I wonder what most people think when they hear of small children playing on computers in kindergarten. One can almost hear the responses: "Why should kindergarten children have to use computers?" Small children are using computers? It's much too earlyl" "At kindergarten children should be singing, playing games, and making mud pies!" A computer is the epitome of the artificial. If we really make a mess of things, humans will become slaves to computers. What can they be thinking, putting such things in kindergartens as a child's toy? Many people who think in this way have never touched a computer, and it often seems the case that these "emotional opponents" are opposed to them only because of their own preconceptions. There is still a preconception that" a computer = a square machine like a TV with lots of difficult-looking keys". Computers are now in virtually all of the electronic appliances we use every day, refrigerators, washing machines, vacuums and televisions, and we think nothing of it. We live each day using computers, but only the "square" computer invites such contempt. Why is this the case? On the other side, there are the "proactive endorsers", who think "Computers have spread thus far in society and schools, so we must let children become familiar with them from a very young age!" These people often seem to want to teach everyone everything. There is much to know about the image and use of computers. They seem to think that if adults don't teach them, children won't understand anything. On this point, they are at the same level as the "emotional opponents", in that they conceive of computers as being something out of the ordinary. PMID:10770080
Murphy, B. S.; de Silva, S. L.; Takarada, S.; Schmitt, A. K.
Crystal-rich (40-50 vol.-%) intermediate to silicic lava has been the primary eruptive product of several recent hazardous eruptions: Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines (1991), Soufriere Hills, Montserrat (1995-present), and Unzen, Japan (1990-1995). Despite this association with such devastating eruptions, the formation, timing, and evacuation of such magmas is not well understood: do such eruptions tap a long-lived, multi-cycle crystal mush, or, is it generated in a single magmatic cycle prior to eruption? We are exploring these questions at the Unzen Volcanic Complex, Nagasaki-ken, Japan where a 500 ka history of crystal-rich dacitic dome eruptions has built the Unzen Volcanic Complex. Previous studies (e.g. Nakamura, 1995) have demonstrated the role of mafic recharge in rejuvenating crystal mush a few months prior to the most recent eruptions, but the history of the mush is unknown. Preliminary U-Th/U-Pb in zircon geochronology from the most recent eruption (Heisei-Shinzan; 1990-1995) and the 1792 dome collapse lava (Tenguyama; erupted 4.1±0.8 ka) reveal a complex history of individual zircons. Unpolished rims from the 1990-1995 eruption range in age from ~24.6 to 180 ka, while interior ages (on polished grains) are older, ranging from 60 to 200 ka. Zircons from Tenguyama record unpolished rim model ages of ca. 21 to 90 ka and interior ages of 37 to 225 ka. Rim-interior age differences range from 24 to 122 ka and 6 to 180 ka for Heisei-Shinzan and Tenguyama, respectively. No model ages younger than 20 ka have so far been determined. This leads to the hypothesis that eruptions at Unzen are tapping a long-lived, multi-cycle mush of significant longevity. Acquisition of additional U-Th/U-Pb data, including trace elements from other Unzen domes ranging in age back to 440 ka, is underway to test this hypothesis and more tightly link volcanism with subsurface processes.
Toda, Haruki; Nagano, Akinori; Luo, Zhiwei
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify whether walking speed affects acceleration variability of the head, lumbar, and lower extremity by simultaneously evaluating of acceleration. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty young individuals recruited from among the staff at Kurashiki Heisei Hospital participated in this study. Eight accelerometers were used to measure the head, lumbar and lower extremity accelerations. The participants were instructed to walk at five walking speeds prescribed by a metronome. Acceleration variability was assessed by a cross-correlation analysis normalized using z-transform in order to evaluate stride-to-stride variability. [Results] Vertical acceleration variability was the smallest in all body parts, and walking speed effect had laterality. Antero-posterior acceleration variability was significantly associated with walking speed at sites other than the head. Medio-lateral acceleration variability of the bilateral hip alone was smaller than the antero-posterior variability. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that the effect of walking speed changes on the stride-to-stride acceleration variability was individual for each body parts, and differs among directions. PMID:27390419
Do you remember an expert system? I think there are various impressions about the system. For example, some might say “It reminds me of old days”. On the other hand, some might say “It was really troublesome”. About 25 years ago, from late 1980s to the middle of 1990s, when the Showa era was about to change into the Heisei Era, artificial intelligence boomed. Research and development for an expert system which was equipped with expertise and worked as smart as expert, was advanced in various fields. Our company also picked up the system as the new system which covered weak point of conventional computer technology. We started research and development in 1984, and installed an expert system in a SCADA system, which started operating in March 1990 in the Fukuoka Integrated Control Center. In this essay, as an electric power engineer who involved in development at that time, I introduce the situation and travail story about developing an expert system which support restorative actions from the outage and overload condition of power networks.