximity to the plasma membrane. The B isoform is the only IP3K that is almost ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. Detailed mechanisms of its targeting regulation will be important in understanding the role of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) phosphorylation on subcellular calcium signaling and compartment-specific initiation of pathways leading to regulatory active higher phosphorylated inositol phosphates. Here, we identified an exportin 1-dependent nuclear export signal ((134)LQRELQNVQV) and characterized the amino acids responsible for nuclear localization of IP3KB ((129)RKLR). These two targeting domains regulate the amount of nuclear IP3KB in cells. We also demonstrated that the localization of IP3KB at the plasma membrane is due to its binding to cortical actin structures. Intriguingly, all three of these targeting activities reside in one small polypeptide segment (amino acids 104-165), which acts as a multitargeting domain (MTD). Finally, a hitherto unknown subnuclear localization of IP3KB could be demonstrated in rapidly growing H1299 cells. IP3KB is specifically enriched at nuclear invaginations extending perpendicular between the apical and basal surface of the nucleus of these flat cells. Such nuclear invaginations are known to be involved in Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-mediated Ca(2+) signaling of the nucleus. Our findings indicate that IP3KB not only regulates cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals by phosphorylation of subplasmalemmal and cytoplasmic Ins(1,4,5)P(3) but may also be involved in modulating nuclear Ca(2+) signals generated from these nuclear envelope invaginations. PMID:21148483

  7. The zipcode-binding protein ZBP1 influences the subcellular location of the Ro 60-kDa autoantigen and the noncoding Y3 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Soyeong; Yao, Jie; Weinberg, David E.; Niessen, Sherry; Yates, John R.; Wolin, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The Ro 60-kDa autoantigen, a ring-shaped RNA-binding protein, traffics between the nucleus and cytoplasm in vertebrate cells. In some vertebrate nuclei, Ro binds misfolded noncoding RNAs and may function in quality control. In the cytoplasm, Ro binds noncoding RNAs called Y RNAs. Y RNA binding blocks a nuclear accumulation signal, retaining Ro in the cytoplasm. Following UV irradiation, this signal becomes accessible, allowing Ro to accumulate in nuclei. To investigate how other cellular components influence the function and subcellular location of Ro, we identified several proteins that copurify with the mouse Ro protein. Here, we report that the zipcode-binding protein ZBP1 influences the subcellular localization of both Ro and the Y3 RNA. Binding of ZBP1 to the Ro/Y3 complex increases after UV irradiation and requires the Y3 RNA. Despite the lack of an identifiable CRM1-dependent export signal, nuclear export of Ro is sensitive to the CRM1 inhibitor leptomycin B. In agreement with a previous report, we find that ZBP1 export is partly dependent on CRM1. Both Ro and Y3 RNA accumulate in nuclei when ZBP1 is depleted. Our data indicate that ZBP1 may function as an adapter to export the Ro/Y3 RNA complex from nuclei. PMID:22114317

  8. The cis-acting elements involved in endonucleolytic cleavage of the 3' UTR of human IGF-II mRNAs bind a 50 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Scheper, W; Holthuizen, P E; Sussenbach, J S

    1996-03-15

    Site-specific cleavage of human insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs requires two cis-acting elements, I and II, that are both located in the 3' untranslated region and separated by almost 2 kb. These elements can interact and form a stable RNA-RNA stem structure. In this study we have initiated the investigation of transacting factors involved in the cleavage of IGF-II mRNAs. The products of the cleavage reaction accumulate in the cytoplasm, suggesting that cleavage occurs in this cellular compartment. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have identified a cytoplasmic protein with an apparent molecular weight of 48-50 kDa, IGF-II cleavage unit binding protein (ICU-BP), that binds to the stem structure formed by interaction of parts of the cis-acting elements I and II. The binding is resistant to high K+ concentrations and is dependent on Mg2+. In addition, ICU-BP binding is dependent on the cell density and correlates inversely with the IGM-II mRNA levels. In vivo cross-linking data show that this protein is associated with IGF-II mRNAs in vivo. PMID:8604329

  9. Laser desorption and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of 29-kDa Au:SR cluster compounds.

    PubMed

    Schaaff, T Gregory

    2004-11-01

    Positive and negative ions generated by laser-based ionization methods from three gold:thiolate cluster compounds are mass analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The three compounds have similar inorganic core masses ( approximately 29 kDa, approximately 145 Au atoms) but different n-alkanethiolate ligands associated with each cluster compound (Au:SR, R = butane, hexane, dodecane). Irradiation of neat films (laser desorption/ionization) and films generated by dilution of the cluster compounds in an organic acid matrix (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) with a nitrogen laser (337 nm) produced distinct ion abundances that are relevant to different structural aspects of the cluster compound. Laser desorption/ionization of neat Au:SR compound films produces ions consistent with the inorganic core mass (i.e., devoid of original hydrocarbon content). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization produces either ions with m/z values consistent with the core mass of the cluster compounds or ions with m/z values consistent with the approximate molecular weight of the cluster compounds, depending on ionization conditions. The ion abundances, and ionization conditions under which they are detected, provide insight into desorption/ionization processes for these unique cluster compounds as well as other analytes typically studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. PMID:15516109

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Isoform (Low Molecular Weight/18 kDa) Overexpression in Preosteoblast Cells Promotes Bone Regeneration in Critical Size Calvarial Defects in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Liping; Ueno, Daisuke; Catros, Sylvain; Homer-Bouthiette, Collin; Charles, Lyndon; Kuhn, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Repair of bone defects remains a significant clinical problem. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is US Food and Drug Administration–approved for fracture healing but is expensive and has associated morbidity. Studies have shown that targeted overexpression of the 18-kDa low-molecular-weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoform (LMW) by the osteoblastic lineage of transgenic mice increased bone mass. This study tested the hypotheses that overexpression of LMW would directly enhance healing of a critical size calvarial bone defect in mice and that this overexpression would have a synergistic effect with low-dose administration of BMP2 on critical size calvarial bone defect healing. Bilateral calvarial defects were created in LMW transgenic male mice and control/vector transgenic (Vector) male mice and scaffold with or without BMP2 was placed into the defects. New bone formation was assessed by VIVA-computed tomography of live animals over a 27-week period. Radiographic and computed tomography analysis revealed that at all time points, healing of the defect was enhanced in LMW mice compared with that in Vector mice. Although the very low concentration of BMP2 did not heal the defect in Vector mice, it resulted in complete healing of the defect in LMW mice. Histomorphometric and gene analysis revealed that targeted overexpression of LMW in osteoblast precursors resulted in enhanced calvarial defect healing due to increased osteoblast activity and increased canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:24424065

  11. A novel function for the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90): facilitating nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Schlatter, Harald; Langer, Thomas; Rosmus, Susann; Onneken, Marie-Luise; Fasold, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleus, and mature 40 S and 60 S subunits are exported stoichiometrically into the cytoplasm. The nuclear export of ribosomal subunits is a unidirectional, saturable and energy-dependent process. An in vitro assay for the nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits involves the use of resealed nuclear envelopes. The export of ribosomal subunits from resealed nuclear envelopes is enhanced by cytoplasmic proteins. Here we present evidence that the export-promoting activity was due to the cytoplasmic 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90). Isolated, purified Hsp90 vastly enhanced the export of 60 S ribosomal subunits from resealed nuclear envelopes, while inhibition of Hsp90 function, either with the Hsp90-binding drug geldanamycin or with anti-Hsp90 antibodies, resulted in reduced release of 60 S ribosomal subunits. To confirm these findings under in vivo conditions, corresponding experiments were performed with Xenopus oocytes using microinjection techniques; the results obtained confirmed the findings obtained with resealed nuclear envelopes. These findings suggest that Hsp90 facilitates the nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits, probably by chaperoning protein interactions during the export process. PMID:11879195

  12. Production of the 42-kDa fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1, a leading malaria vaccine antigen, in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Ng, Danny W-K; Chan, Wendy W L; Chang, Sandra P; Sun, Samuel S M

    2010-12-01

    Malaria is widely associated with poverty, and a low-cost vaccine against malaria is highly desirable for implementing comprehensive vaccination programmes in developing countries. Production of malaria antigens in plants is a promising approach, but its development has been hindered by poor expression of the antigens in plant cells. In the present study, we targeted plant seeds as a low-cost vaccine production platform and successfully expressed the Plasmodium falciparum 42-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1₄₂), a leading malaria vaccine candidate, at a high level in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. We overcame hurdles of transcript and protein instabilities of MSP1₄₂ in plants by synthesizing a plant-optimized MSP1₄₂ cDNA and either targeting the recombinant protein to protein storage vacuoles or fusing it with a stable plant storage protein. An exceptional improvement in MSP1₄₂ expression, from an undetectable level to 5% of total extractable protein, was achieved with these combined strategies. Importantly, the plant-derived MSP1₄₂ maintains its natural antigenicity and can be recognized by immune sera from malaria-infected patients. Our results provide a strong basis for the development of a plant-based, low-cost malaria vaccine. PMID:20444208

  13. Simplifying and expanding the screening for peptides <2 kDa by direct urine injection, liquid chromatography, and ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Thieme, Detlef; Dellanna, Frank; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of low-molecular-mass peptides in doping controls has become a mandatory aspect in sports drug testing and, thus, the number of samples that has to be tested for these analytes has been steadily increasing. Several peptides <2 kDa with performance-enhancing properties are covered by the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency including Desmopressin, LH-RH, Buserelin, Triptorelin, Leuprolide, GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-3, GHRP-4, GHRP-5,GHRP-6, Alexamorelin, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin, ARA-290, AOD-9604, TB-500 and Anamorelin. With the presented method employing direct urine injection into a liquid chromatograph followed by ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a facile, specific and sensitive assay for the aforementioned peptidic compounds is provided. The accomplished sensitivity allows for limits of detection between 50 and 500 pg/mL and thus covers the minimum