Science.gov

Sample records for keff calculation green

  1. Green's function calculations of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, ZhongHao; Wu, Qiang; Xu, FuRong

    2016-09-01

    The influence of short-range correlations in nuclei was investigated with realistic nuclear force. The nucleon-nucleon interaction was renormalized with V lowk technique and applied to the Green's function calculations. The Dyson equation was reformulated with algebraic diagrammatic constructions. We also analyzed the binding energy of 4He, calculated with chiral potential and CD-Bonn potential. The properties of Green's function with realistic nuclear forces are also discussed.

  2. Green's function calculation from equipartition theorem.

    PubMed

    Perton, Mathieu; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco José

    2016-08-01

    A method is presented to calculate the elastodynamic Green's functions by using the equipartition principle. The imaginary parts are calculated as the average cross correlations of the displacement fields generated by the incidence of body and surface waves with amplitudes weighted by partition factors. The real part is retrieved using the Hilbert transform. The calculation of the partition factors is discussed for several geometrical configurations in two dimensional space: the full-space, a basin in a half-space and for layered media. For the last case, it results in a fast computation of the full Green's functions. Additionally, if the contribution of only selected states is desired, as for instance the surface wave part, the computation is even faster. Its use for full waveform inversion may then be advantageous. PMID:27586757

  3. Variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Carlson, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Pudliner, B.S.

    1995-08-01

    We performed an extensive series of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and Green`s Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations for few-body nuclei using a Hamiltonian, H, containing the new Argonne v{sub 18} NN interaction supplemented by a model three-nucleon (3N) potential. These calculations include the ground state binding energy of {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, {sup 6}He, {sup 6}Li and {sup 6}Be, low-lying excited states in the A = 6 nuclei, and scattering states of {sup 5}He. The variational wave functions, {Psi}{sub v}(R), include central, spin, isospin, tensor, and spin-orbit two- and three-body correlations. These trial functions give upper bounds to the ground-state binding energy {approximately}2% above exact GFMC calculations in {sup 3}H and {sup 4}He.

  4. An Approach for Validating Actinide and Fission Product Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses: Criticality (keff) Predictions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scaglione, John M.; Mueller, Don E.; Wagner, John C.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most important remaining challenges associated with expanded implementation of burnup credit in the United States is the validation of depletion and criticality calculations used in the safety evaluation—in particular, the availability and use of applicable measured data to support validation, especially for fission products (FPs). Applicants and regulatory reviewers have been constrained by both a scarcity of data and a lack of clear technical basis or approach for use of the data. In this study, this paper describes a validation approach for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) criticality safety (keff) evaluations based on best-available data and methodsmore » and applies the approach for representative SNF storage and transport configurations/conditions to demonstrate its usage and applicability, as well as to provide reference bias results. The criticality validation approach utilizes not only available laboratory critical experiment (LCE) data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the French Haut Taux de Combustion program to support validation of the principal actinides but also calculated sensitivities, nuclear data uncertainties, and limited available FP LCE data to predict and verify individual biases for relevant minor actinides and FPs. The results demonstrate that (a) sufficient critical experiment data exist to adequately validate keff calculations via conventional validation approaches for the primary actinides, (b) sensitivity-based critical experiment selection is more appropriate for generating accurate application model bias and uncertainty, and (c) calculated sensitivities and nuclear data uncertainties can be used for generating conservative estimates of bias for minor actinides and FPs. Results based on the SCALE 6.1 and the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section libraries indicate that a conservative estimate of the bias for the minor actinides and FPs is 1.5% of their worth within the

  5. Real-space Green;s function calculations of Compton profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Mattern, Brian A.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Kas, Joshua J.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Rehr, John J.

    2012-09-05

    We report the development of a first-principles, real-space Green's function method for calculation of Compton profiles in the impulse approximation. For crystalline Be, we find excellent agreement with prior theoretical treatments requiring periodicity, with prior experimental measurements of the Compton profile, and with present measurements of the dynamical structure factor via nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (often also called x-ray Thomson scattering in the plasma physics community). We also find good agreement with prior experimental results for the Compton profile of Cu. This approach can be extended to disordered and very high-temperature systems, such as 'warm dense matter,' where theories presently used for the interpretation of inelastic x-ray scattering include condensed phase effects only at a perturbative level.

  6. EVALUATING METRICS FOR GREEN CHEMISTRIES: INFORMATION AND CALCULATION NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing a methodology for the evaluation of green chemistries. This methodology called GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Ob...

  7. Eddy current calculations using half-space Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, J. R.

    1987-02-01

    A simple scalar representation is used to describe the electromagnetic field in the quasi-static limit for an arbitrary time-harmonic source current above an imperfectly conducting half-space. Solutions are given in terms of half-space scalar and dyadic Green's functions. The general results are then used to derive analytical expressions for the fields arising from circular filaments and extended sources whose axes of symmetry are parallel to the surface of the conductor. These tangent coil solutions have applications in the theory of inductive sensors, particularly for eddy current nondestructive testing.

  8. Green Function Approach to the Calculation of the Local Density of States in the Graphitic Nanocone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smotlacha, Jan; Pinčák, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Graphene and other nanostructures belong to the center of interest of today's physics research. The local density of states of the graphitic nanocone influenced by the spin-orbit interaction was calculated. Numerical calculations and the Green function approach were used to solve this problem. It was proven in the second case that the second order approximation is not sufficient for this purpose.

  9. Green's function Monte Carlo calculation for the ground state of helium trimers

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, F.; Kalos, M.H.

    1981-02-01

    The ground state energy of weakly bound boson trimers interacting via Lennard-Jones (12,6) pair potentials is calculated using a Monte Carlo Green's Function Method. Threshold coupling constants for self binding are obtained by extrapolation to zero binding.

  10. Electronic Structure Calculation of Permanent Magnets using the KKR Green's Function Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Shotaro; Akai, Hisazumi

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of permanent magnetic materials, especially Nd2Fe14B, are investigated theoretically using the KKR Green's function method. Important physical quantities in magnetism, such as magnetic moment, Curie temperature, and anisotropy constant, which are obtained from electronics structure calculations in both cases of atomic-sphere-approximation and full-potential treatment, are compared with past band structure calculations and experiments. The site preference of heavy rare-earth impurities are also evaluated through the calculation of formation energy with the use of coherent potential approximations. Further, the development of electronic structure calculation code using the screened KKR for large super-cells, which is aimed at studying the electronic structure of realistic microstructures (e.g. grain boundary phase), is introduced with some test calculations.

  11. Poisson Green's function method for increased computational efficiency in numerical calculations of Coulomb coupling elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Anke; Kuhn, Sandra; Richter, Marten

    2016-01-01

    Often, the calculation of Coulomb coupling elements for quantum dynamical treatments, e.g., in cluster or correlation expansion schemes, requires the evaluation of a six dimensional spatial integral. Therefore, it represents a significant limiting factor in quantum mechanical calculations. If the size or the complexity of the investigated system increases, many coupling elements need to be determined. The resulting computational constraints require an efficient method for a fast numerical calculation of the Coulomb coupling. We present a computational method to reduce the numerical complexity by decreasing the number of spatial integrals for arbitrary geometries. We use a Green's function formulation of the Coulomb coupling and introduce a generalized scalar potential as solution of a generalized Poisson equation with a generalized charge density as the inhomogeneity. That enables a fast calculation of Coulomb coupling elements and, additionally, a straightforward inclusion of boundary conditions and arbitrarily spatially dependent dielectrics through the Coulomb Green's function. Particularly, if many coupling elements are included, the presented method, which is not restricted to specific symmetries of the model, presents a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of numerical calculations of the Coulomb interaction. To demonstrate the wide range of applications, we calculate internanostructure couplings, such as the Förster coupling, and illustrate the inclusion of symmetry considerations in the method for the Coulomb coupling between bound quantum dot states and unbound continuum states.

  12. Analytical calculation of the Green's function and Drude weight for a correlated fermion-boson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvermann, A.; Edwards, D. M.; Fehske, H.

    2010-04-01

    In classical Drude theory the conductivity is determined by the mass of the propagating particles and the mean free path between two scattering events. For a quantum particle this simple picture of diffusive transport loses relevance if strong correlations dominate the particle motion. We study a situation where the propagation of a fermionic particle is possible only through creation and annihilation of local bosonic excitations. This correlated quantum transport process is outside the Drude picture, since one cannot distinguish between free propagation and intermittent scattering. The characterization of transport is possible using the Drude weight obtained from the f-sum rule, although its interpretation in terms of free mass and mean free path breaks down. For the situation studied we calculate the Green's function and Drude weight using a Green's functions expansion technique, and discuss their physical meaning.

  13. Self-Consistent Green Function Calculations for Isospin Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, H.; Gad, K.; Hassaneen, K. S. A.

    2010-04-01

    The one-body potentials for protons and neutrons are obtained from the self-consistent Green-function calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter, in particular their dependence on the degree of proton/neutron asymmetry. Results of the binding energy per nucleon as a function of the density and asymmetry parameter are presented for the self-consistent Green function approach using the CD-Bonn potential. For the sake of comparison, the same calculations are performed using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The contribution of the hole-hole terms leads to a repulsive contribution to the energy per nucleon which increases with the nuclear density. The incompressibility for asymmetric nuclear matter has been also investigated in the framework of the self-consistent Green-function approach using the CD-Bonn potential. The behavior of the incompressibility is studied for different values of the nuclear density and the neutron excess parameter. The nuclear symmetry potentia l at fixed nuclear density is also calculated and its value decreases with increasing the nucleon energy. In particular, the nuclear symmetry potential at saturation density changes from positive to negative values at nucleon kinetic energy of about 200 MeV. For the sake of comparison, the same calculations are performed using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The proton/neutron effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter has been studied. The predicted isospin splitting of the proton/neutron effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter is such that m(*_n) ≥ m(*_p) .

  14. Calculation of the vacuum Green's function valid for high toroidal mode number in tokamaks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Morrell; Turnbull, Alan

    2005-10-01

    The present evaluation of the Green's function used for the magmetic scalar potential in vacuum calculations for axisymmetric geometry in the vacuum segments of gato, pest and other mhd stability codes has been found to be deficient for moderately high toroidal mode numbers. This was due to the loss of numerical precision arising from the upward recursion relation used for generating the functions to high mode numbers. The recursion is initiated from the complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds. To ameliorate this, a direct integration of the integral representation of the function was crafted to achieve the necessary high accuracy for moderately high mode numbers. At very high mode numbers the loss of numerical precision due to the oscillatory behavior of the integrand is further avoided by judiciously deforming the integration contour in the complex plane. Machine precision, roughly 14 -- 16 digits, accuracy can be achieved by using a combination of both these techniques.

  15. Hybrid method for the precise calculation of the general dyadic Greens functions for SAW and leaky wave substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Darren W.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, the generalized method for calculation of the 16-element Green's function for analysis of surface acoustic waves has proven crucial to develop more sophisticated transducers. The generalized Green's function provides a precise relationship between the acoustic stresses and electric displacement on the three mechanical displacements and electric potential. This generalized method is able to account for mass loading effects which is absent in the effective permittivity approach. However, the calculation is numerically intensive and may lead to numerical instabilities when solving for both the eigenvalues and eigenvectors simultaneously. In this work, the general eigenvalue problem was modified to eliminate the numerical instabilities in the solving procedure. An algorithm is also presented to select the proper eigenvalues rapidly to facilitate analysis for all types of acoustic propagation. The 4 x 4 Green's functions and effective permittivities were calculated for materials supporting Rayleigh, leaky, and leaky longitudinal waves as demonstration of the method.

  16. Direct calculation of modal contributions to thermal conductivity via Green-Kubo modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-01-01

    We derived a new method for direct calculation of the modal contributions to thermal conductivity, which is termed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA). The GKMA method combines the lattice dynamics formalism with the Green-Kubo formula for thermal conductivity, such that the thermal conductivity becomes a direct summation of modal contributions, where one need not define the phonon velocity. As a result, the GKMA method can be applied to any material/group of atoms, where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium positions, which includes non-stoichiometric compounds, random alloys, amorphous materials and even rigid molecules. By using molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the time history of each mode’s contribution to the heat current, one naturally includes anharmonicity to full order and can obtain insight into the interactions between different modes through the cross-correlations. As an example, we applied the GMKA method to crystalline and amorphous silicon. The modal contributions at each frequency result from the analysis and thereby allow one to apply a quantum correction to the mode heat capacity to determine the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity. The predicted temperature dependent thermal conductivity for amorphous silicon shows the best agreement with experiments to date. The GKMA method provides new insight into the nature of phonon transport, as it casts the problem in terms of mode-mode correlation instead of scattering, and provides a general unified formalism that can be used to understand phonon-phonon interactions in essentially any class of materials or structures where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium sites.

  17. Application of the PSI-NUSS Tool for the Estimation of Nuclear Data Related keff Uncertainties for the OECD/NEA WPNCS UACSA Phase I Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), a methodology titled PSI-NUSS is under development for the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties into Criticality Safety Evaluation (CSE) with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The primary purpose is to provide a complementary option for the uncertainty assessment related to nuclear data, versus the traditional approach which relies on estimating biases/uncertainties based on validation studies against representative critical benchmark experiments. In the present paper, the PSI-NUSS methodology is applied to quantify nuclear data uncertainties for the OECD/NEA UACSA Exercise Phase I benchmark. One underlying reason is that PSI's CSE methodology developed so far and previously applied for this benchmark was based on using a more conventional approach, involving engineering guesses in order to estimate uncertainties in the calculated effective multiplication factor (keff). Therefore, as the PSI-NUSS methodology aims precisely at integrating a more rigorous treatment of the specific type of uncertainties from nuclear data for CSE, its application to the UACSA is conducted here: nuclear data related uncertainty component is estimated and compared to results obtained by other participants using different codes/libraries and methodologies.

  18. Efficient calculation of 1-D periodic Green's functions for leaky-wave applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Baccarelli, Paolo; Johnson, William Arthur; Paulotto, Simone; Jackson, David R.; Wilton, Donald R.; Galli, A.; Valero, G.; Celepcikay, F. T.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper an approach is described for the efficient computation of the mixed-potential scalar and dyadic Green's functions for a one-dimensional periodic (periodic along x direction) array of point sources embedded in a planar stratified structure. Suitable asymptotic extractions are performed on the slowly converging spectral series. The extracted terms are summed back through the Ewald method, modified and optimized to efficiently deal with all the different terms. The accelerated Green's functions allow for complex wavenumbers, and are thus suitable for application to leaky-wave antennas analysis. Suitable choices of the spectral integration paths are made in order to account for leakage effects and the proper/improper nature of the various space harmonics that form the 1-D periodic Green's function.

  19. Calculating the carbon emissions associated with San Jose's Green Vision goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E. C.; Prada, L.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, the City of San Jose adopted a Green Vision that includes 10 measurable goals, which aim to promote job growth in clean tech and preserve the environment. The goals include a 50% reduction of per capita energy use, a 100% diversion of waste from landfill, a 100% recycling or reuse of wastewater, and the building or retro fitting of 50 million square feet of green buildings. While there are clear benefits from these initiatives, it is unclear how these changes will affect emissions of greenhouse gases and what contribution the Green Vision will have on the total carbon emissions of the city. Using San Jose as a case study this work will first estimate citywide baseline carbon emissions using data from the last decade. We then will describe efforts to compute the change in carbon emissions associated with each of the city’s green vision goals. The intention of this work is to develop a set of metrics that other cities and institutions can use to better quantify the carbon emissions associated with their current and future ‘green’ initiatives.

  20. Free radicals generated during oxidation of green tea polyphenols: electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Severino, Joyce Ferreira; Goodman, Bernard A; Kay, Christopher W M; Stolze, Klaus; Tunega, Daniel; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Pirker, Katharina F

    2009-04-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the redox properties of the green tea polyphenols (GTPs) (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG). Aqueous extracts of green tea and these individual phenols were autoxidized at alkaline pH and oxidized by superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) radicals in dimethyl sulfoxide. Several new aspects of the free radical chemistry of GTPs were revealed. EGCG can be oxidized on both the B and the D ring. The B ring was the main oxidation site during autoxidation, but the D ring was the preferred site for O(2)(-) oxidation. Oxidation of the D ring was followed by structural degradation, leading to generation of a radical identical to that of oxidized gallic acid. Alkaline autoxidation of green tea extracts produced four radicals that were related to products of the oxidation of EGCG, EGC, ECG, and gallic acid, whereas the spectra from O(2)(-) oxidation could be explained solely by radicals generated from EGCG. Assignments of hyperfine coupling constants were made by DFT calculations, allowing the identities of the radicals observed to be confirmed. PMID:19439236

  1. Calculation of the relative uniformity coefficient on the green composites reinforced with cotton and hemp fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, Florin; Hadǎr, Anton; Sava, Mihaela; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius; Bolcu, Dumitru

    2016-06-01

    In this paper it is studied the influence of discontinuities on elastic and mechanical properties of green composite materials (reinforced with fabric of cotton or hemp). In addition, it is studied the way variations of the volume f the reinforcement influences the elasticity modulus and the tensile strength for the studied composite materials. In order to appreciate the difference in properties between different areas of the composite material, and also the dimensions of the defective areas, we have introduced a relative uniformity coefficient with which the mechanical behavior of the studied composite is compared with a reference composite. To validate the theoretical results we have obtained we made some experiments, using green composites reinforced with fabric, with different imperfection introduced special by cutting the fabric.

  2. Green's Function Monte Carlo Calculations with Two- and Three-Nucleon Interactions from Chiral Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    I discuss our recent work on Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations of light nuclei using local nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory (EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO). I present the natural extension of this work to include the consistent three-nucleon (3N) forces at the same order in the chiral expansion. I discuss our choice of observables to fit the two low-energy constants which enter in the 3N sector at N2LO and present some results for light nuclei.

  3. A calculation method for finite depth free-surface green function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingyi; Iwashita, Hidetsugu; Hu, Changhong

    2015-06-01

    An improved boundary element method is presented for numerical analysis of hydrodynamic behavior of marine structures. A new algorithm for numerical solution of the finite depth free-surface Green function in three dimensions is developed based on multiple series representations. The whole range of the key parameter R/h is divided into four regions, within which different representation is used to achieve fast convergence. The well-known epsilon algorithm is also adopted to accelerate the convergence. The critical convergence criteria for each representation are investigated and provided. The proposed method is validated by several well-documented benchmark problems.

  4. Validation of back-calculated body lengths and timing of growth mark deposition in Hawaiian green sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Goshe, Lisa R; Snover, Melissa L; Hohn, Aleta A; Balazs, George H

    2016-05-01

    Somatic growth rate data for wild sea turtles can provide insight into life-stage durations, time to maturation, and total lifespan. When appropriately validated, the technique of skeletochronology allows prior growth rates of sea turtles to be calculated with considerably less time and labor than required by mark--recapture studies. We applied skeletochronology to 10 dead, stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas that had previously been measured, tagged, and injected with OTC (oxytetracycline) during mark-recapture studies in Hawaii for validating skeletochronological analysis. We tested the validity of back-calculating carapace lengths (CLs) from diameters of LAGs (lines of arrested growth), which mark the outer boundaries of individual skeletal growth increments. This validation was achieved by comparing CLs estimated from measurements of the LAG proposed to have been deposited closest to the time of tagging to actual CLs measured at the time of tagging. Measureable OTC-mark diameters in five turtles also allowed us to investigate the time of year when LAGs are deposited. We found no significant difference between CLs measured at tagging and those estimated through skeletochronology, which supports calculation of somatic growth rates by taking the difference between CLs estimated from successive LAG diameters in humerus bones for this species. Back-calculated CLs associated with the OTC mark and growth mark deposited closest to tagging indicated that annual LAGs are deposited in the spring. The results of this validation study increase confidence in utilization of skeletochronology to rapidly obtain accurate age and growth data for green turtles. PMID:27096079

  5. Finite elements and the discrete variable representation in nonequilibrium Green's function calculations. Atomic and molecular models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzer, Karsten; Bauch, Sebastian; Bonitz, Michael

    2010-04-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the finite-element discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) of the nonequilibrium Green's function and its implications on the description of strongly inhomogeneous quantum systems. In detail, we show that the complementary features of FEs and the DVR allow for a notably more efficient solution of the two-time Schwinger/Keldysh/Kadanoff-Baym equations compared to a general basis approach. Particularly, the use of the FE-DVR leads to an essential speedup in computing the self-energies. As atomic and molecular examples we consider the He atom and the linear version of H+3 in one spatial dimension. For these closed-shell models we, in Hartree-Fock and second Born approximation, compute the ground-state properties and compare with the exact findings obtained from the solution of the few-particle time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  6. Numerical Green's functions in optical potential calculations for positron scattering from argon and neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartschat, K.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    An optical potential method was applied to the calculation of positron scattering from the noble gases in order to determine the effect of open excitation channels on the shape of differential scattering cross sections.

  7. Excitonic effects in GeC hybrid: Many-body Green's function calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissi, L. B.; Ramadan, F. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Many-body effects on the electronic and optical absorption properties of a GeC sheet are studied by means of first principle many-body Green's function and Bethe-Salpeter equation formalism. The absence of soft modes in the phonon-spectrum indicates the stability of the system. The inclusion of quasiparticle corrections increases significantly the band gap. The local field effects induce significant change in the absorption spectra for the out-plane polarization rendering the GeC monolayer transparent below 7 eV. The excitonic effects are significant on the optical absorption properties. A detailed analysis of the spectrum shows a strong binding energy of 1.82 eV assigned to the lowest-energy bound excitons that is characterized by an effective mass of 1.68m0 and a Bohr radius of 2 Å. The results of this study hold the promise for potential applications of the GeC hybrid in optoelectronics.

  8. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  9. Benchmarking the performance of density functional theory based Green's function formalism utilizing different self-energy models in calculating electronic transmission through molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Prociuk, Alexander; Van Kuiken, Ben; Dunietz, Barry D

    2006-11-28

    Electronic transmission through a metal-molecule-metal system is calculated by employing a Green's function formalism in the scattering based scheme. Self-energy models representing the bulk and the potential bias are used to describe electron transport through the molecular system. Different self-energies can be defined by varying the partition between device and bulk regions of the metal-molecule-metal model system. In addition, the self-energies are calculated with different representations of the bulk through its Green's function. In this work, the dependence of the calculated transmission on varying the self-energy subspaces is benchmarked. The calculated transmission is monitored with respect to the different choices defining the self-energy model. In this report, we focus on one-dimensional model systems with electronic structures calculated at the density functional level of theory. PMID:17144733

  10. Calculation of the second term of the exact Green's function of the diffusion equation for diffusion-controlled chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Ianik

    2016-01-01

    The exact Green's function of the diffusion equation (GFDE) is often considered to be the gold standard for the simulation of partially diffusion-controlled reactions. As the GFDE with angular dependency is quite complex, the radial GFDE is more often used. Indeed, the exact GFDE is expressed as a Legendre expansion, the coefficients of which are given in terms of an integral comprising Bessel functions. This integral does not seem to have been evaluated analytically in existing literature. While the integral can be evaluated numerically, the Bessel functions make the integral oscillate and convergence is difficult to obtain. Therefore it would be of great interest to evaluate the integral analytically. The first term was evaluated previously, and was found to be equal to the radial GFDE. In this work, the second term of this expansion was evaluated. As this work has shown that the first two terms of the Legendre polynomial expansion can be calculated analytically, it raises the question of the possibility that an analytical solution exists for the other terms.

  11. Diffusion and viscosity of liquid tin: Green-Kubo relationship-based calculations from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Mouas, Mohamed; Gasser, Jean-Georges; Hellal, Slimane; Grosdidier, Benoît; Makradi, Ahmed; Belouettar, Salim

    2012-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid tin between its melting point and 1600 °C have been performed in order to interpret and discuss the ionic structure. The interactions between ions are described by a new accurate pair potential built within the pseudopotential formalism and the linear response theory. The calculated structure factor that reflects the main information on the local atomic order in liquids is compared to diffraction measurements. Having some confidence in the ability of this pair potential to give a good representation of the atomic structure, we then focused our attention on the investigation of the atomic transport properties through the MD computations of the velocity autocorrelation function and stress autocorrelation function. Using the Green-Kubo formula (for the first time to our knowledge for liquid tin) we determine the macroscopic transport properties from the corresponding microscopic time autocorrelation functions. The selfdiffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity as functions of temperature are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:22401446

  12. New heterocyclic green, blue and orange dyes from indazole: Synthesis, tautomerism, alkylation studies, spectroscopic characterization and DFT/TD-DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorhaji, Soodabeh; Pordel, Mehdi; Ramezani, Shirin

    2016-09-01

    Tautomerism and alkylation studies on the green intermediate 2-(5-hydroxyimino-1-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-4-indazolyliden)-2-phenylacetonitrile led to the synthesis of new heterocyclic green, blue and orange dyes in high yields. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral and analytical data. The optical properties of the dyes were spectrally characterized by using a UV-vis spectrophotometer and results show that they exhibited interesting photophysical properties. Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of these dyes have been studied and the absorption band in polar solvents undergoes a red shift. Density functional theory calculations of the dyes were performed to provide the optimized geometries and relevant frontier orbitals. Calculated electronic absorption spectra were also obtained by time-dependent density functional theory method.

  13. A program for calculating photonic band structures, Green's functions and transmission/reflection coefficients using a non-orthogonal FDTD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. J.; Pendry, J. B.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we present an updated version of our ONYX program for calculating photonic band structures using a non-orthogonal finite difference time domain method. This new version employs the same transparent formalism as the first version with the same capabilities for calculating photonic band structures or causal Green's functions but also includes extra subroutines for the calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients. Both the electric and magnetic fields are placed onto a discrete lattice by approximating the spacial and temporal derivatives with finite differences. This results in discrete versions of Maxwell's equations which can be used to integrate the fields forwards in time. The time required for a calculation using this method scales linearly with the number of real space points used in the discretization so the technique is ideally suited to handling systems with large and complicated unit cells.

  14. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of green tea epicatechins in β-cyclodextrin cavity: Single-crystal X-ray analysis, DFT calculation and DPPH assay.

    PubMed

    Aree, Thammarat; Jongrungruangchok, Suchada

    2016-10-20

    Green tea catechins are potent antioxidant for prevention of various free radical-related diseases. Their antioxidant properties can be improved by encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs). Four inclusion complexes of β-CD with (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been investigated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis combined with full geometry optimization by DFT/B3LYP calculation and the DPPH assay, aiming to deepen the understanding on their structure-antioxidant activity relationship. Scrutinizing the inclusion structures and conformational changes of the four encapsulated epicatechins reveals the common host-guest stabilization scheme and the epicatechin conformational flexibility facilitating the enhancement of activity. Thermodynamic stability order derived from DFT calculation in vacuum fairly agrees with the order of improved antioxidant capacity deduced from the DPPH assay, β-CD-EGCG>β-CD-ECG>β-CD-EGC≈β-CD-EC. PMID:27474665

  15. An Approach for Validating Actinide and Fission Product Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses--Criticality (keff) Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Mueller, Don; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    One of the most significant remaining challenges associated with expanded implementation of burnup credit in the United States is the validation of depletion and criticality calculations used in the safety evaluation - in particular, the availability and use of applicable measured data to support validation, especially for fission products. Applicants and regulatory reviewers have been constrained by both a scarcity of data and a lack of clear technical basis or approach for use of the data. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff have noted that the rationale for restricting their Interim Staff Guidance on burnup credit (ISG-8) to actinide-only is based largely on the lack of clear, definitive experiments that can be used to estimate the bias and uncertainty for computational analyses associated with using burnup credit. To address the issue of validation, the NRC initiated a project with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to (1) develop and establish a technically sound validation approach (both depletion and criticality) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) criticality safety evaluations based on best-available data and methods and (2) apply the approach for representative SNF storage and transport configurations/conditions to demonstrate its usage and applicability, as well as to provide reference bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the criticality (k{sub eff}) validation approach, and resulting observations and recommendations. Validation of the isotopic composition (depletion) calculations is addressed in a companion paper at this conference. For criticality validation, the approach is to utilize (1) available laboratory critical experiment (LCE) data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the French Haut Taux de Combustion (HTC) program to support validation of the principal actinides and (2) calculated sensitivities, nuclear data uncertainties, and the limited available fission

  16. Determination of focal mechanisms of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in Mexico, based on Greens functions calculated for a 3D Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2015-04-01

    One important ingredient in the study of the complex active tectonics in Mexico is the analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms, or the seismic moment tensor. They can be determined trough the calculation of Green functions and subsequent inversion for moment-tensor parameters. However, this calculation is gets progressively more difficult as the magnitude of the earthquakes decreases. Large earthquakes excite waves of longer periods that interact weakly with laterally heterogeneities in the crust. For these earthquakes, using 1D velocity models to compute the Greens fucntions works well. The opposite occurs for smaller and intermediate sized events, where the relatively shorter periods excited interact strongly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle and requires more specific or regional 3D models. In this study, we calculate Greens functions for earthquakes in Mexico using a laterally heterogeneous seismic wave speed model, comprised of mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al 2008) and crustal model CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al 1990). Subsequently, we invert the observed seismograms for the seismic moment tensor using a method developed by Liu et al (2004) an implemented by Óscar de La Vega (2014) for earthquakes in Mexico. By following a brute force approach, in which we include all observed Rayleigh and Love waves of the Mexican National Seismic Network (Servicio Sismológico Naciona, SSN), we obtain reliable focal mechanisms for events that excite a considerable amount of low frequency waves (Mw > 4.8). However, we are not able to consistently estimate focal mechanisms for smaller events using this method, due to high noise levels in many of the records. Excluding the noisy records, or noisy parts of the records manually, requires interactive edition of the data, using an efficient tool for the editing. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI), based on python and the python library ObsPy, that allows the edition of observed and

  17. An efficient nonequilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory approach for calculating electron transport properties of molecular devices with quasi-one-dimensional electrodes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zekan; Li, Rui; Hou, Shimin; Xue, Zengquan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2007-11-21

    An efficient self-consistent approach combining the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism with density functional theory is developed to calculate electron transport properties of molecular devices with quasi-one-dimensional (1D) electrodes. Two problems associated with the low dimensionality of the 1D electrodes, i.e., the nonequilibrium state and the uncertain boundary conditions for the electrostatic potential, are circumvented by introducing the reflectionless boundary conditions at the electrode-contact interfaces and the zero electric field boundary conditions at the electrode-molecule interfaces. Three prototypical systems, respectively, an ideal ballistic conductor, a high resistance tunnel junction, and a molecular device, are investigated to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach. PMID:18035901

  18. Non-equilibrium Green's function calculation of AlGaAs-well-based and GaSb-based terahertz quantum cascade laser structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, H. Hosako, I.

    2015-03-16

    We investigate the performance of terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCLs) based on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}As and GaSb/AlGaSb material systems to realize higher-temperature operation. Calculations with the non-equilibrium Green's function method reveal that the AlGaAs-well-based THz-QCLs do not show improved performance, mainly because of alloy scattering in the ternary compound semiconductor. The GaSb-based THz-QCLs offer clear advantages over GaAs-based THz-QCLs. Weaker longitudinal optical phonon–electron interaction in GaSb produces higher peaks in the spectral functions of the lasing levels, which enables more electrons to be accumulated in the upper lasing level.

  19. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

    2000-03-01

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ``end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified.

  20. Statistical verification of neutron-physics programs for calculations in support of nuclear safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebin, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    An algorithm for statistical verification of the XT26 code contained in the SAPHIRE-2006 code system is described. The results of conservative estimation of the calculation error in the Keff calculations for different types of benchmark experiments are presented. The results of the statistical analysis of deviations from the experimental values are compared with the corresponding parameters obtained from the set of calculations performed using other codes.

  1. SCALE Sensitivity Calculations Using Contributon Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Perfetti, Chris; Williams, Mark L; Petrie Jr, Lester M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity and uncertainty analysis sequence computes the sensitivity of k-eff to each constituent multigroup cross section using adjoint techniques with the KENO Monte Carlo codes. A new technique to simultaneously obtain the product of the forward and adjoint angular flux moments within a single Monte Carlo calculation has been developed and implemented in the SCALE TSUNAMI-3D analysis sequence. A new concept in Monte Carlo theory has been developed for this work, an eigenvalue contributon estimator, which is an extension of previously developed fixed-source contributon estimators. A contributon is a particle for which the forward solution is accumulated, and its importance to the response, which is equivalent to the adjoint solution, is simultaneously accumulated. Thus, the contributon is a particle coupled with its contribution to the response, in this case keff. As implemented in SCALE, the contributon provides the importance of a particle exiting at any energy or direction for each location, energy and direction at which the forward flux solution is sampled. Although currently implemented for eigenvalue calculations in multigroup mode in KENO, this technique is directly applicable to continuous-energy calculations for many other responses such as fixed-source sensitivity analysis and quantification of reactor kinetics parameters. This paper provides the physical bases of eigenvalue contributon theory, provides details of implementation into TSUNAMI-3D, and provides results of sample calculations.

  2. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  4. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  5. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  6. Inversion of H/V in layered media from seismic ambient noise based on the diffuse field theory and on improved calculation of Green functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    The microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR) is widely used to assess the dominant frequency of soil sites. Measurements are relatively simple as only one station is needed. It has been recently proposed a theoretical basis linking ambient noise vibrations with diffuse field theory. In this theory the directional energy density computed as the average spectral density of motion at a point, is proportional to the imaginary part of Green function at the observation point. Appropriate normalization is crucial to make the experimental spectral ratios closer to the theoretical counterpart. According to this theory the square of H/V is twice the ratio ImG11 / ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively. In order to efficiently compute the imaginary part of Green's functions in a layered medium we start from an integral on the complex k plane and, using Harkrider's nomenclature, separate formulae for body-, Rayleigh-, and Love-wave components to the spectral densities are obtained. Then the poles allow for integration using the Cauchy residue theorem plus some contributions from branch integrals. It is possible to isolate pseudo reflections from ImG11 and thus constrain the inversion of soil profile. We assess ImG11 removing the influence of illumination spectrum using the H/V spectral ratio and an estimate of ImG33 (from an a priori model) by means of ImG11=0.5(H/V )2*ImG33. It has been found that ImG33 is less sensitive to details of stratigraphy. In fact, the Poisson ratio of the uppermost layer controls the slope in high frequency. With the obtained model ImG33 can be updated and the estimate of ImG11 will be improved. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712, by the MINECO research project CGL2010-16250, Spain, by the EU with FEDER, and the AXA Research Fund.

  7. Correlation of nuclear criticality safety computer codes with plutonium benchmark experiments and derivation of subcritical limits. [MGBS, TGAN, KEFF, HRXN, GLASS, ANISN, SPBL, and KENO

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H.K.

    1981-10-01

    A compilation of benchmark critical experiments was made for essentially one-dimensional systems containing plutonium. The systems consist of spheres, series of experiments with cylinders and cuboids that permit extrapolation to infinite cylinders and slabs, and large cylinders for which separability of the neutron flux into a product of spatial components is a good approximation. Data from the experiments were placed in a form readily usable as computer code input. Aqueous solutions of Pu(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ are treated as solutions of PuO/sub 2/ in nitric acid. The apparent molal volume of PuO/sub 2/ as a function of plutonium concentration was derived from analyses of solution density data and was incorporated in the Savannah River Laboratory computer codes along with density tables for nitric acid. The biases of three methods of calculation were established by correlation with the benchmark experiments. The oldest method involves two-group diffusion theory and has been used extensively at the Savannah River Laboratory. The other two involve S/sub n/ transport theory with, in one method, Hansen-Roach cross sections and, in the other, cross sections derived from ENDF/B-IV. Subcritical limits were calculated by all three methods. Significant differences were found among the results and between the results and limits currently in the American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactor (ANSI N16.1), which were calculated by yet another method, despite the normalization of all four methods to the same experimental data. The differences were studied, and a set of subcritical limits was proposed to supplement and in some cases to replace those in the ANSI Standard, which is currently being reviewed.

  8. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  9. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  10. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion, Part II: Kinematic and dynamic modeling using theoretical Green's functions and comparison with the 1994 northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Liu, P.-C.; Fisk, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    In the evolution of methods for calculating synthetic time histories of ground motion for postulated earthquakes, kinematic source models have dominated to date because of their ease of application. Dynamic models, however, which incorporate a physical relationship between important faulting parameters of stress drop, slip, rupture velocity, and rise time, are becoming more accessible. This article compares a class of kinematic models based on the summation of a fractal distribution of subevent sizes with a dynamic model based on the slip-weakening friction law. Kinematic modeling is done for the frequency band 0.2 to 10.0. Hz, dynamic models are calculated from 0.2 to 2.0. Hz. The strong motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake is used to evaluate and compare the synthetic time histories. Source models are propagated to the far field by convolution with 1D and 3D theoretical Green’s functions. In addition, the kinematic model is used to evaluate the importance of propagation path effects: velocity structure, scattering, and nonlinearity. At present, the kinematic model gives a better broadband fit to the Northridge ground motion than the simple slip-weakening dynamic model. In general, the dynamic model overpredicts rise times and produces insufficient shorter-period energy. Within the context of the slip-weakening model, the Northridge ground motion requires a short slip-weakening distance, on the order of 0.15 m or less. A more complex dynamic model including rate weakening or one that allows shorter rise times near the hypocenter may fit the data better.

  11. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  12. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  13. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  14. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  15. Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Laville, Cedric; Dyrda, James; Mennerdahl, Dennis; Golovko, Yury; Raskach, Kirill; Tsiboulia, Anatoly; Lee, Gil Soo; Woo, Sweng-Woong; Bidaud, Adrien; Patel, Amrit; Bledsoe, Keith C; Rearden, Bradley T; Gulliford, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

  16. The Green of Green Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, Lawrie; Sheard, Fred

    2003-12-01

    In 1828, an English miller from Nottingham published a mathematical essay that generated little response. George Green's analysis, however, has since found applications in areas ranging from classical electrostatics to modern quantum field theory.

  17. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  18. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  19. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  20. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  1. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  2. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  3. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  4. Monte Carlo calculations of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear many-body calculations have the complication of strong spin- and isospin-dependent potentials. In these lectures the author discusses the variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo techniques that have been developed to address this complication, and presents a few results.

  5. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  6. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  7. Methodology of full-core Monte Carlo calculations with leakage parameter evaluations for benchmark critical experiment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sboev, A. G.; Ilyashenko, A. S.; Vetrova, O. A.

    1997-02-01

    The method of bucking evaluation, realized in the MOnte Carlo code MCS, is described. This method was applied for calculational analysis of well known light water experiments TRX-1 and TRX-2. The analysis of this comparison shows, that there is no coincidence between Monte Carlo calculations, obtained by different ways: the MCS calculations with given experimental bucklings; the MCS calculations with given bucklings evaluated on base of full core MCS direct simulations; the full core MCNP and MCS direct simulations; the MCNP and MCS calculations, where the results of cell calculations are corrected by the coefficients taking into the account the leakage from the core. Also the buckling values evaluated by full core MCS calculations have differed from experimental ones, especially in the case of TRX-1, when this difference has corresponded to 0.5 percent increase of Keff value.

  8. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  9. Core Calculation of 1 MWatt PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) using Monte Carlo MVP Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Julia Abdul

    2008-05-20

    The Monte Carlo MVP code system was adopted for the Reaktor TRIGA PUSAPTI (RTP) core calculation. The code was developed by a group of researcher of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) first in 1994. MVP is a general multi-purpose Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport calculation and able to estimate an accurate simulation problems. The code calculation is based on the continuous energy method. This code is capable of adopting an accurate physics model, geometry description and variance reduction technique faster than conventional method as compared to the conventional scalar method. This code could achieve higher computational speed by several factors on the vector super-computer. In this calculation, RTP core was modeled as close as possible to the real core and results of keff flux, fission densities and others were obtained.

  10. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  12. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  13. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  14. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  15. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  16. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  17. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  18. Convergence rate for numerical computation of the lattice Green's function.

    PubMed

    Ghazisaeidi, M; Trinkle, D R

    2009-03-01

    Flexible boundary-condition methods couple an isolated defect to bulk through the bulk lattice Green's function. Direct computation of the lattice Green's function requires projecting out the singular subspace of uniform displacements and forces for the infinite lattice. We calculate the convergence rates for elastically isotropic and anisotropic cases for three different techniques: relative displacement, elastic Green's function correction, and discontinuity correction. The discontinuity correction has the most rapid convergence for the general case. PMID:19392089

  19. Criticality calculations with MCNP{sup TM}: A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Mendius, P.W.; Harmon, C.D. II; Busch, R.D.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Forster, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this Primer is to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst to perform computer calculations using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Because of the closure of many experimental facilities, reliance on computer simulation is increasing. Often the analyst has little experience with specific codes available at his/her facility. This Primer helps the analyst understand and use the MCNP Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality analyses. It assumes no knowledge of or particular experience with Monte Carlo codes in general or with MCNP in particular. The document begins with a Quickstart chapter that introduces the basic concepts of using MCNP. The following chapters expand on those ideas, presenting a range of problems from simple cylinders to 3-dimensional lattices for calculating keff confidence intervals. Input files and results for all problems are included. The Primer can be used alone, but its best use is in conjunction with the MCNP4A manual. After completing the Primer, a criticality analyst should be capable of performing and understanding a majority of the calculations that will arise in the field of nuclear criticality safety.

  20. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  1. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In order to popularize scientific knowledge of…

  2. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2011-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. Service learning, a research-based teaching pedagogy, provides a flexible framework for integrating green concepts across interdisciplinary content areas.…

  3. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  4. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  5. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health. PMID:26231502

  6. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada High School…

  7. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  8. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2012-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. School communities that keep greening the school on the periphery of their awareness will reap advantages, but those that align this idea with the…

  9. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  10. LIGHTWEIGHT GREEN ROOF SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Applying a Lightweight Green Roof System to a building can achieve in managing storm water runoff, decreasing heat gain, yielding energy savings, and mitigating the heat island effect. Currently, Most green roof systems are considerably heavy and require structural reinforceme...

  11. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  12. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  13. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  14. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line. PMID:16770900

  15. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  16. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  17. Green's function of a free massive scalar field on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Borasoy, B.; Krebs, H.

    2005-09-01

    We propose a method to calculate the Green's function of a free massive scalar field on the lattice numerically to very high precision. For masses m<2 (in lattice units) the massive Green's function can be expressed recursively in terms of the massless Green's function and just two additional mass-independent constants.

  18. MEMS Calculator

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  19. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  20. Shanghai urban green landscape model system based on MapServer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Jianxun; Shi, Beiqi; Shen, Di; Yao, Weiqin

    2008-10-01

    Based on RS and GIS, the 2003a's aerial image data of Shanghai is taken as data source. According to the urban green landscape theory, the green landscapes are well classified to park, street green landscape, affiliation green landscape, inhabited green landscape, production green landscape and defending green landscape, et al. Several spatio-temporal models including the space expansion models and ecological analyzing models for urban green landscape have been constructed and calculated. Then, based on the ORDBMS platform PostgreSQL and OGIS MapServer, the urban green landscape database including the above six types green landscapes spatial data and model system of Shanghai have been developed. At last, using the powerful statistics analysis function of the model system, this paper discusses and reveals the impacts of urban space development on green landscape pattern, structure and function. At the same time, the general distribution characteristics of green landscape pattern have been researched at three levels such as green patch level, type level and mosaics structure of different green landscapes. The urban green landscapes model system of Shanghai based on MapServer provides a powerful interactive and perfect platform for governments to make urban planning decisions and landscape study.

  1. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  2. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  3. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2010-01-08

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing?everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  4. No More Green Thumbs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  5. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  6. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2013-04-19

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing?everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  7. Phytochrome from green plants:

    SciTech Connect

    Quail, P.H.

    1988-03-01

    This research has been directed toward characterizing and purifying the molecular species of phytochrome detected in green Avena tissue. We have found major differences between the phytochrome extracted from green and from etiolated tissue as regards immunochemial and spectral properties. In addition, we have established: (a) that the predominant ()approximately)80% of total) phytochrome polypeptide in green tissue has a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 118,000;(b) that the proteolytic peptide map of this 118,000-Mr species differs considerably from that of 124,000-Mr phytochrome from etiolated tissue;(c) that the green-tissue, 118,000-Mr polypeptide carries only one of three spatially separate epitopes that are present on etiolated-tissue phytochrome (i.e., an epitope in the carboxy-terminal domain recognized by Type 3 monoclonal antibodies);(d) that the minor phytochrome species in green tissue ()approximately)20% of total) resembles that in etiolated tissue in that it is 124,000-Mr and is immunoprecipitable with polyclonal, anti-etiolated-oat-phytochrome antibodies, thereby accounting for the previously observed limited population of immunoprecipitable activity in green extracts;and (e) that the 118,000-Mr green-tissue molecule migrates on non-denaturing size exclusionchromatography as a )approximately)320 kDa entity, suggesting a quaternary structure similar to etiolated tissue 124,000-Mr phytochrome. A new purification protocol that enriches the green-tissue phytochrome )approximately)200-fold has been developed. The preparations obtained in this way are apparently free of residual endogenous proteolytic activity. We have examined the regulation of the level of the 118,000-MR species during seedling developement and have obtained evidence that the abundance of this species is not modulated by light, in contrast to its etiolated-tissue counterpart. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Understanding Green Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  9. Green-Kubo Modal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Asegun

    A new method for direct calculation of the modal contributions to thermal conductivity, which is termed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) will be presented. The GKMA method combines the lattice dynamics formalism with the Green-Kubo formula for thermal conductivity, such that the thermal conductivity becomes a direct summation of modal contributions, where one need not define the phonon velocity. As a result, the GKMA method can be applied to any material/group of atoms, where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium positions, which includes crystalline line compounds, non-stoichiometric compounds, random alloys, amorphous materials and even rigid molecules. By using molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the time history of each mode's contribution to the heat current, one naturally includes anharmonicity to full order and can obtain insight into the interactions between different modes through the cross-correlations. Several example materials will be discussed and the specific attention will be devoted to new fundamental questions that arise from the changes in mode character that occur in disordered systems. The GKMA method provides new insight into the nature of phonon transport, as it casts the problem in terms of mode-mode correlation instead of scattering, and provides a general unified formalism that can be used to understand phonon-phonon interactions in essentially any class of materials or structures where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium sites.

  10. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  11. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  12. WBGT Calculator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-05-22

    This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulatemore » the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.« less

  13. WBGT Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Charles H.

    2000-05-22

    This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulate the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.

  14. Validation of Criticality Safety Calculations with SCALE 6.2

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Rearden, Bradley T

    2013-01-01

    SCALE 6.2 provides numerous updates in nuclear data, nuclear data processing, and computational tools utilized in the criticality safety calculational sequences relative to SCALE 6.1. A new 252-group ENDF/B-VII.0 multigroup neutron library, improved ENDF/B-VII.0 continuous energy data, as well as the previously deployed 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron library are included in SCALE 6.2 for criticality safety analysis. The performance of all three libraries for keff calculations is examined with a broad sampling of critical experiment models covering a range of fuels and moderators. Critical experiments from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE) that are available in the SCALE Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) are used in this validation effort. Over 300 cases are used in the validation of KENO V.a, and a more limited set of approximately 50 configurations are used for KENO-VI validation. Additionally, some KENO V.a cases are converted to KENO-VI models so that an equivalent set of experiments can be used to validate both codes. For continuous-energy calculations, SCALE 6.2 provides improved performance relative to SCALE 6.1 in most areas with notable improvements in fuel pin lattice cases, particularly those with mixed oxide fuel. Multigroup calculations with the 252-group library also demonstrate improved performance for fuel lattices, uranium (high and intermediate enrichment) and plutonium metal experiments, and plutonium solution systems. Overall, SCALE 6.2 provides equivalent or smaller biases than SCALE 6.1, and the two versions of KENO provide similar results on the same suite of problems.

  15. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  16. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote challenge…

  17. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  18. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  19. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  20. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  1. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  2. Revisiting Lexington Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheurman, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and discusses different ways in which teachers using constructivist and other approaches might teach a lesson on the Lexington Green incident of April 1775. In that incident British soldiers opened fire on colonial farmers, killing eight of them. Includes excerpts from eyewitness documents and other background material. (MJP)

  3. Green Schools in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zuqiang

    2002-01-01

    Describes the establishment of Green Schools, facilitated environmental education (EE) in primary and middle schools in China, with different detailed criteria among the provinces. Suggests that the transformation from examination-based to quality-oriented education will provide greater opportunity for EE. Recommends strategies to foster Green…

  4. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  5. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  6. A green jobs primer.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Bracken; Light, Andrew; Goldstein, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The authors ask and answer four basic questions about green jobs and their effect on the economy: what are they, will they pay well, do they come at the cost of losses elsewhere in the economy, and do they result from luck in choosing technological "winners." PMID:19608522

  7. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  8. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  9. Greening the Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John E.

    1999-01-01

    People who work on campuses and make decisions are just beginning to recognize that the way their institution organizes itself and behaves constitutes a type of out-of-class curriculum. Efforts to "green" the campus must encompass all aspects of university life. Author offers guidelines to help bring institutions into compliance with the Talloires…

  10. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  11. Green light for curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    feodor, octavian.; garyjahns

    2015-09-01

    In reply to Pete Lawrence's article “The green flash” (Features, July pp30-31, http://ow.ly/Ph0Ws), which described the science behind this rare atmospheric phenomenon and the author's efforts to experience it in person.

  12. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  13. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  14. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  15. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  16. "Green" School Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    What are "Green School" programs and how do they benefit students, teachers and the community? Green School programs seek to weave concepts of sustainability and environmental awareness into the social and academic culture of the school community. Green schools are high performance facilities that have been designed, built, renovated operated or…

  17. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  18. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  19. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007 cost study by the…

  20. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  1. Hydrological Modelling and Parameter Identification for Green Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, W.; Tung, C.

    2012-12-01

    Green roofs, a multilayered system covered by plants, can be used to replace traditional concrete roofs as one of various measures to mitigate the increasing stormwater runoff in the urban environment. Moreover, facing the high uncertainty of the climate change, the present engineering method as adaptation may be regarded as improper measurements; reversely, green roofs are unregretful and flexible, and thus are rather important and suitable. The related technology has been developed for several years and the researches evaluating the stormwater reduction performance of green roofs are ongoing prosperously. Many European counties, cities in the U.S., and other local governments incorporate green roof into the stormwater control policy. Therefore, in terms of stormwater management, it is necessary to develop a robust hydrologic model to quantify the efficacy of green roofs over different types of designs and environmental conditions. In this research, a physical based hydrologic model is proposed to simulate water flowing process in the green roof system. In particular, the model adopts the concept of water balance, bringing a relatively simple and intuitive idea. Also, the research compares the two methods in the surface water balance calculation. One is based on Green-Ampt equation, and the other is under the SCS curve number calculation. A green roof experiment is designed to collect weather data and water discharge. Then, the proposed model is verified with these observed data; furthermore, the parameters using in the model are calibrated to find appropriate values in the green roof hydrologic simulation. This research proposes a simple physical based hydrologic model and the measures to determine parameters for the model.

  2. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building. PMID:22043731

  3. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013). PMID:26675876

  4. The greening of synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kintisch, E.

    2008-04-15

    Synfuels emit less carbon dioxide than oil and even reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. For making synfuels green is by using large amounts of plant biomass along with coal and storing in the ground the CO{sub 2} emitted during the production of synfuels. The process of making synfuel is by turning coal into gas, which creates carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The resulting syngas is converted into diesel fuel, jet fuel, or chemical feedstock.

  5. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  6. Underwater green laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozioł, Paweł; Wąż, Adam T.; Sotor, Jarosław Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Paweł R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

  7. Floquet Green function formalism for harmonically driven Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, D. F.

    2003-09-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of the Floquet-Green function of a general Hamiltonian with harmonic time dependence. We use matrix continued fractions to derive an expression for the 'dynamical effective potential' that can be used to calculate the Floquet-Green function of the system. We demonstrate the formalism for the simple case of a space-periodic (in the tight-binding approximation) Hamiltonian with a defect whose on-site energy changes harmonically with time. We study the local density of states for this system and the behaviour of the localized states as a function of the different parameters that characterize the system.

  8. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  9. Dynamics of chloroplast genomes in green plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Qiuxiang; Hu, Wangxiong; Wang, Tingzhang; Xue, Qingzhong; Messing, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Chloroplasts are essential organelles, in which genes have widely been used in the phylogenetic analysis of green plants. Here, we took advantage of the breadth of plastid genomes (cpDNAs) sequenced species to investigate their dynamic changes. Our study showed that gene rearrangements occurred more frequently in the cpDNAs of green algae than in land plants. Phylogenetic trees were generated using 55 conserved protein-coding genes including 33 genes for photosynthesis, 16 ribosomal protein genes and 6 other genes, which supported the monophyletic evolution of vascular plants, land plants, seed plants, and angiosperms. Moreover, we could show that seed plants were more closely related to bryophytes rather than pteridophytes. Furthermore, the substitution rate for cpDNA genes was calculated to be 3.3×10(-10), which was almost 10 times lower than genes of nuclear genomes, probably because of the plastid homologous recombination machinery. PMID:26206079

  10. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  11. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed. PMID:26076112

  12. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  13. The trashing of Big Green

    SciTech Connect

    Felten, E.

    1990-11-26

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature.

  14. Green light in photomorphogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhnich, Stefanie Anne

    Light quality, quantity, and duration provide essential environmental cues that shape plant growth and development. Over the last century, researchers have worked to discover how plants sense, integrate, and respond to red, blue, and far-red light. Green light is often considered a “benign” wavelength with little to no effect in plant development. However, sparse experiments in the literature demonstrate that green effects are often counterintuitive to normal light responses and oppose red- and blue-light-induced responses. Green light effects on plant growth and development are described here through the use of custom, tunable LED, light-emitting diode, chambers. These light sources allow for specific light qualities and quantities to be administered. The effects of green wavebands were assessed when red and blue photomorphogenic systems were active to answer the question: Are the effects of an inhibitor (green light) more evident in the presence of inducers (red and blue light)? In seedlings, supplemental green light increased hypocotyl elongation opposite to classical inhibition of hypocotyl elongation associated with growth in light and induced by red and blue wavebands. Results indicate that added green light induced a reversion of light-grown phenotypes. In mature plants, supplemental green light induced phenotypes typical of the shade-avoidance syndrome, including elongated petioles, smaller leaf areas, and leaf hyponasty. These responses are typical of lower-light conditions or far-red enriched environments. Contrary to far-red-light-induced shade-avoidance, data indicate green delays flowering. In Arabidopsis and strawberry plants, anthocyanin levels also decreased when green light was added to red and blue light treatments, which is again opposite to normal light-induced phenotypes. Photoreceptor mutants were tested and indicate green light effects in early development are cryptochromedependent. However, green-light-induced shade-avoidance responses

  15. The Green's function for the three-dimensional linear Boltzmann equation via Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Manabu

    2016-04-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation with constant coefficients in the three-dimensional infinite space is revisited. It is known that the Green's function can be calculated via the Fourier transform in the case of isotropic scattering. In this paper, we show that the three-dimensional Green's function can be computed with the Fourier transform even in the case of arbitrary anisotropic scattering.

  16. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  17. Can Growth Be Green?

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. PMID:26077854

  18. Green(ing) English: Voices Howling in the Wilderness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively new fields of ecocriticism in literary studies and ecocomposition in rhetoric and composition studies provide a usable foundation for those interested in green(ing) English. Nevertheless, even suggesting that interest in the environment within English studies is a relatively new concern is somewhat misleading. Contemplation of…

  19. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green....

  1. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer branches on the stalk are generally green to light green color....

  2. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green....

  3. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer branches on the stalk are generally green to light green color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture...

  4. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  5. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule for three teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the..., Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of...

  6. 77 FR 66616 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...: Introductions & plans for today's meeting. Green Building Certification System Review update. Facilities... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule and agenda for the November 27, 2012, meeting of the Green Building...

  7. Nonstandard formulation of perturbation theory for Green's function

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, M.N.; Tagiev, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Perturbation theory is developed for two-variable Green's functions (GF) when the initial GF is linked simultaneously to several higher-order GF. The total mass operator of the initial GF is obtained mathematically correctly in a form convenient for use. As an example of the application of this method, the mass operator of a nuclear spin anticommutator GF is calculated.

  8. Mathematical simulation of photophobic responses in blue-green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Hader, D.P.; Burkart, U.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model is described to simulate photophobic reversal of blue-green algae. The model is based on electrical potential changes within the cells, which are treated as separate compartments. The updating of potentials is accomplished through iterative calculation of recurrence equations, permitting easy programming for computer calculation. The influence of a number of conditions on photophobic reversal has been studied, and the predictions of the model have been verified by experiments with the living organisms.

  9. Recent developments of green tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Si-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Green tribology is a new field of great interest to a large number of tribologists. This article reviews the latest advances in this area including energy conservation, emission reduction, super-low friction and super-low wear, wind turbines, smart coatings, and fundamentals. Moreover, an overview of the future development of green tribology is also presented.

  10. Lighting Demands in Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie

    2011-01-01

    Growing up in a more eco-conscious world, incoming students are more savvy about "greening" the world around them. A decade ago, green college campuses were those that offered recycling bins in residence halls. Now education institutions are integrating sustainability efforts into as many aspects of their campus operations as possible. And that…

  11. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  12. Green tea and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  13. Green as the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Lured by the recognition that comes with a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating from the U.S. Green Building Council, many schools and universities have become aware of that certification process. But for years, the involvement was limited to a few trendsetters; according to the Green Building Council's database, only about…

  14. Green from the inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seydel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    "Green school" is an umbrella term that covers a number of educational approaches, such as environment-based curricula, environment-integrated curricula, education for sustainability, and education for sustainable development. Green schools enrich the traditional secondary curriculum by relating it to practical issues of environmental…

  15. Savvy Schools Are Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the green phenomenon is spreading, especially among schools, which have found that not only are they being environmentally friendly, they are also saving big money. Green buildings focus on efficiency and renewable energy, water stewardship, environmentally preferable building materials and specifications, waste…

  16. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  17. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  18. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  19. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  20. Habitat goes green

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.; Smith, M.

    1999-12-01

    A Denver family enjoys the financial and personal benefits of owning an affordable, energy-efficient home. On Earth Day, April 22, 1997, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver witnessed the realization of a dream. As Luis and Estella Valadez and their four children cut the ribbon on their 1,100 square foot (102 m{sup 2}) northwest Denver home, it signified the completion of the Denver Habitat affiliate's first ``Green'' home. Building this dream involved developing a plan to build affordable Habitat homes that also embodied a sense of stewardship of the Earth's environment. The affiliate also wanted to use this effort to achieve the additional goal of reducing the homeowner's utility and maintenance bills.

  1. USING GREEN CHEMISTRY TO INFLUENCE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry by Anastas and Warner provide the researcher with a foundation or pathway which allows opportunities to incorporate greenness into an existing reaction or when developing alternative technologies. The twelve additional principles of green ...

  2. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  3. The stay-green trait.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Howard; Ougham, Helen

    2014-07-01

    Stay-green (sometimes staygreen) refers to the heritable delayed foliar senescence character in model and crop plant species. In a cosmetic stay-green, a lesion interferes with an early step in chlorophyll catabolism. The possible contribution of synthesis to chlorophyll turnover in cosmetic stay-greens is considered. In functional stay-greens, the transition from the carbon capture period to the nitrogen mobilization (senescence) phase of canopy development is delayed, and/or the senescence syndrome proceeds slowly. Yield and composition in high-carbon (C) crops such as cereals, and in high-nitrogen (N) species such as legumes, reflect the source-sink relationship with canopy C capture and N remobilization. Quantitative trait loci studies show that functional stay-green is a valuable trait for improving crop stress tolerance, and is associated with the domestication syndrome in cereals. Stay-green variants reveal how autumnal senescence and dormancy are coordinated in trees. The stay-green phenotype can be the result of alterations in hormone metabolism and signalling, particularly affecting networks involving cytokinins and ethylene. Members of the WRKY and NAC families, and an ever-expanding cast of additional senescence-associated transcription factors, are identifiable by mutations that result in stay-green. Empirical selection for functional stay-green has contributed to increasing crop yields, particularly where it is part of a strategy that also targets other traits such as sink capacity and environmental sensitivity and is associated with appropriate crop management methodology. The onset and progress of senescence are phenological metrics that show climate change sensitivity, indicating that understanding stay-green can contribute to the design of appropriate crop types for future environments. PMID:24600017

  4. Fully relativistic multiple scattering calculations for general potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, H.; Braun, J.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Mankovsky, S.

    2016-02-01

    The formal basis for fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) or multiple scattering calculations for the electronic Green function in case of a general potential is discussed. Simple criteria are given to identify situations that require to distinguish between right- and left-hand-side solutions to the Dirac equation when setting up the electronic Green function. In addition, various technical aspects of an implementation of the relativistic KKR for general local and nonlocal potentials will be discussed.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.

    1998-12-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations using realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions are presented for nuclei with up to eight nucleons. We have computed the ground and a few excited states of all such nuclei with Greens function Monte Carlo (GFMC) and all of the experimentally known excited states using variational Monte Carlo (VMC). The GFMC calculations show that for a given Hamiltonian, the VMC calculations of excitation spectra are reliable, but the VMC ground-state energies are significantly above the exact values. We find that the Hamiltonian we are using (which was developed based on {sup 3}H,{sup 4}He, and nuclear matter calculations) underpredicts the binding energy of p-shell nuclei. However our results for excitation spectra are very good and one can see both shell-model and collective spectra resulting from fundamental many-nucleon calculations. Possible improvements in the three-nucleon potential are also be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, Steven C.

    1998-12-21

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations using realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions are presented for nuclei with up to eight nucleons. We have computed the ground and a few excited states of all such nuclei with Greens function Monte Carlo (GFMC) and all of the experimentally known excited states using variational Monte Carlo (VMC). The GFMC calculations show that for a given Hamiltonian, the VMC calculations of excitation spectra are reliable, but the VMC ground-state energies are significantly above the exact values. We find that the Hamiltonian we are using (which was developed based on {sup 3}H,{sup 4}He, and nuclear matter calculations) underpredicts the binding energy of p-shell nuclei. However our results for excitation spectra are very good and one can see both shell-model and collective spectra resulting from fundamental many-nucleon calculations. Possible improvements in the three-nucleon potential are also be discussed.

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei.

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S. C.

    1998-08-25

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations using realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions are presented for nuclei with up to eight nucleons. We have computed the ground and a few excited states of all such nuclei with Greens function Monte Carlo (GFMC) and all of the experimentally known excited states using variational Monte Carlo (VMC). The GFMC calculations show that for a given Hamiltonian, the VMC calculations of excitation spectra are reliable, but the VMC ground-state energies are significantly above the exact values. We find that the Hamiltonian we are using (which was developed based on {sup 3}H, {sup 4}He, and nuclear matter calculations) underpredicts the binding energy of p-shell nuclei. However our results for excitation spectra are very good and one can see both shell-model and collective spectra resulting from fundamental many-nucleon calculations. Possible improvements in the three-nucleon potential are also be discussed.

  8. Dirac Green function for angular projection potentials.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it is shown that the angular dependence of the Dirac Green function can be described analytically for potentials with non-local dependence on the angular variables if they are chosen as projection potentials in angular momentum space. Because the local dependence on the radial variable can be treated to any precision with present computing capabilities, this means that the Green function can be calculated practically exactly. Second, it is shown that a result of this kind not only holds for a single angular projection potential but also more generally, for instance if space is divided into non-overlapping cells and a separate angular projection potential is used in each cell. This opens the way for relativistic density-functional calculations within a different perspective than the conventional one. Instead of trying to obtain the density for a given potential approximately as well as possible, the density is determined exactly for non-local potentials which can approximate arbitrary local potentials as well as desired. PMID:26523824

  9. Dirac Green function for angular projection potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it is shown that the angular dependence of the Dirac Green function can be described analytically for potentials with non-local dependence on the angular variables if they are chosen as projection potentials in angular momentum space. Because the local dependence on the radial variable can be treated to any precision with present computing capabilities, this means that the Green function can be calculated practically exactly. Second, it is shown that a result of this kind not only holds for a single angular projection potential but also more generally, for instance if space is divided into non-overlapping cells and a separate angular projection potential is used in each cell. This opens the way for relativistic density-functional calculations within a different perspective than the conventional one. Instead of trying to obtain the density for a given potential approximately as well as possible, the density is determined exactly for non-local potentials which can approximate arbitrary local potentials as well as desired.

  10. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  11. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  12. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis, (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability, (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies, (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health, and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density (BMD) and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities. PMID:19700031

  13. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  14. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. PMID:27209347

  15. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research. PMID:24071694

  16. Cecil Green receives Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Frank; Green, Cecil

    The Waldo E. Smith Medal, which is awarded for extraordinary service to geophysics, was presented to Cecil H. Green at the 1994 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on December 7, 1994 in San Francisco. The award citation and Green's response are given here.“It would take a book to do justice to Cecil Green's extraordinary contributions to the geophysics and electronics industries, to the training of scientists, physicians, and engineers, and to strengthening education and research institutions. In fact, such a book has been written about Cecil's multiple lives as engineer, geophysicist, cofounder of Texas Instruments, and partner with his wife, Ida, in international philanthropy.

  17. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  18. Gore proposes green strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    A national environmental technology strategy laying out incentives for developing and using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technology was announced last week by Vice President Al Gore. The plan proposes a national goal of cutting waste 40%-50% and using 20%-25% less materials/unit of gross domestic product by Earth Day 2020. To meet that goal, the federal government aims to streamline environmental permitting, provide federal sites where US firms can test and demonstrate new technologies, create flexible regulation that encourages efficient and effective technologies, encourage research on pollution prevention, and improve monitoring data and information systems. The Administration says environmental technology is providing job growth twice that of the economy as a whole, and global markets are expected to rise from $300 billion to $500 billion by 2000. It adds that the US is the world market leader but only by a slim- and slipping-margin. Whereas previous federal support for environmental technologies focused on the front end of R&D and prototyping, the new strategy aims to bring technologies to market and encourage exports, according to the Administration`s National Commission for Employment Policy, which issued two reports last week. The commission says federal environmental policies now produce 68,000-80,000 jobs and contribute $3.5 billion-$3.7 billion to the economy.

  19. Interferometric seismoelectric Green's function representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, Sjoerd A. L.; Slob, Evert; Wapenaar, Kees

    2009-09-01

    Interferometric Green's function representations can be used to retrieve a Green's function between two receiver stations, effectively turning one receiver into a source. Through reciprocity theorems of the convolution and correlation types, we derive interferometric Green's function representations for coupled electromagnetic and seismic wave propagation in 1-D. These representations express a symmetrized Green's function in terms of correlations of sources distributed throughout the domain of reciprocity and on its boundary. The main challenge for practical implementation is the necessity of sources throughout a domain. Numerical examples show how this constraint can be relaxed for different configurations. In a configuration of two layers bounded by a vacuum, seismic noise sources behind the interface can be used to recover seismoelectric reflection responses that suffer from small amplitude losses, but are not corrupted by spurious events.

  20. Green Building and School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  1. A blueprint for green marketing.

    PubMed

    Davis, J J

    1991-01-01

    Companies have rushed to market environmentally acceptable products. But according to the author, many have ignored the planning considerations that should have preceded the development and promotion of these "green" products. PMID:10112307

  2. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  3. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  4. Movie Trailer: 'Romancing the Green'

    NASA Video Gallery

    The research and development by NASA Aeronautics of next generation "green" technologies and systems are highlighted in this parody of a "coming attraction" trailer produced by NASA Television. The...

  5. USPS – Lean Green Teams

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-01

    Institutional change case study details the U.S. Postal Service's Lean Green Teams, which collaborate across functions to identify and implement low- and no-cost ways to conserve natural resources, purchase fewer consumable products, and reduce waste.

  6. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as green. (See Rule 19.)...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2274 Section 29.2274 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green. (See Rule 18.)...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2274 Section 29.2274 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2274 Section 29.2274 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as green. (See Rule 19.)...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as green. (See Rule 19.)...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green. (See Rule 18.)...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green. (See Rule 18.)...

  15. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in…

  16. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be…

  17. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-08-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  18. Improved mixed oxide fuel calculations with the evaluated nuclear data library JEFF-3.2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Noguere, G.; Bernard, D.; Blaise, P.; Bouland, O.; Leal, Luiz C.; Leconte, P.; Litaize, O.; Peneliau, Y.; Roque, B.; Santamarina, A.; et al

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an overestimation of the keff values for mixed oxide (MOX) fuels was identified with Monte Carlo (TRIPOLI-4) and deterministic (APOLLO2) calculations based on the Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) evaluated nuclear data library. The overestimation becomes sizeable with Pit aging, reaching a reactivity change of Delta(p)similar or equal to+700 pcm for integral measurements carried out with MOX fuel containing a large amount of americium. This bias was observed for various critical configurations performed in the zero power reactor EOLE of the Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA), Cadarache, France. The present work focusesmore » on the improvements achieved with the new 239PU and 241Am evaluated nuclear data files available in the latest version of the JEFF library (JEFF-3.2). The resolved resonance range of the plutonium evaluation was reevaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the Ski/NH code in collaboration with CEA Cadarache. The resonance parameters of the americium evaluation were obtained with the REFIT code in collaboration with the research institutes Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements aRmm, Geel, Belgium, and Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l'Univers ofio, Saclay, France.« less

  19. Four-point Green functions in the Schwinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radożycki, Tomasz; Namysłowski, Józef M.

    1999-03-01

    The evaluation of the four-point Green functions in the 1+1 Schwinger model is presented both in momentum and coordinate space representations. The crucial role in our calculations is played by two Ward identities: (i) the standard one and (ii) the chiral one. We demonstrate how the infinite set of Dyson-Schwinger equations is simplified, and is so reduced that a given n-point Green function is expressed only through itself and lower ones. For the four-point Green function, with two bosonic and two fermionic external ``legs,'' a compact solution is given both in momentum and coordinate space representations. For the four-fermion Green function a self-consistent equation is written down in the momentum representation and a concrete solution is given in the coordinate space. This exact solution is further analyzed and we show that it contains a pole corresponding to the Schwinger boson. All detailed considerations given for various four-point Green functions are easily generizable to higher functions.

  20. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  1. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  2. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  3. GREEN'S FUNCTIONS OF VORTEX OPERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph

    1980-08-01

    We study the Euclidean Green's functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarily for Abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral, We explore the requirement that the Green's functions depend only on the boundary of this surface, The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise, We present a two dimensional ''solvable model" of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green's functions of the Abelian Wilson loop and Abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case. an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green's functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green's functions of the Wilson and vortex operators. for a general gauge theory. The surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an Abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail.

  4. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. Methods The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of “greenness” i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. Results The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. Conclusions The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market. PMID:26206363

  5. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these calculators. Three…

  6. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  7. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery. PMID:22468603

  8. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:15928624

  9. Green Schools Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verdict, M.

    2000-09-27

    The Alliance to Save Energy has responded to interest in the Green Schools concept from the New England states of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont. The Alliance conducted a train-the-trainers workshop in Augusta, Maine March 17--18, 1999. This work is part of a Green Schools replication project leveraged by funds from another source, NORDAX, which contributed $80,000 to provide partial support to staff at the Maine Energy Education Project (MEEP), Vermont Energy Education Program (VEEP), and New Hampshire Governor's Office to develop Green Schools Projects. DOE funds were used to conduct training, develop a network of state and local government, business and school partners to support school efficiency activities in those three states.

  10. The Green function for the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutabia-Chéraitia, B.; Boudjedaa, T.

    2012-10-01

    We present a calculation of the Green function for the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation in the case of scalar and vectorial particles interacting with a square barrier potential, and relate it to that of the Klein-Gordon equation. A formal Hamiltonian of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory is first developed using the Feshbach-Villars analogy and the Sakata and Taketani decomposition. The coefficients of reflection and transmission are deduced.

  11. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  12. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  13. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: a case study in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenqi; Wu, Tinghai; Zhang, Chengguo; Yu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. PMID:21444136

  14. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of spectroscopic overlaps in A{<=}7 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, I.; Pieper, Steven C.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2011-08-15

    We present Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of spectroscopic overlaps for A{<=}7 nuclei. The realistic Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon interactions are used to generate the nuclear states. The overlap matrix elements are extrapolated from mixed estimates between variational Monte Carlo and Green's function Monte Carlo wave functions. The overlap functions are used to obtain spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients, and they can serve as an input for reaction calculations.

  15. Calculation of the Local Neutronic Parameters for CANDU Fuel Bundles Using Transport Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Balaceanu, Victoria; Rizoiu, Andrei; Hristea, Viorel

    2006-07-01

    For a realistic neutronic evaluation of the CANDU reactor core it is important to accurately perform the local neutronic parameters (i.e. multigroup macroscopic cross sections for the core materials) calculation. This means using codes that allow a good geometric representation of the CANDU fuel bundle and then solving the transport equation. The paper reported here intends to study in detail the local behavior for two types of CANDU fuel, NU{sub 3}7 (Natural Uranium, 37 elements) and SEU{sub 4}3 (Slightly Enriched Uranium, 43 elements, with 1.1 wt% enrichment). The considered fuel types represent fresh and used bundles. The two types of CANDU super-cells are reference NU{sub 3}7, perturbed NU{sub 3}7, reference SEU{sub 4}3 and perturbed SEU{sub 4}3. The perturbed super-cells contain a Mechanical Control Absorber (a very strong reactivity device). For reaching the proposed objective a methodology is used based on WIMS and PIJXYZ codes. WIMS is a standard lattice-cell code, based on transport theory and it is used for producing fuel cell multigroup macroscopic cross sections. For obtaining the fine local neutronic parameters in the CANDU super-cells (k-eff values, local MCA reactivity worth, flux distributions and reaction rates), the PIJXYZ code is used. PIJXYZ is a 3D integral transport code using the first collision probability method and it has been developed for CANDU cell geometry. It is consistent with WIMS lattice-cell calculations and allows a good geometrical representation of the CANDU bundle in three dimensions. The analysis of the neutronic parameters consists of comparing the obtained results with the similar results calculated with the DRAGON code. This comparison shows a good agreement between these results. (authors)

  16. Relativistic Green's Functions in Full-Potential Multiple-Scattering Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Yang; Eisenbach, Markus; Stocks, G. Malcolm

    The Green's functions play a central role in MST based KKR method. Obtaining the Green's functions by solving the Dirac equation is appealing since it naturally incorporated the electron spin and the spin-orbit coupling effects. Here we implemented the full-potential relativistic KKR method using a technique called the sine and cosine matrices formalism. The charge density and the density of states of some pure element crystals have been calculated. Different expressions of the Green's functions have been investigated for numerical benefits.

  17. Nonequilibrium Green's function formulation of intersubband absorption for nonparabolic single-band effective mass Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Kolek, Andrzej

    2015-05-04

    The formulas are derived that enable calculations of intersubband absorption coefficient within nonequilibrium Green's function method applied to a single-band effective-mass Hamiltonian with the energy dependent effective mass. The derivation provides also the formulas for the virtual valence band components of the two-band Green's functions which can be used for more exact estimation of the density of states and electrons and more reliable treatment of electronic transport in unipolar n-type heterostructure semiconductor devices.

  18. Overcoming Obstacles to Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, green design has evolved from a cutting-edge idea embraced by ecology-obsessed activists to an idea embraced as a badge of honor by schools and universities across the nation. A consensus has formed among architects, school facility managers and educators that sustainably designed projects are desirable and make sense for the…

  19. EPA's Ongoing Green Infrastructure Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990's that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by the natural environm...

  20. Grow Your Green Campus Organically!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to environmental savvy, Delta College (Michigan) is like a lot of small institutions of higher education: It has a passel of green efforts underway, which could fall under all sorts of headings. The IT organization at the 11,000-student community college campus has virtualized its server operations and is on track to roll out a…

  1. The green beards of language.

    PubMed

    Lindenfors, Patrik

    2013-04-01

    Language transfers information on at least three levels; (1) what is said, (2) how it is said (what language is used), and, (3) that it is said (that speaker and listener both possess the ability to use language). The use of language is a form of honest cooperation on two of these levels; not necessarily on what is said, which can be deceitful, but always on how it is said and that it is said. This means that the language encoding and decoding systems had to evolve simultaneously, through mutual fitness benefits. Theoretical problems surrounding the evolution of cooperation disappear if a recognition system is present enabling cooperating individuals to identify each other - if they are equipped with "green beards". Here, I outline how both the biological and cultural aspects of language are bestowed with such recognition systems. The biological capacities required for language signal their presence through speech and understanding. This signaling cannot be invaded by "false green beards" because the traits and the signal of their presence are one and the same. However, the real usefulness of language comes from its potential to convey an infinite number of meanings through the dynamic handling of symbols - through language itself. But any specific language also signals its presence to others through usage and understanding. Thus, languages themselves cannot be invaded by "false green beards" because, again, the trait and the signal of its presence are one and the same. These twin green beards, in both the biological and cultural realms, are unique to language. PMID:23610647

  2. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  3. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  4. Harvesting "Green-Collar" Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Emerging in recent years from the need for increased energy efficiency and conservation, greater reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and stepped-up action to clean the environment, green jobs have arisen as a distinct employment sector within the U.S. and around the world. While social and political activists have taken the lead to make sure…

  5. OPTICAL HETEROGENEITY IN GREEN BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in light penetration and light attenuating components and processes are documented along 112 km of the major (NE/SW) axis of Green Bay (Lake Michigan) during a three-day cruise (May 25-27, 1982). easurements included diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance (kd),...

  6. Green fluorescent protein glows gold.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2008-12-12

    The awarding of this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Tsien for their discovery and development of green fluorescent protein earns this humble jellyfish protein a place of honor in the biology research hall of fame. PMID:19070562

  7. A Deeper Shade of Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2009-01-01

    For many schools, "Going Green" once meant turning out the lights after leaving the classroom, filling the recycle bins, and celebrating Earth Day. Not anymore. Although such activities remain staples of environmentally conscious school systems, that consciousness has exploded in an era of high energy prices, global warming threats, and…

  8. What Makes Green Schools Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Green energy represents a way to empower students by demonstrating creative problem-solving with an eye on protecting precious resources, both capital and natural. Many school districts have already taken the initiative during the past five years to implement energy projects, whether for the educational or economic opportunities, or both.…

  9. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  10. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  11. Green Fire and Religious Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluza-Delay, Randolph

    2000-01-01

    Spirituality, even within traditional religious practices, can inspire environmentally aware lifestyles. To help this "green fire" burn well, experiential educators should acknowledge religious beliefs and practices and avoid perpetuating the modern spiritual-secular rift. A "critical experientialism" is needed when it comes to considering…

  12. Green Team to the Rescue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeper, Lance S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers created an after-school club called The Green Team and implemented an instructional strategy know as service-learning to teach environmental science. This article describes the transformation that occurred over a three-year period and illustrates how service-learning can provide a framework for environmental education. (Contains 1 figure,…

  13. "Greening up" the Suzuki Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Chan, Elton; Edward, Amanda R.; Jarosz, Isabel; Lee, Vicki; Mui, Leo; Thatipamala, Sonya S.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rapid, green synthesis of a biaryl compound (4-phenylphenol) via a Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in water. Mild reaction conditions and operational simplicity makes this experiment especially amenable to both mid- and upper-level undergraduates. The methodology exposes students to purely aqueous…

  14. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  15. Energy Perspective: Is Hydroelectricity Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2009-01-01

    The current worldwide concern over energy is primarily related to imported oil, oil drilling and refining capacity, and transportation capacity. However, this concern has bolstered interest in a broader range of "green" energy technologies. In this article, the author discusses the use of hydroelectricity as an alternative energy source and…

  16. Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158888.html Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief Experimental light therapy finds ... headache pain, a narrow spectrum of low-intensity green light significantly reduced light sensitivity. In some cases, ...

  17. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

  18. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  19. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may...

  2. Calculators In Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Theresa

    1974-01-01

    Calculators are fast becoming accepted as needed household appliances. Certainly, children in school now will, as adults, look on calculators as being as necessary to everyday life as telephones. (Author)

  3. Personal Finance Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  4. Calculating drug doses.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Numeracy and calculation are key skills for nurses. As nurses are directly accountable for ensuring medicines are prescribed, dispensed and administered safely, they must be able to understand and calculate drug doses. PMID:27615351

  5. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green... government revenue foregone) not involving transfers from consumers; (2) Does not have the effect...

  6. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green... government revenue foregone) not involving transfers from consumers; (2) Does not have the effect...

  7. Circular on Joint Commendation of "Green Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the campaigns for "green schools". Since 1996, campaigns for "green schools" have been under way in all provinces, which has been a strong boost for national environmental education. To continue this campaign on a higher level, SEPA and the Ministry of Education decided to jointly extend commendation to a number of "green"…

  8. Greening a K-12 School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The author, who has retired as Scarsdale elementary principal, was asked by the superintendent Michael McGill if he was interested in leading Scarsdale's green initiative. Early on in Scarsdale, they referred to their work as the "green initiative." After agreeing to lead the initiative, he set out to learn more about greening at K-12 school…

  9. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  10. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  11. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  12. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124...

  13. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124...

  14. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124...

  16. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer...

  17. Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of ``green'' in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

  18. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any...

  20. An Approach towards Teaching Green Chemistry Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Arnum, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    A useful metrics system for the assessment of the environmental impact of chemical processes is utilized to illustrate several of the principles of green chemistry. The use of this metrics system in conjunction with laboratory experiments in green chemistry would provide for reinforcement in both the theory and practice of green chemistry.

  1. Teaching Teachers to Teach Green Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Ann Marie; Naraghi, Mohammad H.; Austin, Nicole; Helak, Sean; Manzer, Jarrod

    2006-01-01

    The work provides guidelines for instructors who wish to incorporate green engineering concepts into a typical non-green engineering course without diluting course content or modifying the course syllabus by identifying 5 critical elements necessary to the successful integration of green engineering concepts into any traditional, design-oriented,…

  2. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  3. 74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND THIRTEENTH STREETS, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION ON GREENE STREET 56/61 - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  4. Calculators, Computers, and Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Jon L.; Kirschner, Vicky

    Suggestions for using four-function calculators, programmable calculators, and microcomputers are considered in this collection of 36 articles. The first section contains articles considering general implications for mathematics curricula implied by the freedom calculators offer students from routine computation, enabling them to focus on results…

  5. Biogas - the calculable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  6. Formation spectra of pionic atoms in the Green's function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeno, Natsumi; Yamagata-Sekihara, Junko; Nagahiro, Hideko; Hirenzaki, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    We study the formation spectra of deeply bound pionic atoms in the (d, ^3He) reactions using the Green's function method, stimulated by recent developments in experimental techniques. The Green's function method is considered to be a better theoretical formalism than the effective number approach to evaluate the formation rate of unstable systems. We compare the calculated results by the Green's function method with those by the effective number approach in various cases. We find that the differences between the results obtained by both methods are reasonably small and we can reaffirm that the effective number approach is a good theoretical method for the analyses of the previous experimental data with typical binding-energy errors of Δ B.E. ≳ 20keV for the deeply bound pionic atoms. On the other hand, we think that theoretical results using the Green's function method will be necessary in the near future to deduce precise information on the pion properties in nuclei from analyses of the pionic atom data with better accuracy than before.

  7. The association between green space and depressive symptoms in pregnant women: moderating roles of socioeconomic status and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    McEachan, R R C; Prady, S L; Smith, G; Fairley, L; Cabieses, B; Gidlow, C; Wright, J; Dadvand, P; van Gent, D; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study explored the association between green space and depression in a deprived, multiethnic sample of pregnant women, and examined moderating and mediating variables. Method 7547 women recruited to the ‘Born in Bradford’ cohort completed a questionnaire during pregnancy. A binary measure of depressive symptoms was calculated using a validated survey. Two green space measures were used: quintiles of residential greenness calculated using the normalised difference vegetation index for three neighbourhood sizes (100, 300 and 500 m buffer zones around participant addresses); access to major green spaces estimated as straight line distance between participant address and nearest green space (>0.5 hectares). Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between green space and depressive symptoms, controlling for ethnicity, demographics, socioeconomic status (SES) and health behaviours. Multiplicative interactions explored variations by ethnic group, SES or activity levels. Mediation analysis assessed indirect effects via physical activity. Results Pregnant women in the greener quintiles were 18–23% less likely to report depressive symptoms than those in the least green quintile (for within 100 m of green space buffer zone). The green space-depressive symptoms association was significant for women with lower education or who were active. Physical activity partially mediated the association of green space, but explained only a small portion of the direct effect. Conclusions Higher residential greenness was associated with a reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms. Associations may be stronger for more disadvantaged groups and for those who are already physically active. Improving green space is a promising intervention to reduce risk of depression in disadvantaged groups. PMID:26560759

  8. How Do Calculators Calculate Trigonometric Functions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Jeremy M.; Edwards, Bruce H.

    How does your calculator quickly produce values of trigonometric functions? You might be surprised to learn that it does not use series or polynomial approximations, but rather the so-called CORDIC method. This paper will focus on the geometry of the CORDIC method, as originally developed by Volder in 1959. This algorithm is a wonderful…

  9. Urban greening impacts on tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, R.; Churkina, G.; Butler, T. M.; Morfopoulos, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cities are characterized by elevated air temperatures as well as high anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants. Cities' greening in form of urban parks, street trees, and vegetation on roofs and walls of buildings is supposed to generally mitigate negative impacts on human health and well-being. However, high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from certain popular urban plants in combination with the elevated concentrations of NOx have the potential to increase ground-level ozone concentrations - with negative impacts on health, agriculture, and climate. Policies targeting reduction of ground-level ozone in urban and suburban areas therefore must consider limiting BVOC emissions along with measures for decreasing NOx and VOC from anthropogenic sources. For this, integrated climate/ chemistry models are needed that take into account the species-specific physiological responses of urban plants which in turn drive their emission behavior. Current models of urban climate and air quality 1) do not account for the feedback between ozone concentrations, productivity, and BVOC emission and 2) do not distinguish different physiological properties of urban tree species. Instead environmental factors such as light, temperature, carbon dioxide, and water supply are applied disregarding interactions between such influences. Thus we may not yet be able to represent the impacts of air pollution under multiple changed conditions such as climate change, altered anthropogenic emission patterns, and new urban structures. We present here the implementation of the new BVOC emission model (Morfopolous et al., in press) that derives BVOC emissions directly from the electron production potential and consumption from photosynthesis calculation that is already supplied by the CLM land surface model. The new approach has the advantage that many environmental drivers of BVOC emissions are implicitly considered in the description of plant photosynthesis and phenology. We

  10. Green-E general program and public information support program report, August 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kirk

    2000-09-30

    Green-E Program support from the Dept. of Energy augmented the costs of implementing the objectives of the Green-E Renewable Electricity Project; general program implementation; regional adaptation; developing strategic partnerships; and public information/education/outreach.

  11. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  12. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods. PMID:25615873

  13. The green beards of language

    PubMed Central

    Lindenfors, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Language transfers information on at least three levels; (1) what is said, (2) how it is said (what language is used), and, (3) that it is said (that speaker and listener both possess the ability to use language). The use of language is a form of honest cooperation on two of these levels; not necessarily on what is said, which can be deceitful, but always on how it is said and that it is said. This means that the language encoding and decoding systems had to evolve simultaneously, through mutual fitness benefits. Theoretical problems surrounding the evolution of cooperation disappear if a recognition system is present enabling cooperating individuals to identify each other – if they are equipped with “green beards”. Here, I outline how both the biological and cultural aspects of language are bestowed with such recognition systems. The biological capacities required for language signal their presence through speech and understanding. This signaling cannot be invaded by “false green beards” because the traits and the signal of their presence are one and the same. However, the real usefulness of language comes from its potential to convey an infinite number of meanings through the dynamic handling of symbols – through language itself. But any specific language also signals its presence to others through usage and understanding. Thus, languages themselves cannot be invaded by “false green beards” because, again, the trait and the signal of its presence are one and the same. These twin green beards, in both the biological and cultural realms, are unique to language. PMID:23610647

  14. "Green" pyrotechnics: a chemists' challenge.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Fireworks are probably the application of chemistry which resonates best with the general public. However, fireworks and (civil and military) pyrotechnic applications cause environmental pollution and thus have given rise to the development of new, environmentally friendly pyrotechnic compounds and formulations. Nitrogen-rich energetic materials, such as the derivatives of tetrazoles and tetrazines, are about to revolutionize traditional pyrotechnic compositions. This Review summarizes the sources of pollution in current formulations and recent efforts toward "green" pyrotechnics. PMID:18311738

  15. Green lights program in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  16. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  17. Quantum chemical modelling of ``green'' luminescence in ABO perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglitis, R. I.; Kotomin, E. A.; Borstel, G.

    2002-06-01

    The origin of the intrinsic excitonic (``green'') luminescence in ABO3 perovskites remains a hot topic over the last quarter of a century. We suggest as a theoretical interpretation for the ``green'' luminescence in these crystals, the recombination of electron and hole polarons forming a charge transfer vibronic exciton. In order to check quantitatively the proposed model, we performed quantum chemical calculations using the Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap (INDO) method combined with the periodic defect model. The luminescence energies calculated for four perovskite crystals are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Calculators for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Bob

    1978-01-01

    This is the fourth installment of a "teach yourself" style workbook about simple four function calculators and elementary concepts in computer programing. This installment introduces mixed operations. (MN)

  19. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  20. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  1. Efficient Temperature-Dependent Green's Function Methods for Realistic Systems: Using Cubic Spline Interpolation to Approximate Matsubara Green's Functions.

    PubMed

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Welden, Alicia Rae; Lan, Tran Nguyen; Gull, Emanuel; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-05-10

    The popular, stable, robust, and computationally inexpensive cubic spline interpolation algorithm is adopted and used for finite temperature Green's function calculations of realistic systems. We demonstrate that with appropriate modifications the temperature dependence can be preserved while the Green's function grid size can be reduced by about 2 orders of magnitude by replacing the standard Matsubara frequency grid with a sparser grid and a set of interpolation coefficients. We benchmarked the accuracy of our algorithm as a function of a single parameter sensitive to the shape of the Green's function. Through numerous examples, we confirmed that our algorithm can be utilized in a systematically improvable, controlled, and black-box manner and highly accurate one- and two-body energies and one-particle density matrices can be obtained using only around 5% of the original grid points. Additionally, we established that to improve accuracy by an order of magnitude, the number of grid points needs to be doubled, whereas for the Matsubara frequency grid, an order of magnitude more grid points must be used. This suggests that realistic calculations with large basis sets that were previously out of reach because they required enormous grid sizes may now become feasible. PMID:27049642

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning and bioaccumulation in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, D.; Griesmer, D.; Kreis, R.; Mackelburg, L.

    1994-12-31

    The 1989--1990 Green Bay Mass Balance Study generated an extensive data set for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in water, sediment and biological matrices. The analytes included several mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners. From these data, ratios between dissolved, particulate, and biotic concentrations in the water column and sediment have been calculated. These ratios provide a basis for evaluating the distribution of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem. The Mass Balance Study also supported development of mathematical models of PCB transport, fate, and food chain bioaccumulation in Green Bay. The models provide significant additional insight as to processes affecting the observed PCB distribution, including spatial-temporal variability, organic carbon sorbent dynamics, sediment-water column disequilibria, and kinetics of bioaccumulation.

  3. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban green spaces of Beijing: concentration, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0-5 cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored. PMID:27502522

  5. Green's functions of the scalar model of electromagnetic fields in sinusoidal superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatchenko, V. A.; Tsikalov, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Problems of obtaining Green's function and using it for studying the structure of scalar electromagnetic fields in a sinusoidal superlattice are considered. An analytical solution of equation in the k-space for Green's function is found. Green's function in the r-space is obtained by both the numerical and the approximate analytical Fourier transformation of that solution. It is shown, that from the experimental study of Green's function in the k-space the position of the plane radiation source relative to the extremes of the dielectric permittivity ε(z) can be determined. The relief map of Green's function in the r-space shows that the structure of the field takes the form of chains of islets in the plane ωz, the number of which increases with increasing the distance from a radiation source. This effect leads to different frequency dependences of Green's function at different distances from the radiation source and can be used to measure the distance to the internal source. The real component of Green's function and its spatial decay in the forbidden zones in the near field is investigated. The local density of states, depending on the position of the source in the superlattice, is calculated.

  6. The time domain moving Green function of a railway track and its application to wheel-rail interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, X.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, S.

    2016-09-01

    When dealing with wheel-rail interactions for a high-speed train using the time domain Green function of a railway track, it would be more reasonable to use the moving Green function associated with a reference frame moving with the train, since observed from this frame wheel/rail forces are stationary. In this paper, the time domain moving Green function of a railway track as an infinitely long periodic structure is defined, derived, discussed and applied. The moving Green function is defined as the Fourier transform, from the load frequency domain to the time domain, of the response of the rail due to a moving harmonic load. The response of the rail due to a moving harmonic load is calculated using the Fourier transform-based method. A relationship is established between the moving Green function and the conventional impulse response function of the track. Properties of the moving Green function are then explored which can largely simplify the calculation of the Green function. And finally, the moving Green function is applied to deal with interactions between wheels and a track with or without rail dampers, allowing non-linearity in wheel-rail contact and demonstrating the effect of the rail dampers.

  7. TI-73 Calculator Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Bey, Carol K.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes TI-73 calculator activities appropriate for middle school students. It was found that the use of the calculator allowed for higher-level thinking and a richer exploration of mathematical ideas by students. [Included with this article are "Dice Roll Worksheet" and "Transforming Tree Worksheet".] (Contains 9 figures.)

  8. Calculators and Polynomial Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, J. F.

    The intent of this paper is to suggest and illustrate how electronic hand-held calculators, especially non-programmable ones with limited data-storage capacity, can be used to advantage by students in one particular aspect of work with polynomial functions. The basic mathematical background upon which calculator application is built is summarized.…

  9. Evaluation of a one-dimensional cloud model for yellow and green thunderstorms.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Frank W; Beasley, William H

    2003-01-20

    Many observers have reported observations of green light emanating from severe thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. Spectral measurements have demonstrated that the dominant wavelength of the light is in the green portion of the visible spectrum and that this is not just a subjective impression. According to the theory proposed by Bohren and Fraser [Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 2185 (1993)], two effects combine to produce green light from thunderstorms. First, incident solar radiation is reddened by selective scattering by air molecules and particles in the atmosphere before it enters the cloud. Second, the radiation that passes through an optically thick cloud is attenuated in the longer wavelengths because of selective absorption by liquid water. Model calculations indicate that realizable combinations of mean drop diameters, mean liquid-water contents, and cloud thicknesses can satisfy the conditions required for shifting the dominant wavelength of the incident solar radiation to green. PMID:12570273

  10. Sound source identification in a noisy environment based on inverse patch transfer functions with evanescent Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shang; Jiang, Weikang; Pan, Siwei

    2015-12-01

    A modified inverse patch transfer function (iPTF) method is used to reconstruct the normal velocities of the target source in a noisy environment. The iPTF method simplifies the Helmholtz integral equation to one term by constructing a Green's function satisfying Neumann boundary conditions for an enclosure, which is generally constructed by slowly convergent modal expansions. The main objective of the present work is to provide an evanescent Green's function to improve the convergence of calculations. A brief description of the iPTF method and two sets of Green's functions for a rectangular cavity are presented firstly. In simulations, both the Green's functions are used to calculate the condition numbers of impedance matrices describing the relation between source and measurement patches, and the time cost of calculation based on the two sets of Green's functions at 450 Hz is compared. Double pressure measurements are then employed as the input data instead of pressure and velocity measurements. The normal velocities of two baffled loudspeakers are reconstructed by the combination of a measurement method and a Green's function in the presence of a disturbing source in the frequency range of 50-1000 Hz. In addition, the double pressure measurements are examined by an experiment. The precise identification of the sources indicates that the double pressure measurements are capable of localizing sources in a noisy environment. It is also found that the reconstruction with the evanescent Green's functions is slightly better than that with the modal expansions.

  11. Sample size calculations.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J

    2011-01-01

    The sample size is the number of patients or other experimental units that need to be included in a study to answer the research question. Pre-study calculation of the sample size is important; if a sample size is too small, one will not be able to detect an effect, while a sample that is too large may be a waste of time and money. Methods to calculate the sample size are explained in statistical textbooks, but because there are many different formulas available, it can be difficult for investigators to decide which method to use. Moreover, these calculations are prone to errors, because small changes in the selected parameters can lead to large differences in the sample size. This paper explains the basic principles of sample size calculations and demonstrates how to perform such a calculation for a simple study design. PMID:21293154

  12. Blue-green and green phosphors for lighting applications

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Henderson, Claire Susan; Nammalwar, Pransanth Kumar; Radkov, Emil

    2012-12-11

    Embodiments of the present techniques provide a related family of phosphors that may be used in lighting systems to generate blue or blue-green light. The phosphors include systems having a general formula of: ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.s- ub.y)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) (I), wherein 0green light. Further, the phosphors may be used in blends with other phosphors, or in combined lighting systems, to produce white light suitable for illumination.

  13. Green tea and theanine: health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    Historically, the medicinal use of green tea dates back to China 4700 years ago and drinking tea continues to be regarded traditionally in Asia as a general healthful practice. Numerous scientific publications now attest to the health benefits of both black and green teas, including clinical and epidemiological studies. Although all tea contains beneficial antioxidants, high-quality green and white teas have them in greater concentrations than black tea. Today, scientists believe that the main active ingredients of green tea include the polyphenols, in particular the catechins and the amino acid, theanine. Studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon. Recent studies describing the health benefits of these compounds will be reviewed. PMID:22039897

  14. YCF1: A Green TIC?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jan; Sousa, Filipa L.; Bölter, Bettina; Soll, Jürgen; Gould, Sven B.

    2015-01-01

    A pivotal step in the transformation of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium to a plastid some 1.5 billion years ago was the evolution of a protein import apparatus, the TOC/TIC machinery, in the common ancestor of Archaeplastida. Recently, a putative new TIC member was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana: TIC214. This finding is remarkable for a number of reasons: (1) TIC214 is encoded by ycf1, so it would be the first plastid-encoded protein of this apparatus; (2) ycf1 is unique to the green lineage (Chloroplastida) but entirely lacking in glaucophytes (Glaucophyta) and the red lineage (Rhodophyta) of the Archaeplastida; (3) ycf1 has been shown to be one of the few indispensable plastid genes (aside from the ribosomal machinery), yet it is missing in the grasses; and (4) 30 years of previous TOC/TIC research missed it. These observations prompted us to survey the evolution of ycf1. We found that ycf1 is not only lacking in grasses and some parasitic plants, but also for instance in cranberry (Ericaceae). The encoded YCF proteins are highly variable, both in sequence length and in the predicted number of N-terminal transmembrane domains. The evolution of the TOC/TIC machinery in the green lineage experienced specific modifications, but our analysis does not support YCF1 to be a general green TIC. It remains to be explained how the apparent complete loss of YCF1 can be tolerated by some embryophytes and whether what is observed for YCF1 function in a member of the Brassicaceae is also true for, e.g., algal and noncanonical YCF1 homologs. PMID:25818624

  15. Real-space method for highly parallelizable electronic transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Baruch; Seideman, Tamar; Hod, Oded; Kronik, Leeor

    2014-07-01

    We present a real-space method for first-principles nanoscale electronic transport calculations. We use the nonequilibrium Green's function method with density functional theory and implement absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs, also known as complex absorbing potentials, or CAPs) to represent the effects of the semi-infinite leads. In real space, the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian matrix is highly sparse. As a result, the transport problem parallelizes naturally and can scale favorably with system size, enabling the computation of conductance in relatively large molecular junction models. Our use of ABCs circumvents the demanding task of explicitly calculating the leads' self-energies from surface Green's functions, and is expected to be more accurate than the use of the jellium approximation. In addition, we take advantage of the sparsity in real space to solve efficiently for the Green's function over the entire energy range relevant to low-bias transport. We illustrate the advantages of our method with calculations on several challenging test systems and find good agreement with reference calculation results.

  16. Green fluorescent protein: A perspective

    PubMed Central

    Remington, S James

    2011-01-01

    A brief personal perspective is provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP), covering the period 1994–2011. The topics discussed are primarily those in which my research group has made a contribution and include structure and function of the GFP polypeptide, the mechanism of fluorescence emission, excited state protein transfer, the design of ratiometric fluorescent protein biosensors and an overview of the fluorescent proteins derived from coral reef animals. Structure-function relationships in photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and nonfluorescent chromoproteins are also briefly covered. PMID:21714025

  17. Ophidism by the green palmsnake.

    PubMed

    Means, D Bruce

    2010-03-01

    The author describes his experience following 2 bites to his hand by the same green palmsnake (Philodryas viridissimus) on the same day, and reviews the literature on bites from rear-fanged species of the genus Philodryas. Though this genus has long been thought to include the most venomous colubrid snakes in the Americas, the author's bites were relatively asymptomatic. Fatalities caused by Philodryas seem to be lacking in the primary literature, but mild to moderate symptoms do result from envenomations by at least 2 species. Medical researchers are urged to obtain accurate species identifications and to carefully report symptoms and fatalities from bites of colubrid snakes. PMID:20591353

  18. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, Maryland

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  19. Solvent replacement for green processing.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J; Chin, B; Huibers, P D; Garcia-Valls, R; Hatton, T A

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Clean Air Act, and the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has resulted in increased awareness of organic solvent use in chemical processing. The advances made in the search to find "green" replacements for traditional solvents are reviewed, with reference to solvent alternatives for cleaning, coatings, and chemical reaction and separation processes. The development of solvent databases and computational methods that aid in the selection and/or design of feasible or optimal environmentally benign solvent alternatives for specific applications is also discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9539018

  20. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Mielke, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress on the development of modeling software, testing software against caclulated data from program VPAP and measured patterns, and calculating roll plane patterns for general aviation aircraft is reported. Major objectives are the continued development of computer software for aircraft modeling and use of this software and program OSUVOL to calculate principal plane and volumetric radiation patterns. The determination of proper placement of antennas on aircraft to meet the requirements of the Microwave Landing System is discussed. An overview of the performed work, and an example of a roll plane model for the Piper PA-31T Cheyenne aircraft and the resulting calculated roll plane radiation pattern are included.

  1. Dose Calculation Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-06-10

    VENTSAR XL is an EXCEL Spreadsheet that can be used to calculate downwind doses as a result of a hypothetical atmospheric release. Both building effects and plume rise may be considered. VENTSAR XL will run using any version of Microsoft EXCEL version 4.0 or later. Macros (the programming language of EXCEL) was used to automate the calculations. The user enters a minimal amount of input and the code calculates the resulting concentrations and doses atmore » various downwind distances as specified by the user.« less

  2. Tensile strength of dried gelcast green bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S.D.; Omatete, O.O.; Walls, C.A.; Barker, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    Ceramic green bodies were prepared by three different techniques, dry pressing, slip casting, and gelcasting. The tensile strength of the green bodies was measured using a diametral compression test. It was found that the gelcast samples were from 2 to 20 times stronger than the conventionally formed green bodies. SEM examination of the gelcast samples revealed a homogeneous, brittle fracture surface indicating a very uniform distribution of the binder and excellent dispersion of the ceramic powder.

  3. Two-particle picture and electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonis, A; Schulthess, T C; Turchi, P E A

    1998-06-24

    We derive exact formal expressions for the self-energy, (capital Sigma (n), describing the in- teraction of n particles with one another and with the rest of the particles in an interacting quantum N-particle system In contrast to traditional treatments, in which the single-particle self-energy is built out of interactions of a particle with the rest of the system, here a general n-particle quantity, (capital sigma)(n), is obtained in a straight- forward fashion by integrating the exact N-particle Green function, G(N), over the coordinates of N _ n particles and inverting An alternative expression, based on the canonical many-body equation of motion for the Green function is also discussed and compared with that derived through the integration process. The methodology is developed with respect to two-particle states, with the two-particle Green function being the central quantity from which the single-particle self-energy and Green function are derived It is suggested that the two-particle Green function be calculated directly in six-dimensional space in a two-particle generalization of density functional theory and the corresponding local density approximation. Methods for the calculation of the single-particle, n = 1, self-energy and effective single-particle t-matrix are discussed, and the methodology is illustrated by means of calculations on a model system.

  4. Elementary introduction to the Green's function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Mccormick, P. T.

    1975-01-01

    A technique, using the method of variation of parameters for solving differential equations, is developed for introducing Green's functions early in an undergraduate curriculum. Various examples are presented.

  5. A Simple Calculator Algorithm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Lyle; McWilliam, James

    1983-01-01

    The problem of finding cube roots when limited to a calculator with only square root capability is discussed. An algorithm is demonstrated and explained which should always produce a good approximation within a few iterations. (MP)

  6. The CIPW Normative Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Charles

    1979-01-01

    The author has rewritten rules for CIPW norm calculation and has written FORTRAN IV programs to assist the student in this procedure. Includes a set of problems utilizing the CIPW norm to illustrate principles of chemical petrology. (MA)

  7. Calculator Function Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelin, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    The general algorithm used in most hand calculators to approximate elementary functions is discussed. Comments on tabular function values and on computer function evaluation are given first; then the CORDIC (Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer) scheme is described. (MNS)

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  9. Small portable speed calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  10. Target Heart Rate Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Target Heart Rate Calculator Compute your best workout Enter your age ... is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...

  11. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  12. More Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two experiments that illustrate basic ideas but would be difficult to carry out. Also presents activities and experiments on rainbow cups, electrical charges, electrophorus calculation, pulse electrometer, a skidding car, and on the Oersted effect. (JN)

  13. Green's function approach to edge states in transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanbar, Mojtaba; Amlaki, Taher; Brocks, Geert

    2016-05-01

    The semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides MX 2 show an abundance of one-dimensional metallic edges and grain boundaries. Standard techniques for calculating edge states typically model nanoribbons, and require the use of supercells. In this paper, we formulate a Green's function technique for calculating edge states of (semi-)infinite two-dimensional systems with a single well-defined edge or grain boundary. We express Green's functions in terms of Bloch matrices, constructed from the solutions of a quadratic eigenvalue equation. The technique can be applied to any localized basis representation of the Hamiltonian. Here, we use it to calculate edge states of MX 2 monolayers by means of tight-binding models. Aside from the basic zigzag and armchair edges, we study edges with a more general orientation, structurally modifed edges, and grain boundaries. A simple three-band model captures an important part of the edge electronic structures. An 11-band model comprising all valence orbitals of the M and X atoms is required to obtain all edge states with energies in the MX 2 band gap. Here, states of odd symmetry with respect to a mirror plane through the layer of M atoms have a dangling-bond character, and tend to pin the Fermi level.

  14. Transient Thermoelectric Solution Employing Green's Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The study works to formulate convenient solutions to the problem of a thermoelectric couple operating under a time varying condition. Transient operation of a thermoelectric will become increasingly common as thermoelectric technology permits applications in an increasing number of uses. A number of terrestrial applications, in contrast to steady-state space applications, can subject devices to time varying conditions. For instance thermoelectrics can be exposed to transient conditions in the automotive industry depending on engine system dynamics along with factors like driving style. In an effort to generalize the thermoelectric solution a Greens function method is used, so that arbitrary time varying boundary and initial conditions may be applied to the system without reformulation. The solution demonstrates that in thermoelectric applications of a transient nature additional factors must be taken into account and optimized. For instance, the materials specific heat and density become critical parameters in addition to the thermal mass of a heat sink or the details of the thermal profile, such as oscillating frequency. The calculations can yield the optimum operating conditions to maximize power output andor efficiency for a given type of device.

  15. Reflectance and transmittance characteristics of several selected green and blue-green unialgae.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramms, L. C.; Boyle, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Obtained reflectance properties of green and blue-green unialgae are evaluated for determining the feasibility of using selected wavelengths in differentiating between green and blue-green algae. The attempt is made to establish selected wavelengths and ratios that would delineate relative concentrations of the algal suspensions. The results should prove helpful in the selection of spectral bands usable in conjunction with multispectrum scanners for qualitative and quantitative studies of algae in bodies of water.

  16. Source and replica calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-02-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem.

  17. Systematics and limit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Wade; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    This note discusses the estimation of systematic uncertainties and their incorporation into upper limit calculations. Two different approaches to reducing systematics and their degrading impact on upper limits are introduced. An improved {chi}{sup 2} function is defined which is useful in comparing Poisson distributed data with models marginalized by systematic uncertainties. Also, a technique using profile likelihoods is introduced which provides a means of constraining the degrading impact of systematic uncertainties on limit calculations.

  18. Quantum Chemical Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The current methods of quantum chemical calculations will be reviewed. The accent will be on the accuracy that can be achieved with these methods. The basis set requirements and computer resources for the various methods will be discussed. The utility of the methods will be illustrated with some examples, which include the calculation of accurate bond energies for SiF$_n$ and SiF$_n^+$ and the modeling of chemical data storage.

  19. Homoserine Esterification in Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Giovanelli, John; Mudd, S. Harvey; Datko, Anne H.

    1974-01-01

    Extracts of phylogenetically diverse plans were surveyed for their ability to synthesize the following homoserine esters which are potential precursors for methionine and threonine synthesis in green plants: O-acetyl-, O-oxalyl-, O-succinyl-, O-malonyl-, and O-phosphohomoserine. Synthesis of O-acylhomoserine esters was detected only in Pisum sativum L. and Lathyrus sativus L. Extracts of P. sativum, a plant known to accumulate O-acetylhomoserine, catalyzed the specific synthesis of this ester from homoserine and acetyl-CoA. Extracts of L. sativus, a plant known to accumulate O-oxalylhomoserine, catalyzed the specific synthesis of this ester from homoserine and oxalyl-CoA. None of the other plants surveyed, including representatives of the green algae, horsetails, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, catalyzed the synthesis of any of the O-acylhomoserine esters studied. In contrast, synthesis of O-phosphohomoserine by the reaction catalyzed by homoserine kinase was demonstrated in extracts of all plants examined, including the two exceptional legumes. These results suggest that, among the five homoserine esters studied, O-phosphohomoserine is the major activated homoserine derivative in plants. Direct confirmation of the dominant physiological role of O-phosphohomoserine in the synthesis of cystathionine in the transsulfuration pathway of methionine biosynthesis in plants has recently been provided (Datko, A. H., Giovanelli, J., and Mudd, S. H. 1974. J. Biol. Chem. 249: 1139-1155). PMID:16658961

  20. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and...

  1. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and...

  2. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and...

  3. Green Roofs: A Part of Green Infrastructure Strategy for Urban Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provides insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA rep...

  4. The Red Road to Green: Tribal Peoples' Worldviews Preceded "Green" Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2008-01-01

    Green is definitely "in." Green refers not to fashion but the philosophy of environmental protection, stewardship, and social justice. There is nothing new about the green philosophy for tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) and the Native communities they serve. Responsible stewardship of Mother Earth is a natural outgrowth of TCU's missions…

  5. Greening Steel Work: Varieties of Capitalism and the "Greening" of Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Claire; Stroud, Dean

    2016-01-01

    An important driver of change in work, employment and skills is European Union policy aims of sustainable economic growth and the cultivation of a green economy. Part of the latter--which is supported by increasing environmental regulation--focuses on the development of a "green skills agenda," which involves the "greening" of…

  6. Adult Learning Meets the Green Economy: Lessons from a Green Jobs Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    The new "green economy" affects adult education and workforce development as adult workers seek skills and knowledge that will help them find success in work and life. Recent years have brought about increased interest in and discussion of training for green jobs. Since the introduction of the Green Jobs Act in 2007, questions about how exactly to…

  7. ON-LINE CALCULATOR: FORWARD CALCULATION JOHNSON ETTINGER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  8. To Green or Not to Green? Evaluation of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Kansas City Middle Blue River Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Kansas City, Mo., Water Services Department is implementing a pilot project to measure and evaluate the performance of green infrastructure. Information obtained through this pilot project will be used to guide the design of green solutions throughout Kansas City und...

  9. Nonequilibrium Green's Function approach to time-resolved photoabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanucci, Gianluca; Perfetto, Enrico; Uimonen, Anna-Maija; van Leeuwen, Robert

    We propose a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach to calculate the time-resolved absorption spectrum of nanoscale systems. We can deal with arbitrary shape, intensity, duration and relative delay of the pump and probe fields and include ionization processes as well as hybridization effects due to surfaces. We present numerical simulations of atomic systems using different approximate self-energies and show that electron correlations are pivotal to reproduce important qualitative features. E.P. and G.S. acknowledge funding by MIUR FIRB Grant No. RBFR12SW0J. R.v.L. thanks the Academy of Finland for support.

  10. Resistance calculation of the face-centered cubic lattice: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owaidat, M. Q.

    2013-12-01

    The effective resistance between two arbitrary lattice points in an infinite, face-centered cubic lattice network of identical resistors is calculated using the lattice Green's function method. Theoretical results have been verified experimentally by constructing actual finite networks of resistors. This problem could be useful in undergraduate courses (e.g., advanced mathematical methods course) and would provide a good example for introducing the concept of Green's function.

  11. Green's function approach for quantum graphs: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Fabiano M.; Schmidt, A. G. M.; Vicentini, E.; Cheng, B. K.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2016-08-01

    Here we review the many aspects and distinct phenomena associated to quantum dynamics on general graph structures. For so, we discuss such class of systems under the energy domain Green's function (G) framework. This approach is particularly interesting because G can be written as a sum over classical-like paths, where local quantum effects are taken into account through the scattering matrix elements (basically, transmission and reflection amplitudes) defined on each one of the graph vertices. Hence, the exact G has the functional form of a generalized semiclassical formula, which through different calculation techniques (addressed in detail here) always can be cast into a closed analytic expression. It allows to solve exactly arbitrary large (although finite) graphs in a recursive and fast way. Using the Green's function method, we survey many properties of open and closed quantum graphs as scattering solutions for the former and eigenspectrum and eigenstates for the latter, also considering quasi-bound states. Concrete examples, like cube, binary trees and Sierpiński-like topologies are presented. Along the work, possible distinct applications using the Green's function methods for quantum graphs are outlined.

  12. Shape tailored green synthesis and catalytic properties of gold nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Anish; MeenaKumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The use of environmentally benign procedures is highly desirable for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Here we report a simple, versatile, economic, ecofriendly and reproducible green method for the size-tunable synthesis of stable and crystalline gold nanoparticles of varied shape using aqueous extract of Garcinia Combogia fruit. The predominant anisotropic nature in the morphology of synthesized particles at lower quantities of extract gradually shifted to spherical particles with larger quantity of extract and increase of temperature. The onset of reduction, the time-evolution of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and the catalytic activity are studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The Selected Area Diffraction (SAED) pattern, the lattice fringes in the High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic (HRTEM) image and the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern clearly show the pure crystalline nature of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The role of carboxyl group present in Garcinia Combogia fruit extract in the reduction of chloroaurate ions is established using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. The size dependent catalytic activity of the green synthesized gold nanoparticles on the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol using sodium borohydride is studied and reported for the first time. The first order kinetics is fitted and rate constants are calculated. Catalytically active green synthesized gold nanoparticles with controllable size and shape presents an advanced step in future biomedical and chemical applications.

  13. Shape tailored green synthesis and catalytic properties of gold nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Anish; MeenaKumari, M; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-24

    The use of environmentally benign procedures is highly desirable for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Here we report a simple, versatile, economic, ecofriendly and reproducible green method for the size-tunable synthesis of stable and crystalline gold nanoparticles of varied shape using aqueous extract of Garcinia Combogia fruit. The predominant anisotropic nature in the morphology of synthesized particles at lower quantities of extract gradually shifted to spherical particles with larger quantity of extract and increase of temperature. The onset of reduction, the time-evolution of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and the catalytic activity are studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The Selected Area Diffraction (SAED) pattern, the lattice fringes in the High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic (HRTEM) image and the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern clearly show the pure crystalline nature of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The role of carboxyl group present in Garcinia Combogia fruit extract in the reduction of chloroaurate ions is established using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. The size dependent catalytic activity of the green synthesized gold nanoparticles on the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol using sodium borohydride is studied and reported for the first time. The first order kinetics is fitted and rate constants are calculated. Catalytically active green synthesized gold nanoparticles with controllable size and shape presents an advanced step in future biomedical and chemical applications. PMID:24152864

  14. Study of water infiltration in a lightweight green roof substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomankova, Klara; Holeckova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs have a positive impact on the environment (e.g. improving microclimate and air quality in cities, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). A laboratory infiltration experiment was conducted on the narrow flume serving as 2D vertical model of a green roof. The lightweight Optigreen substrate Type M was used (depth of 20 cm). The front wall of the flume was transparent and inspected by digital camera. The experiment was designed to measure pressure head, volumetric water content and calculate water retention in the substrate. Experiment comprised three artificial rainfall intensities with different values of initial water content of the substrate. The experimental results confirmed that green roofs have the ability to retain rainwater and thus have a beneficial effect on reducing runoff. In the experiment with the artificial 10 minutes rainfall event (total precipitation of 29 mm), the air dry substrate retained 95.9 % of precipitation. On the other hand for moist initial condition 4.2 % of precipitations amount was captured in the substrate. Additionally, the analysis of images taken during the experiment confirmed preferential flow and uneven advancement of the wetting front. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  15. Organic additives stabilize RNA aptamer binding of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubin; Chi, Hong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Marks, Robert S; Steele, Terry W J

    2016-11-01

    Aptamer-ligand binding has been utilized for biological applications due to its specific binding and synthetic nature. However, the applications will be limited if the binding or the ligand is unstable. Malachite green aptamer (MGA) and its labile ligand malachite green (MG) were found to have increasing apparent dissociation constants (Kd) as determined through the first order rate loss of emission intensity of the MGA-MG fluorescent complex. The fluorescent intensity loss was hypothesized to be from the hydrolysis of MG into malachite green carbinol base (MGOH). Random screening organic additives were found to reduce or retain the fluorescence emission and the calculated apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding. The protective effect became more apparent as the percentage of organic additives increased up to 10% v/v. The mechanism behind the organic additive protective effects was primarily from a ~5X increase in first order rate kinetics of MGOH→MG (kMGOH→MG), which significantly changed the equilibrium constant (Keq), favoring the generation of MG, versus MGOH without organic additives. A simple way has been developed to stabilize the apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding over 24h, which may be beneficial in stabilizing other triphenylmethane or carbocation ligand-aptamer interactions that are susceptible to SN1 hydrolysis. PMID:27591602

  16. Green's functions for dislocations in bonded strips and related crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Luo, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    Green's functions are derived for the plane elastostatics problem of a dislocation in a bimaterial strip. Using these fundamental solutions as kernels, various problems involving cracks in a bimaterial strip are analyzed using singular integral equations. For each problem considered, stress intensity factors are calculated for several combinations of the parameters which describe loading, geometry and material mismatch.

  17. Green's functions for dislocations in bonded strips and related crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Luo, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    Green's functions are derived for the plane elastostatics problem of a dislocation in a bimaterial strip. Using these fundamental solutions as kernels, various problems involving cracks in a bimaterial strip are analyzed using singular integral equations. For each problem considered, stress intensity factors are calculated for several combinations of the parameters which describe loading, geometry and material mismatch.

  18. Green's Function Analysis of Periodic Structures in Computational Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Orden, Derek

    2011-12-01

    Periodic structures are used widely in electromagnetic devices, including filters, waveguiding structures, and antennas. Their electromagnetic properties may be analyzed computationally by solving an integral equation, in which an unknown equivalent current distribution in a single unit cell is convolved with a periodic Green's function that accounts for the system's boundary conditions. Fast computation of the periodic Green's function is therefore essential to achieve high accuracy solutions of complicated periodic structures, including analysis of modal wave propagation and scattering from external sources. This dissertation first presents alternative spectral representations of the periodic Green's function of the Helmholtz equation for cases of linear periodic systems in 2D and 3D free space and near planarly layered media. Although there exist multiple representations of the periodic Green's function, most are not efficient in the important case where the fields are observed near the array axis. We present spectral-spatial representations for rapid calculation of the periodic Green's functions for linear periodic arrays of current sources residing in free space as well as near a planarly layered medium. They are based on the integral expansion of the periodic Green's functions in terms of the spectral parameters transverse to the array axis. These schemes are important for the rapid computation of the interaction among unit cells of a periodic array, and, by extension, the complex dispersion relations of guided waves. Extensions of this approach to planar periodic structures are discussed. With these computation tools established, we study the traveling wave properties of linear resonant arrays placed near surfaces, and examine the coupling mechanisms that lead to radiation into guided waves supported by the surface. This behavior is especially important to understand the properties of periodic structures printed on dielectric substrates, such as periodic

  19. Calculating incoherent diffraction MTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Melvin; Vizgaitis, Jay

    2008-04-01

    The incoherent diffraction MTF plays an increasingly important role in the range performance of imaging systems as the wavelength increases and the optical aperture decreases. Accordingly, all NVESD imager models have equations that describe the incoherent diffraction MTF of a circular entrance pupil. NVThermIP, a program which models thermal imager range performance, has built in equations which analytically model the incoherent diffraction MTF of a circular entrance pupil and has a capability to input a table that describes the MTF of other apertures. These can be calculated using CODE V, which can numerically calculate the incoherent diffraction MTF in the vertical or horizontal direction for an arbitrary aperture. However, we are not aware of any program that takes as input a description of the entrance pupil and analytically outputs equations that describe the incoherent diffraction MTF. This work explores the effectiveness of Mathematica to analytically and numerically calculate the incoherent diffraction MTF for an arbitrary aperture. In this work, Mathematica is used to analytically and numerically calculate the incoherent diffraction MTF for a variety of apertures and the results are compared with CODE V calculations.

  20. Calculation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Gunter

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) for fcc Ni and bcc Fe is calculated as the difference of single particle energy eigenvalue sums using a tight-binding model. For nickel we predict a MAE of -0.15 eV and the wrong easy axis, for iron we find a MAE of -0.7 eV with the easy axis in agreement with experiment. Our results compare favorably with previously reported first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the local spin density approximation. The inclusion of an orbital polarization correction improves the magnitude of the MAE for iron, but fails to bring the result for nickel closer to the experimental value. The outstanding feature of our calculations is the careful handling of the necessary Brillouin zone integrals. Linear interpolation schemes and methods based on Fermi surface smearing were used and analyzed. An alternative method of calculating the MAE based on the torque on a magnetic moment centered on an atom is found to be equivalent to the calculation of the MAE in terms of energy differences.

  1. Calculations in apheresis.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Marleen M; Vrielink, Hans

    2015-02-01

    It's important to work smoothly with your apheresis equipment when you are an apheresis nurse. Attention should be paid to your donor/patient and the product you're collecting. It gives additional value to your work when you are able to calculate the efficiency of your procedures. You must be capable to obtain an optimal product without putting your donor/patient at risk. Not only the total blood volume (TBV) of the donor/patient plays an important role, but also specific blood values influence the apheresis procedure. Therefore, not all donors/patients should be addressed in the same way. Calculation of TBV, extracorporeal volume, and total plasma volume is needed. Many issues determine your procedure time. By knowing the collection efficiency (CE) of your apheresis machine, you can calculate the number of blood volumes to be processed to obtain specific results. You can calculate whether you need one procedure to obtain specific results or more. It's not always needed to process 3× the TBV. In this way, it can be avoided that the donor/patient is needless long connected to the apheresis device. By calculating the CE of each device, you can also compare the various devices for quality control reasons, but also nurses/operators. PMID:25041907

  2. GreenPack-DG’, a pinkeye-type southernpea with an enhanced persistent green seed phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA has developed a new pinkeye-type southernpea cultivar named ‘GreenPack-DG’. ‘GreenPack-DG’ is the first pinkeye-type southernpea to be developed that has a persistent green seed phenotype conditioned by both the green cotyledon gene and the green testa (seed coat) gene. The new cultivar w...

  3. Structure and Charge Hopping Dynamics in Green Rust

    SciTech Connect

    Wander, Matthew C; Rosso, Kevin M; Schoonen, Martin A

    2007-08-02

    Green rust is a family of mixed-valent iron phases formed by a number of abiotic and biotic processes under alkaline suboxic conditions. Due to its high Fe2+ content, green rust is a potentially important phase for pollution remediation by serving as a powerful electron donor for reductive transformation. However, mechanisms of oxidation of this material are poorly understood. An essential component of the green rust structure is a mixed-valent brucite-like Fe(OH)2 sheet comprised of a two dimensional network of edge-sharing iron octahedra. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra show a characteristic signature for intermediate valence on the iron atoms in this sheet, indicative of a Fe2+-Fe3+ valence interchange reaction faster than approximately 107 s-1. Using Fe(OH)2 as structural analogue for reduced green rust, we performed Hartree-Fock calculations on periodic slab models and cluster representations to determine the structure and hopping mobility of Fe3+ hole polarons in this material, providing a first principles assessment of the Fe2+-Fe3+ valence interchange reaction rate. The calculations show that among three possible symmetry unique iron-to-iron hops within a sheet, a hop to next-nearest neighbors at an intermediate distance of 5.6 Å is the fastest. The predicted rate is on the order of 1012 s-1 consistent the Mössbauer-based constraint. All other possibilities, including hopping across interlayer spaces, are predicted to be slower than 107 s-1. Collectively, the findings suggest the possibility of hole self-diffusion along sheets as a mechanism for regeneration of lattice Fe2+ sites, consistent with previous experimental observations of edge-inward progressive oxidation of green rust.

  4. Evaluation of Physically and Empirically Based Models for the Estimation of Green Roof Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.; Gaffin, S.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2010-12-01

    Green roofs and other urban green spaces can provide a variety of valuable benefits including reduction of the urban heat island effect, reduction of stormwater runoff, carbon sequestration, oxygen generation, air pollution mitigation etc. As many of these benefits are directly linked to the processes of evaporation and transpiration, accurate and representative estimation of urban evapotranspiration (ET) is a necessary tool for predicting and quantifying such benefits. However, many common ET estimation procedures were developed for agricultural applications, and thus carry inherent assumptions that may only be rarely applicable to urban green spaces. Various researchers have identified the estimation of expected urban ET rates as critical, yet poorly studied components of urban green space performance prediction and cite that further evaluation is needed to reconcile differences in predictions from varying ET modeling approaches. A small scale green roof lysimeter setup situated on the green roof of the Ethical Culture Fieldston School in the Bronx, NY has been the focus of ongoing monitoring initiated in June 2009. The experimental setup includes a 0.6 m by 1.2 m Lysimeter replicating the anatomy of the 500 m2 green roof of the building, with a roof membrane, drainage layer, 10 cm media depth, and planted with a variety of Sedum species. Soil moisture sensors and qualitative runoff measurements are also recorded in the Lysimeter, while a weather station situated on the rooftop records climatologic data. Direct quantification of actual evapotranspiration (AET) from the green roof weighing lysimeter was achieved through a mass balance approaches during periods absent of precipitation and drainage. A comparison of AET to estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET) calculated from empirically and physically based ET models was performed in order to evaluate the applicability of conventional ET equations for the estimation of ET from green roofs. Results have

  5. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  6. Green Schools for Everyone within This Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mourik, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    At the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), people see the profound, positive impact that green buildings have on people's lives and the innovation they have poured into the marketplace--from office and retail buildings to government facilities and individual homes. However, none of these markets speaks more powerfully to the benefits and…

  7. Three Case Studies in Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies from three districts implementing green cleaning. In 2008, Missouri passed legislation requiring state education officials to convene a committee of stakeholders with the purpose of developing green cleaning guidelines and specifications for schools. The guide, published by the Department of Elementary and…

  8. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  9. Investment Primer for Green Revolving Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Dano

    2012-01-01

    Developing return-oriented green revolving funds (GRFs) is a rapidly growing trend at colleges and universities. A green revolving fund (GRF) is a special account designated for investment in on-campus projects that improve energy efficiency or decrease material use. GRFs invest in a variety of cost-saving initiatives, resulting in significant…

  10. Careers: Going Green while Doing Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Sally E.; Kozlowski, Patti; Peach, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education (CTE) is starting to turn green. Due to a host of reports, research, workforce initiatives, and scholarly speaking engagements, it is evident that higher education and workforce consultants recognize the need for today's students to gain exposure to sustainability or green career pathways. But for secondary and…

  11. Green-fleshed watermelon contains chlorophyll

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many popular and technical reports on watermelon ignore an uncommon color, green, even though mention of this color has been in the literature since 1901. However, what causes the green hue has not been reported. Since some cucurbits have chloroplasts, and chlorophyll in the flesh tissue, we surmi...

  12. A Green Marketing Course for Business Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudell, Fredrica

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970s, periodic calls have been made for incorporation of sustainability issues into marketing and other business courses. Now more than ever, we need to prepare students for careers in the green economy. This article will describe the author's experience teaching a Green Marketing course to business undergraduates. A review of content,…

  13. Green Team News and Upcoming Events | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Melissa Porter, Staff Writer Spring Plant Swap 2013 This past October, you may have seen several members of the Green Team standing in front of Building 549 giving out free plants or offering to take extra plants off your hands—this was the first Green Team Fall Plant Swap.

  14. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  15. 75 FR 64692 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...: ] E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 0062 Green Technology Pilot Program... other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment...

  16. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... opportunity to comment on the new information collection, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...@uspto.gov . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment@ in the subject line of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  18. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  19. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  20. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  1. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  2. MICROWAVES IN GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, we have outlined roles of microwave chemistry in the establishment of green and sustainable chemistry. Many examples, mostly from the authors' laboratories, have been presented of green microwave processes under solvent-free conditions or with solvents, including...

  3. Greening School Grounds: Creating Habitats for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

    Schoolyard greening is an excellent way to promote hands-on, interdisciplinary learning about the environment through projects that benefit schools and increase green space and biodiversity in communities. This book features step-by-step instructions for numerous schoolyard projects from tree nurseries to school composting to native plant gardens,…

  4. Introducing Green Chemistry in Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terrence J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes key elements for the research and teaching components of green chemistry, an environmentally friendly approach to chemistry. Presents an outline of an introductory course to green chemistry and other efforts at Carnegie Mellon University to incorporate the environment in a fertile manner into teaching. (JRH)

  5. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to...

  7. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  9. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  11. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  12. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request...

  13. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sprouts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the ... green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ...

  14. Green manures and plant disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of green manures, which involves the incorporation of fresh plant material, has traditionally been primarily for the purpose of soil enrichment through the addition of plant organic matter and nutrients. However, green manures produce many changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological p...

  15. Green Team Recognized with HHS Green Champion Award Honorable Mention | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Courtesy of the NCI at Frederick Green Team The NCI at Frederick Green Team received a Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Green Champion Award honorable mention in June for the team’s plant swap initiative, begun in October 2012.  “The Green Team has been doing a great job this past year, and it is wonderful that their efforts have been recognized by the HHS through the Green Champion Awards,” said Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director of the NCI Office of Scientific Operations (OSO). 

  16. Calculations for waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmer, R.J.

    1994-09-01

    Measurements are the first step in the characterization of waste forms. The results are used to determine the types and amounts of radioactive material present. From this data, several characteristics are calculated which are used to satisfy site, Department of Energy (DOE), and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) requirements. How well these calculations are made becomes important to the waste characterization program. Several sources are available to obtain the required values needed to calculate these characteristics. To ensure consistency among all sites within the DOE complex, a standardized program for all necessary data needs to be established. The effects of several of the inconsistencies are presented along with a recommended list of criteria to be used.

  17. Spin resonance strength calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Courant,E.D.

    2008-10-06

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  18. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  19. Three recent TDHF calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.S.

    1981-05-01

    Three applications of TDHF are discussed. First, vibrational spectra of a post grazing collision /sup 40/Ca nucleus is examined and found to contain many high energy components, qualitatively consistent with recent Orsay experiments. Second, the fusion cross section in energy and angular momentum are calculated for /sup 16/O + /sup 24/Mg to exhibit the parameters of the low l window for this system. A sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the effective two body potential is discussed. Last, a preliminary analysis of /sup 86/Kr + /sup 139/La at E/sub lab/ = 505 MeV calculated in the frozen approximation is displayed, compared to experiment and discussed.

  20. Graphing Calculator Mini Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karnawat, Sunil R.

    1996-01-01

    The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.

  1. Confidence Calculation with AMV+

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.

    1999-02-19

    The iterative advanced mean value algorithm (AMV+), introduced nearly ten years ago, is now widely used as a cost-effective probabilistic structural analysis tool when the use of sampling methods is cost prohibitive (Wu et al., 1990). The need to establish confidence bounds on calculated probabilities arises because of the presence of uncertainties in measured means and variances of input random variables. In this paper an algorithm is proposed that makes use of the AMV+ procedure and analytically derived probability sensitivities to determine confidence bounds on calculated probabilities.

  2. The Greening Role of Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  3. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem. PMID:26253501

  4. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  5. Assessing visual green effects of individual urban trees using airborne Lidar data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Gao, Bingbo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees benefit people's daily life in terms of air quality, local climate, recreation and aesthetics. Among these functions, a growing number of studies have been conducted to understand the relationship between residents' preference towards local environments and visual green effects of urban greenery. However, except for on-site photography, there are few quantitative methods to calculate green visibility, especially tree green visibility, from viewers' perspectives. To fill this research gap, a case study was conducted in the city of Cambridge, which has a diversity of tree species, sizes and shapes. Firstly, a photograph-based survey was conducted to approximate the actual value of visual green effects of individual urban trees. In addition, small footprint airborne Lidar (Light detection and ranging) data was employed to measure the size and shape of individual trees. Next, correlations between visual tree green effects and tree structural parameters were examined. Through experiments and gradual refinement, a regression model with satisfactory R2 and limited large errors is proposed. Considering the diversity of sample trees and the result of cross-validation, this model has the potential to be applied to other study sites. This research provides urban planners and decision makers with an innovative method to analyse and evaluate landscape patterns in terms of tree greenness. PMID:26218562

  6. Semiclassical Green's function for electron motion in combined Coulomb and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambalampitiya, Harindranath; Fabrikant, Ilya

    2016-05-01

    We are developing an extension of the Green-function approach to the theory of ionization of a multielectron atom in a strong laser field by using the semiclassical Van Vleck-Gutzwiller propagator. For a static field the exact quantum mechanical Green's function can be calculated with an arbitrary accuracy. Therefore, as a first step towards solution of the problem, we apply the semiclassical method to the static field case for the energies above the ionization threshold where all classical trajectories contributing to the Green's function are real. Required trajectories are determined by solving the problem of finding initial velocity and traveling time corresponding to two position points. For the pure electric field case of two trajectories the semiclassical Green's function agrees very well with the exact Green's function. With the inclusion of the Coulomb field, the number of classical trajectories between two points grows rapidly and here we observe that the agreement between the semiclassical and exact Green's functions increases when more trajectories are included in the computation. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  7. 78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  8. 79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  9. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps. PMID:24730288

  10. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  11. Blue excitable green emitting Ce(3+) doped CaS phosphor for w-LEDs.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K; Poornachandra Rao, Nannapaneni V; Murthy, K V R

    2016-02-01

    CaS:Ce(3+) is an efficient green-emitting (535 nm) phosphor, excitable with blue light (450-470 nm) and was synthesized via a solid-state reaction method by heating under a reducing atmosphere. The luminescent properties, photoluminescent (PL) excitation and emission of the phosphor were analyzed by spectrofluorophotometry. The excitation and emission peaks of the CaS:Ce(3+) phosphor lay in the visible region, which made them relevant for light-emitting diode (LED) application for the generation of white light. Judd-Oflet parameters were calculated and revealed that green light emitted upon blue illumination. The prepared phosphor had strong blue absorption at 470 nm and a broad green emission band range from 490-590 nm with the peak at 537 nm. The characteristics of the CaS:Ce(3+) phosphor make it suitable for use as a wavelength tunable green emitting phosphor for three band white LEDs pumped by a blue LED (470 nm). The Commission International de l'Eclairage co-ordinates were calculated by a spectrophotometric method using the spectral energy distribution (0.304, 0.526) and confirm the green emission. The potential application of this phosphor is as a phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode. PMID:26032015

  12. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  13. Green Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu

    2013-10-01

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 "green valley" galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV-r + color is used to define "green valley"; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M 20 planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ10) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M * < 1010.0 M ⊙ green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M * < 1010.0 M ⊙ blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  14. View northwest across town green showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest across town green showing residential and commercial buildings on the north side of North Green Road adjacent to the Town Hall (to the east) - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. Analytical Methods for Malachite Green : Completion Report : Malachite Green Analysis in Water.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, Jane E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1991-06-01

    Malachite green is a known teratogen and therefore its use is limited to nonfood fish under an Investigational New Animal Drug permit (INAD), number 2573. Although a charcoal adsorption column was developed to remove malachite green from hatchery water, INAD compliance requires that the malachite green residue concentrations in any effluent from hatcheries using the chemical be quantified. Therefore, we developed a method for the analysis of malachite green residues in water. Enrichment of the residues of malachite green in water on a diol column followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis gives a minimum sensitivity of less than 10 ppb for the chemical. When combined with post-column oxidation using a lead oxide post-column reactor, the procedure can be used for the simultaneous analysis of malachite green in its leuco form, a decomposition product of the dye, as well as its chromatic form. Recovery of the leuco form is pH dependent and water samples should be adjusted to pH 6 to optimize recovery of this form. Water samples spiked with malachite green were concentrated on a diol column followed by elution with 0.05 M p-toluene sulfonic acid in methanol. The methanol elutes were analyzed by HPLC. Pond water samples spiked with malachite green and leuco malachite green yielded average recoveries of 95.4% for malachite green and 57.3% for leuco malachite green. Tap water samples spiked with the carbinol form of malachite green gave average recoveries of 98.6%. The method is very sensitive and is capable of detecting malachite green residues in water at less than 10 ppb. Fish culturists, who cannot find an effective replacement for malachite green, can utilize the method to ensure that their effluents comply with INAD regulations. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Solar Guide and Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazria, Edward; Winitsky, David

    This guide provides users with a basic understanding of where and how the sun works in relation to a building and site and provides a simplified method of calculating sun angles and the available heat energy from the sun on vertical and horizontal surfaces. (Author/IRT)

  17. Calendrical Calculation and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Neil; Cowan, Richard; Samella, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    Studied the ability to name the days of the week for dates in the past and future (calendrical calculation) of 10 calendrical savants with Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale scores from 50 to 97. Results suggest that although low intelligence does not prevent the development of this skill, the talent depends on general intelligence. (SLD)

  18. Calculation of enviromental indices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the development of environmental indices. These indices were developed to be a quantitative measure of characterizing how TVA power system operations and alternative energy strategies might affect the environment. All indices were calculated relative to the reference strategy, and for the environmental review, the reference strategy was `no action`.

  19. Problem Solving Using Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Karen; Moursund, David

    1978-01-01

    The first part in the serialized version of a book on the use of calculators for problem solving is presented. It contains prefaces for teachers and students and a chapter on getting started which includes topics such as symmetries, operations, powers, and chaining. (MP)

  20. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Schaffner, P. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Gilreath, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for numerically calculating radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas using the Volumetric Pattern Analysis Program is presented. Special attention is given to aircraft modeling. An actual case study involving a large commercial aircraft is included to illustrate the analysis procedure.

  1. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagherian, A. B.; Mielke, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Use of calculation program START and modeling program P 3D to produce radiation patterns of antennas mounted on a space station is discussed. Basic components of two space stations in the early design stage are simulated and radiation patterns for antennas mounted on the modules are presented.

  2. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Owens, T. M.; Mielke, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Calculated principal-and off-principal plane patterns are presented for the following aircraft: de Havilland DHC-7, Rockwell Sabreliner 75A, Piper PA-31T Cheyenne, Lockheed Jet Star II, Piper PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftain, Beechcraft Duke B60, Rockwell Commander 700, Cessna Citation 3, Piper PA-31P Pressurized Navajo, Lear Jet, and Twin Otter DHC-6.

  3. Nonperturbative QCD Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellby, Niklas

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is an exact transformation of the Yang-Mills quantum chromodynamics (QCD) Lagrangrian into a form that is suitable for nonperturbative calculations. The conventional Yang-Mills Lagrangian has proven to be an excellent basis for perturbative calculations, but in nonperturbative calculations it is difficult to separate gauge problems from physical properties. To mitigate this problem, I develop a new equivalent Lagrangian that is not only expressed completely in terms of the field strengths ofthe gauge field but is also manifestly Lorentz and gauge invariant. The new Lagrangian is quadratic in derivatives, with non-linear local couplings, thus it is ideally suited for a numerical calculation. The field-strength Lagrangian is of such a form that it is possible to do a straightforward numerical stationary path expansion and find the fundamental QCD properties. This thesis examines several approximations analytically, investigating different ways to utilize the new Lagrangian. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  4. Water vapor pressure calculation.

    PubMed

    Hall, J R; Brouillard, R G

    1985-06-01

    Accurate calculation of water vapor pressure for systems saturated with water vapor can be performed using the Goff-Gratch equation. A form of the equation that can be adapted for computer programming and for use in electronic databases is provided. PMID:4008425

  5. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  6. A Specific Calculating Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…

  7. Curvature calculations with GEOCALC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussiaux, A.; Tombal, Ph.

    1987-04-01

    A new method for calculating the curvature tensor has been recently proposed by D. Hestenes. This method is a particular application of geometric calculus, which has been implemented in an algebraic programming language on the form of a package called GEOCALC. We show how to apply this package to the Schwarzchild case and we discuss the different results.

  8. Curvature calculations with GEOCALC

    SciTech Connect

    Moussiaux, A.; Tombal, P.

    1987-04-01

    A new method for calculating the curvature tensor has been recently proposed by D. Hestenes. This method is a particular application of geometric calculus, which has been implemented in an algebraic programming language on the form of a package called GEOCALC. They show how to apply this package to the Schwarzchild case and they discuss the different results.

  9. Tunnel closure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.; Attia, A.

    1995-07-01

    When a deeply penetrating munition explodes above the roof of a tunnel, the amount of rubble that falls inside the tunnel is primarily a function of three parameters: first the cube-root scaled distance from the center of the explosive to the roof of the tunnel. Second the material properties of the rock around the tunnel, and in particular the shear strength of that rock, its RQD (Rock Quality Designator), and the extent and orientation of joints. And third the ratio of the tunnel diameter to the standoff distance (distance between the center of explosive and the tunnel roof). The authors have used CALE, a well-established 2-D hydrodynamic computer code, to calculate the amount of rubble that falls inside a tunnel as a function of standoff distance for two different tunnel diameters. In particular they calculated three of the tunnel collapse experiments conducted in an iron ore mine near Kirkeness, Norway in the summer of 1994. The failure model that they used in their calculations combines an equivalent plastic strain criterion with a maximum tensile strength criterion and can be calibrated for different rocks using cratering data as well as laboratory experiments. These calculations are intended to test and improve the understanding of both the Norway Experiments and the ACE (Array of conventional Explosive) phenomenology.

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei.

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S. C.; Physics

    2008-01-01

    Variational Monte Carlo and Green's function Monte Carlo are powerful tools for cal- culations of properties of light nuclei using realistic two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (NNN) potentials. Recently the GFMC method has been extended to multiple states with the same quantum numbers. The combination of the Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Illinois-2 three-nucleon potentials gives a good prediction of many energies of nuclei up to 12 C. A number of other recent results are presented: comparison of binding energies with those obtained by the no-core shell model; the incompatibility of modern nuclear Hamiltonians with a bound tetra-neutron; difficulties in computing RMS radii of very weakly bound nuclei, such as 6He; center-of-mass effects on spectroscopic factors; and the possible use of an artificial external well in calculations of neutron-rich isotopes.

  11. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  12. Electromagnetic Response of 12C: A First-Principles Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovato, A.; Gandolfi, S.; Carlson, J.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.

    2016-08-01

    The longitudinal and transverse electromagnetic response functions of 12C are computed in a "first-principles" Green's function Monte Carlo calculation, based on realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions and associated one- and two-body currents. We find excellent agreement between theory and experiment and, in particular, no evidence for the quenching of the measured versus calculated longitudinal response. This is further corroborated by a reanalysis of the Coulomb sum rule, in which the contributions from the low-lying Jπ=2+, 02+ (Hoyle), and 4+ states in 12 are accounted for explicitly in evaluating the total inelastic strength.

  13. Electromagnetic Response of ^{12}C: A First-Principles Calculation.

    PubMed

    Lovato, A; Gandolfi, S; Carlson, J; Pieper, Steven C; Schiavilla, R

    2016-08-19

    The longitudinal and transverse electromagnetic response functions of ^{12}C are computed in a "first-principles" Green's function Monte Carlo calculation, based on realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions and associated one- and two-body currents. We find excellent agreement between theory and experiment and, in particular, no evidence for the quenching of the measured versus calculated longitudinal response. This is further corroborated by a reanalysis of the Coulomb sum rule, in which the contributions from the low-lying J^{π}=2^{+}, 0_{2}^{+} (Hoyle), and 4^{+} states in ^{12}C are accounted for explicitly in evaluating the total inelastic strength. PMID:27588850

  14. THE EFFECT OF INCREASING TEMPERATURE ON K-EFF FOR FISSILE MATERIAL OUTSIDE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, S.

    2009-06-09

    Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluations typically employ room temperature cross sections, material densities, and dimensions. Processes that have been and are in development for conversion of legacy wastes in tanks, e.g., Waste Treatment Project (WTP) at the Hanford Remediation Site and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, utilize melters that operate at elevated temperatures, 1500 to 1900 C. The applicability of room temperature data to processes such as these has been questioned. Also questioned was the applicability of room temperature data for the analyses across the Savannah River Site (SRS) where the temperature may be elevated, such as in a postulated fire. This analysis was performed to examine the effect of temperature over the relatively small range encountered in normal and abnormal operations at SRS that does not include DWPF melters. This analysis documented herein is limited to fast systems of fissile metal and oxide cylinders on concrete at temperatures no greater than 640 C, the melting point of plutonium. Because thermal expansion data for various types of structural materials was not readily available, structural materials were not included in the analysis.

  15. Relation of the green coronal line intensity to sunspot areas and magnetic fields of different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalyan, O. G.; Bludova, N. G.

    2014-07-01

    The intensity of Fe XIV 530.3-nm green coronal line is compared quantitatively with the strength of magnetic fields of small and large scales and also with total sunspot areas for 1977-2001. A degree of similarity of appropriate synoptic maps is evaluated using correlation analysis. The green line intensity maps are constructed from data of its daily monitoring. Strengths of magnetic fields are calculated in a potential approximation using the photosphere observations of Wilcox Solar Observatory for a distance of 1.1 The calculations are performed separately for fields of large and small spatial scales. The total area of sunspots is obtained using data from the Greenwich Catalogue and its continuation by USAF/NOAA. The correlation has been calculated for the aggregate of areas (with a size of 20° in latitude and 30° in longitude) coinciding spatially on all maps. It is found that the most correlation between the green line intensity and coronal fields of small scales is observed in a zone of 0°-20°. The correlation with total sunspot areas (i.e., with local fields at the photosphere level) is substantially less here. In the higher-latitude zone 20°-40°, correlation of the green-line intensity with spot areas and small-scale coronal fields decreases. The large-scale fields have little influence on the green-line emission in the spot-formation zone. These results are the evidence of a complex nature of the effect of different-scale fields, arising as a result of dynamo activity in the subsurface (leptocline) and deep-lying (tachocline) layers of the convective zone, on the processes of the Sun's corona heating and green coronal line emission.

  16. Electrocardiogram analysis of the normal unanesthetized green peafowl (Pavo muticus).

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, H; Hojjati, P; Zarei, H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe normal electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns and values in unanesthetized green peafowl (Pavo muticus). The standard bipolar and augmented unipolar limb leads ECGs were recorded in the birds. The waveforms were analyzed in all leads at 50 mm/sec and at 10 mm = 1 mV to determine P, PR (segment and interval), QRS, ST, QT durations, P, net QRS complex and T amplitudes. The polarity of each waveform was tabulated in all leads. The mean electrical axis (MEA) for the frontal plane was calculated using leads II and III. The mean heart rates were calculated from lead II that was 257.5 ± 5.33 beats/min. The P wave was dominantly positive in all leads. The dominant pattern of waveforms of the QRS complexes were QS in leads II, III, and aVF. In leads I, aVR and aVL, the R pattern was dominant. The T wave was almost positive in leads I, II, and aVF. The average value of the heart MEA was -96.75 ± 3.31°. Description of normal ECG parameters will facilitate a better realizing of ECG changes of unhealthy green peafowls. PMID:21971912

  17. Test Design Calculations II

    SciTech Connect

    Gerassimenko, M.

    2000-07-27

    In an earlier report, we presented results of modeling calculations for one simple geometry that represents an experiment potentially to be performed at Sandia National Laboratory, which is examining equation of state issues of interest to the National Missile Defense Program. In the earlier report, we showed snapshots of calculations with two different initial zone dimensions for Gruneisen EOS and LEOS. We also showed pressure profiles at various locations in a witness plate out of the way of direct projectile impact, but hit by shrapnel generated during impact. It was found that the pressure profiles exhibit strong dependence on location, zone size, and equation of state. In this report we examine the overall momentum impacted to the witness plate. This momentum shows negligible dependence on the equation of state and some dependence on zone size.

  18. ETC: Exposure Time Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Gehrels, Neil; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey; Rhodes, Jason; Wang, Yun; Zoubian, Julien

    2013-11-01

    Written for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) high-latitude survey, the exposure time calculator (ETC) works in both imaging and spectroscopic modes. In addition to the standard ETC functions (e.g. background and S/N determination), the calculator integrates over the galaxy population and forecasts the density and redshift distribution of galaxy shapes usable for weak lensing (in imaging mode) and the detected emission lines (in spectroscopic mode). The program may be useful outside of WFIRST but no warranties are made regarding its suitability for general purposes. The software is available for download; IPAC maintains a web interface for those who wish to run a small number of cases without having to download the package.

  19. CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Romanos

    1995-03-10

    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  20. Nuclear Material Variance Calculation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-01-01

    MAVARIC (Materials Accounting VARIance Calculations) is a custom spreadsheet that significantly reduces the effort required to make the variance and covariance calculations needed to determine the detection sensitivity of a materials accounting system and loss of special nuclear material (SNM). The user is required to enter information into one of four data tables depending on the type of term in the materials balance (MB) equation. The four data tables correspond to input transfers, output transfers,more » and two types of inventory terms, one for nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements and one for measurements made by chemical analysis. Each data entry must contain an identification number and a short description, as well as values for the SNM concentration, the bulk mass (or solution volume), the measurement error standard deviations, and the number of measurements during an accounting period. The user must also specify the type of error model (additive or multiplicative) associated with each measurement, and possible correlations between transfer terms. Predefined spreadsheet macros are used to perform the variance and covariance calculations for each term based on the corresponding set of entries. MAVARIC has been used for sensitivity studies of chemical separation facilities, fuel processing and fabrication facilities, and gas centrifuge and laser isotope enrichment facilities.« less

  1. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator.

    PubMed

    Tina, K G; Bhadra, R; Srinivasan, N

    2007-07-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic-aromatic interactions, aromatic-sulphur interactions and cation-pi interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar-apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside. PMID:17584791

  2. Toward green dialysis: focus on water savings.

    PubMed

    Ponson, Laurent; Arkouche, Walid; Laville, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Hemodialysis is one of the most water and energy-hungry medical procedures, and thus represents a clear opportunity where improvements should be made concerning the consumption and wastage of water. Three levels were investigated on which there are potential savings: the precise adjustment of water production according to specific needs, the reuse of reverse osmosis rejected water, and finally the huge volumes of post-patient dialysate effluent. The "AURAL" (Association pour l'Utilisation du Rein Artificiel à Lyon), main unit in Lyon, was the site of investigation for this study, which cares for 173 chronic hemodialysis patients. Evaluation of the 3 levels described earlier was undertaken on this particular building, and on the water treatment currently used. Volumes of produced water can be improved by different hydraulic systems or by adjusting the pure water conductivity used for dialysis. Concerning the reject water, reuse for building sanitation became the focus of further attention. The technical feasibility, volume of saved water, and applicable work costs were considered. The results suggest that out of a possible 2834 m(3)/year of reject water, 1200 m(3)/year may be reused and return on investment recovered within 5.8 years. Finally, the reprocessing and feasibility of reuse of dialysate effluent were investigated. Initial calculations show that although technical solutions are available, such processing of the wastewater production is not profitable in the short term. Regarding the significant prior authorization and risk management analysis necessary for such a project, this avenue was pursued no further. From the perspective of a "green dialysis," the reuse of reject water into sanitation is both viable and profitable in our unit, and must be the next step of our project. More widely, improvements can be made by defining a more precise range of pure water conductivity for dialysis and by applying reuse water project to new or to be renovated units

  3. Green Chemistry: An Introductory Text (Mike Lancaster)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosan, Alan M.

    2003-10-01

    With the unrealistic and irreconcilable choice of either technical or environmental performance still dominating the consumer view, the need for green teaching, green thinking, and green practice is paramount. Replete with extensive and varied examples, detailed analyses, and critical comparisons, this text is an important contribution to the training of future chemists and chemical engineers who will need to work together to plan and conduct syntheses requiring atom economy, energy efficiency, waste minimization, safe reactor design and operation all linked by an overarching environmental ethic. If these laudable goals are ever attained it will be as a consequence of the insightful knowledge and forthright teachings of texts like this one.

  4. Chlorella: 125 years of the green survivalist.

    PubMed

    Krienitz, Lothar; Huss, Volker A R; Bock, Christina

    2015-02-01

    Chlorella, the archetype of unicellular green algae, is a high-performance primary producer in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Under the simple spherical morphology of Chlorella, many other 'green balls' unfolded as independent phylogenetic lineages as a result of convergent evolution. By contrast, green algae with strikingly different phenotypes were unmasked as close relatives of Chlorella by modern molecular techniques. Here, we point to the increasing impact of these diverse protists on ecology, evolution, and biotechnology in the light of integrative taxonomy. PMID:25500553

  5. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-10-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  6. Green Campus initiative and its impacts on quality of life of stakeholders in Green and Non-Green Campus universities.

    PubMed

    Tiyarattanachai, Ronnachai; Hollmann, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Universitas Indonesia (UI) developed the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking for universities to share information about their sustainability practices. This ranking system was well aligned with the basis of Sustainability for Higher Education. The scoring system can also be used as a guideline for universities to achieve sustainability in their campuses. Since its first launch, more universities around the world have increasingly participated in the ranking system including many universities in Thailand. This study compared perception of stakeholders in Green Campus and Non-Green Campus universities in Thailand regarding stakeholders' satisfaction on sustainability practices and perceived quality of life at their campuses. The results showed that stakeholders at the studied Green Campus University were more satisfied and had significantly better perceived quality of life compared to stakeholders from the studied Non-Green Campus university. The results suggested that universities should adopt the criteria set in the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking to achieve better sustainability in their campuses and improve quality of life of their stakeholders. PMID:26848424

  7. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  8. Green nanoparticles for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  9. Dynamic indocyanine green angiography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Timothy; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Larkin, Sean; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Dynamic indocyanine green imaging uses a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a fluorescent dye to produce movies of the dye-filling pattern in the retina and choroid of the eye. It is used for evaluating choroidal neovascularization. Movies are examined to identify the anatomy of the pathology for planning treatment and to evaluate progression or response to treatment. The popularity of this approach is affected by the complexity and difficulty in interpreting the movies. Software algorithms were developed to produce images from the movies that are easy to interpret. A mathematical model is formulated of the flow dynamics, and a fitting algorithm is designed that solves for the flow parameters. The images provide information about flow and perfusion, including regions of change between examinations. Imaged measures include the dye fill-time, temporal dispersion, and magnitude of the dye dilution temporal curves associated with image pixels. Cases show how the software can help to identify clinically relevant anatomy such as feeder vessels, drain vessels, capillary networks, and normal choroidal draining vessels. As a potential tool for research into the character of neovascular conditions and treatments, it reveals the flow dynamics and character of the lesion. Future varieties of this methodology may be used for evaluating the success of engineered tissue transplants, surgical flaps, reconstructive surgery, breast surgery, and many other surgical applications where flow, perfusion, and vascularity of tissue are important.

  10. Brownian dynamics without Green's functions

    SciTech Connect

    Delong, Steven; Donev, Aleksandar; Usabiaga, Florencio Balboa; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Griffith, Boyce E.

    2014-04-07

    We develop a Fluctuating Immersed Boundary (FIB) method for performing Brownian dynamics simulations of confined particle suspensions. Unlike traditional methods which employ analytical Green's functions for Stokes flow in the confined geometry, the FIB method uses a fluctuating finite-volume Stokes solver to generate the action of the response functions “on the fly.” Importantly, we demonstrate that both the deterministic terms necessary to capture the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles, as well as the stochastic terms necessary to generate the hydrodynamically correlated Brownian motion, can be generated by solving the steady Stokes equations numerically only once per time step. This is accomplished by including a stochastic contribution to the stress tensor in the fluid equations consistent with fluctuating hydrodynamics. We develop novel temporal integrators that account for the multiplicative nature of the noise in the equations of Brownian dynamics and the strong dependence of the mobility on the configuration for confined systems. Notably, we propose a random finite difference approach to approximating the stochastic drift proportional to the divergence of the configuration-dependent mobility matrix. Through comparisons with analytical and existing computational results, we numerically demonstrate the ability of the FIB method to accurately capture both the static (equilibrium) and dynamic properties of interacting particles in flow.

  11. Velocity Based Modulus Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    A new set of equations are derived for the modulus of elasticity E and the bulk modulus K which are dependent only upon the seismic wave propagation velocities Vp, Vs and the density ρ. The three elastic moduli, E (Young's modulus), the shear modulus μ (Lamé's second parameter) and the bulk modulus K are found to be simple functions of the density and wave propagation velocities within the material. The shear and elastic moduli are found to equal the density of the material multiplied by the square of their respective wave propagation-velocities. The bulk modulus may be calculated from the elastic modulus using Poisson's ratio. These equations and resultant values are consistent with published literature and values in both magnitude and dimension (N/m2) and are applicable to the solid, liquid and gaseous phases. A 3D modulus of elasticity model for the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault is presented using data from the wavespeed model of Thurber et al. [2006]. A sharp modulus gradient is observed across the fault at seismic depths, confirming that "variation in material properties play a key role in fault segmentation and deformation style" [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 1993] [EPM93]. The three elastic moduli E, μ and K may now be calculated directly from seismic pressure and shear wave propagation velocities. These velocities may be determined using conventional seismic reflection, refraction or transmission data and techniques. These velocities may be used in turn to estimate the density. This allows velocity based modulus calculations to be used as a tool for geophysical analysis, modeling, engineering and prospecting.

  12. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  13. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kaiser, Marshall

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  14. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  15. Green Energy: Advancing Bio-Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, D.

    2007-07-01

    Developing a model of metabolism linked to H2 production in green algae. Develop tools for parameter discovery and optimization at organism level and advance knowledge of hydrogen-producting photosynthetic organisms.

  16. NASA Now: Biology: Extreme Green Biofuels

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn what makes something a “green” technology, how scientists are using climactic adaptation in their research and what aspects of plants NASA is most interested in for generating biofuel.

  17. Village Green Project and Air Sensor Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation for the OAQPS Teachers Workshop. Will provide a background overview on the Village Green Project and our air sensor kit for outreach, then have the teachers try putting it together.

  18. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  19. Green Channel Guiding Denoising on Bayer Image

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Maojun

    2014-01-01

    Denoising is an indispensable function for digital cameras. In respect that noise is diffused during the demosaicking, the denoising ought to work directly on bayer data. The difficulty of denoising on bayer image is the interlaced mosaic pattern of red, green, and blue. Guided filter is a novel time efficient explicit filter kernel which can incorporate additional information from the guidance image, but it is still not applied for bayer image. In this work, we observe that the green channel of bayer mode is higher in both sampling rate and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) than the red and blue ones. Therefore the green channel can be used to guide denoising. This kind of guidance integrates the different color channels together. Experiments on both actual and simulated bayer images indicate that green channel acts well as the guidance signal, and the proposed method is competitive with other popular filter kernel denoising methods. PMID:24741370

  20. Rangefinder Metrology for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. A.; Creager, R. E.; Parker, D. H.; Payne, J. A.

    A scanning laser rangefinder metrology system for the 100 meter Green Bank Telescope is described. Use of this system for correction of the primary reflector's shape and pointing of the telescope is described.

  1. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  2. Green Buildings in Use: Post Occupancy Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This article briefly describes users' experiences of two "green" education buildings. It goes on to conclude that stakeholders' negotiation of building performance is necessary to minimise environmental impact, just as it is necessary to achieve other aspects of building performance.

  3. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the

  4. Calculation of Electron Trajectories

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-06-01

    EGUN, the SLAC Electron Trajectory Program, computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child''s Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified initial conditions for each ray, and a combination of Child''s Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using arbitrary configuration of coils, or the outputmore » of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields.« less

  5. Familiarization and Detection of Green Monopropellants Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) are green monopropellants which will be appearing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for processing in the next few years. These are relatively safe replacements for hydrazine as a monopropellant; however, little is known about methods of leak detection, vapor scrubbing, air emissions, or cleanup that will be required for safe and environmentally benign operations at KSC. The goal of this work is to develop leak detection and related technologies for the two new green monopropellants.

  6. Global Greening Is Firm, Drivers Are Mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P.; Meyfroidt, P.; Ausubel, J. H.; Graven, H. D.; Birdsey, R.; Posch, M.; Wernick, I.; Myneni, R. B.; Stenberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for global greening is converging, asserting an increase in CO2 uptake and biomass of the terrestrial biosphere. Global greening refers to global net increases in the area of green canopy, stocks of carbon, and the duration of the growing season. The growing seasons in general have prolonged while the stock of biomass carbon has increased and the rate of deforestation has decelerated, although these trends are mixed in the Tropics. Evidence for these trends comes from firm empirical data obtained through atmospheric CO2 observations, remote sensing, forest inventories and land use statistics. The drivers of global greening cannot be assessed based only on unambiguous empirical measurements. They include spatially and temporally heterogeneous combinations of changing land use and management - including green revolution and increasing yields, afforestation, forest protection and management, and abandonment of agricultural land -, changes in the global environment (increased CO2, warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northern latitudes, acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle), and shifts in demand for forest and farm products. The global trade of biomass-derived commodities affects the link between consumption patterns and the land cover impact. Global greening confirms the immediacy of global change and may be associated with more or less biodiversity and diverse environmental and human consequences depending on local circumstances. Understanding causes, mechanisms, and implications of global greening requires integrated analyses spanning land use and management, demand for products of the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere and climate. Understanding the pace and drivers of global greening matters crucially for assessing the future of the terrestrial C sink; ecological, economic, social, and cultural assessments of the bio-economy; and the preservation of ecosystems.

  7. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  8. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, William; Vasquez, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

  9. Building green supply chains in eco-industrial parks towards a green economy: Barriers and strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jacqueline; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Kim, Hyunook; Linn, Jean H; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-01

    As suggested by UNEP, the key to sustainable development is to create a "green economy" which should encapsulate all three sectors: the industry, the people, and the government. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and implement the green technologies into the existing facilities, especially in the developing countries. In this study, the role of green supply chains in eco-industrial parks (EIPs) towards a green economy was investigated. The strategies and effective evaluation procedures of the green economy were proposed by assessing the barriers from the perspective of institution, regulation, technology, and finance. In addition, three case studies from iron and steel-making, paper mill and pulping, and petrochemical industries were presented and illustrated for building the green supply chains. For example, in the case of Lin-Hai Industrial Park, a total of 15 efficient green supply chains using waste-to-resources technologies were established by 2012, resulting in an economic benefit of USD 100 million per year. It suggests that the green supply chains should be established to achieve both economic growth and environmental protection. With these successful experiences, building a green supply chain within industrial park should be extensively promoted to make traditional industries around the world being environmentally bearable, economic viable, and social equitable. PMID:26241931

  10. Why do green rods of frog and toad retinas look green?

    PubMed

    Govardovskii, Victor I; Reuter, Tom

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian “green” rods express a blue-sensitive cone visual pigment, and should look yellow. However,when observing them axially under microscope one sees them as green. We used single-cell microspectrophotometry (MSP) to reveal the basis of the perceived color of these photoreceptors. Conventional side-on MSP recording of the proximal cell segments reveals no selective longwave absorbing pigment explaining the green color. End-on MSP recording shows, in addition to the green rod visual pigment, an extra 2- to 4-fold attenuation being almost flat throughout the visible spectrum. This attenuation is absent in red (rhodopsin) rods, and vanishes in green rods when the retina is bathed in high-refractive media, and at wide illumination aperture. The same treatments change the color from green to yellow. It seems that the non-visual pigment attenuation is a result of slender green rod myoids operating as non-selective light guides. We hypothesize that narrow myoids, combined with photomechanical movements of melanin granules, allow a wide range of sensitivity regulation supporting the operation of green rods as blue receptors at mesopic-to low-photopic illumination levels.End-on transmittance spectrum of green rods looks similar to the reflectance spectrum of khaki military uniforms. So their greenness is the combined result of optics and human color vision. PMID:25015297

  11. Non-equilibrium Green function method: theory and application in simulation of nanometer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Van-Nam

    2014-09-01

    We review fundamental aspects of the non-equilibrium Green function method in the simulation of nanometer electronic devices. The method is implemented into our recently developed computer package OPEDEVS to investigate transport properties of electrons in nano-scale devices and low-dimensional materials. Concretely, we present the definition of the four real-time Green functions, the retarded, advanced, lesser and greater functions. Basic relations among these functions and their equations of motion are also presented in detail as the basis for the performance of analytical and numerical calculations. In particular, we review in detail two recursive algorithms, which are implemented in OPEDEVS to solve the Green functions defined in finite-size opened systems and in the surface layer of semi-infinite homogeneous ones. Operation of the package is then illustrated through the simulation of the transport characteristics of a typical semiconductor device structure, the resonant tunneling diodes.

  12. DOE's Public Database for Green Building Case Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D. B.

    2003-11-01

    To help capture valuable information on''green building'' case studies, the U.S. Department of Energy has created an online database for collecting, standardizing, and disseminating information about high-performance, green projects. Type of information collected includes green features, design processes, energy performance, and comparison to other high-performance, green buildings.

  13. Study on Green Supply Chain Management Based on Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jiang; Li-jun, Zhou

    The article starts with circular economy and the connotation of green supply chain, then analyzes the difference between green supply chain and traditional supply chain and elaborates the content of green supply chain management. On that basis, the approach to implement green supply chain management in china shall be put forward.

  14. Status Analysis of "Green School" Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhiyan, Jiao; Hongying, Zeng

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the status analysis of "green school" development in China. In this article, the authors give a basic background of "green school" development in China, as well as the status of "green school" in China based on submitted materials. They discuss the satisfactory and inadequate areas of the "green school" as analyzed and…

  15. Greening Community Colleges: An Environmental Path to Improving Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kimberly R.; Pleasants, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The emerging and expanding green economy has the potential to create not just jobs, but career opportunities across the United States as green manufacturing, green products, and green services fuel demand for workers at all skill levels. Community colleges are leading the way in defining and addressing these opportunities. They are: developing…

  16. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezey, B.; Houston, A.

    1998-02-01

    This document is the second in a series of information briefs on green power marketing activity in the United States. It includes descriptions of utility green pricing programs, green power marketing activity, retail access legislation and pilot programs, and other data and information supporting the development of green power markets.

  17. Extended Green-Liouville asymptotics and vacuum polarization for lukewarm black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, Cormac; Ottewill, Adrian C.

    2010-10-15

    We consider a quantum field on a lukewarm black hole spacetime. We introduce a new uniform approximation to the radial equation, constructed using an extension of Green-Liouville asymptotics. We then use this new approximation to construct the renormalized vacuum polarization in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum. Previous calculations of the vacuum polarization rely on the WKB approximation to the solutions of the radial equation; however, the nonuniformity of the WKB approximations obscures the results of these calculations near both horizons. The use of our new approximation eliminates these obscurities, enabling us to obtain explicitly finite and easily calculable values of the vacuum polarization on the two horizons.

  18. Buoyant plume calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures.

  19. Bronchial reactivity in green coffee exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Skurić, Z; Butković, D

    1985-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and lung function were studied in nine coffee workers who complained of job related respiratory symptoms. Six described symptoms characteristic of occupational asthma. Lung function data showed obstructive changes mostly in the smaller airways with no impairment in diffusing capacity. Bronchoprovocation testing with green coffee allergen provoked immediate asthmatic reactions with acute reductions of ventilatory capacity in four workers. The relative fall in FEF25-75% (ranging from 28% to 66%) was greater than in FEV1 (ranging from 18% to 62% of the control values). Eight of the nine workers had an increased total IgE serum level; five had positive intradermal skin tests to green coffee allergen. Most of the six healthy subjects experimentally exposed to green coffee dust in the working environment showed an acute fall in flow rates on maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. These results indicate that bronchoprovocation with green coffee allergen or green coffee dust may be used to identify subjects sensitive to green coffee. PMID:4005196

  20. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    PubMed Central

    Reygaert, Wanda C.

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols) found in green tea: (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities. PMID:25191312

  1. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  2. [Ecological benefits of greening and related controlling factors in urban residential areas of Hangzhou: a quantitative analysis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Wen-yong; He, Yan-long; Jia, Yue

    2011-09-01

    Based on the 1 m x 1 m high resolution aerial images in 2007 and the 30 m x 30 m Landsat 5 TM images in summer 2007, and with the help of GIS and remote sensing image interpretation, this paper calculated the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) representing the overall ecological benefits of greening as well as the six controlling factors, i.e., multilayer structure height, area ratio of softness to hardness, greening rate, floor area ratio, greening area, and building density, in 30 typical urban residential quarters of west Hangzhou. The contributions of the controlling factors to the ecological benefits of greening as well as the quantitative relationships between the overall ecological benefits and the six controlling factors were analyzed by multiple linear regression and correspondence analysis, and some advises were given for the improvement of the ecological benefits. The contribution rate of the six factors was in the order of multilayer structure height > area ratio of softness to hardness > greening rate > floor area ratio > greening area > building density, and the contribution of multilayer structure height was far greater than that of the others whereas building density had the weakest effect on the ecological benefits. Correspondence analysis was effective in simplifying a complex data table into an intuitive two-dimensional chart, and thus, a potential powerful tool in decision-making for the improvement of ecological benefits of greening in urban residential quarters. PMID:22126052

  3. Compressibility of molten “green glass” and crystal-liquid density crossovers in low-Ti lunar magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Agee, C. B.

    1997-05-01

    Density measurements of molten Apollo 15 "green glass" have been performed in the pressure range 0.5-3.5 GPa using the floating and sinking spheres technique in piston-cylinder and multi-anvil devices. A density crossover with equilibrium orthopyroxene is predicted for green glass at 3.5 GPa, or ˜800 km depth in the lunar interior. Equilibrium olivine should be neutrally buoyant in molten green glass at a pressure slightly greater (5 GPa) than the lunar core value of ˜4.7 GPa. At the olivine-orthopyroxene cotectic (˜2.0 GPa), molten green glass is less dense than both crystalline phases. Thus, the results are consistent with models that propose generation and buoyant rise of green glass magma from the depth of the olivine-orthopyroxene cotectic in the lunar interior. Molten green glass has a compression curve slope of 0.093 g/cc/GPa, along the liquids, in the pressure range investigated. The values of the Birch-Murnaghan isothermal bulk modulus ( K) and the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus ( K') at 1645°C are described by the relationship K (GPa) =19.5/(1 - (0.25-0.063 K')). Combining this relationship with a calculated isothermal bulk modulus value of 18 GPa, derived from 1-atm ultrasonic measurements, gives K' = 5.3 for molten green glass.

  4. Topological invariants for interacting topological insulators. II. Breakdown of single-particle Green's function formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Topological phase transitions in free fermion systems can be characterized by the closing of single-particle gap and the change in topological invariants. However, in the presence of electronic interactions, topological phase transitions can be more complicated. In paper I of this series [Phys. Rev. B 93, 195163 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.195163], we have proposed an efficient scheme to evaluate the topological invariants based on the single-particle Green's function formalism. Here, in paper II, we demonstrate several interaction-driven topological phase transitions (TPTs) in two-dimensional (2D) interacting topological insulators (TIs) via large-scale quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations, based on the scheme of evaluating topological invariants presented in paper I. Across these transitions, the defining symmetries of the TIs have been neither explicitly nor spontaneously broken. In the first two models, the topological invariants calculated from the Green's function formalism succeed in characterizing the topologically distinct phases and identifying interaction-driven TPTs. However, in the other two models, we find that the single-particle gap does not close and the topological invariants constructed from the single-particle Green's function acquire no change across the TPTs. Unexpected breakdown of the Green's function formalism in constructing the topological invariants is thus discovered. We thence classify the topological phase transitions in interacting TIs into two categories in practical computation: Those that have noninteracting correspondence can be characterized successfully by the topological invariants constructed from the Green's functions, while for the others that do not have noninteracting correspondence, the Green's function formalism experiences a breakdown, but more interesting and exciting phenomena, such as emergent collective critical modes at the transition, arise. Discussion on the success and breakdown of topological invariants

  5. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Expert Meetings. Green Building Certification Systems review. --30 Minute public comment period for... ADMINISTRATION Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green... provides the schedule and agenda for the first meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee...

  6. NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce

  7. City of Austin: Green habitat learning project. A green builder model home project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the Year 14 UCETF project was to design and construct a residential structure that could serve as a demonstration facility, training site, and testing and monitoring laboratory for issues related to the implementation of sustainable building practices and materials. The Model Home Project builds on the previous and existing efforts, partially funded by the UCETF, of the City of Austin Green Builder Program to incorporate sustainable building practices into mainstream building activities. The Green Builder Program uses the term {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} as a synonym for sustainability. In the research and analysis that was completed for our earlier reports in Years 12 and 13, we characterized specific elements that we associate with sustainability and, thus, green building. In general, we refer to a modified life cycle assessment to ascertain if {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building options reflect similar positive cyclical patterns found in nature (i.e. recyclability, recycled content, renewable resources, etc.). We additionally consider economic, human health and synergistic ecological impacts associated with our building choices and characterize the best choices as {open_quotes}green.{close_quotes} Our ultimate goal is to identify and use those {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials and processes that provide well for us now and do not compromise similar benefits for future generations. The original partnership developed for this project shifted during the year from a project stressing advanced (many prototypical) {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building materials and techniques in a research and demonstration context, to off-the-shelf but underutilized {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials in the practical social context of using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technologies for low income housing. That project, discussed in this report, is called the Green Habitat Learning Project.

  8. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua R; Garrett, Aaron; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Yu

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance, roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The development of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics is very important in the history of physics, and it underlines the difficulty in dealing with systems involving many bodies, even if those bodies are identical. Macroscopic systems of atoms typically contain so many particles that it would be virtually impossible to follow the behavior of all of the particles involved. Therefore, the behavior of a complete system can only be described or predicted in statistical ways. Under a grant to the NASA Lewis Research Center, scientists at the Case Western Reserve University have been examining the use of modern computing techniques that may be able to investigate and find the behavior of complete systems that have a large number of particles by tracking each particle individually. This is the study of molecular dynamics. In contrast to Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporate uncertainty from the outset, molecular dynamics calculations are fully deterministic. Although it is still impossible to track, even on high-speed computers, each particle in a system of a trillion trillion particles, it has been found that such systems can be well simulated by calculating the trajectories of a few thousand particles. Modern computers and efficient computing strategies have been used to calculate the behavior of a few physical systems and are now being employed to study important problems such as supersonic flows in the laboratory and in space. In particular, an animated video (available in mpeg format--4.4 MB) was produced by Dr. M.J. Woo, now a National Research Council fellow at Lewis, and the G-VIS laboratory at Lewis. This video shows the behavior of supersonic shocks produced by pistons in enclosed cylinders by following exactly the behavior of thousands of particles. The major assumptions made were that the particles involved were hard spheres and that all collisions with the walls and with other particles were fully elastic. The animated video was voted one of two

  10. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance,more » roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.« less

  11. Calculating Trajectories And Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alderson, Daniel J.; Brady, Franklyn H.; Breckheimer, Peter J.; Campbell, James K.; Christensen, Carl S.; Collier, James B.; Ekelund, John E.; Ellis, Jordan; Goltz, Gene L.; Hintz, Gerarld R.; Legerton, Victor N.; Mccreary, Faith A.; Mitchell, Robert T.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Moultrie, Benjamin A.; Moyer, Theodore D.; Rinker, Sheryl L.; Ryne, Mark S.; Stavert, L. Robert; Sunseri, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    Double-Precision Trajectory Analysis Program, DPTRAJ, and Orbit Determination Program, ODP, developed and improved over years to provide highly reliable and accurate navigation capability for deep-space missions like Voyager. Each collection of programs working together to provide desired computational results. DPTRAJ, ODP, and supporting utility programs capable of handling massive amounts of data and performing various numerical calculations required for solving navigation problems associated with planetary fly-by and lander missions. Used extensively in support of NASA's Voyager project. DPTRAJ-ODP available in two machine versions. UNIVAC version, NPO-15586, written in FORTRAN V, SFTRAN, and ASSEMBLER. VAX/VMS version, NPO-17201, written in FORTRAN V, SFTRAN, PL/1 and ASSEMBLER.

  12. View northwest showing Brooklyn Green and Town Hall from just ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest showing Brooklyn Green and Town Hall from just souty of the intersection of Routes 6 and 169 in Brooklyn, Connecticut - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. Relationship between the brightness in the coronal green line and magnetic fields on various scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalyan, O. G.

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between the brightness in the FeXIV 530.3 nm coronal green line and magnetic fields on various scales in the corona is studied quantitatively. The cross-correlations of the corresponding synoptic maps for 1977-2001 have been calculated. Maps of the brightness of the coronal green line are constructed using daily monitoring data. Maps of the magnetic field are constructed separately for fields on large and small spatial scales, based on computations in a potential approximation using photospheric observations for distances of 1.1 R ⊙ carried out at the Wilcox Solar Observatory. The correlations between the brightness in the coronal green line and the magnetic-field strengths on various scales as a function of latitude have a cyclic character. The correlation coefficients in the spot-formation zone are positive. Here, the green-line brightness corresponds mainly to the strength of small-scale fields, corresponding to the sizes of large active regions and activity complexes. The correlation coefficients are sign-variable above 40° latitude, and reach their greatest positive and negative values at the cyclemaximum and minimum. Larger-scale fields influence the green-line brightness at higher latitudes and near the phase of the cycle minimum. The results obtained can be used to investigate mechanisms for heating the corona. The relationship between the results obtained and the subsurface and deep solar dynamos are also discussed.

  14. Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhiyong; Liebens, Johan; Rao, K Ranga

    2008-01-01

    Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, income and greenness in northwest Florida. Results Our study used an ecological geographical approach and dasymetric mapping technique. We adopted a Bayesian hierarchical model with a convolution prior considering five census tract specific covariates. A 95% credible set which defines an interval having a 0.95 posterior probability of containing the parameter for each covariate was calculated from Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations. The 95% credible sets are (-0.286, -0.097) for household income, (0.034, 0.144) for traffic air pollution effect, (0.419, 1.495) for emission density of monitored point source polluters, (0.413, 1.522) for simple point density of point source polluters without emission data, and (-0.289,-0.031) for greenness. Household income and greenness show negative effects (the posterior densities primarily cover negative values). Air pollution covariates have positive effects (the 95% credible sets cover positive values). Conclusion High risk of stroke mortality was found in areas with low income level, high air pollution level, and low level of exposure to green space. PMID:18452609

  15. DNA Barcoding Green Microalgae Isolated from Neotropical Inland Waters

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Sámed I. I. A.; Santana, Hugo; Brunale, Patrícia P. M.; Gomes, Taísa G.; Oliveira, Márcia D.; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Oliveira, Marcos E. C.; Silva, Flávia C. P.; Brasil, Bruno S. A. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large subunit gene (rbcL) and the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the nuclear rDNA (nuITS1 and nuITS2) markers for identifying a very diverse, albeit poorly known group, of green microalgae from neotropical inland waters. Fifty-one freshwater green microalgae strains isolated from Brazil, the largest biodiversity reservoir in the neotropics, were submitted to DNA barcoding. Currently available universal primers for ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplification were sufficient to successfully amplify and sequence 47 (92%) of the samples. On the other hand, new sets of primers had to be designed for rbcL, which allowed 96% of the samples to be sequenced. Thirty-five percent of the strains could be unambiguously identified to the species level based either on nuITS1 or nuITS2 sequences’ using barcode gap calculations. nuITS2 Compensatory Base Change (CBC) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region phylogenetic analysis, together with morphological inspection, confirmed the identification accuracy. In contrast, only 6% of the strains could be assigned to the correct species based solely on rbcL sequences. In conclusion, the data presented here indicates that either nuITS1 or nuITS2 are useful markers for DNA barcoding of freshwater green microalgae, with advantage for nuITS2 due to the larger availability of analytical tools and reference barcodes deposited at databases for this marker. PMID:26900844

  16. DNA Barcoding Green Microalgae Isolated from Neotropical Inland Waters.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sámed I I A; Santana, Hugo; Brunale, Patrícia P M; Gomes, Taísa G; Oliveira, Márcia D; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Oliveira, Marcos E C; Silva, Flávia C P; Brasil, Bruno S A F

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large subunit gene (rbcL) and the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the nuclear rDNA (nuITS1 and nuITS2) markers for identifying a very diverse, albeit poorly known group, of green microalgae from neotropical inland waters. Fifty-one freshwater green microalgae strains isolated from Brazil, the largest biodiversity reservoir in the neotropics, were submitted to DNA barcoding. Currently available universal primers for ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplification were sufficient to successfully amplify and sequence 47 (92%) of the samples. On the other hand, new sets of primers had to be designed for rbcL, which allowed 96% of the samples to be sequenced. Thirty-five percent of the strains could be unambiguously identified to the species level based either on nuITS1 or nuITS2 sequences' using barcode gap calculations. nuITS2 Compensatory Base Change (CBC) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region phylogenetic analysis, together with morphological inspection, confirmed the identification accuracy. In contrast, only 6% of the strains could be assigned to the correct species based solely on rbcL sequences. In conclusion, the data presented here indicates that either nuITS1 or nuITS2 are useful markers for DNA barcoding of freshwater green microalgae, with advantage for nuITS2 due to the larger availability of analytical tools and reference barcodes deposited at databases for this marker. PMID:26900844

  17. PLACE-BASED GREEN BUILDING: INTEGRATING LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL AND PLANNING ANALYSIS INTO GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will develop a model for place-based green building guidelines based on an analysis of local environmental, social, and land use conditions. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a methodology and model for placing green buildings within their local cont...

  18. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF GREEN CHEMISTRY VIA TRADITIONAL AND THERMODYNAMIC LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developments in Green Chemistry are expected to result in novel approaches that are more environmentally benign than traditional methods. Much of the research in green chemistry focuses on replacing toxic and hazardous substances such as solvents, catalysts and reaction media by...

  19. Special Issue on "Green Schools": Thoughts on Issues Concerning "Green Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuanzeng, Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to evaluate "green schools" that not only the standards and characteristics can be reflected on a regional basis, but also the ability to create such schools can be enhanced. The author also discusses the characteristics and connotative meaning of a "green school" and enumerates a list of common practical…

  20. Harvard University: Green Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Green Loan Fund at Harvard University has been an active source of capital for energy efficiency and waste reduction projects for almost a decade. This case study examines the revolving fund's history from its inception as a pilot project in the 1990s to its regeneration in the early 2000s to its current operations today. The green revolving…