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Sample records for kenkyu kaihatsu dai

  1. Database Access Integration Services (DAIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, P. . Sensor and System Development Center); Nordell, D. )

    1992-12-01

    The Database Access Integration Services (DAIS) is a collection of services that facilitate access to data among diverse data systems in an electric utility communications network. DAIS provides access to data in distributed, heterogeneous data systems that include relational database management systems, other database management systems, control systems, file systems, and application systems. It also provides a common method for describing data, common data access operations and essential support services including a data dictionary, a data directory and distributed data access management capabilities. The DAIS project has developed specifications intended for vendor and third-party implementation. The software developed is only to implement a data access integration demonstration. These specifications can serve as a basis for influencing industry standards development. One important consequence of this strategy is that most actual software development will be performed by vendors, not utilities. DAIS is a tool to support data access. It is policy neutral regarding issues such as local or central administration of data or standardization of information model contents (e.g., EPRI Plant Information Network). As a tool, it can be used to help realize such policies. The DAIS does not provide data storage facilities, schema integration, distributed query processing, distributed applications or cooperative processing. Rather, DAIS is complementary to these functions and can be used with other software that does provide these functions. This project documented the requirements for the DAIS. These requirements are the basis for design of the DAIS specifications. The key requirements for a DAIS are: Uniform access to heterogeneous utility data systems, remote update; coexistence with local data systems; local autonomy ; Security and access restriction enforcement; OSI compatibility; open architecture and extensibility; and operating platform independence.

  2. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    Designed to identify and quantify the potential impacts of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) on weapon system personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC), this study postulated a typical close-air-support (CAS) mission avionics suite to serve as a basis for comparing present day and DAIS configuration specifications. The purpose…

  3. DAI-CLIPS: Distributed, Asynchronous, Interacting CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagne, Denis; Garant, Alain

    1994-01-01

    DAI-CLIPS is a distributed computational environment within which each CLIPS is an active independent computational entity with the ability to communicate freely with other CLIPS. Furthermore, new CLIPS can be created, others can be deleted or modify their expertise, all dynamically in an asynchronous and independent fashion during execution. The participating CLIPS are distributed over a network of heterogeneous processors taking full advantage of the available processing power. We present the general framework encompassing DAI-CLIPS and discuss some of its advantages and potential applications.

  4. Database Access Integration Services (DAIS). Volume 2, Specification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, P.; Nordell, D.

    1992-12-01

    The Database Access Integration Services (DAIS) is a collection of services that facilitate access to data among diverse data systems in an electric utility communications network. DAIS provides access to data in distributed, heterogeneous data systems that include relational database management systems, other database management systems, control systems, file systems, and application systems. It also provides a common method for describing data, common data access operations and essential support services including a data dictionary, a data directory and distributed data access management capabilities. The DAIS project has developed specifications intended for vendor and third-party implementation. The software developed is only to implement a data access integration demonstration. These specifications can serve as a basis for influencing industry standards development. One important consequence of this strategy is that most actual software development will be performed by vendors, not utilities. DAIS is a tool to support data access. It is policy neutral regarding issues such as local or central administration of data or standardization of information model contents (e.g., EPRI Plant Information Network). As a tool, it can be used to help realize such policies. The DAIS does not provide data storage facilities, schema integration, distributed query processing, distributed applications or cooperative processing. Rather, DAIS is complementary to these functions and can be used with other software that does provide these functions. This project documented the requirements for the DAIS. These requirements are the basis for design of the DAIS specifications. The key requirements for a DAIS are: Uniform access to heterogeneous utility data systems, remote update; coexistence with local data systems; local autonomy ; Security and access restriction enforcement; OSI compatibility; open architecture and extensibility; and operating platform independence.

  5. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Training Requirements Analysis Model (TRAMOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The training requirements analysis model (TRAMOD) described in this report represents an important portion of the larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. TRAMOD is the second of three models that comprise an LCC impact modeling system for use in the early stages of system development. As…

  6. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost--Supplement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    This supplement to a technical report providing the results of a preliminary investigation of the potential impact of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept on system support personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC) includes: (1) additional details of the cost comparison of a hypothetical application of a conceptual…

  7. Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-09-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development resulted in the drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Because of the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. The downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design and downhole equipment installation was successfully achieved in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by the use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  8. Brief: Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-04-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development involved drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Owing to the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. Downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design, and downhole equipment was installed in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  9. Two modified Dai-Yuan nonlinear conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two modified versions of the Dai-Yuan (DY) nonlinear conjugate gradient method. One is based on the MBFGS method (Li and Fukushima, J Comput Appl Math 129:15-35, 2001) and inherits all nice properties of the DY method. Moreover, this method converges globally for nonconvex functions even if the standard Armijo line search is used. The other is based on the ideas of Wei et al. (Appl Math Comput 183:1341-1350, 2006), Zhang et al. (Numer Math 104:561-572, 2006) and possesses good performance of the Hestenes-Stiefel method. Numerical results are also reported.

  10. UCA{trademark}/DAIS{trademark} demonstration project by Kansas City Power and Light Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Kansas City Power and Light (KCPL) demonstrated the use of EPRI`s Utility Communication Architecture (UCA{trademark}) and Database Access Integrated Services (DAIS{trademark}) to provide KCPL employees seamless and transparent access to corporate data resources from their desktops. The major components of the KCPL project are client workstations with a Graphical User Interface which builds the necessary Structured Query Language (SQL) requests from the user`s data directory selections and provides a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) interface and programmer Application Program Interface (API). DAIS Directory Services provided data browsing and search capability and allows users to select data items for analysis. DAIS Servers provided database-related functions to both relational databases (customer data in Oracle) and non-relational data sources (PMAX performance monitoring system and PI historical database). The DAIS client software was provided by Automation Technology, Inc. (ATI); and the DAIS directory services software was provided by UNISYS. The Oracle DAIS server was provided by ATI, the PMAX non-relational DAIS server was developed by Black and Veatch, and the PI DAIS server was developed by ATI. The project was deemed a success as the corporate data was made available at the employee`s desktop for search and analysis, with the look and feel of a relational database, regardless of the source of the data.

  11. Integrating distributed data sources with OGSA-DAI DQP and VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Dobrzelecki, Bartosz; Krause, Amrey; Hume, Alastair C; Grant, Alistair; Antonioletti, Mario; Alemu, Tilaye Y; Atkinson, Malcolm; Jackson, Mike; Theocharopoulos, Elias

    2010-09-13

    OGSA-DAI (Open Grid Services Architecture Data Access and Integration) is a framework for building distributed data access and integration systems. Until recently, it lacked the built-in functionality that would allow easy creation of federations of distributed data sources. The latest release of the OGSA-DAI framework introduced the OGSA-DAI DQP (Distributed Query Processing) resource. The new resource encapsulates a distributed query processor, that is able to orchestrate distributed data sources when answering declarative user queries. The query processor has many extensibility points, making it easy to customize. We have also introduced a new OGSA-DAI Views resource that provides a flexible method for defining views over relational data. The interoperability of the two new resources, together with the flexibility of the OGSA-DAI framework, allows the building of highly customized data integration solutions. PMID:20679127

  12. Finding a New Vision of Gifted Education: An Interview with David Yun Dai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Zijiang lecture professor of education and psychology at East China Normal University. Dr. Dai has published seven books and over 70 journal articles, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, and book and…

  13. HySens-DAIS/ROSIS Imaging Spectrometers at DLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas A.; Hausold, Andrea; Strobl, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectroscopy has undergone a rapid development over the last decade. The number of research groups making use of this technology has increased by an order of a magnitude. Starting from the late 1980s at the DLR research center 'Oberpfaffenhofen' spectroscopic earth observation facilities have been continuously improved in order to be able to provide reliable imaging spectrometer data to the scientific community. At the current stage the integrated hyperspectral facilities at DLR Cluster for Applied Remote Sensing consists of the two imaging spectrometers DAIS 7915 and ROSIS, a laboratory calibration facility and the respective processing and archiving facilities. As an additional important factor in airborne remote sensing access to a DLR-own fleet of research aircraft (Dornier Do228, Cessna 208B Grand-Caravan, FALCON 20 E5 jet) is granted. Numerous imaging spectrometer campaigns have been carried out during the last years with flight activities all over Europe. Currently the two airborne imaging sensors are identified by the European Commission as a mayor research infrastructure and supported in a 3 year project. In the frame of this project hyperspectral data sets will be acquired over different test areas proposed by international research teams. In this paper the installation of the facility in an European research environment, the technical components as well as the currently ongoing research activities will be described. A list of already acquired data sets and the corresponding thematic applications is shown. An outlook to future improvements including new sensor initiatives is given.

  14. The significance of large variations in oil properties of the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Behrenbruch, P.; Du, P.Q.

    1995-10-01

    The Dai Hung Oil field, offshore Vietnam, is comprised of a complex subsurface structure containing stacked reservoir sequences typically found in many other Southeast Asian fields. Combined with areal fault compartmentalization, this situation has led to the observed, large variations in oil properties. Furthermore, the depositional environment in terms of burial history has created a unique overpressure situation which also had an affect, particularly on the crude saturation conditions of individual reservoirs. For commercial and technical reasons, this situation required a detailed analysis, both in terms of variation in crude assay and live oil properties. For whole crude properties: gravity, K factor, wax content and pour point-graphs were drawn up using a large data base of worldwide crudes against which the Dai Hung data could be validated. In case of PVT properties (bubble point and formation volume factor) existing industry correlations were examined. It could be concluded that the sweet, medium gravity and moderately waxy Dai Hung crude has whole crude properties which are comparable to other, similar crudes. The general framework of crude properties established is suitable to type other crudes, even if limited information is available. Of the existing PVT correlations tested, it was found that Standing`s correlation for the oil formation volume factor and the Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt correlation for the bubble point fitted the Dai Hung crude data the best. For the lower shrinkage Dai Hung crudes the Malaysian oil formation volume factor correlation by Omar-Todd gave the best data fit.

  15. Genetic and linguistic correlation of the Kra-Dai-speaking groups in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srithawong, Suparat; Srikummool, Metawee; Pittayaporn, Pittayawat; Ghirotto, Silvia; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Sun, Jie; Eisenberg, Arthur; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Kutanan, Wibhu

    2015-07-01

    The Kra-Dai linguistic family includes Thai and Lao as well as a great number of languages spoken by ethnic minorities in Southeast Asia. In Thailand, a dozen of other Kra-Dai languages are spoken in addition to Thai, the national language. The genetic structure of the Kra-Dai-speaking populations in Thailand has been studied extensively using uniparentally inherited markers. To extend this line of genetic investigation, this study used 15 autosomal microsatellites of 500 individuals from 11 populations, belonging to nine Kra-Dai ethnicities, namely, the Kaleung, Phu Thai, Saek, Nyo, Lao Isan, Yuan, Black Tai, Phuan and Lue. These ethnolinguistic groups are dispersed in three different geographic regions of Thailand, that is, Northern, Northeastern and Central. The results show a very low average of pairwised F(st) (0.0099), as well as no population substructure based on STRUCTURE analysis, indicating genetic homogeneity within the Kra-Dai-speaking group, possibly owing to shared linguistic ancestry. The Mantel test, an analysis of molecular variance, and the approximate Bayesian computation procedure employed to evaluate potential factors for driving genetic diversity revealed that language is the predominant factor affecting genetic variations, whereas geography is not. The result of distance-based clustering analyses and spatial analysis of molecular variance revealed genetic distinctions of some populations, reflecting the effects of genetic drift and gene flow on allele frequency within populations, in concordance with the result of R-matrix regression. The genetic and linguistic affiliations of the contemporary Kra-Dai-speaking groups are consistent with each other despite certain deviation due to various evolutionary factors that may have occurred during their migrations and resettlements. PMID:25833471

  16. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Mid-1980's Maintenance Task Analysis. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The fundamental objective of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study is to provide the Air Force with an enhanced in-house capability to incorporate LCC considerations during all stages of the system acquisition process. The purpose of this report is to describe the technical approach, results, and conclusions…

  17. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  18. Contesting modernity: Tobacco use and romanticism among older Dai farmers in Xishuangbanna, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Davey, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    The majority of research about tobacco use in China focuses on Han Chinese, the main ethnic group comprising over 90 per cent of the population, and a paucity of research exists on ethnic minorities. The present study elucidates tobacco use among the Dai people, an ethnic group in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The study design consisted of interviews and grounded theory methodology in a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework. The categories of the grounded theory revealed tobacco consumption was weaved in a complex web of meanings: social practices, perceptions of health, and work lives as agriculturalists, situated in Dai cultural and social milieu. An important finding was the stage-managing of tobacco as a symbol of 'tradition' versus 'modernity': Through a process of contested modernity, the older men championed long-standing tobacco customs as representative of Dai heritage and thus their own tobacco use as upholding traditions amid encroaching cultural and societal change in China. These findings are important because little is known about Dai people's tobacco use and how they are responding to social change. There are also implications for the development of culturally-appropriate tobacco control strategies. PMID:26147626

  19. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The reliability and maintainability (R&M) model described in this report represents an important portion of a larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. The R&M model is the first of three models that comprise a modeling system for use in LCC analysis of avionics systems. The total system will…

  20. Expression of DAI by an oncolytic vaccinia virus boosts the immunogenicity of the virus and enhances antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hirvinen, Mari; Capasso, Cristian; Guse, Kilian; Garofalo, Mariangela; Vitale, Andrea; Ahonen, Marko; Kuryk, Lukasz; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli; Fortino, Vittorio; Greco, Dario; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In oncolytic virotherapy, the ability of the virus to activate the immune system is a key attribute with regard to long-term antitumor effects. Vaccinia viruses bear one of the strongest oncolytic activities among all oncolytic viruses. However, its capacity for stimulation of antitumor immunity is not optimal, mainly due to its immunosuppressive nature. To overcome this problem, we developed an oncolytic VV that expresses intracellular pattern recognition receptor DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) to boost the innate immune system and to activate adaptive immune cells in the tumor. We showed that infection with DAI-expressing VV increases expression of several genes related to important immunological pathways. Treatment with DAI-armed VV resulted in significant reduction in the size of syngeneic melanoma tumors in mice. When the mice were rechallenged with the same tumor, DAI-VV-treated mice completely rejected growth of the new tumor, which indicates immunity established against the tumor. We also showed enhanced control of growth of human melanoma tumors and elevated levels of human T-cells in DAI-VV-treated mice humanized with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We conclude that expression of DAI by an oncolytic VV is a promising way to amplify the vaccine potency of an oncolytic vaccinia virus to trigger the innate—and eventually the long-lasting adaptive immunity against cancer. PMID:27626058

  1. Expression of DAI by an oncolytic vaccinia virus boosts the immunogenicity of the virus and enhances antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Hirvinen, Mari; Capasso, Cristian; Guse, Kilian; Garofalo, Mariangela; Vitale, Andrea; Ahonen, Marko; Kuryk, Lukasz; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli; Fortino, Vittorio; Greco, Dario; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In oncolytic virotherapy, the ability of the virus to activate the immune system is a key attribute with regard to long-term antitumor effects. Vaccinia viruses bear one of the strongest oncolytic activities among all oncolytic viruses. However, its capacity for stimulation of antitumor immunity is not optimal, mainly due to its immunosuppressive nature. To overcome this problem, we developed an oncolytic VV that expresses intracellular pattern recognition receptor DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) to boost the innate immune system and to activate adaptive immune cells in the tumor. We showed that infection with DAI-expressing VV increases expression of several genes related to important immunological pathways. Treatment with DAI-armed VV resulted in significant reduction in the size of syngeneic melanoma tumors in mice. When the mice were rechallenged with the same tumor, DAI-VV-treated mice completely rejected growth of the new tumor, which indicates immunity established against the tumor. We also showed enhanced control of growth of human melanoma tumors and elevated levels of human T-cells in DAI-VV-treated mice humanized with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We conclude that expression of DAI by an oncolytic VV is a promising way to amplify the vaccine potency of an oncolytic vaccinia virus to trigger the innate-and eventually the long-lasting adaptive immunity against cancer. PMID:27626058

  2. The potential of imaging spectrometry (DAIS 7915) for the monitoring of recultivation activities in mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.; Lehmann, F.; Rothfuss, H.

    1996-08-01

    DLR`s airborne Daedalus-ATM scanner and the new Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (DAIS 7915) were used to map the area of a former uranium mining site in Eastern Germany. The spectral reflectance and temperature images derived after the calibration and atmospheric correction of the data are very helpful in assessing potential environmental risks related to this site. Mapping of temperature anomalies, differentiation of surface materials - relevant for the recultivation of the site and the assessment of the hydrological situation - are activities that are addressed in this study. Preliminary results show that the radiometric quality of the DAIS in combination with its spectral coverage allows a better discrimination of surface materials and an improved understanding of effects in the thermal wavelength range.

  3. Utilising dais to impart health and nutrition education: impact on growth.

    PubMed

    Sharma, U

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of using local dais to provide health and nutrition education to mothers, the weights of infants in an intervention area in the Uttar Pradesh district of Saharanpur were compared to those of infants in a nonintervention control group in the same district. The average weights of infants in the area where trained dais were utilized were significantly higher than those in the nonintervention area in the age groups 4-6 months and 7-9 months; mean weights did not differ significantly in the 0-3 month age group or at 9-12 months. Deviations in relation to age were least at 3 months. Overall, the intervention program was effective in bringing weights closer to all-India standards. Favorable changes were noted in the intervention area in terms of supplementary feedings, use of katori in milk feeding, and the lower incidence of infantile diarrhea. The mean weights of infants in this study were less than 80% of the 50th percentile of Harvard standards, suggesting widespread malnutrition in this area of India. It is hypothesized that after 9 months of age, the more effective functioning of health services, including broader immunization coverage, in the nonintervention area overrode the advantages conveyed by the dais' health education efforts in the study area. PMID:3557582

  4. Inhibiting HMGB1 with Glycyrrhizic Acid Protects Brain Injury after DAI via Its Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Honggang; Huang, Tinqin; Li, Dandong; Zhao, Yonglin; Ma, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein that has endogenous cytokine-like activity, is involved in several neurological diseases by mediating inflammatory response. In this study, a lateral head rotation device was used to establish a rat diffuse axonal injury (DAI) model. The dynamic expression of HMGB1, apoptosis-associated proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines were detected by Western blot, and neuronal apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining. The extracellular release of HMGB1 and the accumulation of β-APP were observed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The brain injury was indicated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS), brain water content (BWC), and the extravasation of Evans blue. We showed that HMGB1 level obviously decreased within 48 h after DAI, accompanied by neuronal apoptosis, the activation of caspases 3 and 9, and the phosphorylation of BCL-2. Inhibiting HMGB1 with glycyrrhizic acid (GL) can suppress the activation of apoptosis-associated proteins and inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which ameliorated motor and cognitive deficits, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and protected the integrity of blood brain barrier (BBB) and axonal injury after experimental DAI in rats. Thus, HMGB1 may be involved in the inflammatory response after DAI, and inhibition of HMGB1 release with GL can notably alleviate the brain injury after DAI. PMID:27041825

  5. Radioiodine in the atmosphere after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Luke S; Dickson, Raymond S; Glowa, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    About 160 PBq of (131)I was released into the atmosphere during the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The chemistry of radioiodine is complicated, and it can be released in several different forms. In addition, the different physical forms, like molecular iodine, aerosol-form iodine, or organic iodine, would have all behaved differently once in the atmosphere, and would have been removed at different rates. These releases were detected by monitoring stations throughout Japan, and from these measurements, key insights can be made about the different chemical forms that were released, as well as the persistence of each in the environment. PMID:26440698

  6. Linked spaces of vulnerability: HIV risk amongst migrant Dai women and their left-behind husbands in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Rui; Lyttleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In one county of Southwest China bordering Myanmar, large numbers of minority Dai women leave to work in southern Thailand. Many are married and they leave behind husbands and children, sending remittances and returning home intermittently. These women commonly establish relations with Chinese/Malaysian men in their worksites--massage parlours in the tourist sites near the Malaysian border. These men become second husbands just as the Dai women become second wives. This paper examines the complicated set of HIV risks and assumptions that emerge from the circular Dai exodus to Thailand and the manner in which transnational employment networks impact on domestic and sexual relationships for women and their non-migrant husbands back home. PMID:23484495

  7. Identification of a high frequency transposon induced by tissue culture, nDaiZ, a member of the hAT family in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Kewei; Shen, Yi; Huang, Zejun; Li, Ming; Tang, Ding; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2009-03-01

    Recent completion of rice genome sequencing has revealed that more than 40% of its genome consists of repetitive sequences, and most of them are related to inactive transposable elements. In the present study, a transposable element, nDaiZ0, which is induced by tissue culture with high frequency, was identified by sequence analysis of an allelic line of the golden hull and internode 2 (gh2) mutant, which was integrated into the forth exon of GH2. The 528-bp nDaiZ0 has 14-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), and generates an 8-bp duplication of its target sites (TSD) during its mobilization. nDaiZs are non-autonomous transposons and have no coding capacity. Bioinformatics analysis and southern blot hybridization showed that at least 16 copies of nDaiZ elements exist in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare genome and 11 copies in the indica cultivar 93-11 genome. During tissue culture, only one copy, nDaiZ9, located on chromosome 5 in the genome of Nipponbare can be activated with its transposable frequency reaching 30%. However, nDaiZ9 was not present in the 93-11 genome. The larger elements, DaiZs, were further identified by database searching using nDaiZ0 as a query because they share similar TIRs and subterminal sequences. DaiZ can also generate an 8-bp TSD. DaiZ elements contain a conserved region with a high similarity to the hAT dimerization motif, suggesting that the nDaiZ-DaiZ transposon system probably belongs to the hAT superfamily of class II transposons. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is a new type of plant hAT-like transposon. Although nDaiZ is activated by tissue culture, the high transposable frequency indicates that it could become a useful gene tagging system for rice functional genomic studies. In addition, the mechanism of the high transposable ability of nDaiZ9 is discussed. PMID:19071208

  8. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3–3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9–14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5–2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7–7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China. PMID:26932265

  9. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3-3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9-14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5-2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7-7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China. PMID:26932265

  10. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model Users Guide. Final Report, May 1975-July 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    This report provides a complete guide to the stand alone mode operation of the reliability and maintenance (R&M) model, which was developed to facilitate the performance of design versus cost trade-offs within the digital avionics information system (DAIS) acquisition process. The features and structure of the model, its input data requirements,…

  11. Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations of TEPCO--outline & lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The severe accident that broke out at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations on March 11, 2011, caused seemingly infinite damage to the daily life of residents. Serious and wide-spread contamination of the environment occurred due to radioactive materials discharged from nuclear power stations (NPSs). At the same time, many issues were highlighted concerning countermeasures to severe nuclear accidents. The accident is outlined, and lessons learned are extracted with respect to the safety of NPSs, as well as radiation protection of residents under the emergency involving the accident. The materials of the current paper are those released by governmental agencies, academic societies, interim reports of committees under the government, and others. PMID:23138450

  12. The Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident and its implications for the safety of nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William

    2016-05-01

    Five years ago the dramatic events in Fukushima that followed the massive earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck Japan on March 11, 2011 sharpened the focus of scientists, engineers and general public on the broad range of technical, environmental and societal issues involved in assuring the safety of the world's nuclear power complex. They also called into question the potential of nuclear power to provide a growing, sustainable resource of CO2-free energy. The issues raised by Fukushima Dai-ichi have provoked urgent concern, not only because of the potential harm that could result from severe accidents or from intentional damage to nuclear reactors or to facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, but also because of the extensive economic impact of those accidents and of the measures taken to avoid them.

  13. An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Mclaughlin, P D; Jones, B; Maher, M M

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Richter scale 0.9-magnitude Tokohu earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, resulting in widespread injury and loss of life. Compounding this tragic loss of life, a series of equipment and structural failures at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNP) resulted in the release of many volatile radioisotopes into the atmosphere. In this update, we detail currently available evidence about the nature of immediate radioactive exposure to FDNP workers and the general population. We contrast the nature of the radioactive exposure at FDNP with that which occurred at the Chernobyl power plant 25 years previously. Prediction of the exact health effects related to the FDNP release is difficult at present and this disaster provides the scientific community with a challenge to help those involved and to continue research that will improve our understanding of the potential complications of radionuclide fallout. PMID:22919005

  14. Detection of radioxenon in Darwin, Australia following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Orr, Blake; Schöppner, Michael; Tinker, Rick; Plastino, Wolfango

    2013-12-01

    A series of (133)Xe detections in April 2011 made at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System noble gas station in Darwin, Australia, were analysed to determine the most likely source location. Forward and backwards atmospheric transport modelling simulations using FLEXPART were conducted. It was shown that the most likely source location was the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Other potential sources in the southern hemisphere were analysed, including the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical facility, but it was shown that sources originating from these locations were highly unlikely to be the source of the observed (133)Xe Darwin detections. PMID:23933085

  15. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv. PMID:23591638

  16. Aerial radiation monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using an unmanned helicopter.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 generated a series of large tsunami that seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To provide further details regarding the distribution of air dose rate and the distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) deposition on the ground within a radius of approximately 5 km from the nuclear power plant, we carried out measurements using an unmanned helicopter equipped with a radiation detection system. The distribution of the air dose rate at a height of 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground was calculated. Accordingly, the footprint of radioactive plumes that extended from the FDNPP was illustrated. PMID:25053518

  17. NARAC Modeling During the Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Probanz, B; Foster, K T; Simpson, M; Vogt, P; Aluzzi, F; Dillon, M; Homann, S

    2012-02-14

    This paper summarizes the activities of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis. NARAC provided a wide range of products and analyses as part of its support including: (1) Daily Japanese weather forecasts and hypothetical release (generic source term) dispersion predictions to provide situational awareness and inform planning for U.S. measurement data collection and field operations; (2) Estimates of potential dose in Japan for hypothetical scenarios developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to inform federal government considerations of possible actions that might be needed to protect U.S. citizens in Japan; (3) Estimates of possible plume arrival times and dose for U.S. locations; and (4) Plume model refinement and source estimation based on meteorological analyses and available field data. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) deployed personnel to Japan and stood up 'home team' assets across the DOE complex to aid in assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The DOE Nuclear Incident Team (NIT) coordinated response activities, while DOE personnel provided predictive modeling, air and ground monitoring, sample collection, laboratory analysis, and data assessment and interpretation. DOE deployed the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) personnel, and the Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to Japan. DOE/NNSA home team assets included the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT); National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS); and Radiological Triage. NARAC was activated by the DOE/NNSA on March 11, shortly after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred. The center remained on active operations through late May when DOE ended its deployment to Japan. Over 32 NARAC staff members

  18. New Standards in Liquid Waste Treatment at Fukushima Dai-ichi - 13134

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, Paul; Milner, Tim; Ruffing, Jennifer; Poole, Scott; Townson, Paul; Jensen, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    The earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 severely damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant leading to the most severe nuclear incident since Chernobyl. Ongoing operations to cool the damaged reactors at the site have led to the generation of highly radioactive coolant water. This is currently mainly treated to remove Cs-137 and Cs-134 and passed through a reverse osmosis (RO) unit to reduce the salinity before being cycled back to the reactors. Because only the Cs isotopes are removed, the RO reject water still contains many radioactive isotopes and this has led to the accumulation of over 200,000 cubic meters (52 million gallons) of extremely contaminated water which is currently stored on site in tanks. EnergySolutions, in partnership with Toshiba, were contracted to develop a system to reduce 62 isotopes in this waste down to allowable levels. This was a significant technical challenge given the high background salt content of the wastewater, the variation in aqueous chemistry of the radioactive isotopes and the presence of non-active competing ions (e.g. Ca and Mg) which inhibit the removal of isotopes such as Sr-89 and Sr-90. Extensive testing was performed to design a suitable system that could meet the required decontamination goals. These tests were performed over a 6 month period at facilities available in the nearby Fukushima Dai-ni laboratory using actual waste samples. This data was then utilized to design a Multi Radioactive Nuclides Removal System (MRRS) for Fukushima which is a modified version of EnergySolutions' proprietary Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS)'. The stored tank waste is fed into a preliminary precipitation system where iron flocculation is performed to remove a number of isotopes, including Sb-125, Ru-106, Mn-54 and Co-60. The supernatant is then fed into a second precipitation tank where the pH is adjusted and the bulk of the Mg, Ca and Sr precipitated out as carbonates and hydroxides. After passing through a cross

  19. Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Shozugawa, Katsumi; Nogawa, Norio; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2012-04-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged reactor cooling systems at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The subsequent venting operation and hydrogen explosion resulted in a large radioactive nuclide emission from reactor containers into the environment. Here, we collected environmental samples such as soil, plant species, and water on April 10, 2011, in front of the power plant main gate as well as 35 km away in Iitate village, and observed gamma-rays with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. We observed activation products ((239)Np and (59)Fe) and fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs ((133)Cs), (137)Cs, (110m)Ag ((109)Ag), (132)Te, (132)I, (140)Ba, (140)La, (91)Sr, (91)Y, (95)Zr, and (95)Nb). (239)Np is the parent nuclide of (239)Pu; (59)Fe are presumably activation products of (58)Fe obtained by corrosion of cooling pipes. The results show that these activation and fission products, diffused within a month of the accident. PMID:22266366

  20. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident: additional lessons from a radiological emergency assistance mission.

    PubMed

    Becker, Steven M

    2013-11-01

    In response to the March 2011 earthquake-tsunami disaster and the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, a special nongovernmental Radiological Emergency Assistance Mission flew to Japan from the United States. Invited by one of Japan's largest hospital and healthcare groups and facilitated by a New York-based international disaster relief organization, the mission included an emergency physician, a health physicist, and a disaster management specialist. During the 10 d mission, team members conducted fieldwork in areas affected by the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident; went to cities and towns in the 20-30 km Emergency Evacuation Preparation Zone around the damaged nuclear plant; visited other communities affected by the nuclear accident; went to evacuation shelters; met with mayors and other local officials; met with central government officials; exchanged observations, experiences, and information with Japanese medical, emergency response, and disaster management colleagues; and provided radiological information and training to more than 1,100 Japanese hospital and healthcare personnel and first responders. The mission produced many insights with potential relevance for radiological/nuclear emergency preparedness and response. The first "lessons learned" were published in December 2011. Since that time, additional broad insights from the mission and mission followup have been identified. Five of these new lessons, which focus primarily on community impacts and responses and public communication issues, are presented and discussed in this article. PMID:24077046

  1. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  2. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Long, N Q; Truong, Y; Hien, P D; Binh, N T; Sieu, L N; Giap, T V; Phan, N T

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33, and 37 μBq m(-3) for (131)I, (13)(4)Cs, and (13)(7)Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 d over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima. PMID:22200554

  3. Tracking of airborne radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors by European networks.

    PubMed

    Masson, O; Baeza, A; Bieringer, J; Brudecki, K; Bucci, S; Cappai, M; Carvalho, F P; Connan, O; Cosma, C; Dalheimer, A; Didier, D; Depuydt, G; De Geer, L E; De Vismes, A; Gini, L; Groppi, F; Gudnason, K; Gurriaran, R; Hainz, D; Halldórsson, Ó; Hammond, D; Hanley, O; Holeý, K; Homoki, Zs; Ioannidou, A; Isajenko, K; Jankovic, M; Katzlberger, C; Kettunen, M; Kierepko, R; Kontro, R; Kwakman, P J M; Lecomte, M; Leon Vintro, L; Leppänen, A-P; Lind, B; Lujaniene, G; Mc Ginnity, P; Mc Mahon, C; Malá, H; Manenti, S; Manolopoulou, M; Mattila, A; Mauring, A; Mietelski, J W; Møller, B; Nielsen, S P; Nikolic, J; Overwater, R M W; Pálsson, S E; Papastefanou, C; Penev, I; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P; Ramebäck, H; Reis, M C; Ringer, W; Rodriguez, A; Rulík, P; Saey, P R J; Samsonov, V; Schlosser, C; Sgorbati, G; Silobritiene, B V; Söderström, C; Sogni, R; Solier, L; Sonck, M; Steinhauser, G; Steinkopff, T; Steinmann, P; Stoulos, S; Sýkora, I; Todorovic, D; Tooloutalaie, N; Tositti, L; Tschiersch, J; Ugron, A; Vagena, E; Vargas, A; Wershofen, H; Zhukova, O

    2011-09-15

    Radioactive emissions into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine-131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific toward the North American continent and reached Europe despite dispersion and washout along the route of the contaminated air masses. In Europe, the first signs of the releases were detected 7 days later while the first peak of activity level was observed between March 28th and March 30th. Time variations over a 20-day period and spatial variations across more than 150 sampling locations in Europe made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. After the Chernobyl accident, only a few measurements of the gaseous (131)I fraction were conducted compared to the number of measurements for the particulate fraction. Several studies had already pointed out the importance of the gaseous (131)I and the large underestimation of the total (131)I airborne activity level, and subsequent calculations of inhalation dose, if neglected. The measurements made across Europe following the releases from the Fukushima NPP reactors have provided a significant amount of new data on the ratio of the gaseous (131)I fraction to total (131)I, both on a spatial scale and its temporal variation. It can be pointed out that during the Fukushima event, the (134)Cs to (137)Cs ratio proved to be different from that observed after the Chernobyl accident. The data set provided in this paper is the most comprehensive survey of the main relevant airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima reactors, measured across Europe. A rough estimate of the total (131)I inventory that has passed over Europe during this period was <1% of the released amount. According to the measurements, airborne activity levels remain of no concern for public health in Europe. PMID:21809844

  4. Tracking Radioactive Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident in Arctic Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Thompson, J.; Landis, J.; Albert, M. R.; Campbell, S. W.; Hawley, R. L.; Virginia, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake produced a tsunami that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and led to the accidental release of radioactive 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, and 137Cs to the atmosphere. The Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission estimates that 12,000 TBq of 137Cs were released to the atmosphere during the incident, which represents ~14% of the total estimated 137Cs emission from the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. Measurements of airborne radiation collected at the Fukushima plant illustrate that >50% of the total emitted radiation was released on March 15 and 16 associated with explosions and fires at reactor units 1, 2, and 4, and 70% was emitted in the first 5 days of the event. The source of the radiation is thus well constrained in time and space, providing an opportunity to better understand long-range atmospheric transport processes from Asia to the Arctic, while also assessing the magnitude of the fallout in the Arctic. Here we describe the 137Cs and 134Cs fallout flux near Thule, Greenland (1700 m a.s.l.), at Summit (3200 m a.s.l.), Greenland, and within Denali National Park, Alaska (2400-3900 m a.s.l.) based on series of large-volume (5-15 l) snow pit samples collected in June and July, 2011. In addition to assessing the spatial variability of Fukushima fallout in the Arctic, the elevation range of samples allows for an analysis of any vertical heterogeneity in fallout transport and deposition. Major ion concentrations and stable water isotope ratios are used to confirm the seasonal timing of the Fukushima fallout horizon in the snowpack. Radiocesium was concentrated and isolated from the snow pit meltwater using the well-established ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) adsorption method, and 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations were measured using gamma spectrometry with a Canberra 3523 well-type intrinsic Ge-detector at the Dartmouth College Short-Lived Isotope Laboratory. NOAA HYPLIT atmospheric forward

  5. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on environmental radioactivity in Aomori Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kudo, S; Igarashi, K; Kimura, H

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclides with a short half-life, such as (131)I and (134)Cs, were detected in environmental samples collected in Aomori Prefecture after the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. In addition, the observed (137)Cs concentration was increased over the background level. The gaseous (131)I concentration in air observed in April was higher than that observed in March immediately after the accident. Using a backward trajectory analysis, the authors found that the air mass had passed the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant when the gaseous (131)I concentration in air was increasing. Maximum (131)I and radioactive Cs concentrations in daily fallout samples collected in Aomori city were observed on 28 April, when (131)I was also detected in air. (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentration ratios in pine needles and pasture grass were nearly equal to 1, which indicates that the source of these radionuclides was the nuclear power plant accident. PMID:25953795

  6. Investigation of hydrogeochemical properties of the Hüdai (Afyon-Sandıklı) geothermal systems, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demer, Selma (Altinkale); Memiş, Ümit; Özgür, Nevzat

    2013-08-01

    Sandıklı-Hüdai geothermal field is one of the geothermal systems in Afyon and environ, located approximately 40 km southwest of Afyon. The study area consists of volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Kestel greenschist formation of Paleozoic age forms the basement rock in the area while quartzite which is a member of the Kestel greenschist formation serves as the reservoir rock of Sandıklı-Hüdai geothermal system. Geothermal waters from the study area are classified as Na-SO4-HCO3 type waters. The waters plot along SO4-HCO3 end of the Cl-SO4-HCO3 triangle diagram suggesting same origin for the geothermal waters. δ 18O and δD isotope ratios of the Sandıklı waters plot along the continental meteoric water line, indicating meteoric waters that were unaffected by evaporation. The tritium values imply that the fluids were deep circulating and recharged from older waters. Furthermore, oversaturation of the geothermal fluids with quartz confirms these findings showing long time residence of these groundwaters.

  7. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM)--Description. Users Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    The Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) described in this report is an interactive mathematical model with a built-in sensitivity analysis capability. It is a major component of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Model (LCCIM), which was developed as part of the DAIS advanced development program to be used to assess the potential impacts…

  8. Environmental Remediation Activities in Japan Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Incident - 12603

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, J.W.; Kelley, J.L.; Marcial, M.R.; Yashio, Shoko; Kuriu, Nobou; Kamijo, Hiroaki; Jotatsu, Kato

    2012-07-01

    In March 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor power plant was crippled by the Great Pacific earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Much of the focus in the news was on the reactor site itself as the utility company (TEPCO), the Japanese government, and experts from around the world worked to bring the damaged plants into a safe shutdown condition and stem the release of radioactivity to the environment. Most of the radioactivity released was carried out to sea with the prevailing winds. Still, as weather patterns changed and winds shifted, a significant plume of radioactive materials released from the plant deposited in the environment surrounding the plant, contaminating large land areas of the Fukushima Prefecture. The magnitude of the radiological impact to the surrounding environmental is so large that the Japanese government has had to reevaluate the meaning of 'acceptably clean'. In many respects, 'acceptably clean' cannot be a one-size-fits-all standard. The economics costs of such an approach would make impossible what is already an enormous and costly environmental response and remediation task. Thus, the Japanese government has embarked upon an approach that is both situation-specific and reasonably achievable. For example, the determination of acceptably clean for a nursery school or kindergarten play yard may be different from that for a parking lot. The acceptably clean level of residual radioactivity in the surface soil of a rice paddy is different from that in a forested area. The recognized exposure situation (scenario) thus plays a large role in the decision process. While sometimes complicated to grasp or implement, such an approach does prioritize national resources to address environment remediation based upon immediate and significant risks. In addition, the Japanese government is testing means and methods, including advanced or promising technologies, that could be proven to be effective in reducing the amount of radioactivity in the environment

  9. Measurement of Airborne Fission Products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Kukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Accident

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Henning, R.; Holmes, R.; Vorren, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products 131I and 137Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 0.6 mBq/m3 and 0.42 0.07 mBq/m3 respectively. Additional activity from 131,132I, 134,136,137Cs and 132Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  10. Atmospheric radionuclides transported to Fukuoka, Japan remote from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power complex following the nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Momoshima, N; Sugihara, S; Ichikawa, R; Yokoyama, H

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides were detected from the Fukushima nuclear accident at Fukuoka, Japan, 1000 km west of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power complex. Iodine-131 was first detected 3 d after the accident, indicating that it was probably transported dispersively because of local meteorological conditions, and not global air circulation. The maximum concentrations, 5.07 mBq m(-3) for (131)I, 4.04 mBq m(-3) for (134)Cs, and 4.12 mBq m(-3) for (137)Cs, were recorded in particles collected on April 6, 2011. However, these concentration levels decreased below the detection limit by April 26, 2011. Gaseous (131)I accounted for 30%-67% of the total (131)I content. The increase in dose by inhalation was negligible at Fukuoka. PMID:21962481

  11. Multi-Phased, Post-Accident Support of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant - 12246

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, Arnaud; Gillet, Philippe; Ytournel, Bertrand; Varet, Thierry; David, Laurent; Prevost, Thierry; Redonnet, Carol; Piot, Gregoire; Jouaville, Stephane; Pagis, Georges

    2012-07-01

    In the wake of the March 11 earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent flooding of several of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactors, Japan and the Japanese utility TEPCO faced a crisis situation with incredible challenges: substantial amounts of radioactive mixed seawater and freshwater accumulated in the basements of four reactor and other buildings on the site. This water held varying levels of contamination due to the fact that it had been in contact with damaged fuel elements in the cores and with other contaminated components. The overall water inventory was estimated at around 110,000 tons of water with contamination levels up to the order of 1 Ci/l. Time was of the essence to avoid overflow of this accumulated water into the ocean. AREVA proposed, designed and implemented a water treatment solution using a proven chemical coprecipitation process with ppFeNi reagent, which is currently in use for effluent treatment on several nuclear sites including AREVA sites. In addition to the extremely short schedule the other challenge was to adapt the chemical treatment process to the expected composition of the Fukushima water and, in particular, to evaluate the impact of salinity on process performance. It was also necessary to define operating conditions for the VEOLIA equipment that had been selected for implementation of the process in the future facility. The operation phase began on June 17, and by the end of July more than 30,000 tons of highly radioactive saltwater had been decontaminated - the Decontamination Factor (DF) for Cesium was ∼10{sup 4}. It allowed recycling the contaminated water to cool the reactors while protecting workers and the environment. This paper focuses on the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad water treatment unit project that was part of the TEPCO general water treatment scheme. It presents a detailed look at the principles of the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad, related on-the-fly R and D, an explanation of system implementation challenges, and a brief summary of

  12. Measurement of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident.

    PubMed

    MacMullin, S; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Henning, R; Holmes, R; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F

    2012-10-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products (131)I and (137)Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 ± 0.6 mBq/m(3) and 0.42 ± 0.07 mBq/m(3) respectively. Additional activity from (131,132)I, (134,136,137)Cs and (132)Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF). PMID:22348994

  13. Abatement of morphine-induced slowing in gastrointestinal transit by Dai-kenchu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Sakai, Akiko; Isogami, Issei; Noda, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Koichi; Yano, Shingo

    2002-02-01

    As a way of alleviating severe constipation in cancer patients taking morphine to relieve pain, effects of Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), on gastrointestinal transit in mice or on the isolated guinea pig ileum were studied in special reference to morphine. Without altering the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine, DKT was significantly effective against morphine-induced disorder of gastrointestinal transit in mice as assessed by the charcoal meal test for the intestine and measurement of transit time for the colon tract. The results of in vitro studies with guinea pig ileum suggest that abatement of morphine-induced disorder of transit by DKT is caused by both moderate contraction of morphine-treated longitudinal muscle and relaxation of morphine-induced tonic contraction of circular muscle. PMID:11928724

  14. Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Stations of TEPCO —Outline & lessons learned—

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Shun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The severe accident that broke out at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations on March 11, 2011, caused seemingly infinite damage to the daily life of residents. Serious and wide-spread contamination of the environment occurred due to radioactive materials discharged from nuclear power stations (NPSs). At the same time, many issues were highlighted concerning countermeasures to severe nuclear accidents. The accident is outlined, and lessons learned are extracted with respect to the safety of NPSs, as well as radiation protection of residents under the emergency involving the accident. The materials of the current paper are those released by governmental agencies, academic societies, interim reports of committees under the government, and others. PMID:23138450

  15. Atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides released after the Fukushima Dai-chi accident and resulting effective dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzo, Giuseppe A.

    2014-09-01

    On 11 March 2011 an earthquake off the Pacific coast of the Fukushima prefecture generated a tsunami that hit Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Da-ini Nuclear Power Plants. From 12 March a significant amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere and dispersed worldwide. Among the most abundant radioactive species released were iodine and cesium isotopes. By means of an atmospheric dispersion Lagrangian code and publicly available meteorological data, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs have been simulated for three months after the event with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° globally. The simulation has been validated by comparison to publicly available measurements collected in 206 locations worldwide. Sensitivity analysis shows that release height of the radionuclides, wet deposition velocity, and source term are the parameters with the most impact on the simulation results. The simulation shows that the radioactive plume, consisting of about 200 PBq by adding contributions from 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, has been transported over the entire northern hemisphere depositing up to 1.2 MBq m-2 nearby the NPPs to less than 20 Bq m-2 in Europe. The consequent effective dose to the population over a 50-year period, calculated by considering both external and internal pathways of exposure, is found to be about 40 mSv in the surroundings of Fukushima Dai-ichi, while other countries in the northern hemisphere experienced doses several orders of magnitude lower suggesting a small impact on the population health elsewhere.

  16. MELCOR Model of the Spent Fuel Pool of Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 4

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Unit 4 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered a hydrogen explosion at 6:00 am on March 15, 2011, exactly 3.64 days after the earthquake hit the plant and the off-site power was lost. The earthquake occurred on March 11 at 2:47 pm. Since the reactor of this Unit 4 was defueled on November 29, 2010, and all its fuel was stored in the spent fuel pool (SFP4), it was first believed that the explosion was caused by hydrogen generated by the spent fuel, in particular, by the recently discharged core. The hypothetical scenario was: power was lost, cooling to the SFP4 water was lost, pool water heated/boiled, water level decreased, fuel was uncovered, hot Zircaloy reacted with steam, hydrogen was generated and accumulated above the pool, and the explosion occurred. Recent analyses of the radioisotopes present in the water of the SFP4 and underwater video indicated that this scenario did not occur - the fuel in this pool was not damaged and was never uncovered the hydrogen of the explosion was apparently generated in Unit 3 and transported through exhaust ducts that shared the same chimney with Unit 4. This paper will try to answer the following questions: Could that hypothetical scenario in the SFP4 had occurred? Could the spent fuel in the SPF4 generate enough hydrogen to produce the explosion that occurred 3.64 days after the earthquake? Given the magnitude of the explosion, it was estimated that at least 150 kg of hydrogen had to be generated. As part of the investigations of this accident, MELCOR models of the SFP4 were prepared and a series of calculations were completed. The latest version of MELCOR, version 2.1 (Ref. 1), was employed in these calculations. The spent fuel pool option for BWR fuel was selected in MELCOR. The MELCOR model of the SFP4 consists of a total of 1535 fuel assemblies out of which 548 assemblies are from the core defueled on Nov. 29, 2010, 783 assemblies are older assemblies, and 204 are new/fresh assemblies. The total decay

  17. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. PMID:22137556

  18. Numerical simulation of propagation of radioactive pollution in the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Budyansky, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    Numerical simulation of the large-scale horizontal mixing and transport of radioactive water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) (141°02' E, 37°27' N, east coast of Honshu Island, Japan) and the use of the satellite altimetric velocity field in the northwestern Pacific allowed us to obtain the following results. The patch of radioactive water dumped from the NPP propagated eastwards as jets of an extension of the Kuroshio Current. The discovered phenomenon of trapping the radionuclides by stable and unstable manifolds of local synoptic eddies may be harmful for living organisms. If one assumes that pollution of considerable areas of coastal waters near Honshu Island took place due to fallout of radioactive precipitation with rain, then a part of the radioactive water may be subjected to north-bound advection and is mixing under the impact of stable and unstable manifolds of the triple-eddy system to the north of the NPP. No radionuclide flux from the Tsugaru strait into the Sea of Japan has been found in the surface layer. Nevertheless, there is a small likelihood of their penetration there with a deep counter current and/or due to wind drift.

  19. Use of otolith for detecting strontium-90 in fish from the harbor of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Ken; Miki, Shizuho; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shigenobu, Yuya; Takagi, Kaori; Ambe, Daisuke; Ono, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Tomowo; Morinaga, Kenji; Nakata, Kaoru; Morita, Takami

    2015-06-16

    To clarify the level of contamination with radioactive cesium (radiocesium) discharged from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), three fish species caught in the main harbor of FDNPP were subjected to γ-ray analysis. The concentration of radiocesium in muscle differed among individual fish, even those of similar size of the same species, and showed little relation to the standard length of fish. The maximum concentration of radiocesium (202 kBq/kg wet) was detected from fat greenling samples. A comparison to data from outside the port indicated that the level of radiocesium contamination inside the port was higher than that outside. We found that β-rays were emitted from otoliths of fishes caught in the port of FDNPP. β-ray intensities were correlated with the concentrations of radiocesium in muscles of the three fish species. In Japanese rockfish, the β-ray count rates from otoliths were significantly correlated with the concentration of radiocesium and (90)Sr in the whole body without internal organs of Japanese rockfish. However, no β-rays were detected from brown hakeling samples collected around FDNPP, suggesting that the detection of β-rays from otoliths may indicate living in the main harbor of FDNPP. PMID:26000895

  20. Wet deposition of fission-product isotopes to North America from the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident, March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Gay, David A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Nilles, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the infrastructure of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), numerous measurements of radionuclide wet deposition over North America were made for 167 NADP sites before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident of March 12, 2011. For the period from March 8 through April 5, 2011, wet-only precipitation samples were collected by NADP and analyzed for fission-product isotopes within whole-water and filterable solid samples by the United States Geological Survey using gamma spectrometry. Variable amounts of 131I, 134Cs, or 137Cs were measured at approximately 21% of sampled NADP sites distributed widely across the contiguous United States and Alaska. Calculated 1- to 2-week individual radionuclide deposition fluxes ranged from 0.47 to 5100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period. Wet deposition activity was small compared to measured activity already present in U.S. soil. NADP networks responded to this complex disaster, and provided scientifically valid measurements that are comparable and complementary to other networks in North America and Europe.

  1. Development and deployment of an underway radioactive cesium monitor off the Japanese coast near Fukushima Dai-ichi.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, J A; Higley, K A; Farsoni, A T; Smith, S; Menn, S

    2012-09-01

    A custom radiation monitoring system was developed by Oregon State University at the request of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute to measure radioactive cesium contaminants in the ocean waters near Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The system was to be used on board the R/V Ka'imikai-O-Kanaloa during a 15 d research cruise to provide real-time approximations of radionuclide concentration and alert researchers to the possible occurrence of highly elevated radionuclide concentrations. A NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was coupled to a custom-built compact digital spectroscopy system and suspended within a sealed tank of continuously flowing seawater. A series of counts were acquired within an energy region corresponding to the main photopeak of (137)Cs. The system was calibrated using known quantities of radioactive (134)Cs and (137)Cs in a ratio equating to that present at the reactors' ocean outlet. The response between net count rate and concentration of (137)Cs was then used to generate temporal and geographic plots of (137)Cs concentration throughout the research cruise in Japanese coastal waters. The concentration of (137)Cs was low but detectable, reaching a peak of 3.8 ± 0.2 Bq/L. PMID:22218134

  2. Chromosomal Aberrations in Wild Mice Captured in Areas Differentially Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Tsuji, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Taiki; Shiomi, Naoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Mizoguchi, Masahiko; Yamada, Fumio; Tomozawa, Morihiko; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-08-18

    Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiation effects on nonhuman biota in the contaminated areas have been a great concern. The induction of chromosomal aberrations in splenic lymphocytes of small Japanese field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and house mice (Mus musculus) inhabiting Fukushima Prefecture was investigated. In mice inhabiting the slightly contaminated area, the average frequency of dicentric chromosomes was similar to that seen in mice inhabiting a noncontaminated control area. In contrast, mice inhabiting the moderately and heavily contaminated areas showed a significant increase in the average frequencies of dicentric chromosomes. Total absorbed dose rate was estimated to be approximately 1 mGy d(-1) and 3 mGy d(-1) in the moderately and heavily contaminated areas, respectively. Chromosomal aberrations tended to roughly increase with dose rate. Although theoretically, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was considered proportional to the absorbed dose, chromosomal aberrations in old mice (estimated median age 300 days) did not increase with radiation dose at the same rate as that observed in young mice (estimated median age 105 days). PMID:26217955

  3. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Steven R.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Keillor, Martin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morin, Marc P.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of 131I reached levels of 3.0 * 10*2 Bqm*3 in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas 133Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm*3. While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  4. Isotopic Pu, Am and Cm signatures in environmental samples contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Sakaguchi, A; Ochiai, S; Takada, T; Hamataka, K; Murakami, T; Nagao, S

    2014-06-01

    Dust samples from the sides of roads (black substances) have been collected together with litter and soil samples at more than 100 sites contaminated heavily in the 20-km exclusion zones around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) (Minamisoma City, and Namie, Futaba and Okuma Towns), in Iitate Village located from 25 to 45 km northwest of the plant and in southern areas from the plant. Isotopes of Pu, Am and Cm have been measured in the samples to evaluate their total releases into the environment from the FDNPP and to get the isotopic compositions among these nuclides. For black substances and litter samples, in addition to Pu isotopes, (241)Am, (242)Cm and (243,244)Cm were determined for most of samples examined, while for soil samples, only Pu isotopes were determined. The results provided a coherent data set on (239,240)Pu inventories and isotopic composition among these transuranic nuclides. When these activity ratios were compared with those for fuel core inventories in the FDNPP accident estimated by a group at JAEA, except (239,240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios, fairly good agreements were found, indicating that transuranic nuclides, probably in the forms of fine particles, were released into the environment without their large fractionations. The obtained data may lead to more accurate information about the on-site situation (e.g., burn-up, conditions of fuel during the release phase, etc.), which would be difficult to get otherwise, and more detailed information on the dispersion and deposition processes of transuranic nuclides and the behavior of these nuclides in the environment. PMID:24531259

  5. Investigation of Depth Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Abe, Hironobu; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    This work was conducted as one of the researches relating to distribution maps of radiation dose rate etc. which the government has promoted as one of the counter-measures to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, and the 2nd investigation on the depth distribution of radionuclides (RNs) in soil was conducted after about 1 year from the accident, succeedingly to the 1st investigation which was conducted after about 3 months from the accident. Soil core samples to about 50cm deep were taken at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu-city, Kawamata-town and Namie-town. Sorption-desorption experiments of Cs-137 and I-131, CEC and AEC measurements and mineralogical analyses by XRD were conducted for 3 types of soils (sandy, clayey, organic) and those elutriated components (clay, silt, sand). Radiocaesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) and Ag-110m were detected at all locations investigated and only at locations where radiation dose rate is high, respectively. Radiocaesium more than 95% and 99% of the inventory distributed within 5cm and 10cm deep in soil in the surface layer (mainly sandy soil), respectively, and distributed within 16cm and 20cm deep in organic soil and soil at locations where are supposed to have been used as farmland, respectively. Radiocaesium tended to extend to deeper parts in soil that organic and clayey soils are the support layer, particularly in organic soil, compared with the 1st investigation. Distribution coefficients of Cs-137 onto organic soil and its elutriated components were also lower than that onto other soils. This is consistent with trend of penetration profile.

  6. (14)C levels in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant prior to the 2011 accident.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T; Cresswell, Alan J; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hastie, Helen; Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsson, Piotr; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David C W; Tripney, Brian G; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) from Okuma, ∼1 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was cored and each annual ring was analysed for (14)C. The (14)C specific activity values varied from 330.4 Bq kg(-1) C in the tree ring formed in 1971 to 231.2 Bq kg(-1) C in the 2014 ring. During the periods 1971-1976 and 2011-2014, the (14)C specific activities are indistinguishable from the ambient background values. However, compared with the ambient atmospheric levels, the (14)C specific activities between 1977 and 2010 are significantly elevated, clearly indicating (14)C discharges from the reactors during their normal operations. In addition, the specific activities are positively correlated with the annual electricity generation values. The excess (14)C specific activities were <36 Bq kg(-1) C, corresponding to an additional annual effective dose of <2 μSv via the food ingestion pathway in the study location. The primary wind direction is east-southeast/southeast with a frequency of ∼30%, in comparison to ∼20% frequency for the direction of the site under study (north-northeast/northeast). This would tend to indicate a similar magnitude of additional effective dose and consequently no significant radiological impact of atmospheric (14)C discharges from the FDNPP during the entire period of normal operations. Additionally, no (14)C pulse in activity can be observed in the year 2011 ring. This might be caused by a limited (14)C release from the damaged reactors during the accident or that the prevailing wind during the short period of release (11th-25th March 2011) was not in the direction of Okuma. PMID:27023156

  7. Fluvial discharges of radiocaesium from watersheds contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-04-01

    A large amount of radiocaesium, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, was released to the atmosphere and Pacific Ocean from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that was damaged by the tsunami caused by the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011. Radiocaesium deposited on the ground is now the most important consideration in assessing the risk to people in the vicinity of the FDNPP and remediating the contaminated area. Transfer of radiocaesium from the ground through rivers is an important factor in the downstream contamination of irrigation waters, paddy fields, lakes, and the sea. We estimated the transport of radiocaesium through two small rivers, the Hiso River and Wariki River, that traverse mountainous areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Areal depositions of radiocaesium in their watersheds (catchments) were high (1-3 MBq m(-2)). Water samples were collected from the rivers twice during each of two baseflow and two flood stages in 2011 and analysed for radiocaesium in particulate and dissolved forms. The radiocaesium concentrations depended strongly on the rates of water discharge. Maximum activities of radiocaesium in the samples from the Hiso River and Wariki River when there was precipitation or flooding (July and September) were 25 ± 0.31 and 35 ± 0.25 Bq L(-1), respectively. Particulate radiocaesium during periods of flooding contributed over 90% of the total radiocaesium activity in the samples. The discharge of radiocaesium from the catchments during 2011 was estimated to be 0.5% and 0.3% of the total amount of radiocaesium deposited on the catchments of the Hiso River and Wariki River, respectively. It is considered that the most of the radiocaesium deposited in the catchment remains on the soil surface. PMID:23274616

  8. Soil radiocesium distribution in rice fields disturbed by farming process after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masanori

    2012-11-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent large tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. This resulted in serious damage to the reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. Large amounts of radionuclides were released from the FDNPP, a proportion of which were deposited onto the ground. In this study, we investigated soil radiocesium contamination of rice fields in Aga and Minamiuonuma, Niigata, ~130 and 200 km away from the FDNPP, respectively, as Niigata is one of the largest rice growing regions in Japan. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer of five rice fields in August and September, 5-6 months after the FDNPP accident. Results showed that radiocesium concentrations (the sum of Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the rice soil samples were ~300 Bq (kg dry soil)(-1). All samples contained a Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratio of 0.68-0.96 after correction to March 11, 2011, showing that the radiocesium released from the FDNPP were deposited on these areas. Although the rice fields had been disturbed by farming processes after the FDNPP accident, the depth distribution of radiocesium concentrations in the plow layers showed higher concentrations in the upper soil layers. This suggests that spring tillage, flooding and puddling performed before rice transplantation may not disperse radiocesium deposited on the surface through the whole plow layer. In addition, the planar distribution of radiocesium concentrations was examined near the water inlet in one of the rice fields. Highest activities were found aligned with the direction of irrigation water discharge, indicating that radioactivity levels in rice fields may be elevated by an influx of additional radionuclides, probably in irrigation water, during farming. PMID:23000550

  9. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in soils of the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Yoschenko, V. I.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Presented are results of the study of radiocesium vertical distribution in the soils of the irrigation pond catchments in the near field 0.25 to 8 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, on sections of the Niida River floodplain, and in a forest ecosystem typical of the territory contaminated after the accident. It is shown that the vertical migration of radiocesium in undisturbed forest and grassland soils in the zone affected by the Fukushima accident is faster than it was in the soils of the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for a similar time interval after the accident. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils are several times higher than those for the Chernobyl soils. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone. In the forest soils the radiocesium dispersion is faster as compared to grassland soils, both in the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones. The study and analysis of the vertical distribution of the Fukushima origin radiocesium in the Niida gawa floodplain soils has made it possible to identify areas of contaminated sediment accumulation on the floodplain. The average accumulation rate for sediments at the study locations on the Niida gawa floodplain varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. Taking into account the sediments accumulation leading to an increase in the radiocesium inventory in alluvial soils is key for predicting redistribution of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima accident on the river catchments, as well as for decision-making on contaminated territories remediation and clean-up. Clean-up of alluvial soils does not seem to be worthwhile because of the following accumulation of contaminated sediments originating from more contaminated areas, including the exclusion zone.

  10. Radioactive Cs-137 discharge from Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, S.; Onda, Y.; Tsujimura, M.; Sakakibara, K.; Konuma, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter such as leaf and branch were monitored. Discharge amount of stream water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured to investigate the discharge amount of radiocesium and composition of radiocesium discharge form through the headwater stream. Observation were conducted at stream site in four headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ~35 km north west of FDNPP from June 2011 (suspended sediment and coarse organic matter: August 2012) to December 2014.The Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water was around 1Bq/l at June 2011. Then declined to 0.1 Bq/l at December 2011. And in December 2014, it declined to 0.01 Bq/l order. Declining trend of Cs-137 concentration in dissolved water was expressed in double exponential model. Also temporary increase was observed in dissolved Cs-137 during the rainfall event. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 170-49000 Bq/kg and 350-14000 Bq/kg respectably. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment showed good correlation with average deposition density of catchment. The effect of decontamination works appeared in declining of Cs-137 concentration in suspended sediment. Contribution rate of Cs-137 discharge by suspended sediment was 96-99% during a year. Total annual Cs-137 discharge from the catchment were 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  11. Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model.

    PubMed

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured (137)Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68 kBq L(-1) (6.8 × 10(4)Bq L(-1)) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the accident site to the ocean existed: direct release of high radioactive liquid wastes to the ocean and the deposition of airborne radioactivity to the ocean surface. By analysis of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio, we determined that direct release from the site contributed more to the measured (137)Cs concentration than atmospheric deposition did. We then used a regional ocean model to simulate the (137)Cs concentrations resulting from the direct release to the ocean off Fukushima and found that from March 26 to the end of May the total amount of (137)Cs directly released was 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq ((3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(15)Bq). The simulated temporal change in (137)Cs concentrations near the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant site agreed well with observations. Our simulation results showed that (1) the released (137)Cs advected southward along the coast during the simulation period; (2) the eastward-flowing Kuroshio and its extension transported (137)C during May 2011; and (3) (137)Cs concentrations decreased to less than 10 BqL(-1) by the end of May 2011 in the whole simulation domain as a result of oceanic advection and diffusion. We compared the total amount and concentration of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors to the ocean with the (137)Cs released to the ocean by global fallout. Even though the measured (137)Cs concentration from the Fukushima accident was the highest recorded, the total released amount of (137)Cs was not very large. Therefore, the effect of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors on concentration in the whole North

  12. Southward transport of radiocesium discharged directly from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants across the Kuroshio Extension Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi; Aoyama, Michio

    2013-04-01

    The massive Tohoku earthquake and consequent giant tsunami of March 11, 2011 resulted in global releases of radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants (FNPPs). In the North Pacific Ocean, a large portion of Fukushima-derived radiocesium has been settled both through atmospheric deposition and direct discharge. Evaluation of Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes in the ocean is necessary to address risks to marine ecosystem and public health. Meanwhile the contaminants are potentially ideal tracers for material cycles and seawater circulation in the ocean. We present here Fukushima-derived radiocesium in seawaters at stations in the northwestern Pacific Ocean hundreds km away from FNPPs in February 2012. Surface and deeper samples (25-800 m) were collected into 20-L cubitainers using a bucket and a conductivity-temperature-depth rosette with water samplers, respectively. The sample were filtrated and acidified by nitric acid on board. Radiocesium in the seawater sample was concentrated onto ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP). The radiocesium in the AMP/Cs compound was measured using a gamma-spectrometry with well-type Ge detectors. Fukushima-derived radiocesium was found at all the stations from 20°N to 42°N about one year after the disaster. Concentration of radiocesium in the surface mixed layer (0 ~ 150-m depth approximately) was highest in the transition area between the subarctic and subtropical regions (~ 20 Bq/m3) because of the direct discharge of radiocesium from FNPPs into the transition area. The surface concentrations in the subarctic and subtropical regions were less than 5 and 1 Bq/m3, respectively, most of which were probably derived from the atmospheric deposition of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Below the surface mixed layer the Fukushima-derived radiocesium decreases sharply and was not detected below 400-m depth at stations in the subarctic region and transition area. However at stations just

  13. Radioactive materials deposition in Iwate prefecture, northeast japan, due to the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideyuki

    2013-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011, and additional tsunami gave the big damage along the pacific coastline of the northeast Japan. Tsunami also caused the accident of Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), released of massive amount of radioactive materials to all over the northeast to central Japan. Ministry of Education, cultural, sports, science and technology (MEXT), Japan, carried out the airborne monitoring survey on several times, however, it is impossible to know the deposition of low level radiation under 0.1μSv/h. On the other hand, radioactive material was detected in Iwate by farm and livestock products, and it was necessary to understand an accurate contamination status in Iwate prefecture. Behavior of radioactive material is very similar to the ashfall by the volcanic eruption. Therefore, it is possible to apply the knowledge of volcanology to evaluation of the natural radiation dose. The author carried out the detailed contamination mapping across the Iwate prefecture. To γ-ray measurement, using scintillation counter A2700 of the clearpulse, measured on 1m grass field above ground, for one minute. The total measurement point became more than 800 point whole in Iwate. Field survey were carried out from April to November, 2011, therefore, it is necessary to consider to the half - life of the radioactive element of the cesium 134 and 137. In this study, the author reconstructed a deposition of April, 2011, just after the accident. In addition, the author also carried out the revision of the natural radiation dose included in the granite and so on. From the result, Concentration of radioactive materials depend on the topography, it tend to high concentrate in the basin or along the valley. The feeble deposition 0.01-0.2μsv/h with the radioactive material was recognized in whole prefecture. High contamination area distributed over the E-W directions widely in the southern part of the prefecture, and it also existence of the

  14. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-02-01

    The impact of the earthquake and tsunami in the east coast of Japan in 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity to the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr and 89Sr throughout waters 30-600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m-3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m-3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m-3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidences a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us establishing a 90Sr/137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e. 0.63) and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  15. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of the earthquake and tsunami on the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity into the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluating the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr (n = 57) and 89Sr (n = 19) throughout waters 30-600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m-3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m-3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m-3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidence a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us to establish a 90Sr / 137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e., 0.63) and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  16. Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific Ocean before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Zheng, J.; Aono, T.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides such as Pu-239 (half-life: 24100 yr), Pu-240 (half-life: 6560 yr) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 yr) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. In the North Pacific Ocean, two distinct sources of Pu isotopes can be identified; i.e., the global stratospheric fallout and close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater and marine sediment samples collected in the western North Pacific before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station will provide useful background data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The atom ratios of Pu-240/Pu-239 in water columns from the Yamato and Tsushima Basins in the Japan Sea were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18; however, there were no temporal variation of atom ratios during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the Japan Sea. The total Pu-239+240 inventories in the whole water columns were approximately doubled during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the two basins. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 in surface water from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific Ocean, was 0.224 and showed no notable variation from the surface to the bottom with the mean atom ratio being 0.234. The atom ratios for the Pacific coast, near the Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, were approximately the same as the 0.224 ratio obtained from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific margin. The atom ratios in the surficial sediments from Sagami Bay ranged from 0.229 to 0.247. The mean atom ratio in the sediment columns in the East China Sea ranged from 0.248 for the Changjiang estuary to 0.268 for the shelf edge. The observed atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean

  17. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Li, D.; Huang, H.; Shen, S.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2014-10-01

    The atmospheric transport and ground deposition of radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs during and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident (March 2011) are investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. The aim is to assess the skill of WRF in simulating these processes and the sensitivity of the model's performance to various parameterizations of unresolved physics. The WRF-Chem model is first upgraded by implementing a radioactive decay term into the advection-diffusion solver and adding three parameterizations for dry deposition and two parameterizations for wet deposition. Different microphysics and horizontal turbulent diffusion schemes are then tested for their ability to reproduce observed meteorological conditions. Subsequently, the influence of emission characteristics (including the emission rate, the gas partitioning of 131I and the size distribution of 137Cs) on the simulated transport and deposition is examined. The results show that the model can predict the wind fields and rainfall realistically and that the ground deposition of the radionuclides can also be captured reasonably well. The modeled precipitation is largely influenced by the microphysics schemes, while the influence of the horizontal diffusion schemes on the wind fields is subtle. However, the ground deposition of radionuclides is sensitive to both horizontal diffusion schemes and microphysical schemes. Wet deposition dominated over dry deposition at most of the observation stations, but not at all locations in the simulated domain. To assess the sensitivity of the total daily deposition to all of the model physics and inputs, the averaged absolute value of the difference (AAD) is proposed. Based on AAD, the total deposition is mainly influenced by the emission rate for both 131I and 137Cs; while it is not sensitive to the dry deposition parameterizations since the dry deposition is just a minor fraction of the total

  18. Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Kai, M

    2012-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an emergency to an existing exposure situation has been in progress. In selecting the reference exposure levels in some areas under an existing exposure situation, the authorities tried to follow the situation-based approach recommended by the ICRP. However, a mixture of emergency and post-emergency approaches confused the people living in the contaminated areas because the reactor conditions continued to be not completely stable. In deriving the criteria in an existing exposure situation, the regulatory authority selected 20 mSv y(-1). The mothers in the affected area believed that a dose of 20 mSv y(-1) was unacceptably high for children since 1 mSv y(-1) is the dose limit for the public under normal conditions. Internet information accelerated concern about the internal exposure to children and the related health effects. From some experiences after the accident the following lessons could be learned. The selection of reference doses in existing exposure situations after an accident must be openly communicated with the public using a risk-informed approach. The detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficient was misused for calculating the hypothetical number of cancer deaths by some non-radiation experts. It would not be possible to resolve this problem unless the ICRP addressed an alternative risk assessment to convey the meaning and associated uncertainty of the risk to an exposed population. A situation-based approach in addition to a risk-informed approach needs to be disseminated properly in order to select the level of protection that would be the best possible under the

  19. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in parmelioid lichens within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Terumi; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Kashiwadani, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Kenso; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Iijima, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    Radiocaesium activity concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured in parmelioid lichens collected within the Fukushima Prefecture approximately 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A total of 44 samples consisting of nine species were collected at 16 points within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The activity concentration of (134)Cs ranged from 4.6 to 1000 kBq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs ranged from 7.6 to 1740 kBq kg(-1). A significant positive correlation was found between the (137)Cs activity concentration in lichens and the (137)Cs deposition density on soil (n = 44), based on the calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficients as r = 0.90 (P < 0.01). The two dominant species, Flavoparmelia caperata (n = 12) and Parmotrema clavuliferum (n = 11), showed strong positive correlations, for which the r values were calculated as 0.92 (P < 0.01) and 0.90 (P < 0.01) respectively. Therefore, Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema clavuliferum are suggested as biomonitoring species for levels of radiocaesium fallout within the Fukushima Prefecture. PMID:26002488

  20. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  1. Integrated watershed modeling for simulation of radio-cesium migration after flood events in the catchment near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, K.; Kurikami, H.; Malins, A.; Yamada, S.; Funaki, H.; Niizato, T.; Machida, M.; Kitamura, A.

    2015-12-01

    The environments of Fukushima near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant have been contaminated by the explosion accident of the plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The contamination level and air-dose rate behavior at present and in future are significant concern for the people used to live nearby. Most dominant radioactive material is 137Cs at present and its migration is considered to be driven by soil erosion and subsequent transport. To estimate the amount of soil sedimentation and the 137Cs migration, a three-dimensional hydrological model of the catchment was developed focused on the Ogi-no-sawa catchment, located 15 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Base on the developed hydrological model, top soil transport and resulting radio-cesium movement was simulated. For the modeling and simulation, physics based code the General-purpose terrestrial fluid-flow simulator GETFLOWS model, which is one of the tools for watershed modeling, was applied. The simulation results were compared with monitored data of the amount of water discharge and concentration of suspended solids for model testing. As a result of the study, the soil and 137Cs redistribution patterns at various scales of flood events could be predicted based on the results of modeling and simulation.

  2. The Time-Dependent Transfer Factor of Radiocesium from Soil to Game Animals in Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Howard, Brenda J; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-09-01

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, monitoring of tissues from hunted game animals ensures compliance with the standard food limits for radionuclides in Japan. We quantified the transfer of (137)Cs from contaminated land to game animals using the Aggregated transfer factor (Tag = activity concentration in meat [Bq kg(-1) fw]/amount in soil [Bq m(-2)]) of (137)Cs for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer, green pheasant, copper pheasant and wild duck, collected between 2011 and 2015. Open data sources were used from Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures. Our initially compiled data showed that the maximum reported (137)Cs activity concentration in wild boar after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident were lower than those reported after the Chernobyl accident. The geometric mean Tag values (m(2)kg(-1) fw) of (137)Cs in 2015 for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer and copper pheasant were similar (1.9-5.1) × 10(-3) while those for green pheasant and wild duck were about 1 order of magnitude lower at (1.0-2.2) × 10(-4). Effective half-lives were 1.2-6.9 y except for sika deer and copper pheasant where no decreases were found. In contrast to the Chernobyl accident, no seasonal change occurred in the meat (137)Cs activity concentrations of the wild animals during the study period. PMID:27513196

  3. Reply to Comment by Cole-dai Et Al. on "Climatic Impact of the Long-lasting Laki Eruption: Inapplicability of Mass-independent Sulfur Isotope Composition Measurements"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Oman, Luke D.; Robock, Alan; Self, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Here we respond to the comments by Cole-Dai et al. [2014] on our article Schmidt et al. [2012]. Specifically, in response to section 2 of their reply, we argued in Schmidt et al. [2012] that based on previously published estimates of the volatile release height during the 1783-1784 C.E. Laki eruption, the lack of a sulfur massindependent fractionation (MIF) anomaly is expected. In other words, no previous study on Laki ever argued that this eruption emitted SO2 into altitudes >13-15 km. In section 2.3, Cole-Dai et al. [2014] argue that the nonzero ?33S value of their Laki sample 1 may be explained by a short-lived explosive phase at Laki during which volatiles reached the stratosphere. In Schmidt et al. [2012] in section 2, we argued in agreement with Cole-Dai et al. [2014] (section 3.1) that for a MIF anomaly to be preserved, the Laki volatiles would have had to be emitted in >20 km altitude. Our main point is that eruption column heights >20 km are unlikely based on the historical accounts and plume-rise modeling for the Laki eruption [Stothers et al., 1986; Woods, 1993; Thordarson and Self, 2003]. In Schmidt et al. [2012], we argued that to deduce a short-lived climatic impact of the Laki eruption based on the lack of a MIF anomaly and the length of the sulfate deposition in Greenland ice cores may be misleading because the climatic impact will outlast the radiative forcing of the Laki aerosol cloud. Cole-Dai et al. [2014] acknowledge the latter in their reply in section 4.2. We agreewith Cole-Dai et al. [2014] in that themagnitude and length of the climatic impact during the winter of 1783-1784 depends on the altitude of the volatile release during the eruption (sections 2.3 and 4.2). However, even if we assumed that during Laki all sulfur dioxide (SO2) would have been released in the troposphere, then the aerosol cloud would still be present in the upper troposphere during March 1784, as is evident from independent model simulations of this "tropospheric

  4. Radiocesium wash-off associated with soil erosion from various land uses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Onda, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kato, Hiroaki; Konoplev, Alexei; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is the initial process which drives radiocesium into the aquatic systems and therefore the quantification of radiocesium wash-off associated with soil erosion is indispensable for mitigating the risks. This study presents two year's observation of soil erosion and radiocesium wash-off to quantify differences in radiocesium behavior in various land uses. Seven runoff plots were established in four landscapes; uncultivated farmland (Farmland A1, Farmland B1), cultivated farmland (Farmland A2, Farmland B2), grassland (Grassland A, Grassland B) and Japanese cedar forest (Forest) in Kawamata town, an area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The discharged sediments were collected approximately every two weeks. In laboratories, collected sediments were dried and weighed for calculating soil erosion rates (kg m-2) and served for measurements of radiocesium concentration (Bq kg-1) with HPGe detectors. The erosivity factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (R-factor: MJ mm ha-1 hr-1 yr-1) was calculated based on the data of precipitation. Standardized soil erosion rates (kg m-2 MJ-1 mm-1 ha hr yr), observed soil erosion rates divided by R-factor, was 1.8 × 10-4 in Farmland A1, 6.0 × 10-4 in Farmland A2, 1.5 × 10-3 in Farmland B1, 8.3 × 10-4 in Farmland B2, 9.6 × 10-6 in Grassland A, 5.9 × 10-6 in Grassland B and 2.3 × 10-6 in Forest. These erosion rates were basically proportional to their vegetation cover of soil surfaces except for cultivated farmlands. Concentrations of Cs-137 in eroded sediments basically depended on the local deposition of Cs-137 and varied enormously with ranging several orders of magnitude in all the landscapes. For the observation period of time decreasing trends in concentrations of Cs-137 in eroded sediments were not obvious. To compare these results with those of Chernobyl, we calculated normalized 'solid' wash-off coefficient (m2 g-1) with dividing the mean total concentration of Cs-137 in

  5. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Maderich, V; Bezhenar, R; Heling, R; de With, G; Jung, K T; Myoung, J G; Cho, Y-K; Qiao, F; Robertson, L

    2014-05-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from (137)Cs data for the period 1945-2010. Calculated concentrations of (137)Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y(-1) is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of (137)Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y(-1). Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  6. Case Study: On a Deep-tow Piggy Back system, DAI-PACK - Pertinent information is coordinates, but tool is even more important -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisimoto, K.; Joshima, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2006-12-01

    Deep submergence vehicles bring us closer to the target we want to see in better resolution. It is difficult to obtain very detailed scale seafloor or sub-bottom structure profiling by a conventional surface-towed survey system, in which the horizontal spatial resolution in data obtained is poor because of the great distance between the sensors and the targets (seafloor/sub-bottom). To improve this horizontal resolution of the profiling, we have been developing and using deep-tow profiling systems for more than two decades at the Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. In our presentation we show our latest tool for the deep-sea mapping, named DAI-PACK (Deep-sea Acoustic Imaging Package) system, which has been tested and used in fields for more than four years now. It is not easy, however, to bring the tool deep and to maneuver and keep the towing altitude sufficiently close to the seafloor. To overcome this problem, we made the system work stand-alone and also made it portable in size and weight to be accommodated to ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicle) or manned submersibles. We have chosen two sensors to be installed in the system, i.e. (1) deep-sea side-scan sonar and (2) deep-sea sub-bottom profiler. All components except sensors are packaged in an aluminum pressure sphere, which can be installed as a piggy back payload on many vehicles available today. From our recent experiments using the DAI-PACK on several vehicles, e.g. ROVs (the Hyper Dolphin in '03~'06, the ROPOS in '04, the Kaiko7000II in '06), and HOV (Shinkai6500 in '04, '05), we have learned several pros and cons regarding the use of the DSVs. We can discuss on the topics, such as (1) noise problem of the vehicles; ROVs were more noisy than Shinkai6500, (2) importance and need of good positioning of the vehicles;any DSVs we have used have not been installed a navigation system good enough to be collocated with the imagery data of the DAI-PACK, and (3) usefulness of sub-bottom profiling, based on real good

  7. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil using a scraper plate over a wide area surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Takahashi, Junko; Nakano, Masakazu; Shimada, Kiyotaka; Uno, Kiichiro; Hagiwara, Shigetomo; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, radioactive cesium was released in the environment and deposited on the soils. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in contaminated soils provide useful information not only for radiation protection and decontamination operations but also for geoscience and radioecology studies. Soil samples were collected using a scraper plate three times between December 2011 and December 2012 at 84 or 85 locations within a 100-km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. In most of the obtained radioactive cesium depth profiles, it was possible to fit the concentration to a function of mass depth as either an exponential or hyperbolic secant function. By using those functions, following three parameters were estimated: (i) relaxation mass depth β (g cm(-2)), (ii) effective relaxation mass depth βeff (g cm(-2)), which is defined for a hyperbolic secant function as the relaxation mass depth of an equivalent exponential function giving the same air kerma rate at 1 m above the ground as the inventory, and (iii) 1/10 depth L1/10 (cm), at which the soil contains 90% of the inventory. The average β value (wet weight) including ones by hyperbolic secant function in December 2012, was 1.29 times higher than that in December 2011. In fact, it was observed that depth profiles at some study sites deviated from the typical exponential distributions over time. These results indicate the gradual downward migration of radioactive cesium in the soils. The L1/10 values in December 2012 were summarized and presented on a map surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, and the average value of L1/10 was 3.01 cm (n = 82) at this time. It was found that radioactive cesium remained within 5 cm of the ground surface at most study sites (71 sites). The sech function can also be used to estimate the downward migration rate V (kg m(-2) y(-1)). The V values in December 2012 (n = 25) were in good agreement with those found by a

  8. Decontamination work in the area surrounding Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant: another occupational health challenge of the nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Yoshikawa, Toru; Murata, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    This article describes occupational health measures for workers involved in decontamination of radioactive material discharged around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the explosions in 2011. Decontamination is performed by removing radioactive particles (mainly cesium) from surfaces of soil, grass and trees, and buildings. Measurement of radiation doses is necessary to reduce exposure, and to determine whether workers can work below dose limits. Protective equipment for decontamination is determined based on the concentration of radiation in contaminated soil and the exposure to dust. Health examinations by physicians are mandated for decontamination workers upon hiring and every 6 months. While there is no possibility of acute radiation injury from decontamination, workers may be anxious about the unclear effects of chronic low level radiation exposure on health. Measures to protect the decontamination workers are the top priority. PMID:22845725

  9. Source term estimation of radioxenon released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, P W; Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Cooper, M W; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Korpach, E; Yi, J; Miley, H S; Rishel, J P; Ungar, K; White, B; Woods, V T

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout across the northern hemisphere resulting from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Sampling data from multiple International Modeling System locations are combined with atmospheric transport modeling to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of releases of (133)Xe. Modeled dilution factors at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of (133)Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This analysis suggests that 92% of the 1.24 × 10(19) Bq of (133)Xe present in the three operating reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a 3 d period. An uncertainty analysis bounds the release estimates to 54-129% of available (133)Xe inventory. PMID:24211671

  10. Time series changes in radiocaesium distribution in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.)) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    Radiocaesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) release following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, belonging to the Tokyo Electric Power Company caused severe contamination of new tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.)) shoots by radiocaesium in many prefectures in eastern Japan. Because tea plants are perennial crops, there is the fear that the contamination might last for a long time. The objectives of this study were to reveal time series changes in the distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants after radioactive fallout and to evaluate the effect of pruning on reduction of radiocaesium concentrations in new shoots growing next year. The experimental tea field was located in Shizuoka, Japan, approximately 400 km away from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in a southwest direction. Time series changes in radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea, a tea product primarily produced for making Japanese green tea, from May 2011 to June 2013 and distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants from May 2011 to May 2012 were monitored. The radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea exponentially decreased; the effective half-lives for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.30 and 0.36 y during the first 2 y after the accident, respectively. With time, the highest concentrations of (137)Cs moved from the upper to the lower parts of plants. Medium pruning 2-3 months after the accident reduced the concentration of (137)Cs in new shoots harvested in the first crop season of the following year by 56% compared with unpruned tea plants; thus, pruning is an effective measure for reducing radiocaesium concentration in tea. PMID:26695880

  11. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  12. Constituents of essential oils from the leaves, stem barks and resins of Canarium parvum Leen., and Canarium tramdenanum Dai et Yakovl. (Burseracea) grown in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran D; Dai, Do N; Luong, Ngo X; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaf, stem bark and resins of Canarium parvum Leen., and Canarium tramdenanum Dai et Yakovl. (Burseracea) grown in Vietnam are being reported. The hydrodistilled oils were analysed for their chemical constituents by means of gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds of C. parvum were β-caryophyllene (18.7%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.9%), (Z)-β-ocimene (11.9%), germacrene D (8.8%) and α-humulene (8.4%) in the leaf; β-caryophyllene (30.4%), α-copaene (20.5%) and (E)-β-ocimene (7.7%) in the stem. However, germacrene D (23.2%), α-amorphene (14.9%), α-copaene (9.8%) and β-elemene (8.6%) were present in the resin. The leaf of C. tramdenanum comprises β-caryophyllene (16.8%), α-phellandrene (15.9%), γ-elemene (13.1%) and limonene (11.8%), while limonene (25.7%), α-phellandrene (21.7%), α-pinene (12.3%) and β-caryophyllene (10.9%) were present in the stem. However, δ-elemene (14.6%) and bulnesol (16.0%) are the main constituents in the resin. PMID:24443833

  13. The air dose rate around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant: its spatial characteristics and temporal changes until December 2012.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Satoshi; Maeyama, Takeshi; Hoshide, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Shoji; Okuda, Naotoshi; Sato, Tetsuro; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Distribution maps of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were constructed using the results of measurement obtained from approximately 6500 locations (at most) per measurement period. The measurements were conducted 1 m above the ground using survey meters in flat and spatially open locations. Spatial distribution and temporal change of the air dose rate in the area were revealed by examining the resultant distribution maps. The observed reduction rate of the air dose rate over the 18 months between June 2011 and December 2012 was greater than that calculated from radioactive decay of radiocesium by 10% in relative percentage except decontaminated sites. This 10% difference in the reduction of the air dose rate can be explained by the mobility of radiocesium in the depth direction. In the region where the air dose rate was lower than 0.25 μSv h(-1) on June 2011, the reduction of the air dose rate was observed to be smaller than that of the other dose rate regions, and it was in fact smaller than the reduction rate caused by radioactive decay alone. In contrast, the reduction rate was larger in regions with higher air dose rates. In flat and spatially open locations, no significant difference in the reduction tendency of air dose rates was observed among different land use classifications (rice fields, farmland, forests, and building sites). PMID:25246092

  14. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and (131)I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here. PMID:24965965

  15. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively. PMID:23103577

  16. Formulation, calibration and validation of the DAIS model (version 1), a simple Antarctic Ice Sheet model sensitive to variations of sea level and ocean subsurface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, G.

    2014-03-01

    The Dcess Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model is presented. Model hindcasts of Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) sea level equivalent are forced by reconstructed Antarctic temperatures, global mean sea level and high-latitude, subsurface ocean temperatures, the latter calculated using the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS) Earth System Model forced by reconstructed global mean atmospheric temperatures. The model is calibrated by comparing such hindcasts for different model configurations with paleoreconstructions of AIS sea level equivalent from the last interglacial, the last glacial maximum and the mid-Holocene. The calibrated model is then validated against present estimates of the rate of AIS ice loss. It is found that a high-order dependency of ice flow at the grounding line on water depth there is needed to capture the observed response of the AIS at ice age terminations. Furthermore it is found that a dependency of this ice flow on ocean subsurface temperature by way of ice shelf demise and a resulting buttressing decrease is needed to explain the contribution of the AIS to global mean sea level rise at the last interglacial. When forced and calibrated in this way, model hindcasts of the rate of present day AIS ice loss agree with recent, data-based estimates of this ice loss rate.

  17. Formulation, calibration and validation of the DAIS model (version 1), a simple Antarctic ice sheet model sensitive to variations of sea level and ocean subsurface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, G.

    2014-08-01

    The DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System Science) Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model is presented. Model hindcasts of Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) sea level equivalent are forced by reconstructed Antarctic temperatures, global mean sea level and high-latitude, ocean subsurface temperatures, the latter calculated using the DCESS model forced by reconstructed global mean atmospheric temperatures. The model is calibrated by comparing such hindcasts for different model configurations with paleoreconstructions of AIS sea level equivalent from the last interglacial, the last glacial maximum and the mid-Holocene. The calibrated model is then validated against present estimates of the rate of AIS ice loss. It is found that a high-order dependency of ice flow at the grounding line on water depth there is needed to capture the observed response of the AIS at ice age terminations. Furthermore, it is found that a dependency of this ice flow on ocean subsurface temperature by way of ice shelf demise and a resulting buttressing decrease is needed to explain the contribution of the AIS to global mean sea level rise at the last interglacial. When forced and calibrated in this way, model hindcasts of the rate of present-day AIS ice loss agree with recent, data-based estimates of this ice loss rate.

  18. Discovery of radioactive silver (110mAg) in spiders and other fauna in the terrestrial environment after the meltdown of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    PubMed Central

    NAKANISHI, Hiromi; MORI, Atsushi; TAKEDA, Kouki; TANAKA, Houdo; KOBAYASHI, Natsuko; TANOI, Keitaro; YAMAKAWA, Takashi; MORI, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Six months after the explosion of TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, radioactive silver (110mAg), was detected in concentrations of 3754 Bq/kg in Nephila clavata (the orb-web spider; Joro-gumo in Japanese) collected at Nimaibashi, Iitate village in Fukushima Prefecture, whereas 110mAg in the soil was 43.1 Bq/kg. A survey of 35 faunal species in the terrestrial environment during the 3.5 years after the accident showed that most of Anthropoda had two orders higher 110mAg in their tissues than soils, although silver is not an essential element for their life. However, tracing of the activity of 110mAg detected in spider Atypus karschi collected regularly at a fixed location showed that it declined much faster than the physical half-life. These results suggest that 110mAg was at once biologically concentrated by faunal species, especially Arthropoda, through food chain. The factors affecting the subsequent rapid decline of 110mAg concentration in faunal species are discussed. PMID:25864469

  19. Modeling of long range transport pathways for radionuclides to Korea during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident and their association with meteorological circulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hong; Yun, Ju-Yong; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-10-01

    The Lagrangian FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Global Forecast System (NCEP/GFS) meteorological data were used to simulate the long range transport pathways of three artificial radionuclides: (131)I, (137)Cs, and (133)Xe, coming into Korean Peninsula during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Using emission rates of these radionuclides estimated from previous studies, three distinctive transport routes of these radionuclides toward the Korean Peninsula for a period from 10 March to 20 April 2011 were exploited by three spatial scales: 1) intercontinental scale - plume released since mid-March 2011 and transported to the North to arrive Korea on 23 March 2011, 2) global (hemispherical) scale - plume traveling over the whole northern hemisphere passing through the Pacific Ocean/Europe to reach the Korean Peninsula with relatively low concentrations in late March 2011 and, 3) regional scale - plume released on early April 2011 arrived at the Korean Peninsula via southwest sea of Japan influenced directly by veering mesoscale wind circulations. Our identification of these transport routes at three different scales of meteorological circulations suggests the feasibility of a multi-scale approach for more accurate prediction of radionuclide transport in the study area. In light of the fact that the observed arrival/duration time of peaks were explained well by the FLEXPART model coupled with NCEP/GFS input data, our approach can be used meaningfully as a decision support model for radiation emergency situations. PMID:26149179

  20. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation. PMID:27116401

  1. Accumulation of (137)Cs by rice grown in four types of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Saitou, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasukazu; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ueda, Yoshikatsu

    2015-02-01

    The ability to predict radiocesium transfer from soil to agricultural products is necessary for assessing management options in a radiocesium contaminated area. In this study, we evaluated the differences in transfer factors among soil samples and the differences in transfer factors between the first and the second years of contamination in rice. We employed pot experiments using four types of soils that are representative of the agricultural soils present in the Fukushima Prefecture contaminated by (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the March 2011 accident. The experiments were conducted during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons. The geometric mean of transfer factors for brown rice and inedible rice part was 0.011 and 0.031, respectively, in 2011 and 0.0061 and 0.020, respectively, in 2012. The average decreasing rate of the transfer factor was 40% and 30% in brown rice and inedible rice part, respectively, from 2011 to 2012, presumably owing to the irreversible sorption of (137)Cs to clay minerals. PMID:25461516

  2. Depth distribution of 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I in soil profile after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Teramage, Mengistu

    2012-09-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011. However, there is no field measurement data on the depth distributions of radiocaesium and (131)I concentrations in soil profile. In this study, the depth distribution of the deposited radionuclides in the cultivated soil profile was investigated in one of the most contaminated area after FDNPP accident. The result of this study demonstrated that greater than 86% of total radiocaesium and 79% of total (131)I were absorbed in the upper 2.0 cm in the soil profile. The relaxation mass depth (h(0)) derived from the depth distribution of radiocaesium and (131)I in the soil profile at the study site were 9.1 kg m(-2) and 10.4 kg m(-2), respectively. The h(0) of (137)Cs in the studied soil profile was greater than those for the cultivated soils nearby the Chernobyl NPP. The positive relationship was found between clay content of topsoil and the h(0) of (137)Cs. However, further analysis is required to clarify the effect of clay content on the initial penetration depth of deposited (137)Cs in soil profile. PMID:22029969

  3. Determinants of the return to hometowns after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: a case study for the village of Kawauchi.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Endo, Yuukou; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-09-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 destroyed the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) and almost all residents in a 20 km radius from the plant eventually evacuated. FNPP reactors were stabilised in December 2011; some evacuees decided to return to their hometowns, and the other evacuees remained. Efforts were made to identify the determinants that affect the decision to return home in order to promote recovery of the surrounding area of FNPP. Seventy-one residents who had not returned to hometown and 56 residents who had returned were selected. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors showed that being female [odds ratio (OR): 2.43, p = 0.03], living in areas with relatively higher ambient doses (OR: 3.60, p=0.01) and expressing anxiety over radiation exposure (OR: 8.91, p < 0.01) were independently associated with decisions not to return. Results of this study suggest the importance of active participation by scientists and local authorities in communicating the risk to the general population involved in returning home. PMID:23547241

  4. Input and output budgets of radiocesium concerning the forest floor in the mountain forest of Fukushima released from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Watanabe, Takayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Estimations of radiocesium input and output concerning the forest floor within a mountain forest region have been conducted in the north and central part of the Abukuma Mountains of Fukushima, northeast Japan, after a 2-3 year period following the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The radiocesium input and output associated with surface washoff, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall processes at experimental plots installed on the forest floor of evergreen Japanese cedars and deciduous Konara oaks have been monitored. Despite the high output potential in the mountainous forest of Fukushima, the results at both monitoring locations show the radiocesium input to be 4-50 times higher than the output during the summer monsoon in Fukushima. These results indicate that the radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios (0.05%-0.19%). Thus, the associated fluxes throughout the circulation process are key issues for the projecting the environmental fate of the radiocesium levels, along with the subsequent reconstruction of life emphasized within the setting. PMID:27131868

  5. The Contribution of Sources to the Sustained Elevated Inventory of (137)Cs in Offshore Waters East of Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident.

    PubMed

    Takata, Hyoe; Kusakabe, Masashi; Inatomi, Naohiko; Ikenoue, Takahito; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    We have evaluated the contribution of sources of (137)Cs to the inventory of radiocesium in waters (surface area: 6160 km(2), water volume: 753 km(3)) off Fukushima Prefecture and neighboring prefectures from May 2011 to February 2015. A time-series of the inventory of (137)Cs in the offshore waters revealed a clearly decreasing trend from May 2011 (283.4 TBq) to February 2015 (1.89 TBq). The (137)Cs inventory about four years after the accident was approximately twice the background inventory of 1.1 TBq. The magnitudes of the (137)Cs influxes from sources into offshore waters for periods of 182-183 days were estimated from the first period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2012: 15.3 TBq) to the last period (1 October 2014 to 31 March 2015: 0.41 TBq). We assumed that three sources contributed (137)Cs: continuous direct discharge from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS) even after the massive discharge in late March 2011, desorption/dissolution from sediments, and fluvial input. Quantification of these sources indicated that the direct discharge from the FNPS is the principal source of (137)Cs to maintain the relatively high inventory in the offshore area. PMID:27282171

  6. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas. PMID:24951121

  7. Sensitivity of the modelled deposition of Caesium-137 from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant to the wet deposition parameterisation in NAME.

    PubMed

    Leadbetter, Susan J; Hort, Matthew C; Jones, Andrew R; Webster, Helen N; Draxler, Roland R

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the impact of different meteorological data sets and different wet scavenging coefficients on the model predictions of radionuclide deposits following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Three separate operational meteorological data sets, the UK Met Office global meteorology, the ECMWF global meteorology and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) mesoscale meteorology as well as radar rainfall analyses from JMA were all used as inputs to the UK Met Office's dispersion model NAME (the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment). The model predictions of Caesium-137 deposits based on these meteorological models all showed good agreement with observations of deposits made in eastern Japan with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.44 to 0.80. Unexpectedly the NAME run using radar rainfall data had a lower correlation coefficient (R = 0.66), when compared to observations, than the run using the JMA mesoscale model rainfall (R = 0.76) or the run using ECMWF met data (R = 0.80). Additionally the impact of modifying the wet scavenging coefficients used in the parameterisation of wet deposition was investigated. The results showed that modifying the scavenging parameters had a similar impact to modifying the driving meteorology on the rank calculated from comparing the modelled and observed deposition. PMID:24745690

  8. Spatial distributions of radionuclides deposited onto ground soil around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and their temporal change until December 2012.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Satoshi; Maeyama, Takeshi; Hoshide, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Shoji; Okuda, Naotoshi; Demongeot, Stéphanie; Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Kato, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Sato, Tetsuro; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Spatial distributions and temporal changes of radioactive fallout released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident have been investigated by two campaigns with three measurement schedules. The inventories (activities per unit area) of the radionuclides deposited onto ground soil were measured using portable gamma-ray spectrometers at nearly 1000 locations (at most) per measurement campaign. Distribution maps of the inventories of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (110m)Ag as of March, September, and December 2012 were constructed. No apparent temporal change of the radionuclide inventories was observed from March to December 2012. Weathering effects (e.g., horizontal mobility) were not noticeable during this period. Spatial dependence in the ratios of (134)Cs/(137)Cs and (110m)Ag/(137)Cs were observed in the Tohoku and Kanto regions. The detailed maps of (134)Cs and (137)Cs as of September 2012 and December 2012 were constructed using the relationship between the air dose rate and the inventory. PMID:25307776

  9. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. PMID:24703526

  10. Effective half-lives of ¹³⁷Cs from persimmon tree tissue parts in Japan after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the radiocesium decreasing rates from persimmon trees during a period of about 3 y following the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we conducted measurements of tree tissue parts collected in 2011-2013. The sampling was carried out in Chiba, 220 km south of FDNPP; radioactive fallouts discharged from FDNPP had mainly been observed in March-April 2011 on the sampling site. We measured (137)Cs concentrations in the tree tissue parts, i.e., fruits (flesh, skin and seeds), leaves and newly emerged branches, and then the effective half-lives (T(eff)) of (137)Cs were calculated. Leaf samples were classified into two types by sampling months according to the growing stages, that is, immature (April-May) and mature (June-November) leaves. All these parts showed exponential declines in (137)Cs concentration with good adjusted contribution ratios of higher than ca. 0.7. The calculated T(eff) values from all tissue parts were similar with the average of 229 d (range: 216-243 d). From these results, we concluded that each tree tissue was representative for the calculation of Teff. For comparison to these observation results, open source food monitoring data from 2011 to 2013 including (137)Cs data for persimmon fruits collected in Fukushima Prefecture were used to calculate T(eff) for persimmon trees. Values of Teff were obtained for persimmon fruits grown in each local government area in Fukushima Prefecture and they ranged from 303 to 475 d. PMID:25500061

  11. The impact of oceanic circulation and phase transfer on the dispersion of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Youngjin; Kida, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Keiko

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism behind the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant is investigated by using a numerical model that is capable of simulating the migration of radionuclides between seawater, particulates, and bottom sediments. Past modeling studies have investigated the dispersion of radionuclides but lacked changes in phase and we find the inclusion of this process to make significant differences in the amount of radionuclides that disperses to the open ocean or remain near the coast. The numerical model is a Lagrangian particle tracking - ocean circulation coupled model that is focused on the region close to Fukushima. The concentrations of radionuclides are solved for those dissolved in seawater and those adsorbed in particulates and bottom sediments. Radionuclides changes their phase through desorption, adsorption, settling, and erosion. Movements of the radionuclides are based on that solved in the ocean circulation model. Model results show part of the radionuclides dispersing rapidly to the interior of the North Pacific along the Kuroshio Extension once they enter a meso-scale Kuroshio eddy. However, many radionuclides are found to remain near the coast within the shelf-break with their spatial pattern oriented strongly to the north of the Power Plant. Such asymmetry is due to the northward flow field established during the first month of the release and that most of the adsorption to bottom sediments occurred during the first month. If the offshore advection were weak during this period, many radionuclides will be adsorbed to bottom sediments and remain on the coast for more than a few months even if the flow strengthens later on. If vertical mixing is weak, however, less radionuclide reach the sea floor and get adsorbed to bottom sediments. More radionuclides will then quickly disperse to the open ocean along the Kuroshio Extension. We find the amount of radionuclides in the open ocean to double when the magnitude of

  12. Isotopic ratio and vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil affected by the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Muroya, Yusa; Sawahata, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Yuji; Nagasaki, Shinya; Okamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Katsumura, Yosuke; Tanaka, Satoru

    2012-11-01

    The results of γ analyses of soil samples obtained from 50 locations in Fukushima prefecture on April 20, 2011, revealed the presence of a spectrum of radionuclides resulted from the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). The sum γ radioactivity concentration ranged in more than 3 orders of magnitude, depending on the sampling locations. The contamination of soils in the northwest of the FDNPP was considerable. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratios of the soil samples plotted as a function of the distance from the F1 NPPs exhibited three distinctive patterns. Such patterns would reflect not only the different deposition behaviors of these radionuclides, but also on the conditions of associated release events such as temperature and compositions and physicochemical forms of released radionuclides. The (136)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio, on the other hand, was considered to only reflect the difference in isotopic compositions of source materials. Two locations close to the NPP in the northwest direction were found to be depleted in short-lived (136)Cs. This likely suggested the presence of distinct sources with different (136)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratios, although their details were unknown at present. Vertical γ activity profiles of (131)I and (137)Cs were also investigated, using 20-30 cm soil cores in several locations. About 70% or more of the radionuclides were present in the uppermost 2-cm regions. It was found that the profiles of (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratios showed maxima in the 2-4 cm regions, suggesting slightly larger migration of the former nuclide. PMID:22634028

  13. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-09-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  14. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-03-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 1.5 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 18-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 18-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 17 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3 and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 1.5 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  15. Isotopic compositions of (236)U and Pu isotopes in "black substances" collected from roadsides in Fukushima prefecture: fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    Black-colored road dusts were collected in high-radiation areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Measurement of (236)U and Pu isotopes and (134,137)Cs in samples was performed to confirm whether refractory elements, such as U and Pu, from the fuel core were discharged and to ascertain the extent of fractionation between volatile and refractory elements. The concentrations of (134,137)Cs in all samples were exceptionally high, ranging from 0.43 to 17.7 MBq/kg, respectively. (239+240)Pu was detected at low levels, ranging from 0.15 to 1.14 Bq/kg, and with high (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios of 1.64-2.64. (236)U was successfully determined in the range of (0.28 to 6.74) × 10(-4) Bq/kg. The observed activity ratios for (236)U/(239+240)Pu were in reasonable agreement with those calculated for the fuel core inventories, indicating that trace amounts of U from the fuel cores were released together with Pu isotopes but without large fractionation. The quantities of U and (239+240)Pu emitted to the atmosphere were estimated as 3.9 × 10(6) Bq (150 g) and 2.3 × 10(9) Bq (580 mg), respectively. With regard to U, this is the first report to give a quantitative estimation of the amount discharged. Appreciable fractionation between volatile and refractory radionuclides associated with the dispersal/deposition processes with distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant was found. PMID:24601520

  16. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident. PMID:22119284

  17. Emission, transport, deposition, and re-suspension of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in the atmosphere - Overview of 2-year investigations in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    Following a huge earthquake and tsunami in Eastern Japan on 11 March, 2011, the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) occurred to emit a large amount of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Soon after the FDNPP accident, many Japanese researchers, as well as researchers in other countries, started monitoring radionuclides in various environmental fields and/or model calculations to understand extent and magnitude of radioactive pollution. In this presentation, we overview these activities for the atmospheric radionuclides in Japan as followings: 1. Investigations to evaluate radionuclide emissions by explosions at FNDPP in March 2011 and to estimate the respiration dose of the radiation at this stage. 2. Investigations to evaluate atmospheric transport and deposition processes of atmospheric radionuclide to determine the extent of radionuclide pollution. -- Based on results of the regular and urgent monitoring results, as well as the mapping of the distribution of radionuclide s accumulated by the deposition to the ground, restoration of their time-dependent emission rates has been tried, and processes determining atmospheric concentration and deposition to the ground have been investigated by using the model calculations. 3. Monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of FNDPP accident. 4. Investigations to evaluate re-suspension of radionuclide from the ground, including the soil and the vegetation. -- Intensive monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations and deposition amount of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of the accident enable us to evaluate emission history from FNDPP, atmospheric transport and deposition processes, chemical and physical characteristics of atmospheric radionuclide especially of radio cesium, and re-suspension processes which has become dominant process to supply radio cesium to the atmosphere recently.

  18. 90Sr dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Bezhenar, Roman; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli; Casacuberta, Nuria; Masque, Pere

    2014-05-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R (Maderich et al., 2013) was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of 90Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of 90Sr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi (FDNPP) accident (2011-2040). The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in marine sediments, and the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and the subsequent doses to the population due to the consumption of marine products. The contamination due to runoff of 90Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken in account using generic predictive model (Smith et al., 2004). A dynamical food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue (bones for 90Sr ). The model was compared with observation data on 90Sr for the period 1955-2010 and the budget of its activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of ocean influx only with local importance. Calculated concentrations of 90Sr in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal box around the FDNPP before and after the accident are in agreement with measurements from the Japanese databases (TEPCO, MEXT) and publications (Casacuberta et al., 2013; Oikawa et al., 2013). The dynamical food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of 90Sr, the concentration for piscivorous fishes return to background level only in 2015. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture (except FDNPP vicinity) due to consumption of fishery products is an order less than the maximal dose rate caused by nuclear weapon testing in 1960.

  19. Impact of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived (134)Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived (137)Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess (137)Cs activity concentration relative to the (134)Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived (137)Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and the bomb-derived (137)Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m(-2), respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:25461523

  20. Reassessment of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in the Coast off Japan Derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Casacuberta, Núria; Breier, Crystaline F; Pike, Steven M; Masqué, Pere; Buesseler, Ken O

    2016-01-01

    The years following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, the distribution of (90)Sr in seawater in the coast off Japan has received limited attention. However, (90)Sr is a major contaminant in waters accumulated within the nuclear facility and in the storage tanks. Seawater samples collected off the FDNPP in September 2013 showed radioactive levels significantly higher than pre-Fukushima levels within 6 km off the FDNPP. These samples, with up to 8.9 ± 0.4 Bq·m(-3) for (90)Sr, 124 ± 3 Bq·m(-3) for (137)Cs, and 54 ± 1 Bq·m(-3) for (134)Cs, appear to be influenced by ongoing releases from the FDNPP, with a characteristic (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio of 3.5 ± 0.2. Beach surface water and groundwater collected in Sendai Bay had (137)Cs concentrations of up to 43 ± 1 Bq·m(-3), while (90)Sr was close to pre-Fukushima levels (1-2 Bq·m(-3)). These samples appear to be influenced by freshwater inputs carrying a (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio closer to that of the FDNPP fallout deposited on land in the spring of 2011. Ongoing inputs of (90)Sr from FDNPP releases would be on the order of 2.3-8.5 GBq·d(-1) in September 2013, likely exceeding river inputs by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These results strongly suggest that a continuous surveillance of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is still required. PMID:26629784

  1. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  2. Radiocesium concentrations in the bark, sapwood and heartwood of three tree species collected at Fukushima forests half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kagawa, Akira; Tonosaki, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) distribution in tree stems of Japanese cedar (aged 40-56 y), red pine (42 y), and oak (42 y) grown in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated approximately half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Japanese cedar, red pine, and oak were selected from five sites, one site, and one site, respectively. Three trees at each site were felled, and bark, sapwood (the outer layer of wood in the stem), and heartwood (the inner layer of wood in the stem) separately collected to study radiocesium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiocesium deposition densities at the five sites were within the range of 16-1020 kBq m(-2). The radiocesium was distributed in bark, sapwood, and heartwood in three tree species, indicating that very rapid translocation of radiocesium into the wood. The concentration of radiocesium in oak (deciduous angiosperm) bark was higher than that in the bark of Japanese cedar and red pine (evergreen gymnosperms). Both sapwood and heartwood contained radiocesium, and the values were much lower than that in the bark samples. The results suggest that radiocesium contamination half a year after the accident was mainly attributable to the direct radioactive deposition. The radiocesium concentrations in the Japanese cedar samples taken from five sites rose with the density of radiocesium accumulation on the ground surface. To predict the future dynamics of radiocesium in tree stems, the present results taken half a year after the accident are important, and continuous study of radiocesium in tree stems is necessary. PMID:23531497

  3. Size distribution studies of 137Cs in river water in the Abukuma Riverine system following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Chiga, Haruka; Fan, Qiaohui; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of (137)Cs in size fractionated samples in river water from the Abukuma River system, (the Kuchibuto and Abukuma Rivers, five sampling events for three sites) was studied from June 2011--approximately some three months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident until December 2012. The total concentration of (137)Cs (mBq/L) in river water was generally high at the upper stream site in the Yamakiya District within the evacuation/off-limits zone. The (137)Cs concentration was about 1Bq/L for the first sampling campaign (June 2011) at all sites, but then decreased substantially to about one-tenth of that by the time of a second sampling campaign (November or December 2011). The (137)Cs in the <0.45 μm fraction was present exclusively as a dissolved species rather than as a species adsorbed on suspended solids or complexed with organic materials. The contribution of the dissolved fraction ranged from 1.2 to 48.9% (averaged 20%) of the total concentration of (137)Cs throughout the observation period. The maximum contribution of (137)Cs was found in the silt size fraction (3-63 μm), which can be explained by the relatively large Kd values and the suspended solids (SS) concentration of this size fraction. Although the concentration (Bq/g) of (137)Cs in each size fraction did not show any significant trends and/or variations for any of the sampling campaign, Kd values for each site increased with time. Furthermore, it was found that the Kd values decreased with distance from the headstream in the off-limits zone. Thus, the data acquired in this study give an overview of the radiological situation for Fukushima including temporal and spatial variation of radiocaesium in a natural riverine system, within a few years after the accident. PMID:24929977

  4. Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Matuda, Hiromitu; Hinoki, Tomoya; Kato, Yuko

    2009-04-01

    Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), composed of zanthoxylum fruit, ginseng root, dried ginger rhizome and malt sugar, is clinically effective for postoperative ileus and chronic constipation. MMIHS and CIIP are severe motility disorder associated with high morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DKT on functional intestinal obstruction. DKT was clinically effective for gastrointestinal motility in a case with MMIHS, but not effective in one with CIIP. MMIHS and CIIP are speculated to have different pathogenesis regarding gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction based upon the effect of this drug. PMID:21318994

  5. The activity of radiocaesium in sediments around off Fukushima after the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Station.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Miho; Aono, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Naganuma, Sho; Kubo, Atsushi; Ito, Yukari; Ishimaru, Takashi; Kanda, Jota

    2014-05-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 have led to the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Station (FNPS) and large amount of radioactive material were discharged by the hydrogen explosion and leaked from FNPS to the ocean. About three years have passed after the accident, radiocaesium in seawater off Fukushima except for part of area is gradually decreasing to the level before the accident. However, because the decrease of radiocaesium in marine sediment is more slowly than that in seawater, it is worried to influence on marine biota dwelled around the seabed over the long term. The aim of this study was to elucidate the variation and behavior of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) activities in the marine environment. Sediment and seawater samples were collected from three sites in 5 km-20 km area from FNPS (NP2 site ; 37° 25 N, 141°06 E, water depth 30 m, AN6 site ; 37° 33 N, 141°07 E, water depth 30 m, and M01 site ; 37° 33 N, 141°20 E, water depth 60 m) in May and October 2013 during some cruise of Umitaka-maru and Shinyo-maru (Tokyo University of Marine and Technology) .Vertical changes of 134Cs concentration (Bq/kg-dry) in sediment ranged 17-28, 8.2-53, and 4.2-11 at NP2, AN6 and M01 sites as of May 2013, respectively. At NP2 site, 134Cs inventory (Bq/m2) in seawater in October was about four times higher than that of 134Cs inventory in May. At NP2 and M01 sites in May, 134Cs concentration was higher in the shallow layer (0 cm-1 cm). On the contrary, at AN6 site in May and NP2 site in October, 134Cs concentration was higher in the middle layer (4 cm-5 cm). Trend of organic content at all stations were consistent with that of vertical change of 134Cs concentration. These results suggest that highest radiocaesium layer in the shallow as well as in the middle depth was caused by increase of river input and resedimentation.

  6. Radiocesium discharge from paddy fields with different initial scrapings for decontamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuich; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya

    2014-11-01

    To explore the behavior of radionuclides released after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011, and the distribution of radiocesium in paddy fields, we monitored radiocesium (Cs) and suspended sediment (SS) discharge from paddy fields. We proposed a rating scale for measuring the effectiveness of surface soil removal. Our experimental plots in paddy fields were located ∼40 km from the FDNPP. Two plots were established: one in a paddy field where surface soil was not removed (the "normally cultivated paddy field") and the second in a paddy field where the top 5-10 cm of soil was removed before cultivation (the "surface-removed paddy field"). The amounts of Cs and SS discharge from the paddy fields were continuously measured from June to August 2011. The Cs soil inventory measured 3 months after the FDNPP accident was approximately 200 kBq m(-2). However, after removing the surface soil, the concentration of Cs-137 decreased to 5 kBq m(-2). SS discharged from the normally cultivated and surface-removed paddy fields after puddling (mixing of soil and water before planting rice) was 11.0 kg and 3.1 kg, respectively, and Cs-137 discharge was 630,000 Bq (1240 Bq m(-2)) and 24,800 Bq (47.8 Bq m(-2)), respectively. The total amount of SS discharge after irrigation (natural rainfall-runoff) was 5.5 kg for the normally cultivated field and 70 kg for the surface-removed field, and the total amounts of Cs-137 discharge were 51,900 Bq (102 Bq m(-2)) and 165,000 Bq (317 Bq m(-2)), respectively. During the irrigation period, discharge from the surface-removed plot showed a twofold greater inflow than that from the normally cultivated plot. Thus, Cs inflow may originate from the upper canal. The topsoil removal process eliminated at least approximately 95% of the Cs-137, but upstream water contaminated with Cs-137 flowed into the paddy field. Therefore, to accurately determine the Cs discharge, it is important to examine Cs inflow from the

  7. Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

    2014-05-01

    Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates

  8. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

    2013-08-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model

  9. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 μGy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after

  10. Dissolution rates of subsoil limestone in a doline on the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau, Japan: An approach from a weathering experiment, hydrological observations, and electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Sanae; Hattanji, Tsuyoshi; Matsushi, Yuki; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at estimating the controlling factors for the denudation rates of limestone, which often forms solution dolines on karst tablelands. Our approaches include (1) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to reveal shallow subsurface structures and hydrological settings, (2) automated monitoring of volumetric water content in soil profiles and manual measurements of subsurface CO2 concentrations and soil water chemistry, and (3) a field weathering experiment using limestone tablets with the micro-weight loss technique for determining current denudation rates. The field experiment and monitoring were carried out over 768 days from 2009-2011 at four sites with varying topographic and hydrological conditions along the sideslope of a doline on the Akiyoshi-dai karst plateau in SW-Japan. The installation depths of the limestone tablets were 15 cm or 50 cm below the slope surface. The soil moisture conditions varied site by site. Water-saturated conditions continued for 40-50% of the whole experimental period at 50-cm depth of upper and middle sites, while only 0-10% of the experimental period was water-saturated at the other sites. Chemical analysis revealed that the soil water was chemically unsaturated with calcite for all the sites. Spatial differences in concentrations of CO2 in soil pore air were statistically less significant. The denudation rates of the buried limestone tablets were 17.7-21.9 mg cm- 2 a- 1 at the upper and middle slopes, where the soil was water-saturated for a long time after precipitation. The lowest denudation of 3.9 mg cm- 2 a- 1 was observed on lower slopes where soil was not capable of maintaining water at a near saturation level even after precipitation. Statistical analysis revealed that the denudation rates of the tablets were strongly controlled by the duration for which soil pores were saturated by water (the conditions defined here are degrees of water saturation greater than 97%). Electrical resistivity tomography

  11. Vertical distribution and temporal changes of 137Cs in soil profiles under various land uses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Junko; Tamura, Kenji; Suda, Tomoya; Matsumura, Ryo; Onda, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in soil profiles under eight different land uses for the 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and discussed the temporal changes in the early-stage of the migration and the determinants of the initial distribution. The soil samples were collected for four surveys using a scraper plate at each study site, which consisted of three forests (mixed forest, mature cedar, and young cedar), two grasslands (pasture and meadow) and three abandoned agricultural fields (farm land, tobacco field, and paddy field). The land use patterns have a large influence on some soil properties and the migration processes of (137)Cs above ground, resulting in different distribution of (137)Cs in those soil profiles. Specifically, the secondary deposition of (137)Cs from the coniferous canopy, retention of (137)Cs by litter layer, and the homogenization of (137)Cs concentrations in surface soil by natural soil mixing such as the disturbance by cattle grazing, roots growing and the formation of needle ice were important to cause redistribution of the deposited (137)Cs. Only in the paddy field, the (137)Cs inventory in subsurface soils (5-10 cm) gradually increased and comprised 26% of the total (137)Cs in 2 y, showing the downward migration of (137)Cs to subsurface soil. In the other sites, it was considered that (137)Cs were strongly adsorbed by soil particles and rarely migrated downward as soluble form. Vertical distributions during the first survey were able to be used as the initial distributions and were well fitted to the exponential equation. The distribution parameters α (relaxation depth) and β (relaxation mass depth), calculated by the exponential equation were correlated with RIP (r = -0.806, p < 0.05), macro pore (r = 0.651, p = 0.11), and dispersible fine particle content (r = 0.856, p < 0.05). It indicated that the initial distribution would be influenced by the Cs fixation ability of

  12. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2-18.3) EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated 133Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h) into 133Xe. There is strong evidence that the 133Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 36.6 (20.1-53.1) PBq, or about 43% of the estimated

  13. Ocean dynamic processes causing spatially heterogeneous distribution of sedimentary caesium-137 massively released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, H.; Morino, Y.; Furuichi, N.; Ohara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radiocaesium 137Cs that was released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011 are widely known to have extensively migrated to Pacific oceanic sediment off of east Japan. Several recent reports have stated that the sedimentary 137Cs is now stable with a remarkably heterogeneous distribution. The present study elucidates ocean dynamic processes causing this heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution in and around the shelf off Fukushima and adjacent prefectures. We performed a numerical simulation of oceanic 137Cs behaviour for about 10 months after the accident, using a comprehensive dynamic model involving advection-diffusion transport in seawater, adsorption and desorption to and from particulate matter, sedimentation and suspension on and from the bottom, and vertical diffusion transport in the sediment. A notable simulated result was that the sedimentary 137Cs significantly accumulated in a swath just offshore of the shelf break (along the 50-100 m isobath) as in recent observations, although the seabed in the entire simulation domain was assumed to have ideal properties such as identical bulk density, uniform porosity, and aggregation of particles with a single grain diameter. This result indicated that the heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution was not necessarily a result of the spatial distribution of 137Cs sediment adsorptivity. The present simulation suggests that the shape of the swath is mainly associated with spatiotemporal variation between bottom shear stress in the shallow shelf (< 50 m depths) and that offshore of the shelf break. In a large part of the shallow shelf, the simulation indicated that strong bottom friction suspending particulate matter from the seabed frequently occurred via a periodic spring tide about every 2 weeks and via occasional strong wind. The sedimentary 137Cs thereby could hardly stay on the surface of the seabed with the result that

  14. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will show the results of a paper currently under review in ACPD and some additional new results, including more data and with an independent box modeling approach to support some of the findings of the ACPD paper. On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started early, before active venting was performed. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they

  15. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2011-10-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started very early, possibly immediately after the earthquake and the emergency shutdown on 11 March at 06:00 UTC. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they suddenly dropped by orders of magnitude exactly when spraying of water on the spent-fuel pool of unit 4 started. This indicates that emissions were not only coming from

  16. Atmospheric lifetime of caesium-137 as an estimate of aerosol lifetime -quantified from global measurements in the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Radionuclides like caesium-137 (137Cs) can be emitted to the atmosphere in great quantities during nuclear accidents and are of significant health impact. A global set of radionuclide measurements collected over several months after the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 has been used to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs. Lifetime is here defined as the e-folding time scale (the time interval in which the exponential decay of the 137Cs quantity has decreased by factor of e). The estimated atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs can also be used as an estimate of the lifetime of aerosols in the atmosphere. This is based on the fact that 137Cs attaches to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and trace their fate in the atmosphere. The 137Cs "tags" the AM aerosols and both the 137Cs and AM aerosols are removed simultaneously from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. The 137Cs emitted from Fukushima attached mainly to sulphate aerosols in the size range 0.1-2 μm diameter. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations from several stations spread mostly over the Northern Hemisphere were evaluated, and the decrease in activity concentrations over time (after correction for radioactive decay) reflects the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition. Corrections for air mass transport were made using measurements of the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) which was also released during the accident. This noble gas does not attach to the aerosols and was thus used as a passive tracer of air mass transport. The atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs was estimated to 10.0-13.9 days during April and May 2011. This represents the atmospheric lifetime of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical northern hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources

  17. Predicting the long-term (137)Cs distribution in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: a parameter sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akihiro; Oda, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Yasuo

    2014-09-01

    Radioactive materials deposited on the land surface of Fukushima Prefecture from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant explosion is a crucial issue for a number of reasons, including external and internal radiation exposure and impacts on agricultural environments and aquatic biota. Predicting the future distribution of radioactive materials and their fates is therefore indispensable for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness of remediation options regarding human health and the environment. Cesium-137, the main radionuclide to be focused on, is well known to adsorb to clay-rich soils; therefore its primary transportation mechanism is in the form of soil erosion on the land surface and transport of sediment-sorbed contaminants in the water system. In this study, we applied the Soil and Cesium Transport model, which we have developed, to predict a long-term cesium distribution in the Fukushima area, based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and simple sediment discharge formulas. The model consists of calculation schemes of soil erosion, transportation and deposition, as well as cesium transport and its future distribution. Since not all the actual data on parameters is available, a number of sensitivity analyses were conducted here to find the range of the output results due to the uncertainties of parameters. The preliminary calculation indicated that a large amount of total soil loss remained in slope, and the residual sediment was transported to rivers, deposited in rivers and lakes, or transported farther downstream to the river mouths. Most of the sediment deposited in rivers and lakes consists of sand. On the other hand, most of the silt and clay portions transported to river were transported downstream to the river mouths. The rate of sediment deposition in the Abukuma River basin was three times as high as those of the other 13 river basins. This may be due to the larger catchment area and more moderate channel slope of the Abukuma River basin

  18. Three-dimensional modeling of oceanic dispersal of land-derived multi-class suspended radionuclides after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Yamanishi, Takafumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    Several oceanic dispersal modeling have been conducted on dissolved radionuclides leaked from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) where the direct release of radionuclides from the FNPP and atmospheric deposition are major sources. In the present study, we view freshwater discharge from the rivers as a missing piece for the inventory of the radionuclides in the ocean. The land-derived input introduces a time lag behind the direct release through hydrological process because these radionuclides mostly are attached to suspended particles that are transported quite differently to the dissolved matter. We thus develop a multi-class, non-cohesive sediment transport model based on ROMS along with a wave-enhanced bed boundary layer model of Soulsby (1995) and a stratigraphy submodel proposed by Blaas et al. (2007). Suspended 137Cs attached to the sediment is evaluated with an empirical power law proposed by Onda et al. (2014) as a function of specific surface area of the suspended particles. A 128 x 256 km domain with the grid resolution of dx = 250 m centered at the FNPP is configured as a test bed nested in the existing double nested ROMS domain with dx = 1 km (Uchiyama et al., 2012, 2013). The wave field is computed with an operational wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) embedded in the JMA GVP-CWM wave reanalysis. A total of 20 rivers in the domain are configured as point sources of freshwater and sediments by exploiting a surface runoff model HYDREEMS (Toyoda et al., 2009) and an empirical discharge to sediment flux relation (Takekawa and Nihei, 2013). Fractions of three sediment classes, viz., fine sand, silt and clay, in the riverine discharge are determined empirically based on the outcome of a USLE-based river sediment modeling conducted by JAEA. The developed model successfully reproduces the dispersal of the land-derived sediments and their recirculation processes associated with resuspension and deposition in the Fukushima coast for 4 months

  19. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  20. DAiSES: Dynamic Adaptivity in Support of Extreme Scale Department of Energy Project No. ER25622 Prime Contract No. DE-FG02-04ER25622 Final Report for September 15, 2004-September 14, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    PI: Patricia J. Teller, Ph.D. University of Texas-El Paso Department of Computer Science

    2009-05-05

    The DAiSES project [Te04] was focused on enabling conventional operating systems, in particular, those running on extreme scale systems, to dynamically customize system resource management in order to offer applications the best possible environment in which to execute. Such dynamic adaptation allows operating systems to modify the execution environment in response to changes in workload behavior and system state. The main challenges of this project included determination of what operating system (OS) algorithms, policies, and parameters should be adapted, when to adapt them, and how to adapt them. We addressed these challenges by using a combination of static analysis and runtime monitoring and adaptation to identify a priori profitable targets of adaptation and effective heuristics that can be used to dynamically trigger adaptation. Dynamic monitoring and adaptation of the OS was provided by either kernel modifications or the use of KernInst and Kperfmon [Wm04]. Since Linux, an open source OS, was our target OS, patches submitted by kernel developers and researchers often facilitated kernel modifications. KernInst operates on unmodified commodity operating systems, i.e., Solaris and Linux; it is fine-grained, thus, there were few constraints on how the underlying OS can be modified. Dynamically adaptive functionality of operating systems, both in terms of policies and parameters, is intended to deliver the maximum attainable performance of a computational environment and meet, as best as possible, the needs of high-performance applications running on extreme scale systems, while meeting system constraints. DAiSES research endeavored to reach this goal by developing methodologies for dynamic adaptation of OS parameters and policies to manage stateful and stateless resources [Te06] and pursuing the following two objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms to dynamically sense, analyze, and adjust common performance metrics, fluctuating workload situations, and

  1. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  2. An extensive study of the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in various river systems and their relationship with catchment inventory.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Matsuura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    An extensive investigation of particulate radiocaesium in suspended solids and dissolved radiocaesium in river water was undertaken at 30 sites in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures in December 2012, and their relationships with catchment inventory and the solid/liquid distribution coefficient (Kd) were evaluated. Rivers located in the coastal region on the north side of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant exhibited relatively higher particulate radiocaesium concentrations. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium and average catchment inventories, indicating that the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium could be approximated from the catchment inventory. Particulate radiocaesium concentration was significantly correlated with dissolved radiocaesium concentration (with the exception of concentrations measured in estuaries), and the geometric mean Kd was calculated as 3.6 × 10(5) with a 95% confidence interval of 2.6-5.1 × 10(5). PMID:25242014

  3. Distributions of Pu isotopes in seawater and bottom sediments in the coast of the Japanese archipelago before and soon after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Takata, Hyoe

    2015-04-01

    A radioactivity measurement survey was carried out from 24 April 2008 to 3 June 2011 to determine the levels of plutonium isotopes and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the marine environments off the sites of commercial nuclear power stations around the Japanese islands; the sampling period extended to two months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In our previous study (Oikawa et al., 2015), data on Pu isotopes and (241)Am in sediments have already been reported. In this study, we report those on Pu isotopes in seawater as well as sediments, and the characteristics of sediments in addition (e.g., ignition loss and biogenic opals). Concentrations of (239+240)Pu in seawater and bottom sediments remained nearly constant at all sampling locations during the survey period. In addition, no regional differences were observed in the (239+240)Pu concentrations in surface waters. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were found in bottom waters at deeper sampling locations, but the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were nearly constant regardless of the water depth. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were also found in bottom sediments at deeper sampling locations, but vice versa for (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios as reported in the previous report. The sediments samples from deeper locations showed the higher percentage of ignition loss as well as the higher content of biogenic opal. There was likely to be some driving force participating in the transfer of Pu isotopes associated with biogenic substances to the deeper seabed. The present survey showed that the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station did not contribute much to the inventory of Pu isotopes in the adjacent sea area. PMID:25659922

  4. 3D-MRI rendering of the anatomical structures related to acupuncture points of the Dai mai, Yin qiao mai and Yang qiao mai meridians within the context of the WOMED concept of lateral tension: implications for musculoskeletal disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background A conceptual model of lateral muscular tension in patients presenting thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) has been recently described. Clinical improvement has been achieved by using acupuncture on points belonging to the so-called extraordinary meridians. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical structures related to these acupuncture points by means of 3D MRI image rendering relying on external markers. Methods The investigation was carried out the index case patient of the lateral tension model. A licensed medical acupuncture practitioner located the following acupuncture points: 1) Yin qiao mai meridian (medial ankle): Kidney 3, Kidney 6, the plantar Kidney 6 (Nan jing description); 2) Yang qiao mai meridian (lateral ankle): Bladder 62, Bladder 59, Bladder 61, and the plantar Bladder 62 (Nan jing description); 3) Dai mai meridian (wait): Liver 13, Gall bladder 26, Gall bladder 27, Gall bladder 28, and Gall bladder 29. The points were marked by taping a nitro-glycerin capsule on the skin. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using an array head and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. The image data were rendered in 3D modus using dedicated software (Leonardo, Siemens). Results Points of the Dai mai meridian – at the level of the waist – corresponded to the obliquus externus abdominis and the obliquus internus abdominis. Points of the Yin qiao mai meridian – at the medial side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the flexor digitorum longus as well as to muscular structures of the abductor hallucis on the foot sole. Points of the Yang qiao mai meridian – at the lateral side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the peroneus brevis, the peroneous longus, and the lateral surface of the calcaneus and close to the foot sole to the abductor digiti minimi. Conclusion This non

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of Canarium lyi C.D. Dai & Yakovlev in RAW 264.7 macrophages and a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Shin, Na-Rae; Lee, Joongku; Park, Sang-Hong; Bach, Tran The; Hai, Do Van; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Han, Sang-Bae; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-05-01

    Canarium lyi C.D. Dai & Yakovlev (CL) is a member of the Anacardiaceae family. To the best of our knowledge, no studies on its anti-inflammatory effects have yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of CL on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice. CL attenuated the production of LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, CL suppressed phosphorylation of the inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as the translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit into the nucleus. For the in vivo efficacy, the effect of CL on a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury was assessed. CL treatment of the mice significantly inhibited the inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). CL-treated mice also showed a marked inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phosphorylation of IκB and p65. In addition, CL attenuated lung histopathological changes in LPS-induced ALI mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that CL is a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia. PMID:25738976

  6. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:22927655

  7. Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part II: verification of the source term and analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion.

    PubMed

    Terada, Hiroaki; Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-10-01

    Regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations were carried out to verify the source term of (131)I and (137)Cs estimated in our previous studies, and to analyze the atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The accuracy of the source term was evaluated by comparing the simulation results with measurements of daily and monthly surface depositions (fallout) over land in eastern Japan from March 12 to April 30, 2011. The source term was refined using observed air concentrations of radionuclides for periods when there were significant discrepancies between the calculated and measured daily surface deposition, and when environmental monitoring data, which had not been used in our previous studies, were now available. The daily surface deposition using the refined source term was predicted mostly to within a factor of 10, and without any apparent bias. Considering the errors in the model prediction, the estimated source term is reasonably accurate during the period when the plume flowed over land in Japan. The analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition suggests that the present distribution of a large amount of (137)Cs deposition in eastern Japan was produced primarily by four events that occurred on March 12, 15-16, 20, and 21-23. The ratio of wet deposition to the total varied widely depending on the influence by the particular event. PMID:22721917

  8. Changes in radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms in relation to the organic layer 2.5 years after the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Kaneko, Shinji; Ikeda, Shigeto; Akama, Akio; Komatsu, Masabumi; Ito, Masamichi T

    2015-07-01

    We reported previously that radiocesium ((137)Cs) concentrations in earthworms increased with those in litter and/or soil in Fukushima Prefecture forests 0.5 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. This study provides further results for 1.5 and 2.5 y after the accident and discusses temporal changes in (137)Cs concentrations and transfer factors (TF) from litter to earthworms to better understand the mechanisms by which (137)Cs enters soil food webs. The concentration of (137)Cs in accumulated litter on the forest floor rapidly decreased, and the concentration in soil (0-5-cm depth) increased over time from 0.5 to 1.5 y, but changed only moderately from 1.5 to 2.5 y. The concentration of (137)Cs in earthworms consistently decreased during the study period; values 2.5 y after the accident were 18.8-68.5% of those 0.5 y after the accident. The TFs from accumulated litter to earthworms decreased over time: 0.24 ± 0.08 (mean ± SD) at 0.5 y and 0.16 ± 0.04 at 2.5 y. This decrease may be a result of decreases in the bioavailability of (137)Cs in litter and the surface soil layer. Changes in (137)Cs bioavailability should be continuously tracked to determine any changes in the relationship between radiocesium concentrations in earthworms and that in accumulated litter or soil. PMID:25890129

  9. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. PMID:26990074

  10. Speciation analysis of I-127,129 in the crop field soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident with newly developed chemical separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Maki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takumi; Nagai, Hisao

    2014-05-01

    In previous study, we investigated the depth profile of the accident derived I-129 and downward migration speed in soils of near-field of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, including crop fields and man-made fields. I-129 in soil was measured by AMS and stable iodine (I-127) was measured by ICP-MS at MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University of Tokyo. It was found that I-129 was concentrated near surface but distributed deeper compared with Cs-137. It was also found that I-129 seems to move downward more quickly than Cs-137. To investigate the adsorption mechanism and the elemental process of migration of the accident derived I-129 in soil, it is important to know what kind of component the I-129 combines with. Recent studies on the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), especially near edge structure (XANES), reported that the stable iodine (I-127) in soil existed as an organic component. However, it had not yet been proved that it was also the case with the accident derived I-129 because it had been incorporated in the soil system only recently and the abundance of I-129 in soil was more than 8 orders of magnitude smaller than sub-ppm level stable iodine (I-127). In this study a progressive sequential extraction method including the dialysis and the dynamic headspace method was newly developed to obtain only the iodine sticking to the soil organic component. The stable iodine can be quantified by direct analysis of the fraction and I-129 can be quantified by AMS method of the fraction added with carrier. The fraction of the organic component for I-127 and I-129 can be evaluated respectively by comparing with the other fraction and/or with the total concentration obtained by the bulk analysis (e.g. by the pyrohydrolysis).

  11. Post-accident response of near-surface 129I levels and 129I/127I ratios in areas close to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Sasa, Kimikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsumura, Masumi; Satou, Yukihiko; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    The deposition density and extent of subsurface infiltration of 129I were investigated within the area highly contaminated by the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Depth profiles of 129I activity and 129I/127I ratios were measured in 5-cm-long soil cores that were collected 20-27 months after the accident from three sites (S-1, S-2, and S-3) within 10 km to the west and northwest of the FDNPP. These profiles were compared with the background levels of 129I from the same areas. The deposition densities of 129I were 2.17 Bq m-2 at S-1, 0.80 Bq m-2 at S-2, and 1.41 Bq m-2 at S-3, which are, respectively, about 160, 60, and 100 times larger than the background level (12.8-14.8 mBq m-2). The average 129I/127I ratios in each soil core after the accident (S-1: 2.1 × 10-6; S-2: 4.2 × 10-7; S-3: 2.3 × 10-6) were similar to the value typically found in contaminated surface soil within 80 km of the FDNPP. Therefore, accident-derived 129I deposited at S-1 (4.3 km west of the FDNPP) was 2.7 times larger than at S-2 (8.2 km west of the FDNPP), and 1.5 times larger than at S-3 (7.5 km northwest of the FDNPP). Depth profiles showed that the 129I activity and 129I/127I ratios decayed exponentially with depth. ∼90% of accident-derived 129I deposited in the soil cores was concentrated in the upper 25.2-26.4 kg m-2 of mass depth (2.1-3.1 cm depth). The relaxation mass depths (h0) of 129I were 9.49-11.2 kg m-2 at the three sampling sites, and these values are comparable to those of accident-derived 131I (10.4 kg m-2) at a site 40 km northwest of the FDNPP.

  12. Pre- and post-accident (129)I and (137)Cs levels, and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in soil near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Sasa, Kimikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Satou, Yukihiko; Matsumura, Masumi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the deposition density and extent of subsurface infiltration of (129)I and (137)Cs in the restricted area that was highly contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, cumulative inventories of (129)I and (137)Cs, concentrations of (129)I and (137)Cs, and (129)I/(137)Cs ratio in 30-cm-long soil columns were compared with pre-accident levels from the same area. The cores were collected before and after the accident from locations of S-1 (4 km west of FDNPP) and S-2 (8 km west of FDNPP). Deposition densities of (129)I and (137)Cs in the soil following the accident were 0.90-2.33 Bq m(-2) and 0.80-4.04 MBq m(-2), respectively, which were 14-39 and 320-510 times larger than the pre-accident levels of (129)I (59.3-63.3 mBq m(-2)) and (137)Cs (2.51-7.88 kBq m(-2)), respectively. Approximately 90% of accident-derived (129)I and (137)Cs deposited in the 30-cm soil cores was concentrated in the surface layer from 0 to 44-95 kg m(-2) of mass depth (0-4.3-6.2 cm depth) and from 0 to 16-25 kg m(-2) of mass depth (0-1.0-3.1 cm depth), respectively. The relaxation mass depths (h0) of 10.8-11.2 kg m(-2) for (129)I estimated in the previous study were larger than those of 8.1-10.6 kg m(-2) for (137)Cs at both sites, owing to the larger infiltration depth of radioiodine mainly by the gravitational water penetration in the surface soil in our study sites. Approximately 7-9% of the accident-derived (129)I was present in the lower layer from 44 to 100 kg m(-2) (4.3-8.6 cm depth) at S-1, and from 95 to 160 kg m(-2) (6.2-10.2 cm depth) at S-2. Approximately 1% of (137)Cs seems to infiltrate deeper than (129)I in the lower layer at each site in contrast to the surface layer. PMID:26492397

  13. The Role of Community Studies in the Makiguchian Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two of the earlier works in the Makiguchi corpus, "Kyoju no togo chushin toshiteno kyodoka kenkyu" ("Research into Community Studies as the Integrating Focus of Instruction," 1912/1987; hereafter "Community Studies"), and "Chiri kyoju no hoho oyobi naiyo no kenkyu" ("Research into the Methods and Content of Geography…

  14. Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental emission of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor, Japan following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event on 11 March 2011. The objective was to study the temporal behaviour of plume trajectory, concentration, deposition and radiation dose pattern over an 80 km range around the reactor. The time-varying meteorological parameters during the release period were simulated with a multi-scale nested atmospheric model WRF ARW and the trajectory, plume dispersion were computed with Lagrangian Particle Dispersion models HYSPLIT, FLEXPART using the available information on accidental source term. The simulations indicated that the wind flow over Japan during the release period was driven by the large scale extra-tropical westerly waves and associated low pressure systems. In the lower levels, the flow was influenced by the local topography/sea breeze causing occasional landward wind shift on the east coast of Japan. Simulated airflow trajectories revealed that the plume stayed over the ocean by westerly winds on most days and the radioactivity dispersed over sea surface. Landward trajectories were found on a few days due to southeasterly, easterly and northeasterly flow (15-17, 19-21 March 2011) during which much of the radionuclides deposited over the land region. The hotspot of depositions occurred over east Pacific Ocean near to Japan. Over the land relatively high depositions were simulated in a narrow zone of 20 km width and 80 km length in the northwest sector in agreement with monitor data. Simulations showed wet depositions over the land to be higher than the dry depositions during 12-30 March due to occurrence of rainfall on some days. Comparison of activity deposition and air dose values with available observations confirmed that the plume pattern in a finer length scale around the site could be simulated realistically and agree with the measurements within the limitations of the uncertainty in source term.

  15. FDA Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Facility Incident

    MedlinePlus

    ... ia/importalert_621.html FDA may adjust this strategy based on additional information received from monitoring results in Japan. FDA may also further evaluate this strategy if the Government of Japan makes changes to ...

  16. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Training Requirements Analysis Model Users Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    This user's guide describes the functions, logical operations and subroutines, input data requirements, and available outputs of the Training Requirements Analysis Model (TRAMOD), a computerized analytical life cycle cost modeling system for use in the early stages of system design. Operable in a stand-alone mode, TRAMOD can be used for the…

  17. An experiment on induction of triploidy in Eriocheir japonicus hepuensis Dai by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renhou; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiangyu; Yu, Hongjun

    1993-03-01

    Temperature treatment to inhibit extrusion of the polar body of the egg was first used on a lower crustacean, Artemia salina (Gross, 1932), and then was used for inducing triploids of amphibian (Frankhauser and Griffiths, 1939), fish (Svardson, 1945), and mammal (Beatly and Fishchberg, 1949). So far, induction of triploidy has been extensively used to obtain sterile or quick-growth individuals in fish (Swarup, 1956; Lincoln, and Scott, 1983 and Thorgaard, 1986) and mollusk (Stanley et al., 1984), but similar work has not been reported on crab, a higher crustancean.

  18. Ah Dai Comes to Hawaii: The Story of a Chinese Immigrant Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Dai Sen; And Others

    The story presented in this booklet is concerned with the life of an eighty year old Chinese immigrant woman living in Hawaii. The narration provides a brief overview of the woman's birth, childhood, early adulthood in China, and immigration to Hawaii. Her life in Hawaii is described in terms of the work she did, her arranged marriage, her…

  19. Utility of the Daily Adjustment Indicators (DAI) for Assessing Juveniles in Community-Based Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, William E.; Garbin, Calvin P.

    This paper discusses the results of a study that investigated youth and adolescent psychosocial variables associated with community exclusion and whether there are consistent pathways of exclusion associated with those psychosocial variables or clusters of variables. The investigators obtained a complete set of demographic data on 35 adolescents…

  20. Ethnography for Teachers' Professional Development: Japanese Approach of Investigation on Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matoba, Masami; Sarkar Arani Mohammed Reza

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how journal and ethnography field notes in Jugyou Kenkyu (lesson study) help teachers to understand the diverse range of talents and abilities of their students. Especially, we focus on how ethnography field note and reflective papers (karate) help teachers to change their assumptions about student learning. The data…

  1. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  2. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-03-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice.

  3. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM)--A Managerial Overview. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; Baran, H. Anthony

    This report gives a managerial overview of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM), which was designed to provide the Air Force with an in-house capability of assessing the life cycle cost impact of weapon system design alternatives. LCCIM consists of computer programs and the analyses which the user must perform to generate input data.…

  4. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Manh Hoai; Sebesvari, Zita; Tu, Binh Minh; Pham, Hung Viet; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2011-12-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. PMID:21920648

  5. Internal Radiation Exposure Dose in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture after the Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01–0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01–0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks. PMID:25478794

  6. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  7. Technological Issues and High Gradient Test Results on X-Band Molybdenum Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Spataro, B.; Alesini, D.; Chimenti, V.; Dolgashev, V.; Haase, A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Marrelli, C.; Mostacci, A.; Parodi, R.; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Two 11.424 GHz single cell standing wave accelerating structures have been fabricated for high gradient RF breakdown studies. Both are brazed structures: one made from copper and the other from sintered molybdenum bulk. The tests results are presented and compared to those of similar devices constructed at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and KEK (Ko Enerugi Kasokuki Kenkyu Kiko). The technological issues to build both sections are discussed.

  8. Accumulation of fallout radio nuclides such as cesium derived from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in reservoirs in Fukushima prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, K.; Onda, Y.; Fukushima, T.

    2012-12-01

    A degree and condition of contamination of 137Cs and the other fallout radio nuclides (FRN) in reservoir can show large impacts on the irrigation and domestic/industrial water utilization. To clear the accumulation properties of FRN in the reservoirs, this study investigated the concentration, inventory and depth profile. Sediment was collected from four irrigation ponds and two sites in dam lake (Lake Horai) sited around Abukuma river system in summer 2011 (Jul.-Aug.), spring 2012 (Apr.) and summer 2012 (Aug.). Sediment collected by core sampler (diameter = 100 mm) was sliced into 20 mm thickness. Suspended solid (SS) in the water of Abukuma River was collected by SS sampler from Jul. 2011 to May 2012 with interval of two weeks. Samples were dried by oven (105°C, 24 hours) and grained. The radio activities were measured by gamma-ray detector (EGC 25-195-R, Canberra Eurisys, Meriden, U.S.A) equipped with a multichannel analyzer (DSA 1000, Canberra, Meriden, U.S.A). The concentration of 137Cs in Lake Horai showed non-uniform depth distribution, suggesting a large agitation of sediment and vertical migration of 137Cs. The concentrations of 137Cs in the sediment cores ranged from 47 to 63 kBq/kg in summer, 2011, and from 1 to 23 kBq/kg in spring, 2012. The concentration of 137Cs in SS in river water also decreased with time. The inventory drastically decreased with time, indicating that most of 137Cs in the sediment was flushed out from dam lake. In contrast to Lake Horai, most of 137Cs in the sediment of ponds were accumulated in surface layer, and the concentration decreased with increase in the depth. The concentration of 137Cs increased with time, resulted in the increase in inventory with time. We will be discussed about the seasonal trend in the FRN in the reservoirs.

  9. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident.

  10. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Korpach, E.; Yi, Jing; Miley, Harry S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Ungar, R. Kurt; White, Brian; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  11. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident. PMID:27334847

  12. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident. PMID:27334847

  13. The existence state in the soil of radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by imaging plate photograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke

    2013-04-01

    In the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the wide area in east Japan was polluted seriously with radioactive cesium. But, unlike Chernobyl, reactor core explosion did not occur in Fukushima. Therefore, it is thought that many radioactive nuclides emitted into the atmosphere were in the gas state and aerosol. However, when the imaging plate photographs of the surface soils in Fukushima was observed, many granular radionuclides existed. Then, in order to confirm a radioactive cesium of particle state, the treatment for the soils contaminated with radioactive cesium by using chemical operation was tried. Three type soils, that is, paddy soil, river sediment, and sea sand, were made applicable to research. The contaminated soil samples were collected in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefecture. Radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry with a high pure germanium (HPGe) detector. After the radioactively measurement, soils had been burned in oven for five hours in 500 degree Celsius. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to soil samples, and they were heated for three hours. These samples were divided into residue and elution by centrifugal separation, and then radioactivity of cesium contained in residue was measured. After chemical operations, 70% and 85% of radioactive cesium from river sediment and sea sand were extracted approximately into elution, respectively. In contrast, in the soil of the paddy field, only 30% of radioactive cesium was approximately eluted. When radiation image photograph of the residues of all three types of soils were taken and observed, the granular radioactive nuclides remained clearly in paddy soil and river sediment. In contrast, all the granular radioactive nuclides in sea sand disappeared after treatment. The results of above things that desorption of radioactive cesium depend on the kind of soil. Furthermore, it was suggested that there was radioactive cesium of particle state in paddy soil and river sediment. It is a possibility that the substances on which radioactive cesium are concentrated depends on the kind of soil. The necessity of clarifying adsorption objects and particle state in the actual condition was suggested to elucidate Fukushima accident in more detail.

  14. RuHe DuiDai WanMei ZhuYi De XueSheng (Working with Perfectionist Students). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere

    Perfectionist students are not satisfied with merely doing well or even with doing better than their peers. They are satisfied only if they have done a job perfectly. Problems associated with forms of perfectionism that focus on seeking success are relatively minor, but problems associated with forms of perfectionism that focus on avoiding failure…

  15. The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-09-01

    We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average (137)Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (<0.45 μm) in the stemflow was measured to be around 10 Bq/L. The (137)Cs concentration ratio [present at the time of the accident (Bq/kg) in the bark/the dissolved fraction in the stemflow (Bq/L)] was approximately 10(3). A strong positive correlation was observed between the radiocesium concentration and the electrical conductivity of the dissolved fraction of the stemflow; this result suggests that radiocesium and electrolytes have the same elution mechanism from the tree. The size fractionation analysis of the <0.45 μm fraction through ultrafiltration revealed that the radiocesium was present as an almost dissolved species. Some of the particles in the particulate fraction (>0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium. PMID:26718985

  16. 77 FR 25503 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Event. 2. Current OMB approval number: 3150-0211. 3. How often the... request: 369,960 hours. 7. Abstract: Following events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power...

  17. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  18. History of Amateur Variable Star Observations in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, S.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Japan has about 100 years of history of variable star observing since Naozo Ichinohe, professional astronomer in Tokyo Observatory, observed d Cep in 1906. The first amateur variable star observer is Yoshihiko Kasai, who began observing variable stars in 1918. I introduce a brief history of Japanese amateur variable star observation, including topics of variable star organizations, nova and supernova hunters, collaborations with the AAVSO and the world, PEP and CCD observations. I also introduce the most active variable star observer, Hiroaki Narumi, who made over 260,000 visual estimates since 1975. VSOLJ was established in 1987 in collaborations with the variable star sections of Nihon Tenmon Kenkyu-kai (NTK) and the Oriental Astronomical Association (OAA). VSOLJ maintains a database of Japanese variable star observations (http://vsolj.cetus-net.org) and publishes the Variable Star Bulletin in English.

  19. Additions to the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) from Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912, P. (P.) alba Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, P. (P.) amplificata Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. and P. (P.) longiapophysis Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. from Guangdong Province, Southern China, are described and illustrated. A key and an updated checklist with distribution to the Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) species along with geographical distribution maps of the new species are given. PMID:27515660

  20. Prevalence and Nature of Dentoalveolar Injuries Among Patients with Maxillofacial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Brenda L.; Snyder, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Structure Summary Objective Although not previously reported, experience suggests that dentoalveolar injury (DAI) is common among patients with maxillofacial (MF) fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate and describe the prevalence and nature of DAIs in patients identified with MF fractures. Methods Medical records of 43 dogs and cats diagnosed with MF fractures between 2005–2012 were reviewed to identify patients with concurrent DAI. Medical records of patients with DAI were abstracted for the following information: signalment (including sex, age, and skull type), mechanism of MF trauma, location and number of MF fractures, DAI type and location and the number of DAI per patient. Statistical evaluation was performed to determine associations between signalment; mechanism of trauma; location and number of MF fractures; and the prevalence and nature of concurrent DAI. Results Dentoalveolar injuries are common among patients with MF trauma. Age and mechanism of trauma are significant predictors of the presence of DAI in patients with MF trauma. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The findings of this study serve to encourage veterinarians to fully assess the oral cavity in patients with MF fractures as DAI are common and can be predicted by age and mechanism of trauma. PMID:23033815

  1. The Development and Initial Validation of the Dating Attitudes Inventory: A Measure of the Gender Context of Dating Violence in Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan Peter; Kelley, Frances A.; Kohli, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    The development and initial psychometric investigation of the Dating Attitudes Inventory (DAI) is reported. The DAI was created, to fill a gap in the literature and to measure specific masculine ideology and traditional gender attitudes that rationalize the abuse of women. Using a sample (n = 164) of male college students, a 20-item measure was…

  2. 76 FR 59449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... FR 65038-65039). Thursday, October 6, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... Force Report Regarding the Events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Site in Japan (Open)--The Committee will... recommendations on the Near-Term Task Force Report regarding the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi site in...

  3. 76 FR 52716 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... FR 65038-65039). Thursday, September 8, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... Regarding the Events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Site in Japan (Open)-The Committee will hear presentations by... on the events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi site in Japan. 10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.: Technical Basis...

  4. Digital Avionics Information System Preliminary Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis. Final Report (November 1974-May 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Gary K.; Dieterly, Duncan L.

    The results of a study to evaluate the potential life-cycle costs and cost savings that could be realized by applying the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept to future avionic systems were presented. The tasks evaluated included selection of program elements for costing, selection of DAIS installation potential, definition of a…

  5. 76 FR 21041 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ...-op will source the food from approximately 150 local and regional farmers and 50 local and regional... notice to Anthony D. Dais, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room S-4231, Washington, DC 20210; or e- mail Dais.Anthony@dol.gov ; or transmit...

  6. The expression and changes of heat shock protein 70, MDA and haemorheology in rat cortex after diffuse axonal injury with secondary insults.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F; Xiang, Z; Peiling, L; Junjie, J; Zhen, L X

    2001-05-01

    In the present study the role of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, changes of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in rat cortex and haemorheology with time after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) only and DAI with secondary insults (SI) were studied. The rat DAI and DAI with SI model were made according to our previous work and animals were divided into a control and another five injury groups with time after injury. Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the neuronal expression of HSP70 at 0.5h, 3h, 12h, 24h, 72h after DAI or DAI with SI. In the meantime, the high (etah ) and low whole blood viscosity (etaL ), haematocrit (HCT) and RBC aggregation index (AI = etaL/etah ) were also detected and calculated. MDA in the homogenised brain tissue was assayed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. The results showed that HSP70 positive neurons were not detected at 30 minutes, but the number of HSP70 positive neurons begin to increase obviously at 3 hours, reach a peak at 24 hours (P< 0.01), and decrease at 72 hours (P= 0.05) after brain injury. The trend of expression of HSP70 was alike for both DAI only or DAI with SI. Meanwhile, MDA, etah, etaL, HCT and AI changes showed the same tendency. Compared with DAI only group, MDA and blood viscosity indexes in DAI with SI were significantly higher at respective time points (P< 0.01). It is concluded that HSP70 expression, MDA and haemorheology indices increased after brain injury and brain injury with SI. Free radicals and haemorheological changes play an important role in the aggravation of brain damage and HSP70 expression upregulation. PMID:11386800

  7. Solution structure of the Zβ domain of human DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors and its binding modes to B- and Z-DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyungmin; Khayrutdinov, Bulat I.; Lee, Chung-Kyung; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Kang, Sung Wook; Park, Hyejin; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Jee, JunGoo; Rich, Alexander; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Jeon, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    The DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI), also known as DLM-1/ZBP1, initiates an innate immune response by binding to foreign DNAs in the cytosol. For full activation of the immune response, three DNA binding domains at the N terminus are required: two Z-DNA binding domains (ZBDs), Zα and Zβ, and an adjacent putative B-DNA binding domain. The crystal structure of the Zβ domain of human DAI (hZβDAI) in complex with Z-DNA revealed structural features distinct from other known Z-DNA binding proteins, and it was classified as a group II ZBD. To gain structural insights into the DNA binding mechanism of hZβDAI, the solution structure of the free hZβDAI was solved, and its bindings to B- and Z-DNAs were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Compared to the Z-DNA–bound structure, the conformation of free hZβDAI has notable alterations in the α3 recognition helix, the “wing,” and Y145, which are critical in Z-DNA recognition. Unlike some other Zα domains, hZβDAI appears to have conformational flexibility, and structural adaptation is required for Z-DNA binding. Chemical-shift perturbation experiments revealed that hZβDAI also binds weakly to B-DNA via a different binding mode. The C-terminal domain of DAI is reported to undergo a conformational change on B-DNA binding; thus, it is possible that these changes are correlated. During the innate immune response, hZβDAI is likely to play an active role in binding to DNAs in both B and Z conformations in the recognition of foreign DNAs. PMID:21471454

  8. Transport of the soy isoflavone daidzein and its conjugative metabolites by the carriers SOAT, NTCP, OAT4, and OATP2B1.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Gary; Döring, Barbara; Ugele, Bernhard; Geyer, Joachim; Kulling, Sabine E; Soukup, Sebastian T

    2015-12-01

    Soy isoflavones (IF) are phytoestrogens, which interact with estrogen receptors. They are extensively metabolized by glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases, leading to the modulation of their estrogenic activity. It can be assumed that this biotransformation also has a crucial impact on the uptake of IF by active or passive cellular transport mechanisms, but little is known about the transport of IF phase II metabolites into the cell. Therefore, transport assays for phase II metabolites of daidzein (DAI) were carried out using HEK293 cell lines transfected with five human candidate carriers, i.e., organic anion transporter OAT4, sodium-dependent organic anion transporter (SOAT), Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT, and organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP2B1. Cellular uptake was monitored by UHPLC-DAD. DAI monosulfates were transported by the carriers NTCP and SOAT in a sodium-dependent manner, while OAT4-HEK293 cells revealed a partly sodium-dependent transport for these compounds. In contrast, DAI-7,4'-disulfate was only taken up by NTCP-HEK293 cells. DAI-7-glucuronide, but not DAI-4'-glucuronide, was transported exclusively by OATP2B1 in a sodium-independent manner. DAI-7-glucuronide-4'-sulfate, DAI-7-glucoside, and DAI were no substrate of any of the tested carriers. In addition, the inhibitory potency of the DAI metabolites toward estrone-sulfate (E1S) uptake of the above-mentioned carriers was determined. In conclusion, human SOAT, NTCP, OATP2B1, and OAT4 were identified as carriers for the DAI metabolites. Several metabolites were able to inhibit carrier-dependent E1S uptake. These findings might contribute to a better understanding of the bioactivity of IF especially in case of hormone-related cancers. PMID:25319728

  9. Feasibility of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing will lead to increasing pressure on visual rehabilitation services, which need to be efficiently organised in the near future. The Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI) was developed to assess the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons. This pilot study tests the feasibility of the D-AI using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Methods In addition to the regular intake, the first version of the D-AI was assessed in 20 patients. Subsequently, patients and intake assessors were asked to fill in an evaluation form. Based on these evaluations, a new version of the D-AI was developed. Results Mean administration time of the D-AI was 88.8 (± 41.0) minutes. Overall, patients and assessors were positive about the D-AI assessment. However, professionals and 60% of the patients found the administration time to be too long. All included items were considered relevant and only minor adjustments were recommended. Conclusion The systematic character of the revised D-AI will prevent topics from being overlooked and indicate which needs have the highest priority from a patient-centred perspective. Moreover, ongoing assessment of the D-AI will enhance evaluation of the rehabilitation process. To decrease administration time, in the revised D-AI only the top priority goals will be fully assessed. Using the D-AI, a rehabilitation plan based on individual needs can be developed for each patient. Moreover, it enables better evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation. A larger validation study is planned. PMID:21110871

  10. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  11. The relation between fornix injury and memory impairment in patients with diffuse axonal injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min Cheol; Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Oh Lyong; Bai, Dai Seg; Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the relation between fornix injury and memory impairment in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). In the current study, we attempted to investigate fornix injury in patients with memory impairment following DAI, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Nine patients with DAI and nine age-and sex-matched control subjects were recruited. The DTIs were acquired using a sensitivity-encoding head coil on a 1.5 T. Five regions of interest (ROI) were drawn manually on a color fractional anisotropy (FA) map: two ROIs for each column, one ROI for the body, and two ROIs for each crus. The FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each of the ROIs. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Memory Assessment Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and Mini-Mental State Exam. In the DAI group, the FA value in the fornix body was significantly decreased compared with that of the control group. In contrast, we did not find significant differences in the column and crus of the fornix. Among all of the cognitive function scales, only the Memory Assessment Scale scores were significantly correlated with the FA values of the fornix body in the DAI group. We found that memory impairment in patients with DAI is closely related to neuronal injury of the fornix body among the three fornix regions that we assessed. DTI could be useful in the evaluation of patients with memory impairment following DAI. PMID:20555158

  12. A new ground-based differential absorption sunphotometer for measuring atmospheric columnar CO2 and preliminary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yisong; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xingying; Xu, Hua; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao

    2015-10-01

    Carbon dioxide is commonly considered as the most important greenhouse gas. Ground-based remote sensing technology of acquiring CO2 columnar concentration is needed to provide validation for spaceborne CO2 products. A new groundbased sunphotometer prototype for remotely measuring atmospheric CO2 is introduced in this paper, which is designed to be robust, portable, automatic and suitable for field observation. A simple quantity, Differential Absorption Index (DAI) related to CO2 optical depth, is proposed to derive the columnar CO2 information based on the differential absorption principle around 1.57 micron. Another sun/sky radiometer CE318, is used to provide correction parameters of aerosol extinction and water vapor absorption. A cloud screening method based on the measurement stability is developed. A systematic error assessment of the prototype and DAI is also performed. We collect two-year DAI observation from 2010 to 2012 in Beijing, analyze the DAI seasonal variation and find that the daily average DAI decreases in growing season and reaches to a minimum on August, while increases after that until January of the next year, when DAI reaches its highest peak, showing generally the seasonal cycle of CO2. We also investigate the seasonal differences of DAI variation and attribute the tendencies of high in the morning and evening while low in the noon to photosynthesis efficiency variation of vegetation and anthropogenic emissions. Preliminary comparison between DAI and model simulated XCO2 (Carbon Tracker 2011) is conducted, showing that DAI roughly reveals some temporal characteristics of CO2 when using the average of multiple measurements.

  13. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion Project (IRRP), is the only organization that... disputes and sound industrial relations by developing approaches in cooperation with trade...

  14. 78 FR 19757 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    .... Meeting with Organization of Agreement States (OAS) and Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors... Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D. Reckley, 301-...

  15. 78 FR 18376 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    .... Meeting with Organization of Agreement States (OAS) and Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors... Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D. Reckley, 301-...

  16. Using quantum filters to process images of diffuse axonal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo

    2014-06-01

    Some images corresponding to a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are processed using several quantum filters such as Hermite Weibull and Morse. Diffuse axonal injury is a particular, common and severe case of traumatic brain injury (TBI). DAI involves global damage on microscopic scale of brain tissue and causes serious neurologic abnormalities. New imaging techniques provide excellent images showing cellular damages related to DAI. Said images can be processed with quantum filters, which accomplish high resolutions of dendritic and axonal structures both in normal and pathological state. Using the Laplacian operators from the new quantum filters, excellent edge detectors for neurofiber resolution are obtained. Image quantum processing of DAI images is made using computer algebra, specifically Maple. Quantum filter plugins construction is proposed as a future research line, which can incorporated to the ImageJ software package, making its use simpler for medical personnel.

  17. 77 FR 70123 - Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13579

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... ongoing review of its regulations related to the recent events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan; and (5) the NRC's previous and ongoing efforts to update its regulations in a...

  18. LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY: DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS AT DIFFERENT SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Connectivity is more than corridors, and corridors are more than linear strips of habitat. ather, connectivity involves linkages of habitats, species, communities, and ecological processes at spatial scales ranging from fencerows to biomes, and at temporal scales ranging from dai...

  19. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. PMID:23230344

  20. Orthodontic treatment need among special health care needs school children in Dharwad, India: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prajna P; Prasad, KVV; Bhat, Y Manohar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to assess and compare the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among various special health care needs (SHCN) schoolchildren and adolescents in Dharwad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 492 subjects in age group of 12-19 years (mean age 14.02 ± 1.84 standard deviation [SD]) who were examined for occlusal anomalies using dental aesthetic index (DAI). They were classified into five groups as: Visual impairment, speech and hearing disability (SH), physical disability, mentally subnormal and multiple disabilities (MD). Chi-square test was used to compare the orthodontic treatment need among various SHCN groups. One-way ANOVA and ANCOVA were performed to test any significant differences in mean DAI scores among the SHCN groups. Results: None of the children were undergoing or had undergone orthodontic treatment for malocclusion. Mean DAI score was 28.81 ± 11.64 (SD). Orthodontic treatment was indicated in 50.2% of study population who had DAI scores of 26 and above. Mandatory orthodontic treatment (DAI >=36) was required in as high as 29% of MD individuals when compared to only 10% of SH individuals. Significant differences in DAI scores were found between the SHCN groups. Conclusions: The need for orthodontic treatment among SHCN individuals was found to be high. Yet, absence of any orthodontic treatment for any child points out to the fact that the dental services are highly needed in these individuals. PMID:26020038

  1. Quantitative proteomics analysis to identify diffuse axonal injury biomarkers in rats using iTRAQ coupled LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Shisheng; Li, Yongguo; Zhao, Minzhu; Liu, Meng; Gao, Jun; Ding, Shijia; Li, Jianbo

    2016-02-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is fairly common during a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with high mortality. Making an early diagnosis, appropriate therapeutic decisions, and an accurate prognostic evaluation of patients with DAI still pose difficulties for clinicians. The detailed mechanisms of axonal injury after head trauma have yet to be clearly defined and no reliable biomarkers are available for early DAI diagnosis. Therefore, this study employed an established DAI animal model in conjunction with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based protein identification/quantification approach. Alterations in rat cerebral protein expression were quantified using iTRAQ coupled LC-MS/MS, with differentially expressed proteins between the control groups, sham and sham-injured, and the injury groups, animals that died immediately post-injury and those sacrificed at 1h, 6h, 1d, 3d and 7d post-injury, identified. A total of 1858 proteins were identified and quantified and comparative analysis identified ten candidate proteins that warranted further examination. Of the ten candidate DAI biomarkers, four proteins, citrate synthase (CS), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25), microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) and Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (Rock2), were validated by subsequent Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. Our studies not only identified several novel biomarkers that may provide insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of DAI, but also demonstrated the feasibility of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis in cerebral tissue research. PMID:26710722

  2. Serotonin-immunoreactive and dopamine-immunoreactive neurones in the terminal ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domestica: Light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Elekes, K; Hustert, R; Geffard, M

    1987-10-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of serotonin- and dopamine-immunoreactive (5-HTi and DAi) neurones have been investigated in the terminal ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domestica, using a pre-embedding chopper technique. Special attention has been paid to the immunoreactive structures in the neuropil. 5-HTi structures are extensively distributed and densely packed throughout the 5 neuromeres of the terminal ganglion and originate from several interneurones and efferent neurones. In contrast, DAi fibres are distributed sparsely although they extend to all neuromeres of the ganglion and originate from 6 interneurons only. For both 5-HTi and DAi neurones characteristic axonal projections and branching patterns can be distinguished. The 5-HTi axons exhibit rich varicose arborizations, whereas DAi neurones possess fewer varicosities in the neuropil. Electron microscopy shows that 5-HTi varicosities contain small (∼ 60 nm) and large (∼ 100 nm) agranular vesicles, and large (∼ 100 nm) granular vesicles, whereas in DAi varicosities small (∼ 60 nm) agranular and large (∼ 100 nm) granular vesicles are seen. Both 5-HTi and DAi varicosities form synaptic contacts. We conclude that both serotonin and dopamine may be used as neurotransmitters in the terminal ganglion of the cricket. PMID:21253768

  3. Kozu-Matsuda fault system in northern Izu collision zone, western part of Kanagawa Prefecture, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odawara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    Western area of Kanagawa Prefecture is techtonically highlighted by its geological setting that the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc collides with the Japan Island arc there. The Kozu-Matsuda fault system which consists of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, the Matsuda-kita fault, the Hinata fault and the Hirayama fault is a surface manifestation of the plate boundary. Research of the Kozu-Matsuda fault has advanced dramatically after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Having conducted a trench survey, Kanagawa Prefectural Government (2004) reported that the Kozu-Matsuda fault was activated at least four times in the past 4000 years and the latest activity occurred 650-950 years ago (AD. 1350-1050). However, details of the activity of the Hinata and Hirayama faults, the northern extension of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, are not well understood. The Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) made a 2040 m deep drilling in 2004 in Yamakita Town (Hayashi et al., 2006). DaiDaiToku also carried out the seismic reflection profiling along a route from Odawara to Yamanashi in 2005 (Sato et al., 2005). The study done by DaiDaiToku elucidated presence of two north-dipping thrusts. The northern thrust corresponds to the Hinata fault, and the southern one which is also considered to be a continuation of the Kozu-Matsuda fault probably represents a frontal thrust (Miyauchi et al., 2006). We have conducted paleoseismic investigations using data from boreholes across these thrusts.

  4. Diffuse Axonal Injury-A Distinct Clinicopathological Entity in Closed Head Injuries.

    PubMed

    Davceva, Natasha; Basheska, Neli; Balazic, Joze

    2015-09-01

    The knowledge about the diffuse axonal injury (DAI) as a clinicopathological entity has matured in the last 30 years. It has been defined clinically (immediate and prolonged unconsciousness leading to death or severe disability) and pathologically (the triad of DAI specific changes). In terms of its biomechanics, DAI is occurring as a result of acceleration forces of longer duration and has been fully reproduced experimentally.In the process of diagnosing DAI, the performance of a complete forensic neuropathological examination is essential and the immunohistochemistry method using antibodies against β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) has been proved to be highly sensitive and specific, selectively targeting the damaged axons.In this review, we are pointing to the significant characteristics of DAI as a distinct clinicopathological entity that can cause severe impairment of the brain function, and in the forensic medicine setting, it can be found as the concrete cause of death. We are discussing not only its pathological feature, its mechanism of occurrence, and the events on a cellular level but also the dilemmas about DAI that still exist in science: (1) regarding the strict criteria for its diagnosis and (2) regarding its biomechanical significance, which can be of a big medicolegal importance. PMID:26010053

  5. An eco-spatial index for evaluating stabilization state of sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Yehonathan; Groner, Elli; Yizhaq, Hezi; Svoray, Tal; Bar (Kutiel), Pua

    2013-06-01

    Geomorphologies tend to categorize dunes into three major states (mobile, semi-stabilized and stabilized) based on their shape and mobility rate. However, the ecologists try to find bio-indicators that can characterize the mobility rate and the ecological features of the various dune states. Unfortunately, there are limited numbers of significant bio-indicators, if any. The aim of our study was to develop a Dune Assemblage Index (DAI) in order to indicate the affinity of annual plants and arthropods assemblages to dune mobility. The DAI values range between 0 for stabilized dunes and 1 for bare and active dunes. The index was calculated for 10 coastal dunes in Nizzanim nature reserve, located at the southern part of the Israeli Mediterranean coast, from data that were collected in the years 2006 and 2007. Generally, the lower the vegetation cover is, the higher are DAI values for both taxon groups. Generalist species tend to mask the differences between active and stabilized dunes whereas psammophiles (sand-dwelling species) tend to increase the DAI values. Additionally, the DAI may differ among dunes with the same perennial coverage due to differences in the spatial plant distribution patterns. Likewise, the DAI depends also on the distance of the dunes from rural areas, which encourage invasion of generalist species, thus decreases the DAI value. This new defined spatial index that relies on plant and animal assemblages, rather than on individual bio-indicators, can be adapted to any taxon and dune ecosystems. The use of several taxons may support better understanding of the ecosystem state of the dune.

  6. X-ray structures of Bacillus pallidus d-arabinose isomerase and its complex with l-fucitol.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosei; Yoshida, Hiromi; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2010-06-01

    d-Arabinose isomerase (d-AI), also known as l-fucose isomerase (l-FI), catalyzes the aldose-ketose isomerization of d-arabinose to d-ribulose, and l-fucose to l-fuculose. Bacillus pallidus (B. pallidus) d-AI can catalyze isomerization of d-altrose to d-psicose, as well as d-arabinose and l-fucose. Three X-ray structures of B. pallidus d-AI in complexes with 2-methyl-2,4-pentadiol, glycerol and an inhibitor, l-fucitol, were determined at resolutions of 1.77, 1.60 and 2.60 A, respectively. B. pallidus d-AI forms a homo-hexamer, and one subunit has three domains of almost equal size; two Rossmann fold domains and a mimic of the (beta/alpha) barrel fold domain. A catalytic metal ion (Mn(2+)) was found in the active site coordinated by Glu342, Asp366 and His532, and an additional metal ion was found at the channel for the passage of a substrate coordinated by Asp453. The X-ray structures basically supported the ene-diol mechanism for the aldose-ketose isomerization by B. pallidus d-AI, as well as Escherichia coli (E. coli) l-FI, in which Glu342 and Asp366 facing each other at the catalytic metal ion transfer a proton from C2 to C1 and O1 to O2, acting as acid/base catalysts, respectively. However, considering the ionized state of Asp366, the catalytic reaction also possibly occurs through the negatively charged ene-diolate intermediate stabilized by the catalytic metal ion. A structural comparison with E. colil-FI showed that B. pallidus d-AI possibly interconverts between "open" and "closed" forms, and that the additional metal ion found in B. pallidus d-AI may help to stabilize the channel region. PMID:20123133

  7. Dentofacial abnormalities among adolescents: A study on the prevalence and severity

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Rekha P.; Shenoy-Panchmal, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of this investigation were to assess prevalence and severity of dentofacial abnormalities and orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Mangalore taluk. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1340 children from randomly selected high schools. A proforma was used to record demographic data and components of the Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI] for each subject. The Chi squared test was used for analysis with p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Dentofacial abnormalities (DAI scores ≥ 26) were recorded in 38.5% subjects. Mean DAI score of the study population was 24.59 ± 6.09. Female subjects presented with higher prevalence and higher mean DAI scores than their male counterparts (p > 0.05). Assessment of severity of malocclusion between age groups revealed no differences (p > 0.05). Orthodontic treatment was highly desirable in 11% and mandatory in 5.2% subjects. Conclusions A high prevalence of dentofacial abnormalities was found among adolescents in Mangalore taluk pointing towards a need for designing effective programs for early diagnosis and treatment of this condition, especially among adolescents. Key words:Adolescents, Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI], dentofacial abnormalities, malocclusion, orthodontic treatment need, prevalence, severity. PMID:26155345

  8. Dental aesthetic index: applicability in Indian population: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Poonacha, K S; Deshpande, S D; Shigli, Anand L

    2010-01-01

    A variety of indices have been developed to assist professionals in categorizing malocclusion according to treatment needs. Dental aesthetic index (DAI) is one such index. DAI quantifies the normal variations usually seen and the dentofacial anomalies. A retrospective study on hundred available and treated cases was carried out on the casts. This survey was mainly carried out to determine the role of pedodontist in early identification of dental anomalies using DAI and sound referral of the patient to the orthodontist for better comprehensive care during the growth period in children. The materials used to collect data included periodontal probe with millimeter markings, ruler, calipers, pencil, and eraser. The results showed that when grouped according to various malocclusion severity levels by DAI, 3% had no or minor malocclusion indicating no or slight need of treatment, 15% had definite malocclusion and the treatment needed was elective, 27% had severe malocclusion and treatment was highly desirable, and remaining 55% of the casts had very severe or handicapping malocclusion and the treatment was mandatory. This study shows that DAI can be effectively used to evaluate and recognize the orthodontic needs of Indian children with permanent dentition and treated at an early stage so that the treatment is more effective. PMID:20215666

  9. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of wheat infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Ayumi; Ban, Tomohiro; Manickavelu, Alagu

    2015-09-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease in wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum (F. g). It infects during the flowering stage favored by warm and highly humid climates. In order to understand possible wheat defense mechanism, gene expression analysis in response to F. g was undertaken in three genotypes of wheat, Japanese landrace cultivar Nobeokabouzu (highly resistant), Chinese cv. Sumai 3 (resistant) and Australian cv. Gamenya (susceptible). For microarray analysis, 3 and 7 days after inoculation (dai) samples were used in Agilent wheat custom array 4x38k. At 3 dai, the highest number of genes was up-regulated in Nobeokabouzu followed by Sumai 3 and minimum expression in Gamenya. Whereas at 7 dai, Sumai 3 expressed more genes compared to others. Further narrowing down by excluding commonly expressed genes in three genotypes and grouping according to the gene function has identified differentially high expression of genes involved in detoxification process such as multidrug resistant protein, multidrug resistance-associated protein, UDP-glycosyltransferase and ABC transporters in Nobeokabouzu at 3 dai. However in Sumai 3 many defense-related genes such as peroxidase, proteases and genes involved in plant cell wall defense at 7 dai were identified. These findings showed the difference of molecular defense mechanism among the cultivars in response to the pathogen. The complete data was accessed in NCBI GEO database with accession number GSE59721. PMID:26484265

  10. Subjective experience and subjective response to neuroleptics in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Arduini, L; Stratta, P; Pallanti, S

    2000-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed the issue of the relationship between the subjective response to neuroleptics and drug compliance, very little attention has been given to the study of the subjective experience of psychosis and drug attitudes. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the relationship between the subjective experience of psychosis as assessed by the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF) and subjective response (SR) to neuroleptics as assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) in a group of schizophrenic patients. Significant correlations were found between the total scores on the FBF and DAI (r= .46, P< .01). The DAI total score also correlated with all four factors (central cognitive disturbances, perception and motility, depressivity, and internal and external overstimulation) on the FBF. This finding suggests that the SR neuroleptics is partly explained by a "positive" subjective experience of psychosis. PMID:11086150

  11. Development of a drug and alcohol information survey.

    PubMed

    Gough, H G

    1985-04-01

    Psychological measurement in regard to using drugs, alcohol, or other substances should attend to personological, attitudinal, and informational factors. Standardized tests are available for assessing personological and attitudinal variables, but not for knowledge. To develop a test of information, 45 multiple-choice items were correlated with total and part scores in samples of 132 men and 71 women; 35 items with significant (p less than .05) coefficients and other desirable properties were retained for a Drug and Alcohol Information Survey (DAIS). For 33 male and 36 female college students participating in an intensive psychological assessment program, scores on the DAIS were positively associated with (1) ratings of modernity, sensation seeking, originality, and nonorderliness; (2) personality scales for status propensity, sociability, social presence, and rebelliousness; and (3) a nonverbal test of field-independent cognitive ability. High scorers on the DAIS also reported more frequent use of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco than did students with low scores. PMID:3875571

  12. Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K; Kulkarni, J; Sergejew, A A

    2000-05-01

    Medication compliance is one of the foremost problems affecting neuroleptic efficacy in psychiatric patients. To date, compliancy has most commonly been assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) developed by Hogan et al. (Hogan, T.P., Awad, A.G., Eastwood, R., 1983. A self-report scale predictive of drug compliance in schizophrenics: reliability and discriminative validity. Psychol. Med. 13, 177-183). The present study identified several deficiencies in the DAI. Using the partial credit version of the Item Response Theory measurement model, the DAI was refined with the aim of greater validity and clinical utility. The new inventory was administered to 66 patients, the majority of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia. When available, lithium levels and carer ratings of compliance were also recorded and used to verify compliancy. The new inventory appears to be a valid and reliable measure of compliancy for psychoactive medications. PMID:10785582

  13. A development framework for artificial intelligence based distributed operations support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced automation is required to reduce costly human operations support requirements for complex space-based and ground control systems. Existing knowledge based technologies have been used successfully to automate individual operations tasks. Considerably less progress has been made in integrating and coordinating multiple operations applications for unified intelligent support systems. To fill this gap, SOCIAL, a tool set for developing Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systems is being constructed. SOCIAL consists of three primary language based components defining: models of interprocess communication across heterogeneous platforms; models for interprocess coordination, concurrency control, and fault management; and for accessing heterogeneous information resources. DAI applications subsystems, either new or existing, will access these distributed services non-intrusively, via high-level message-based protocols. SOCIAL will reduce the complexity of distributed communications, control, and integration, enabling developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the target DAI system itself.

  14. Diffuse Axonal Injury at Ultra-High Field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Moenninghoff, Christoph; Kraff, Oliver; Maderwald, Stefan; Umutlu, Lale; Theysohn, Jens M.; Ringelstein, Adrian; Wrede, Karsten H.; Deuschl, Cornelius; Altmeppen, Jan; Ladd, Mark E.; Forsting, Michael; Quick, Harald H.; Schlamann, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a specific type of traumatic brain injury caused by shearing forces leading to widespread tearing of axons and small vessels. Traumatic microbleeds (TMBs) are regarded as a radiological marker for DAI. This study aims to compare DAI-associated TMBs at 3 Tesla (T) and 7 T susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to evaluate possible diagnostic benefits of ultra-high field (UHF) MRI. Material and Methods 10 study participants (4 male, 6 female, age range 20-74 years) with known DAI were included. All MR exams were performed with a 3 T MR system (Magnetom Skyra) and a 7 T MR research system (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany) each in combination with a 32-channel-receive coil. The average time interval between trauma and imaging was 22 months. Location and count of TMBs were independently evaluated by two neuroradiologists on 3 T and 7 T SWI images with similar and additionally increased spatial resolution at 7 T. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was assessed using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Count and diameter of TMB were evaluated with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Susceptibility weighted imaging revealed a total of 485 TMBs (range 1-190, median 25) at 3 T, 584 TMBs (plus 20%, range 1-262, median 30.5) at 7 T with similar spatial resolution, and 684 TMBs (plus 41%, range 1-288, median 39.5) at 7 T with 10-times higher spatial resolution. Hemorrhagic DAI appeared significantly larger at 7 T compared to 3 T (p = 0.005). Inter- and intraobserver correlation regarding the counted TMB was high and almost equal 3 T and 7 T. Conclusion 7 T SWI improves the depiction of small hemorrhagic DAI compared to 3 T and may be supplementary to lower field strengths for diagnostic in inconclusive or medicolegal cases. PMID:25793614

  15. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Dovana, Francesco; Mucciarelli, Marco; Mascarello, Maurizio; Fusconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E) and roots (root-E) of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW) was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP) fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi. PMID:26641657

  16. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E) and roots (root-E) of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW) was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP) fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi. PMID:26641657

  17. Malocclusion and TMJ disorders in teenagers from private and public schools in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Irigoyen-Camacho, María E.; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Mendoza-Roaf, Patricia; Medina-Solís, Carlo; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify, among Mexican teenagers from public and private schools, the frequency, severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs, and their possible association with temporomandibular joint disorders. Material and Methods: Fifteen-year-old students were recruited from public and private schools. Clinical findings were registered as follows: oral hygiene status with the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified, malocclusion using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), and TMJ disorders following WHO criteria. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were constructed for data analysis. Results: A total of 249 fifteen-year old students were included in the study (118 female 47.4%). 68% had a DAI score ≤ 25 (minor or no occlusal anomalies), 18% scored 26-30 (mild anomalies), 7% scored 31-35 (evident anomalies), and 6% scored ≥ 36 (major malocclusion). The most frequent anomalies were dental crowding in 50%, maxillary dental irregularity in 44.6%, mandible irregularity in 41.2% and excessive maxillary overjet in 37.8%. Among the students, 26.1% had clicking/muscle or TMJ pain, of these 12.3% showed pain during palpation. OHI-S > 1 was found in 34% of the participants. The negative binomial model showed an association between DAI score and TMJ disorders (P=0.041). Also the logistic regression model showed an association between malocclusion (DAI>25) and TMJ disorders (OR=2.58, p=0.002). Malocclusion was associated also with poor oral hygiene (OR=1.65, p=0.007), and with attendance to public schools (OR=1.97, p=0.039). Conclusions: TMJ disorders and DAI scores were significantly associated. Screening/Diagnostic programs for ortho-dontic and TMJ-disorders are needed, to identify and offer treatment to teenagers with major malocclusion and TMJ/muscle pain. Key words:Dental Aesthetic Index, DAI, crowding, Temporo Mandibular Joint disorders (TMJ disorders), Temporo Mandibular Disorders (TMD), occlusal anomalies, OHI-S. PMID:23385494

  18. Effect of temperature on cortical infection by Plasmodiophora brassicae and clubroot severity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kalpana; Gossen, Bruce D; McDonald, Mary Ruth

    2011-12-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature on infection and development of Plasmodiophora brassicae in the root cortex of Shanghai pak choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) and on subsequent clubroot severity. Ten-day-old seedlings were grown individually, inoculated with resting spores, and maintained in growth cabinets at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30?C. Seedlings were harvested at 2-day intervals, starting 8 days after inoculation (DAI) and continuing until 42 DAI. Roots were assessed at 4-day intervals for the incidence of cortical infection and stage of infection (young plasmodia, mature plasmodia, and resting spores), at 2-day intervals for symptom development and clubroot severity, and at 8-day intervals for the number of spores per gram of gall. Temperature affected every stage of clubroot development. Cortical infection was highest and symptoms were observed earliest at 25?C, intermediate at 20 and 30?C, and lowest and latest at 15?C. No cortical infection or symptoms were observed at 42 DAI in plants grown at 10?C. A substantial delay in the development of the pathogen was observed at 15?C. Resting spores were first observed at 38 DAI in plants at 15?C, 26 DAI at 20 and 30?C, and 22 DAI at 25?C. The yield of resting spores from galls was higher in galls that developed at 20 to 30?C than those that developed at 15?C over 42 days of assessment. These results support the observation in companion studies that cool temperatures result in slower development of clubroot symptoms in brassica crops, and demonstrate that the temperature has a consistent pattern of effect throughout the life cycle of the pathogen. PMID:21864086

  19. Evaluation of the extent and distribution of diffuse axonal injury from real world motor vehicle crashes - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Elizabeth M; Urban, Jillian E; Lynch, Sarah K; Whitlow, Christopher T; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common traumatic brain injury (TBI) often seen as a result of motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Twelve (12) cases of DAI were selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) to determine the extent and distribution of injury with respect to the head contact location. Head computed tomography (CT) scans were collected for each subject and segmented using semi-automated methods to establish the volumes of DAI. The impacted area on the subject's head was approximated from evidence of a soft tissue scalp contusion on the CT scan. This was used in conjunction with subject images and identified internal vehicle contact locations to ascertain a label map of the contact location. A point cloud was developed from the contact location label map and the centroid of the point cloud was calculated as the subject's head impact location. The injury and contact location were evaluated in spherical coordinates and grouped into 0.2 by 0.2 radial increments of azimuth and elevation. The radial increments containing DAI were projected onto a meshed sphere to evaluate the radial distance from the impact location to primary location of DAI and approximate anatomical location. Of the 170 injuries observed, 123 were identified in the frontal lobe and 36 in the parietal lobe. The distribution of the DAI in relation to the change in azimuth from the contact loca y correlated with contact to the head superficial to this lobe. Results from this study provide further insight into the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury and can be used in future work as an aid to validate finite element models of the head. PMID:23686213

  20. Discussions on Petty Bourgeois and Angry Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuanshan, Zhang; Lei, Rao; Liangyu, Feng; Gui, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Petty bourgeois and angry youth are two large sets of contemporary Chinese youth. There is no doubt that most contemporary youth do not belong to either of these two sets. However, these two large sets are indeed very fashionable at this time, and it is easy to simply distinguish between them by means of two terms: the label "shuai dai"…

  1. Bushland, Texas Reference ET Calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bushland Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) Calculator was developed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, for calculating grass and alfalfa reference ET. It uses the ASCE Standardized Reference ET Equation for calculating reference ET at hourly and dai...

  2. ANALYSIS OF VOLATILES AND SEMIVOLATILES BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct aqueous injection analysis (DAI) with gas chromatographic separation and ion trap mass spectral detection was used to analyze aqueous samples for g/L levels of 54 volatile and semivolatile compounds, and problematic non-purgeables and non-extractables. The method reduces ...

  3. The Nature and Nurture of Giftedness: A New Framework for Understanding Gifted Education. Education & Psychology of the Gifted Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun

    2010-01-01

    With unprecedented scope and vision, Dr. Dai systematically redefines giftedness and proposes a new framework for the field of gifted education. He identifies nine essential tensions, revolving around three core questions: What do we know about the respective roles of natural ability, environment and experiences, and personal effort in talent…

  4. From wildlife biology to soil science, the USDA and the United Nations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It all(?) started at age 18, wearing a rented tuxedo at the Explorers Club in NYC. I tried to explain my high school research on pine marten to my dinner companions while perched nervously on the dais. I haven’t worn a penguin suit since, but every year has been just as fascinating as I’ve worked my...

  5. Characterization of an unidentified Sarcocystis falcatula-like parasite from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rezende, P C; Costa, A J

    2000-01-01

    An unidentified isolate of a Sarcocystis falcatula-like parasite was obtained from the lungs of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) fed sporocysts from a naturally-infected South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil. Four captive budgerigars fed sporocysts from the opossum intestine died of acute sarcocystosis 8, 10, and 12 days after oral inoculation (DAI); one budgerigar was killed 12 DAI when it was lethargic. Schizonts and merozoites found in the lungs of the budgerigars reacted mildly with polyclonal S. falcatula antibody. The parasite was isolated in equine kidney cell cultures inoculated with lung tissue from a budgerigar that was killed 12 DAI. Two budgerigars inoculated subcutaneously with 100,000 culture-derived S. falcatula merozoites developed acute sarcocystosis and S. falcatula-like schizonts were found in their lungs 15 and 16 DAI. Four budgerigars kept as unfed controls in the same environment remained free of Sarcocystis infection. The parasite underwent schizogony in African green monkey kidney cells and bovine turbinate cells. Merozoites divided by endopolygeny, often leaving a residual body. Polymerase chain reaction studies using primers JNB33/JNB54 and Hinf I and Dra I digestion indicated that the isolate was not S. falcatula. Results of this study indicated that the South American opossum, D. albiventris, is a definitive host for yet another S. falcatula-like parasite. PMID:11128705

  6. 77 FR 16098 - In the Matter of All Operating Boiling Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I and Mark II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR... contributed to the uncontrolled release of radioactive material to the environment. Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1... defense and security. To protect public health and safety from the inadvertent release of...

  7. Localized Th1-, Th2-,and inflamation-associated hepatic and pulmonary immune responses in Ascaris-infected swine are increased by retinoic acid.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on d–1, d+1, d+3 of infection. Control or infected pigs were given 100 (LD-ATRA) or 1,000 (HD-ATRA) µg/kg ATRA in corn oil, or corn oil alone, and sacrificed at 7 and 14 days after inoculation (DAI) with infective eggs...

  8. Endogenous development of Eimeria minasensis in experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Lima, J D

    2000-06-01

    The endogenous development of Eimeria minasensis was studied in 9 coccidia-free goat kids inoculated with 10(5) sporulated oocysts/kg body weight. Kids were killed 4, 7 (2 animals), 10, 13, 16, 18, 19, and 22 days after inoculation (DAI). In tissue sections of the intestines stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy, 2 generations of meronts, gamonts, gametes, and oocysts were found. The first generation of meronts developed in cells deep in the lamina propria of the jejunum and ileum. Mature giant meronts (299.4x243.8 microm) found 16 DAI were visible to the naked eye and contained a large number of crescent-shaped merozoites. The second generation of meronts developed in the epithelial cells of crypts of the ileum and above the host cell nuclei. Mature meronts (11.5x10.1 microm) with 18-28 comma-shaped merozoites were first seen 16 DAI. Gametogenesis took place in epithelial cells of the crypts and villi of the terminal part of the ileum, cecum, and colon. Macrogametes (27.8x17.6 microm), mature microgamonts (21.3x17.0 microm), microgametes, and oocysts (30.5x19.4 microm) were found 19 DAI. Sexual stages were below the host cell nucleus. PMID:10864235

  9. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  10. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  11. Structural covariance networks of the dorsal anterior insula predict females' individual differences in empathic responding.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Klimecki, Olga M; Leiberg, Susanne; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-01

    Previous functional imaging studies have shown key roles of the dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) in empathy for the suffering of others. The current study mapped structural covariance networks of these regions and assessed the relationship between networks and individual differences in empathic responding in 94 females. Individual differences in empathy were assessed through average state measures in response to a video task showing others' suffering, and through questionnaire-based trait measures of empathic concern. Overall, covariance patterns indicated that dAI and aMCC are principal hubs within prefrontal, temporolimbic, and midline structural covariance networks. Importantly, participants with high empathy state ratings showed increased covariance of dAI, but not aMCC, to prefrontal and limbic brain regions. This relationship was specific for empathy and could not be explained by individual differences in negative affect ratings. Regarding questionnaire-based empathic trait measures, we observed a similar, albeit weaker modulation of dAI covariance, confirming the robustness of our findings. Our analysis, thus, provides novel evidence for a specific contribution of frontolimbic structural covariance networks to individual differences in social emotions beyond negative affect. PMID:23535178

  12. GROND observations of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schady, P.; Kann, D. A.; Greiner, J.

    2016-06-01

    We observed the field of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103 (Swift trigger 700791; D'Ai et al., GCN #19547. ATel #9180) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'JHK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) mounted at the 2.2 m MPG telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile).

  13. Effects of 7-O substitutions on estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of daidzein analogues in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daidzein (1) is a natural estrogenic isoflavone. We report here that 1 can be transformed into an antiestrogenic ligand by simple alkyl substitutions of the 7-hydroxyl hydrogen. To test the effect of such structural modifications on the hormonal activities of the resulting compounds, a series of dai...

  14. Partitioning evapotranspiration in semiarid grassland and shrubland ecosystems using time series of soil surface temperature 1932

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information about the ratio of transpiration (T) to total evapotranspiration (T/ET) is related to critical global change concerns, including shrub encroachment and non-native species invasion. In this study, a new approach was used to partition measurements of ET into daily evaporation (ED) and dai...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Íria Márcia; LIMA, Sarah Buzaim; FREITAS, Aline de Araújo; VINAUD, Marina Clare; JUNIOR, Ruy de Souza LINO

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  16. Student Development of Educational Software: Spin-Offs from Classroom Use of DIAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, John A., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes several college courses which encourage students to develop computer software programs in the areas of remote sensing and geographic information systems. A microcomputer-based tutorial package, the Digital Image Analysis System (DAIS), teaches the principles of digital processing. (LS)

  17. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need among 12- to 15-year-old students in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa

    2010-10-01

    Self-perception of dental attractiveness is an important factor affecting orthodontic treatment need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and to evaluate the influence of gender and socioeconomic background such as family size, parental education and father's employment. The subjects were 900 male and female junior high school students (450 males, 450 females) aged 12-15 years, from four districts in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and then underwent a dental examination. Normative treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t- and chi-squared tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between DAI scores and demographics. The results showed a significant correlation between DAI scores and a subject's awareness of malocclusion and their satisfaction with dental appearance. There were no differences between genders concerning the questionnaire data. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment. PMID:20106996

  18. The Other in Education: The Distance between School Education and Local Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongcheng, Shen; Minhui, Qian

    2010-01-01

    By means of an investigation into the school education of the Dai people in Dehong, Yunnan province, this article expounds on the interactive relationship between modern education and local culture and the problems of cultural adaptation among ethnic minority students. School education, as a symbol of state power, always endeavors to transform…

  19. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactor site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on...

  20. Resistance of wheat to Mycosphaerella graminicola involves early and late peaks of gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of 14 genes associated with the resistance response of wheat to the Septoria tritici blotch fungus, Mycosphaerella graminicola, was measured from 0 to 27 days after inoculation (DAI) in two resistant and two susceptible cultivars by real-time quantitative PCR. The four genes chitinase, ph...

  1. Changing Faces of Reform. Proceedings of the Annual Rural & Small Schools Conference (18th, Manhattan, Kansas, October 27-28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Center for Rural Education and Small Schools.

    This proceedings contains abstracts of 21 presentations. Titles and presenters are: "Teaching and Learning in Multiage Classrooms" (Laura Blevins and others); "Leadership, School Reform and the Rural School Superintendent" (Mike Boone); "Teaching English as a Second Language from Theory to Practice" (Mingsheng Dai); "A Guide for Central Office…

  2. 76 FR 70913 - Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13579

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ..., any Commission decisions related to the Fukushima Task Force Report. DATES: November 16, 2011... the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ML111861807), was issued. The... recommendations of the Fukushima Task Force Report for the purpose of providing the Commission with...

  3. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model: A Tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Animal agriculture is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but good information does not exist on the net emissions from our farms. A software tool called the Dai...

  4. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats.

    PubMed

    de la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Duenas Jimenez, Judith Marcela; Estrada, Ismael Jimenez; Banuelos Pineda, Jacinto; Franco Rodriguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Lopez Ruiz, Jose Roberto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura Paulina; Candanedo Arellano, Ahiezer; Duenas Jimenez, Sergio Horacio

    2016-01-01

    We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats. PMID:27006979

  5. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  6. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue. PMID:26262047

  7. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  8. Collection of Helianthus porteri, an endemic sunflower of granite outcrops in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, all native to North America. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. Confederate dai...

  9. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Education and Research Division. Section: RT of Editors of Library Journals. Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Presented as part of a roundtable discussion by editors of library journals at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, "Electronic Publishing," by Hirokazu Iwata of Japan, discusses Dai Nippon Printing's response to new media and electronic publishing. Various aspects of the computerized processing and…

  10. Minority Languages in Dehong, China: Policy and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Hong

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the language situation in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Prefecture in China's Hunan province. By examining language use in certain domains of public life (public signs, radio and television broadcasting, publishing, and education) certain discrepancies between government policies for minority languages and realities of everyday use of the…

  11. 77 FR 33777 - Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-02; Compliance With Order EA-12-050, Order Modifying Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of the Japanese island of Honshu. The earthquake resulted in a...-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread devastation across... of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3, were in operation...

  12. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Duenas Jimenez, Judith Marcela; Estrada, Ismael Jimenez; Banuelos Pineda, Jacinto; Franco Rodriguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Lopez Ruiz, Jose Roberto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura Paulina; Candanedo Arellano, Ahiezer; Duenas Jimenez, Sergio Horacio

    2016-01-01

    We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats. PMID:27006979

  13. Insula response and connectivity during social and non-social attention in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Paola; Uddin, Lucina Q; Lynch, Charles J; Kochalka, John; Chen, Tianwen; Menon, Vinod

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to salient social stimuli. Here, we use two visual oddball tasks to investigate brain systems engaged during attention to social (face) and non-social (scene) stimuli. We focused on the dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the anterior insula (dAI and vAI, respectively), anatomically distinct regions contributing to a 'salience network' that is known to regulate attention to behaviorally meaningful stimuli. Children with ASD performed comparably to their typically developing (TD) peers, but they engaged the right dAI and vAI differently in response to deviant faces compared with deviant scenes. Multivariate activation patterns in the dAI reliably discriminated between children with ASD and TD children with 85% classification accuracy, and children with ASD activated the vAI more than their TD peers. Children with ASD and their TD peers also differed in dAI connectivity patterns to deviant faces, with stronger within-salience network interactions in the ASD group and stronger cross-network interactions in the TD group. Our findings point to atypical patterns of right anterior insula activation and connectivity in ASD and suggest that multiple functions subserved by the insula, including attention and affective processing of salient social stimuli, are aberrant in children with the disorder. PMID:26454817

  14. Inhibition of TLR4 Signalling-Induced Inflammation Attenuates Secondary Injury after Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonglin; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Junjie; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary injury after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) damages more axons than the initial insult, but the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and have been shown to be associated with brain damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TLR4 signalling pathway in secondary axonal injury in the cortices of DAI rats. TLR4 was mainly localized in microglial cells and neurons, and the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules, including TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, toll/IR-1-(TIR-) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-beta, interferon regulatory factor 3, interferon β, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65, significantly increased and peaked at 1 d after DAI. Inhibition of TLR4 by TAK-242 attenuated apoptosis, neuronal and axonal injury, and glial responses. The neuroprotective effects of TLR4 inhibition were associated with decreases in the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules and inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α. These results suggest that the TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in secondary injury and may be an important therapeutic target following DAI. PMID:27478307

  15. A preliminary evaluation of pre-treatment hypodontia patients using the Dental Aesthetic Index: how does it compare with other commonly used indices?

    PubMed

    Shelton, A T; Hobson, R S; Slater, D

    2008-06-01

    There is currently no specific occlusal index related to hypodontia and there is a paucity of published literature on this subject. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship, if any, between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index, the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON), and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) score and the severity of hypodontia. All new patients attending the Newcastle Dental Hospital hypodontia clinic between February 2002 and March 2003 were included in the study. Of the 60 patients, two were excluded as the models were unavailable and one because they were predominantly in the primary dentition, making scoring impractical. The patient casts were scored with respect to PAR, ICON, and DAI. The mean patient age at presentation was 12 years, with a standard deviation of 1.89 and a range of 9-16 years, and a female to male ratio of 1.1:1. A significant positive correlation, using Kendall tau b, was found between the number of missing teeth, excluding third molars, and the DAI score (tau = 0.215, P = 0.027). There was no significant positive correlation between PAR (tau = -0.186, P = 0.056) and ICON (tau = 0.017, P = 0.861) score and the number of missing teeth. The results of this investigation indicate that further research is required in order to assess if the DAI could be used to determine whether or not to refer hypodontia patients for specialist advice. PMID:18308705

  16. Selected Bibliography (259 ref.) of Ojibwa and Other Native American Related Research Concerning Psychoeducational Assessment and Intervention (as well as Related Historical, Cultural, Legal, Economic, and Medical Factors).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Damian, Comp.

    Utilizing ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center), DAI (Dissertation Abstracts International), and APA (American Psychological Association) computer search resources and library resources in Tennessee, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Canada, this bibliography contains 259 citations pertaining to Ojibwa (Chippewa) and other Native Americans.…

  17. S-like ribonuclease gene expression in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Emi; Kawahara, Minako; Kodaira, Reina; Kume, Marina; Arai, Naoki; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Functions of S-like ribonucleases (RNases) differ considerably from those of S-RNases that function in self-incompatibility. Expression of S-like RNases is usually induced by low nutrition, vermin damage or senescence. However, interestingly, an Australian carnivorous plant Drosera adelae (a sundew), which traps prey with a sticky digestive liquid, abundantly secretes an S-like RNase DA-I in the digestive liquid even in ordinary states. Here, using D. adelae, Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) and Cephalotus follicularis (Australian pitcher plant), we show that carnivorous plants use S-like RNases for carnivory: the gene da-I encoding DA-I and its ortholog cf-I of C. follicularis are highly expressed and constitutively active in each trap/digestion organ, while the ortholog dm-I of D. muscipula becomes highly active after trapping insects. The da-I promoter is unmethylated only in its trap/digestion organ, glandular tentacles (which comprise a small percentage of the weight of the whole plant), but methylated in other organs, which explains the glandular tentacles-specific expression of the gene and indicates a very rare gene regulation system. In contrast, the promoters of dm-I, which shows induced expression, and cf-I, which has constitutive expression, were not methylated in any organs examined. Thus, it seems that the regulatory mechanisms of the da-I, dm-I and cf-I genes differ from each other and do not correlate with the phylogenetic relationship. The current study suggests that under environmental pressure in specific habitats carnivorous plants have managed to evolve their S-like RNase genes to function in carnivory. PMID:23959189

  18. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140 kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription. PMID:25969552

  19. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D.; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription. PMID:25969552

  20. Brain injury tolerance limit based on computation of axonal strain.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and permanent impairment over the last decades. In both the severe and mild TBIs, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most common pathology and leads to axonal degeneration. Computation of axonal strain by using finite element head model in numerical simulation can enlighten the DAI mechanism and help to establish advanced head injury criteria. The main objective of this study is to develop a brain injury criterion based on computation of axonal strain. To achieve the objective a state-of-the-art finite element head model with enhanced brain and skull material laws, was used for numerical computation of real world head trauma. The implementation of new medical imaging data such as, fractional anisotropy and axonal fiber orientation from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) of 12 healthy patients into the finite element brain model was performed to improve the brain constitutive material law with more efficient heterogeneous anisotropic visco hyper-elastic material law. The brain behavior has been validated in terms of brain deformation against Hardy et al. (2001), Hardy et al. (2007), and in terms of brain pressure against Nahum et al. (1977) and Trosseille et al. (1992) experiments. Verification of model stability has been conducted as well. Further, 109 well-documented TBI cases were simulated and axonal strain computed to derive brain injury tolerance curve. Based on an in-depth statistical analysis of different intra-cerebral parameters (brain axonal strain rate, axonal strain, first principal strain, Von Mises strain, first principal stress, Von Mises stress, CSDM (0.10), CSDM (0.15) and CSDM (0.25)), it was shown that axonal strain was the most appropriate candidate parameter to predict DAI. The proposed brain injury tolerance limit for a 50% risk of DAI has been established at 14.65% of axonal strain. This study provides a key step for a realistic novel injury metric for DAI. PMID:27038501

  1. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method

  2. Detailed assays conducted on Vietnamese crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1990-07-16

    More oil property data, in the form of recent crude oil assays, have been made available for two Vietnamese crude oils, Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear). Crude oil data presented earlier gave limited properties of the crudes,which are from the Miocene formations. Further analyses have been conducted on Bach Ho crude from the Oligocene formations. Production from Oligocene is far more representative of the oils produced from the Bach Ho field and marketed worldwide. Currently, Bach Ho is the only producing field. Dai Hung is expected to be in production during the next few years. Bach Ho is currently producing at the rate of 20,000 b/d. That figure is projected to grow to 100,000 b/d by 1992 and to 120,000 b/d by 1995. Detailed assays of both crude oils are presented.

  3. Sarcocystis lindsayi-like (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystinae) of the opossum (Didelphis aurita) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stabenow, Cristiane S; De Oliveira, Francisco C R; Albuquerque, George R; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2008-09-01

    Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were obtained from intestinal scrapings of three out of five opossums (Didelphis aurita) trapped in the southeastern region, of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifteen caged budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) received, orally, twenty-six sporocysts in 500 mL PBS, but only five belonging to one of the groups developed clinical signs, that consisted of anorexia, lethargy, ruffled feathers and dyspnoea, and parasitism in tissues. Two of the five budgerigars died on the 25th and 29th days after infection (DAI). The other three budgerigars were posted on the 30th DAI. In all the five infected birds were observed meronts in the capillaries of the lungs and cysts in muscles, mainly in the tongue and legs. PMID:20059875

  4. Hypothalamic-Amygdalar-Brainstem Volume Reduction in a Patient with Narcolepsy Secondary to Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Walid; Sugihara, Genichi; Oishi, Naoya; Kubota, Manabu; Ubukata, Shiho; Murai, Toshiya; Ueda, Keita

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old male with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) was referred to our psychiatric clinic with a diagnosis of depression. However, further investigation indicated that he had narcolepsy without cataplexy secondary to DAI. We assessed regional volume alterations in the patient; MRI analysis showed a significant decrease in the volume of the hypothalamus, left amygdala, and brainstem. Our findings add to further understanding of the structural basis of secondary narcolepsy, and may provide basis for future neuroimaging studies on sleep disturbances in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Citation: Yassin W, Sugihara G, Oishi N, Kubota M, Ubukata S, Murai T, Ueda K. Hypothalamic-amygdalar-brainstem volume reduction in a patient with narcolepsy secondary to diffuse axonal injury. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):581–582. PMID:25665696

  5. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  6. A development framework for distributed artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) applications in which multiple organizations of agents solve multiple domain problems. They then describe work in progress on a DAI system development environment, called SOCIAL, which consists of three primary language-based components. The Knowledge Object Language defines models of knowledge representation and reasoning. The metaCourier language supplies the underlying functionality for interprocess communication and control access across heterogeneous computing environments. The metaAgents language defines models for agent organization coordination, control, and resource management. Application agents and agent organizations will be constructed by combining metaAgents and metaCourier building blocks with task-specific functionality such as diagnostic or planning reasoning. This architecture hides implementation details of communications, control, and integration in distributed processing environments, enabling application developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the intelligent agents and agent networks themselves.

  7. Review of the bamboo-feeding species of genus Scaphoideus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) from China, with description of one new species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The bamboo-feeding species of genus Scaphoideus Uhler (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) from China are reviewed to include 7 species: S. conicaplateus Li & Dai, 2004 (China: Guizhou), S. fanjingensis Li & Dai, 2004 (China: Guizhou), S. festivus Matsumura, 1902 (China: Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Hunan, Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Taiwan; India; Sri Lanka; Japan; Korea), S. kumamotonis Matsumura, 1914 (China: Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Sichuan, Zhejiang and Henan; Japan), S. nigrigenatus Li, 1990 (China: Guizhou, Sichuan and Hubei), S. nigrivalveus Li & Wang, 2005 (China: Guizhou and Hubei) and S. yaanensis sp. nov. (China: Sichuan). All seven species are re-illustrated and photographed. The new species is described. A key to the bamboo-feeding species of Scaphoideus is also provided. PMID:26131493

  8. Combinatory effects of phytoestrogens and 17beta-estradiol on proliferation and apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Simone; Michna, Horst; Diel, Patrick

    2005-04-01

    Phytoestrogens have been described to be weak estrogens, SERMs or exhibit antiestrogenic properties. However, information about their activity in presence of estrogens is limited. Therefore, we have analysed the dose dependent combinatory activity of the phytoestrogens genistein (Gen), daidzein (Dai) and coumestrol (Cou), and 17beta-estradiol (E2) on cell proliferation and apoptosis induction in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Neither additive nor antagonistic effects on proliferation could be observed, but in contrast all phytoestrogens possessed the ability to inhibit apoptosis in the presence of 17beta-estradiol. In summary, our in vitro results demonstrate that Gen does not exhibit any antiestrogenic properties. The additive growth stimulatory effects of Gen, Dai and Cou in the presence of E2 are not the result of a stimulation of proliferation; these phytoestrogens, at least in MCF-7 cells, could be characterised as inhibitors of apoptosis. PMID:15876409

  9. Highly paraffinic Vietnamese crudes characterized

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1989-11-01

    Vietnamese crude oils, including crude from the Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear) fields have high paraffin content. This high-paraffin content and other characteristics of the crude oils require them to be processed through conversion units after distillation to obtain maximum light-product production. Classification of the Vietnamese crude oils as high-paraffin content used the basis of statistical analyses of fundamental properties of 400 different types of Soviet Union crude oils. The statistical analyses classified crude oils below 1 wt % paraffin content as low-paraffin crudes, between 1 wt% and 7 wt% as medium-paraffin crudes, and greater than 7 wt% as high-paraffin crudes. Evaluations of Vietnamese crude oils are ongoing. From these evaluations, the author presents some general refining properties of Vietnamese crude oils, along with the basic assays of Viet Nam's Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung( Big Bear) crude oils.

  10. The Multi-Resistant Reaction of Drought-Tolerant Coffee 'Conilon Clone 14' to Meloidogyne spp. and Late Hypersensitive-Like Response in Coffea canephora.

    PubMed

    Lima, Edriana A; Furlanetto, Cleber; Nicole, Michel; Gomes, Ana C M M; Almeida, Maria R A; Jorge-Júnior, Aldemiro; Correa, Valdir R; Salgado, Sônia Maria; Ferrão, Maria A G; Carneiro, Regina M D G

    2015-06-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., have major economic impact on coffee production in Central and South America. Genetic control of RKN constitutes an essential part for integrated pest management strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Coffea canephora genotypes (clones) to Meloidogyne spp. Sensitive and drought-tolerant coffee genotypes were used to infer their resistance using nematode reproduction factor and histopathology. Eight clonal genotypes were highly resistant to M. paranaensis. 'Clone 14' (drought-tolerant) and 'ESN2010-04' were the only genotypes highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to both M. incognita races 3 and 1. Several clones were highly resistant to both avirulent and virulent M. exigua. Clone 14 and ESN2010-04 showed multiple resistance to major RKNs tested. Roots of 'clone 14' (resistant) and 'clone 22' (susceptible) were histologically studied against infection by M. incognita race 3 and M. paranaensis. Reduction of juvenile (J2) penetration in clone 14 was first seen at 2 to 6 days after inoculation (DAI). Apparent early hypersensitive reaction (HR) was seen in root cortex between 4 and 6 DAI, which led to cell death and prevention of some nematode development. At 12 to 20 DAI, giant cells formed in the vascular cylinder, besides normal development into J3/J4. From 32 to 45 DAI, giant cells were completely degenerated. Late, intense HR and cell death were frequently observed around young females and giant cells reported for the first time in coffee pathosystem. These results provide rational bases for future studies, including prospection, characterization, and expression profiling of genomic loci involved in both drought tolerance and resistance to multiple RKN species. PMID:25738554

  11. Activation of μ Opioid Receptors Modulates Inflammation in Acute Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, L.; Huynh, J.; Duraffourd, C.; Jaramillo, I.; Vegezzi, G.; Saccani, F; Boschetti, E.; Brecha, N.C.; De Giorgio, R.; Sternini, C

    2015-01-01

    Background μ opioid receptors (μORs) are expressed by neurons and inflammatory cells and mediate immune response. We tested whether activation of peripheral μORs ameliorates the acute and delayed phase of colitis. Methods C57BL/6J mice were treated with 3% dextran sodium sulfate in water, 5 days (DSS) with or without the peripherally-acting μOR agonist, [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin (DAMGO) or with DAMGO+μOR antagonist at day 2–5, then euthanized. Other mice received DSS followed by water for 4 weeks, or DSS with DAMGO starting at day 2 of DSS for 2 or 3 weeks followed by water, then euthanized at 4 weeks. Disease activity index (DAI), histological damage, and myeloperoxidase assay (MPO), as index of neutrophil infiltration, were evaluated. Cytokines and μOR mRNAs were measured with RT-PCR, and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-xL, and caspase 3 and 7 with Western blot. Key Results DSS induced acute colitis with elevated DAI, tissue damage, apoptosis and increased MPO, cytokines, μOR mRNA and NF-kB. DAMGO significantly reduced DAI, inflammatory indexes, cytokines, and caspases, and NF-kB, and upregulated Bcl-xL, effects prevented by μOR antagonist. In DSS mice plus 4 weeks of water, DAI, NF-kB and μOR were normal, whereas MPO, histological damage and cytokines were still elevated; DAMGO did not reduce inflammation, and did not upregulate Bcl-xL. Conclusions & Inferences μOR activation ameliorated the acute but not the delayed phase of DSS colitis by reducing cytokines, likely through activation of the antiapoptotic factor, Bcl-xL, and suppression of NF- kB, a potentiator of inflammation. PMID:25690069

  12. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine (ADE) using turbine (jet) fuel. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of a diesel cycle engine utilizing turbine (jet) fuel. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate......

  13. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum

  14. Starvation beneficially influences the liver physiology and nutrient metabolism in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Shimizu, Sonoko; Urasaki, Shintaro; Matsubara, Takahiro; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Ohta, Kohei

    2015-11-01

    Dietary compromises, especially food restrictions, possess species-specific effects on the health status and infection control in several organisms, including fish. To understand the starvation-mediated physiological responses in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream, especially in the liver, we performed a 20-day starvation experiment using 4 treatment (2 fed and 2 starved) groups, namely, fed-placebo, starved-placebo, fed-infected, and starved-infected, wherein bacterial exposure was done on the 11th day. In the present study, the starved groups showed reduced hepatosomatic index and drastic depletion in glycogen storage and vacuole formation. The fed-infected fish showed significant (P<0.05) increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in relation to its starved equivalent. Significant (P<0.05) alteration in glucose and energy metabolism, as evident from hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, was recorded in the starved groups. Interestingly, coinciding with the liver histology, PPAR (peroxisome proliferator activated receptors) α transcription followed a time-dependent activation in starved groups while PPARγ exhibited an opposite pattern. The transcription of hepcidin 1 and transferrin, initially increased in 0dai (days after infection) starved fish but reduced significantly (P<0.05) at later stages. Two-color immunohistochemistry and subsequent cell counting showed significant increase in P63-positive cells at 0dai and 5dai but later reduced slightly at 10dai. Similar results were also obtained in the lysosomal (cathepsin D) and non-lysosomal (ubiquitin) gene transcription level. All together, our data suggest that starvation exerts multidirectional responses, which allows for better physiological adaptations during any infectious period, in red sea bream. PMID:26188170

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Swift AGN and Cluster Survey (SWCL). II. SDSS (Griffin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. D.; Dai, X.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bregman, J. N.

    2016-02-01

    We downloaded all swift/XRT "GRB" observations before 2013 Jul 27, and reprocessed the data as described in Dai et al. (2015, Paper I, J/ApJS/218/8). From this, we made images and corresponding exposure maps in different energy ranges: total (0.2-10keV), soft (0.5-2keV), and hard (2-10keV). SDSS DR8 provides the optical data for this study. (1 data file).

  16. Temporal Formation and Immunolocalization of an Endospore Surface Epitope During Pasteuria penetrans Sporogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Preston, J. F.; Dickson, D. W.; Giblin-Davis, R. M.; Williams, D. S.; Aldrich, H. C.; Rice, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and localization of an endospore surface epitope associated with the development of Pasteuria penetrans was determined using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) as a probe. Nematodes, uninfected or infected with P. penetrans, were harvested at 12, 16, 24, and 38 days after inoculation (DAI) and then examined to determine the developmental stage of the bacterium. Vegetative growth of P. penetrans was observed only in infected nematodes harvested at 12 and 16 DAI, whereas cells at different stages of sporulation and mature endospores were observed at 24 and 38 DAI. ELISA and immunoblot analysis revealed that the adhesin-associated epitope was first detected at 24 DAI, and increased in the later stages of sporogenesis. These results indicate that the synthesis of adhesin-related proteins occurred at a certain developmental stage relative to the sporulation process, and was associated with endospore maturation. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the distribution of the epitope is nearly uniform on the periphery of each spore, as defined by parasporal fibers. Immunocytochemistry at the ultrastructural level indicated a distribution of the epitope over the parasporal fibers. The epitope also was detected over other structures such as sporangium and exosporium during the sporogenesis process, but it was not observed over the cortex, inner-spore coat, outer-spore coat, or protoplasm. The appearance of the adhesin epitope first at stage III of sporogenesis and its presence on the parasporal fibers are consistent with an adhesin-related role in the attachment of the mature endospore to the cuticle of the nematode host. PMID:19262762

  17. Dynamic functional network connectivity reveals unique and overlapping profiles of insula subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Jason S; Farrant, Kristafor; Damaraju, Eswar; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Calhoun, Vince D; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2016-05-01

    The human insular cortex consists of functionally diverse subdivisions that engage during tasks ranging from interoception to cognitive control. The multiplicity of functions subserved by insular subdivisions calls for a nuanced investigation of their functional connectivity profiles. Four insula subdivisions (dorsal anterior, dAI; ventral, VI; posterior, PI; middle, MI) derived using a data-driven approach were subjected to static- and dynamic functional network connectivity (s-FNC and d-FNC) analyses. Static-FNC analyses replicated previous work demonstrating a cognition-emotion-interoception division of the insula, where the dAI is functionally connected to frontal areas, the VI to limbic areas, and the PI and MI to sensorimotor areas. Dynamic-FNC analyses consisted of k-means clustering of sliding windows to identify variable insula connectivity states. The d-FNC analysis revealed that the most frequently occurring dynamic state mirrored the cognition-emotion-interoception division observed from the s-FNC analysis, with less frequently occurring states showing overlapping and unique subdivision connectivity profiles. In two of the states, all subdivisions exhibited largely overlapping profiles, consisting of subcortical, sensory, motor, and frontal connections. Two other states showed the dAI exhibited a unique connectivity profile compared with other insula subdivisions. Additionally, the dAI exhibited the most variable functional connections across the s-FNC and d-FNC analyses, and was the only subdivision to exhibit dynamic functional connections with regions of the default mode network. These results highlight how a d-FNC approach can capture functional dynamics masked by s-FNC approaches, and reveal dynamic functional connections enabling the functional flexibility of the insula across time. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1770-1787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26880689

  18. Molecular identification of potential selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) like properties of phytoestrogens in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Diel, P; Olff, S; Schmidt, S; Michna, H

    2001-08-01

    Numerous epidemiologic studies revealed that ethnic populations with higher dietary intake of phytoestrogens have the lowest incidence for breast cancer. The molecular mechanisms which may be responsible for this cancer protective action of phytoestrogens are so far only barely characterised. There are some hints that phytoestrogens may act like selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the breast. For this reason we have investigated potential SERM-like properties of the phytoestrogens daidzein (Dai), coumestrol (Cou), and genistein (Gen) in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Effects of these substances on progesterone (PR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER) mRNA expression and estrogen receptor alpha protein levels were studied in comparison to estradiol (E2) and the synthetic SERMs raloxifene (Ral) and faslodex (ICI 182 780). PR mRNA expression was up-regulated after administration of Cou, whereas treatment with Dai and Gen induced only a faint increase. ER mRNA expression was down-regulated by Cou but not affected by Dai and Gen. The content of ER protein in the breast cancer cells was strongly decreased by Gen, only a faint reduction could be observed following administration of Cou, whereas administration of Dai slightly increases ER protein levels. In summary and in comparison to the effects observed after administration of E2, Ral, and ICI it turned out that Cou shows molecular properties which are very similar to an estrogen receptor agonist like E2, whereas the molecular properties of Gen are comparable to the SERMs ICI and Ral. These results clearly indicate that phytoestrogens differ significantly in regard to their molecular action on breast cancer cells and can be subdivided into distinct functional categories. PMID:11509969

  19. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters. PMID:27394602

  20. Elucidating the Severity of Preclinical Traumatic Brain Injury Models: A Role for Functional Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Ryan C.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Naser, Zachary J.; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Bailes, Julian E.; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Concussion remains a symptom-based diagnosis clinically, yet preclinical studies investigating traumatic brain injury, of which concussion is believed to represent a ‘mild’ form, emphasize histological endpoints with functional assessments often minimized or ignored all together. Recently, clinical studies have identified the importance of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, in addition to somatic complaints, following concussion. How these findings may translate to preclinical studies is unclear at present. Objective To address the contrasting endpoints utilized clinically compared to those in preclinical studies and the potential role of functional assessments in a commonly used model of diffuse axonal injury (DAI).. Methods Animals were subjected to DAI using the impact-acceleration model. Functional and behavioral assessments were conducted over 1 week following DAI prior to completion of histological assessment at 1-week post-DAI. Results We show, despite the suggestion that this model represents concussive injury, no functional impairments as determined using common measures of motor, sensorimotor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric function following injury over the course of 1 week. The lack of functional deficits is in sharp contrast to neuropathologic findings indicating neural degeneration, astrocyte reactivity, and microglial activation. Conclusion Future studies are needed to identify functional assessments, neurophysiologic techniques, and imaging assessments more apt to distinguish differences following so-called ‘mild’ traumatic brain injury (TBI) in preclinical models and determine whether these models are truly studying concussive or subconcussive injury. These studies are needed to not only understand mechanism of injury and production of subsequent deficits, but also for rigorous evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:24448183

  1. Global priorities for an effective information basis of biodiversity distributions.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carsten; Kreft, Holger; Guralnick, Robert; Jetz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in digital accessible information (DAI) on species distributions hamper prospects of safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services, and addressing central ecological and evolutionary questions. Achieving international targets on biodiversity knowledge requires that information gaps be identified and actions prioritized. Integrating 157 million point records and distribution maps for 21,170 terrestrial vertebrate species, we find that outside a few well-sampled regions, DAI on point occurrences provides very limited and spatially biased inventories of species. Surprisingly, many large, emerging economies are even more under-represented in global DAI than species-rich, developing countries in the tropics. Multi-model inference reveals that completeness is mainly limited by distance to researchers, locally available research funding and participation in data-sharing networks, rather than transportation infrastructure, or size and funding of Western data contributors as often assumed. Our results highlight the urgent need for integrating non-Western data sources and intensifying cooperation to more effectively address societal biodiversity information needs. PMID:26348291

  2. Spin Dynamics in the electron-doped high-Tc superconductors Pr0.88LaCe0.12CuO4-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Pengcheng

    2007-03-01

    We briefly review results of recent neutron scattering experiments designed to probe the evolution of antiferromagnetic (AF) order and spin dynamics in the electron- doped Pr0.88LaCe0.12CuO4-δ (PLCCO) as the system is tuned from its as-grown non-superconducting AF state into an optimally doped superconductor (Tc = 27.5 K) without static AF order [1-3]. For under doped materials, a quasi-two- dimensional spin-density wave was found to coexist with three- dimensional AF order and superconductivity. In addition, the low-energy spin excitations follow Bose statistics. In the case of optimally doped material, we have discovered a magnetic resonance intimately related to superconductivity analogous to the resonance in hole-doped materials. On the other hand, the low energy spin excitations have very weak temperature dependence and do not follow Bose statistics, in sharp contrast to the as-grown nonsuperconducting materials. 1 Stephen D. Wilson, Pengcheng Dai, Shiliang Li, Songxue Chi, H. J. Kang, and J. W. Lynn, Nature (London) 442, 59 (2006). 2 Stephen D. Wilson, Shiliang Li, Hyungje Woo, Pengcheng Dai, H. A. Mook, C. D. Frost, S. Komiya, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 157001 (2006). 3. Stephen D. Wilson, Shiliang Li, Pengcheng Dai, Wei Bao, J. H. Chung, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Lee, S. Komiya, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 74, 144514 (2006).

  3. Role of the apical stem in maintaining the structure and function of adenovirus virus-associated RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Mellits, K H; Pe'ery, T; Mathews, M B

    1992-01-01

    Adenovirus virus-associated (VA) RNAI maintains efficient protein synthesis during the late phase of infection by preventing the activation of the double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase, DAI. A secondary structure model for VA RNAI predicts the existence of two stems joined by a complex stem-loop structure, the central domain. The structural consequences of mutations and compensating mutations introduced into the apical stem lend support to this model. In transient expression assays for VA RNA function, foreign sequences inserted into the apical stem were fully tolerated provided that the stem remained intact. Mutants in which the base of the apical stem was disrupted retained partial activity, but truncation of the apical stem abolished the ability of the RNA to block DAI activation in vitro, suggesting that the length and position of the stem are both important for VA RNA function. These results imply that VA RNAI activity depends on secondary structure at the top of the apical stem as well as in the central domain and are consistent with a two-step mechanism involving DAI interactions with both the apical stem and the central domain. Images PMID:1548768

  4. Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study)

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabeza, Ignacio; Gómez, Juan-Carlos; Sacristán, Jose A; Edgell, Eric; González de Chavez, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10), and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy) with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS. PMID:11835695

  5. Global priorities for an effective information basis of biodiversity distributions

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Carsten; Kreft, Holger; Guralnick, Robert; Jetz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in digital accessible information (DAI) on species distributions hamper prospects of safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services, and addressing central ecological and evolutionary questions. Achieving international targets on biodiversity knowledge requires that information gaps be identified and actions prioritized. Integrating 157 million point records and distribution maps for 21,170 terrestrial vertebrate species, we find that outside a few well-sampled regions, DAI on point occurrences provides very limited and spatially biased inventories of species. Surprisingly, many large, emerging economies are even more under-represented in global DAI than species-rich, developing countries in the tropics. Multi-model inference reveals that completeness is mainly limited by distance to researchers, locally available research funding and participation in data-sharing networks, rather than transportation infrastructure, or size and funding of Western data contributors as often assumed. Our results highlight the urgent need for integrating non-Western data sources and intensifying cooperation to more effectively address societal biodiversity information needs. PMID:26348291

  6. Dental Caries and its Relationship to Malocclusion in Permanent Dentition Among 12-15 Year Old School Going Children

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Shashank S; Gheware, Anjali; Kamatagi, Laxmikant; Pasumarthy, Sandeep; Pawar, Vivek; Fatangare, Madhura

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to know the prevalence of dental caries among children having malocclusion. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 880 students aged 1215 years, among whom 488 were boys and 392 were girls. A proforma was prepared to record dental caries status and dental esthetic index (DAI) using the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and ANOVA. The P value of 0.05 or less was considered as statistically significant. Results: It was found that 644 (73.2%) had no abnormality or minor malocclusion, whereas 115 (13.0%), 100 (11.4%) and 21 (2.4%) had definite, severe and very severe or handicapping malocclusion, respectively. Overall mean of decayed teeth (DT) component was found to be 0.95 ± 1.006, missing teeth 0.23 ± 0.670 and filled teeth 0.23 ± 0.559 and decayed, missing, filled tooth (DMFT) was 1.41 ± 1.483. DT and overall DMFT component significantly increased with increasing DAI of malocclusion (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The severity of dental caries showed positive relation with DAI and age. PMID:25395789

  7. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively. PMID:24211562

  8. Nodal versus Total Axonal Strain and the Role of Cholesterol in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Gatti, Domenico L; Yang, King H

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a health threat that affects every year millions of people involved in motor vehicle and sporting accidents, and thousands of soldiers in battlefields. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most frequent types of TBI leading to death. In DAI, the initial traumatic event is followed by a cascade of biochemical changes that take time to develop in full, so that symptoms may not become apparent until days or weeks after the original injury. Hence, DAI is a dynamic process, and the opportunity exists to prevent its progression provided the initial trauma can be predicted at the molecular level. Here, we present preliminary evidence from micro-finite element (FE) simulations that the mechanical response of central nervous system myelinated fibers is dependent on the axonal diameter, the ratio between axon diameter and fiber diameter (g-ratio), the microtubules density, and the cholesterol concentration in the axolemma and myelin. A key outcome of the simulations is that there is a significant difference between the overall level of strain in a given axonal segment and the level of local strain in the Ranvier nodes contained in that segment, with the nodal strain being much larger than the total strain. We suggest that the acquisition of this geometric and biochemical information by means of already available high resolution magnetic resonance imaging techniques, and its incorporation in current FE models of the brain will enhance the models capacity to predict the site and magnitude of primary axonal damage upon TBI. PMID:26393780

  9. An Empirical Investigation of Dance Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Maraz, Aniko; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark Damian; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Although recreational dancing is associated with increased physical and psychological well-being, little is known about the harmful effects of excessive dancing. The aim of the present study was to explore the psychopathological factors associated with dance addiction. The sample comprised 447 salsa and ballroom dancers (68% female, mean age: 32.8 years) who danced recreationally at least once a week. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (Terry, Szabo, & Griffiths, 2004) was adapted for dance (Dance Addiction Inventory, DAI). Motivation, general mental health (BSI-GSI, and Mental Health Continuum), borderline personality disorder, eating disorder symptoms, and dance motives were also assessed. Five latent classes were explored based on addiction symptoms with 11% of participants belonging to the most problematic class. DAI was positively associated with psychiatric distress, borderline personality and eating disorder symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression model indicated that Intensity (ß=0.22), borderline (ß=0.08), eating disorder (ß=0.11) symptoms, as well as Escapism (ß=0.47) and Mood Enhancement (ß=0.15) (as motivational factors) together explained 42% of DAI scores. Dance addiction as assessed with the Dance Addiction Inventory is associated with indicators of mild psychopathology and therefore warrants further research. PMID:25951077

  10. Geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system: case study in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Megumi

    2015-04-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its tsunami killed 18,508 people, including the missing (National Police Agency report as of April 2014) and raise the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in Japan. The problems revealed can be viewed as due to a combination of risk-management, risk-communication, and geoethics issues. Japan's preparations for earthquakes and tsunamis are based on the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake for each region. The government organization coordinating the estimation of anticipated earthquakes is the "Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion" (HERP), which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan's disaster mitigation system is depicted schematically as consisting of three layers: seismology, civil engineering, and disaster mitigation planning. This research explains students in geoscience should study geoethics as part of their education related Tohoku earthquake and the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Only when they become practicing professionals, they will be faced with real geoethical dilemmas. A crisis such as the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, will force many geoscientists to suddenly confront previously unanticipated geoethics and risk-communication issues. One hopes that previous training will help them to make appropriate decisions under stress. We name it "decision science".

  11. Orthodontic treatment need in a 12-year-old population in the Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Puertes-Fernández, Neus; Montiel-Company, José María; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Manzanera, David

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish orthodontic treatment need according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Aesthetic Component (AC) and Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine its association with gender among Saharan schoolchildren. The study was carried out in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for oral health surveys at 12 years of age. The sample comprised 248 Sahrawi children (135 girls and 113 boys) living in refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria. None of the children had previously received any orthodontic treatment. A chi-square test was used to analyse the IOTN results by gender, and a Student's t-test was employed for the DAI results. The mean DAI was 23.32 with a standard deviation of 6.05, 4 percent with a very severe and 9.2 per cent with severe malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment need was 16.1 and 2.0 percent, respectively, according to grades 4 and 5 of the IOTN DHC, 13.7 percent according to the IOTN AC, and 28.6 percent according to the modified IOTN (IOTN DHC grades 4-5 and/or IOTN AC grades 8-10). There were no statistically significant differences by gender. The orthodontic treatment need of Western Saharan schoolchildren is similar to that reported by many recent studies in European and in Sub-Saharan countries. PMID:20926555

  12. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of 5-ASA suppositories in active distal proctitis and measurement of extent of spread using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled 5-ASA suppositories

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.N.; Haber, G.; Aquino, J.A.

    1987-12-01

    Patients with active distal proctitis received either 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) acid or identical placebo suppositories, 500 mg t.i.d. for 6 weeks. Activity at 3 and 6 wks was assessed using a Disease Activity Index (DAI), derived from four categories: number of daily evacuations more than usual, evacuations containing blood, sigmoidoscopy appearance, and physician's overall assessment. Each category was graded 0-3. There was thus 0-12 points scored ranging from complete remission to severe disease. A minimum score of 3 from two categories was necessary for study entry. Of 27 patients randomized, 14 received active medication and 13 placebo. Of the 14 patients, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8, 11 were in complete remission at 6 wks (78.6%). Whereas, there was no significant change in the placebo group, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8. An additional 6 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 6 healthy volunteers were given /sup 99m/Tc-labelled 5-aminosalicylic acid suppositories. The extent of spread was limited to the rectum, and the suppositories were retained for 3 hours. There was no absorbed radioactivity. 5-ASA suppositories are safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment for active distal proctitis.

  13. Another hybrid conjugate gradient algorithm for unconstrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, Neculai

    2008-02-01

    Another hybrid conjugate gradient algorithm is subject to analysis. The parameter ? k is computed as a convex combination of beta ^{{HS}}_{k} (Hestenes-Stiefel) and beta ^{{DY}}_{k} (Dai-Yuan) algorithms, i.eE beta ^{C}_{k} = {left( {1 - theta _{k} } right)}beta ^{{HS}}_{k} + theta _{k} beta ^{{DY}}_{k} . The parameter ? k in the convex combination is computed in such a way so that the direction corresponding to the conjugate gradient algorithm to be the Newton direction and the pair (s k , y k ) to satisfy the quasi-Newton equation nabla ^{2} f{left( {x_{{k + 1}} } right)}s_{k} = y_{k} , where s_{k} = x_{{k + 1}} - x_{k} and y_{k} = g_{{k + 1}} - g_{k} . The algorithm uses the standard Wolfe line search conditions. Numerical comparisons with conjugate gradient algorithms show that this hybrid computational scheme outperforms the Hestenes-Stiefel and the Dai-Yuan conjugate gradient algorithms as well as the hybrid conjugate gradient algorithms of Dai and Yuan. A set of 750 unconstrained optimization problems are used, some of them from the CUTE library.

  14. Posttraumatic administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in central fluid percussion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kövesdi, Erzsébet; Tamás, Andrea; Reglodi, Dóra; Farkas, Orsolya; Pál, József; Tóth, Gábor; Bukovics, Péter; Dóczi, Tamás; Büki, András

    2008-04-01

    Several in vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in focal cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of PACAP administration on diffuse axonal injury (DAI), an important contributor to morbidity and mortality associated with TBI, in a central fluid percussion (CFP) model of TBI. Rats were subjected to moderate (2 Atm) CFP injury. Thirty min after injury, 100 microg PACAP was administered intracerebroventricularly. DAI was assessed by immunohistochemical detection of beta-amyloid precursor protein, indicating impaired axoplasmic transport, and RMO-14 antibody, representing foci of cytoskeletal alterations (neurofilament compaction), both considered classical markers of axonal damage. Analysis of damaged, immunoreactive axonal profiles revealed significant axonal protection in the PACAP-treated versus vehicle-treated animals in the corticospinal tract, as far as traumatically induced disturbance of axoplasmic transport and cytoskeletal alteration were considered. Similarly to our former observations in an impact acceleration model of diffuse TBI, the present study demonstrated that PACAP also inhibits DAI in the CFP injury model. The finding indicates that PACAP and derivates can be considered potential candidates for further experimental studies, or purportedly for clinical trials in the therapy of TBI. PMID:18515209

  15. Prospective longitudinal MRI study of brain volumes and diffusion changes during the first year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Brezova, Veronika; G⊘ran Moen, Kent; Skandsen, Toril; Vik, Anne; Brewer, James B.; Salvesen, Øyvind; Håberg, Asta K.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective study in 62 moderate–severe TBI patients were to investigate volume change in cortical gray matter (GM), hippocampus, lenticular nucleus, lobar white matter (WM), brainstem and ventricles using a within subject design and repeated MRI in the early phase (1–26 days) and 3 and 12 months postinjury and to assess changes in GM apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in normal appearing tissue in the cortex, hippocampus and brainstem. The impact of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), and diffusion axonal injury (DAI) grade on brain volumes and ADC values over time was assessed. Lastly, we determined if MRI-derived brain volumes from the 3-month scans provided additional, significant predictive value to 12-month outcome classified with the Glasgow Outcome Scale—Extended after adjusting for GCS, PTA and age. Cortical GM loss was rapid, largely finished by 3 months, but the volume reduction was unrelated to GCS score, PTA, or presence of DAI. However, cortical GM volume at 3 months was a significant independent predictor of 12-month outcome. Volume loss in the hippocampus and lenticular nucleus was protracted and statistically significant first at 12 months. Slopes of volume reduction over time for the cortical and subcortical GGM were significantly different. Hippocampal volume loss was most pronounced and rapid in individuals with PTA > 2 weeks. The 3-month volumes of the hippocampus and lentiform nucleus were the best independent predictors of 12-month outcome after adjusting for GCS, PTA and age. In the brainstem, volume loss was significant at both 3 and 12 months. Brainstem volume reduction was associated with lower GCS score and the presence of DAI. Lobar WM volume was significantly decreased first after 12 months. Surprisingly DAI grade had no impact on lobar WM volume. Ventricular dilation developed predominantly during the first 3 months, and was strongly

  16. Mutational analysis of the central domain of adenovirus virus-associated RNA mandates a revision of the proposed secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Pe'ery, T; Mellits, K H; Mathews, M B

    1993-01-01

    Protein synthesis in adenovirus-infected cells is regulated during the late phase of infection. The rate of initiation is maintained by a small viral RNA, virus-associated (VA) RNAI, which prevents the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF-2 by a double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, DAI. On the basis of nuclease sensitivity analysis, a secondary-structure model was proposed for VA RNA. The model predicts a complex stem-loop structure in the central part of the molecule, the central domain, joining two duplexed stems. The central domain is required for the inhibition of DAI activation and participates in the binding of VA RNA to DAI. To assess the significance of the postulated stem-loop structure in the central domain, we generated compensating, deletion, and substitution mutations. A substitution mutation which disrupts the structure in the central domain abolishes VA RNA function in vitro and in vivo. Base-compensating mutations failed to restore the function or structure of the mutant, implying that the stem-loop structure may not exist. To confirm this observation, we tested mutants with alterations in the hypothetical loop and short stem that constitute the main features of the wild-type model structure. The upper part of the hypothetical loop could be deleted without abolishing the ability of the RNA to block DAI activation in vitro, whereas other loop mutations were deleterious for function and caused major rearrangements in the molecule. Base-compensating mutations in the stem did not restore the expected base pairing, even though the mutant RNAs were still functional in vitro. Surprisingly, a mutant with a noncompensating substitution mutation in the stem was more effective than wild-type VA RNAI in DAI inhibition assays but was ineffective in vivo. The structural and functional consequences of these mutations do not support the proposed model structure for the central domain, and we therefore suggest an alternative structure in

  17. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange

  18. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15th day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. RESULTS: The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3rd and 5th days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6th day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0

  19. Coordinated changes in storage proteins during development and germination of elite seeds of Pongamia pinnata, a versatile biodiesel legume

    PubMed Central

    Kesari, Vigya; Rangan, Latha

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims The oleaginous legume Pongamia pinnata is a rapidly growing and economically important tree. The seeds are used increasingly as feedstock for biodiesel production, with the protein-rich residue providing valuable supplement to farm animal diets. However, little is known about seed development and the characteristics of germination. We therefore studied morphological, protein and ultrastructural changes during seed maturation and germination using seeds from a tree selected for superior morphological and reproductive characters (candidate plus tree). Methodology Phenology, sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate seed development from 90 to 350 days after flowering (DAF), and germination and seedling development from 0 to 45 days after the start of imbibition (DAI) (Stages 0–VII). Principal results Seven distinct developmental stages were identified during seed development. Fresh weight, length, breadth and thickness increased from Stage I (90 DAF) to V (270 DAF) and decreased at Stages VI (315 DAF) and VII (350 DAF), when the seeds were fully ripe. Marked changes in total soluble protein content and SDS–PAGE profile were observed in vegetative and reproductive tissues and in the cotyledons of germinating seedlings. Polypeptide fragments of 150–14 kDa were observed during seed maturation and germination. In SDS–PAGE the expression of three main polypeptide bands (50, 18 and 14 kDa) increased from Stage I to Stage V and then almost became the same until Stage VII during seed maturation. During germination the expression of 50 kDa polypeptide decreased and that of 18 and 14 kDa increased from Stage 0 (ungerminated seed) to Stage VI (30 DAI), respectively; however, all three polypeptides (50, 18 and 14 kDa) completely disappeared at Stage VII (45 DAI). Ultrastructural changes during four stages of seed maturation (early immature, 90

  20. A drought hazard assessment index based on the VIC-PDSI model and its application on the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoqing; Wu, Pute; Zhao, Xining; Wang, Yubao; Gao, Xiaodong; Cao, Xinchun

    2013-10-01

    Drought is a complex natural hazard that is poorly understood and difficult to assess. This paper describes a VIC-PDSI model approach to understanding drought in which the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model was combined with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Simulated results obtained using the VIC model were used to replace the output of the more conventional two-layer bucket-type model for hydrological accounting, and a two-class-based procedure for calibrating the characteristic climate coefficient ( K j ) was introduced to allow for a more reliable computation of the PDSI. The VIC-PDSI model was used in conjunction with GIS technology to create a new drought assessment index (DAI) that provides a comprehensive overview of drought duration, intensity, frequency, and spatial extent. This new index was applied to drought hazard assessment across six subregions of the whole Loess Plateau. The results show that the DAI over the whole Loess Plateau ranged between 11 and 26 (the greater value of the DAI means the more severe of the drought hazard level). The drought hazards in the upper reaches of Yellow River were more severe than that in the middle reaches. The drought prone regions over the study area were mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolian small rivers, Zuli and Qingshui Rivers basin, while the drought hazards in the drainage area between Hekouzhen-Longmen and Weihe River basin were relatively mild during 1971-2010. The most serious drought vulnerabilities were associated with the area around Lanzhou, Zhongning, and Yinchuan, where the development of water-saving irrigation is the most direct and effective way to defend against and reduce losses from drought. For the relatively humid regions, it will be necessary to establish the rainwater harvesting systems, which could help to relieve the risk of water shortage and guarantee regional food security. Due to the DAI considers the multiple characteristic of drought duration, intensity, frequency

  1. Mental Trauma Experienced by Caregivers of patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Syed Hassan, Syed Tajuddin; Jamaludin, Husna; Abd Raman, Rosna; Mohd Riji, Haliza; Wan Fei, Khaw

    2013-01-01

    Context As with care giving and rehabilitation in chronic illnesses, the concern with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), is that the caregivers are so overwhelmingly involved in caring and rehabilitation of the victim that in the process they become traumatized themselves. This review intends to shed light on the hidden and silent trauma sustained by the caregivers of severe brain injury survivors. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) is the highest contributor of TBI or DAI. The essence of trauma is the infliction of pain and suffering and having to bear the pain (i.e. by the TBI survivor) and the burden of having to take care and manage and rehabilitate the TBI survivor (i.e. by the TBI caregiver). Moreover many caregivers are not trained for their care giving task, thus compounding the stress of care giving and rehabilitating patients. Most research on TBI including DAI, focus on the survivors and not on the caregivers. TBI injury and its effects and impacts remain the core question of most studies, which are largely based on the quantitative approach. Evidence Acquisition Qualitative research can better assess human sufferings such as in the case of DAI trauma. While quantitative research can measure many psychometric parameters to assess some aspects of trauma conditions, qualitative research is able to fully reveal the meaning, ramification and experience of TBI trauma. Both care giving and rehabilitation are overwhelmingly demanding; hence , they may complicate the caregivers’ stress. However, some positive outcomes also exist. Results Caregivers involved in caring and rehabilitation of TBI victims may become mentally traumatized. Posttraumatic recovery of the TBI survivor can enhance the entire family’s closeness and bonding as well as improve the mental status of the caregiver. Conclusions A long-term longitudinal study encompassing integrated research is needed to fully understand the traumatic experiences of

  2. SNTF immunostaining reveals previously undetected axonal pathology in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria E; Stewart, William; Weber, Maura T; Cullen, D Kacy; Siman, Robert; Smith, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common feature of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may also be a predominant pathology in mild TBI or "concussion". The rapid deformation of white matter at the instant of trauma can lead to mechanical failure and calcium-dependent proteolysis of the axonal cytoskeleton in association with axonal transport interruption. Recently, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-II spectrin, "SNTF", was detected in serum acutely following mild TBI in patients and was prognostic for poor clinical outcome. However, direct evidence that this fragment is a marker of DAI has yet to be demonstrated in either humans following TBI or in models of mild TBI. Here, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to examine for SNTF in brain tissue following both severe and mild TBI. Human severe TBI cases (survival <7d; n = 18) were compared to age-matched controls (n = 16) from the Glasgow TBI archive. We also examined brains from an established model of mild TBI at 6, 48 and 72 h post-injury versus shams. IHC specific for SNTF was compared to that of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the current standard for DAI diagnosis, and other known markers of axonal pathology including non-phosphorylated neurofilament-H (SMI-32), neurofilament-68 (NF-68) and compacted neurofilament-medium (RMO-14) using double and triple immunofluorescent labeling. Supporting its use as a biomarker of DAI, SNTF immunoreactive axons were observed at all time points following both human severe TBI and in the model of mild TBI. Interestingly, SNTF revealed a subpopulation of degenerating axons, undetected by the gold-standard marker of transport interruption, APP. While there was greater axonal co-localization between SNTF and APP after severe TBI in humans, a subset of SNTF positive axons displayed no APP accumulation. Notably, some co-localization was observed between SNTF and the less abundant neurofilament subtype markers. Other SNTF positive axons, however, did not co-localize with any

  3. Climatic Droughts and the Impacts on Crop Yields in Northern India during the Past Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Y.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought has become an increasingly severe threat to water and food security recently. This study presents a novel method to calculate the return period of drought, considering drought as event characterized by expected drought inter-arrival time, duration, severity and peak intensity. Recently, Copula distribution, a multivariable probability distribution, is used to deal with strongly correlated variables in analyzing complex hydrologic phenomenon. This study assesses drought conditions in Northern India, including 8 sites, in the past century using Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from two latest datasets, Dai (2011, 2013) and Sheffield et al. (2012), which concluded conflicting results about global average drought trend. Our results include the change of the severity, intensity and duration of drought events during the past century and the impact of the drought condition on crop yields in the region. It is found that drought variables are highly correlated, thus copulas joint distribution enables the estimation of multi-variate return period. Based on Dai's dataset from 1900 to 2012, for a fixed drought return period the severity and duration is lower for the period before1955 in sites close to the Indus basin (site 1) or off the coast of the Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal) (site 8), while they are higher for the period after 1955 in other inland sites (sites 3-7), (e.g., severity in Fig.1). Projections based on two models (IPCC AR4 and AR5) in Dai (2011, 2013) suggested less severity and shorter duration in longer-year drought (e.g., 100-year drought), but larger in shorter-year drought (e.g., 2-year drought). Drought could bring nonlinear responses and unexpected losses in agriculture system, thus prediction and management are essential. Therefore, in the years with extreme drought conditions, impact assessment of drought on crop yield of corn, barley, wheat and sorghum will be also conducted through correlating crop yields with drought conditions during

  4. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  5. Comparison of transcript profiles in different life stages of the nematode Globodera pallida under different host potato genotypes.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Hedley, Pete E; Cock, Peter J A; Morris, Jenny A; Jones, John T; Vovlas, Nikos; Blok, Vivian

    2012-12-01

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis are important parasites of potato. PCNs undergo complex biotrophic interactions with their hosts that involve gene expression changes in both the nematode and the host plant. The aim of this study was to determine key genes that are differentially expressed in Globodera pallida life cycle stages and during the initiation of the feeding site in susceptible and partially resistant potato genotypes. For this purpose, two microarray experiments were designed: (i) a comparison of eggs, infective second-stage juveniles (J2s) and sedentary parasitic-stage J2s (SJ2); (ii) a comparison of SJ2s at 8 days after inoculation (DAI) in the susceptible cultivar (Desirée) and two partially resistant lines. The results showed differential expression of G. pallida genes during the stages studied, including previously characterized effectors. In addition, a large number of genes changed their expression between SJ2s in the susceptible cultivar and those infecting partially resistant lines; the number of genes with modified expression was lower when the two partially resistant lines were compared. Moreover, a histopathological study was performed at several time points (7, 14 and 30 DAI) and showed the similarities between both partially resistant lines with a delay and degeneration in the formation of the syncytia in comparison with the susceptible cultivar. Females at 30 DAI in partially resistant lines showed a delay in their development in comparison with those in the susceptible cultivar. PMID:22863280

  6. Neuropathological investigation of cerebral white matter lesions caused by closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Onaya, Mitsumoto

    2002-12-01

    In order to ascertain whether there is widespread axonal disruption of cerebral white matter in the so-called 'diffuse axonal injury' (DAI), a type of closed head injury, proposed by Adams et al. the author investigated his own cases clinicopathologically. Twenty-six male autopsied cases of head injury, aged between 19 and 84, 15 of which had sustained road traffic accidents, were examined; the others were due to falling from heights and so on. The study group all belonged to non-missile head injuries and included 12 cases of diffuse brain injury, as well as 14 cases of focal brain injury, according to the classification of Gennarelli et al. The survival time ranged from 2 h to 21 years. Formalin-fixed brains were cut coronally so as to make paraffin-embedded hemispheric sections. Then these sections were stained conventionally (HE, Bodian, Kluver-Barrera and Holzer) and immunohistochemically (GFAP) to assess axonal decrease, myelin pallor and gliosis by the use of light microscopy. In the 13 chronic cases that died more than 1 month after the accidents, the intensities of gliosis, myelin pallor and axonal decrease tended to correlate with each other. In the 13 acute cases who died less than 1 month after their accident, the degree of axonal decrease in white matter seemed to correlate with the severity of myelin pallor. Regardless of types of trauma, however, axonal retraction balls, the so-called hallmark of DAI, were found only with myelin pallor suggesting the presence of brain swelling after the injury. Therefore these findings indicate that it may be difficult to accept the notion of DAI, that is, the presence of axonal retraction balls without brain swelling. In addition, diffuse vascular injury (2 cases) as well as rarefaction of subcortical white matter (6 cases) were presented and their pathogenesis individually discussed based on a literature review. PMID:12564763

  7. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    PubMed

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  8. Effect of salt on survival and P-solubilization potential of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from salt affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan; Yandigeri, Mahesh S.; Kashyap, Sudhanshu; Alagawadi, Ajjanna R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 23 phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and 35 phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) were isolated from 19 samples of salt affected soils. The ability of 12 selected PSB and PSF to grow and solubilize tricalcium phosphate in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl was examined. Among 12 PSB, Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 recorded the highest (12.15) log viable cell count at 0.4 M NaCl concentration after 7 days after incubation (DAI) and the lowest log cell count (1.39) was recorded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PSBI3-1 at 2.0 M NaCl concentration after 24 h of incubation. Highest mycelial dry weight irrespective of NaCl concentrations was recorded by the Aspergillus terreus strain PSFCRG2-1 (0.567 g). The percent Pi release, in general, was found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration up to 0.8 M for bacterial solubilization and declined thereafter. At 15 DAI, strain Aerococcus sp. strain PSBCRG1-1 irrespective of NaCl concentrations showed the maximum P-solubilization (12.12%) which was significantly superior over all other isolates. The amount of Pi released in general among PSF was found to decrease with increase in NaCl concentration at all the incubation periods. Aspergillus sp. strain PSFNRH-2 (20.81%) recorded the maximum Pi release irrespective of the NaCl concentrations and was significantly superior over all other PSF at 7 DAI. PMID:24936136

  9. Abnormal Corticospinal Excitability in Traumatic Diffuse Axonal Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bernabeu, Montse; Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Opisso, Eloy; Lopez, Raquel; Tormos, Jose Mª

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the cortical motor excitability characteristics in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) due to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A variety of excitatory and inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms were applied to primary motor cortices of 17 patients and 11 healthy controls. The parameters of testing included resting motor threshold (MT), motor evoked potential (MEP) area under the curve, input-output curves, MEP variability, and silent period (SP) duration. The patient group overall revealed a higher MT, smaller MEP areas, and narrower recruitment curves compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). The alterations in excitability were more pronounced with an increase in DAI severity (p < 0.005) and the presence of motor impairment (p < 0.05), while co-existence of focal lesions did not affect the degree of MEP changes. MEP variability was significantly lower in the group with motor impairment only (p < 0.05). The intracortical inhibition, as revealed by SP duration, did not exhibit any significant differences in any of the patient groups. In conclusion, our findings expand the concept that impairment of the excitatory and inhibitory phenomena in the motor cortex does not proceed in parallel and demonstrate distinct patterns of aberrations in TBI. Furthermore, these data suggest that alterations in the corticospinal excitatory mechanisms are determined predominantly by the severity of DAI, and show a significant relationship with clinical motor dysfunction following severe trauma diffusely affecting the motor cortical connections. In severe TBI, motor and functional recovery might be linked to restitution of normal corticospinal mechanisms, indexed by normalization of the cortical excitability parameters. PMID:19604100

  10. Mechanisms of blast induced brain injuries, experimental studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Risling, M; Plantman, S; Angeria, M; Rostami, E; Bellander, B-M; Kirkegaard, M; Arborelius, U; Davidsson, J

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) potentially induced by blast waves from detonations result in significant diagnostic problems. It may be assumed that several mechanisms contribute to the injury. This study is an attempt to characterize the presumed components of the blast induced TBI. Our experimental models include a blast tube in which an anesthetized rat can be exposed to controlled detonations of explosives that result in a pressure wave with a magnitude between 130 and 260 kPa. In this model, the animal is fixed with a metal net to avoid head acceleration forces. The second model is a controlled penetration of a 2mm thick needle. In the third model the animal is subjected to a high-speed sagittal rotation angular acceleration. Immunohistochemical labeling for amyloid precursor protein revealed signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the penetration and rotation models. Signs of punctuate inflammation were observed after focal and rotation injury. Exposure in the blast tube did not induce DAI or detectable cell death, but functional changes. Affymetrix Gene arrays showed changes in the expression in a large number of gene families including cell death, inflammation and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus after both acceleration and penetration injuries. Exposure to the primary blast wave induced limited shifts in gene expression in the hippocampus. The most interesting findings were a downregulation of genes involved in neurogenesis and synaptic transmission. These experiments indicate that rotational acceleration may be a critical factor for DAI and other acute changes after blast TBI. The further exploration of the mechanisms of blast TBI will have to include a search for long-term effects. PMID:20493951

  11. Localized Th1-, Th2-, T Regulatory Cell-, and Inflammation-Associated Hepatic and Pulmonary Immune Responses in Ascaris suum-Infected Swine Are Increased by Retinoic Acid▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Harry; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Beal, Madeline; Beshah, Ethiopia; Vangimalla, Vandana; Jones, Eudora; Botero, Sebastian; Urban, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum or controls were given 100 μg (low-dose) or 1,000 μg (high-dose) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/kg body weight in corn oil or corn oil alone per os on days after inoculation (DAI) −1, +1, and +3 with infective eggs. Treatment with ATRA increased interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL12p70 in plasma of infected pigs at 7 DAI and augmented bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia observed at 7 and 14 DAI. To explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying these observations, a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR array was used to examine mRNA expression in tissue. Ascaris-infected pigs had increased levels of liver mRNA for T-helper-2 (Th2)-associated cytokines, mast cell markers, and T regulatory (Treg) cells, while infected pigs given ATRA had higher IL4, IL13, CCL11, CCL26, CCL17, CCL22, and TPSB1 expression. Gene expression for Th1-associated markers (IFNG, IL12B, and TBX21), the CXCR3 ligand (CXCL9), IL1B, and the putative Treg marker TNFRSF18 was also increased. Expression of IL4, IL13, IL1B, IL6, CCL11, and CCL26 was increased in the lungs of infected pigs treated with ATRA. To determine a putative cellular source of eosinophil chemoattractants, alveolar macrophages were treated with IL4 and/or ATRA in vitro. IL4 induced CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 mRNA, and ATRA increased the basal and IL4-stimulated expression of CCL17 and CCL22. Thus, ATRA augments a diverse Th1-, Th2-, Treg-, and inflammation-associated response in swine infected with A. suum, and the increased BAL eosinophilia may be related to enhanced induction of eosinophil chemokine activity by alveolar macrophages. PMID:19332534

  12. [Orthodontic treatment need in school-age children in the Leningrad region].

    PubMed

    Bagnenko, N M; Bagnenko, A S; Grebnev, G A; Madai, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of dentoalveolar anomalies is undoubtedly important, but in terms of the organization of orthodontic care, greater interest are data on the needs in this type of treatment. In a situation of limited manpower and resources for the provision of orthodontic care information about needs in orthodontic treatment allows you to define a group of patients with the primary need for orthodontic treatment, and to identify priorities to optimize the organization of orthodontic care in the region. Such data can be obtained by using the Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of various forms of dentoalveolar anomalies school-age children of Kirishi district of Leningrad region, as well as their needs in orthodontic treatment in accordance with objective evaluation indices. The study involved 734 pupils of Kirishi lyceum №1 of Leningrad region. Analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies, as well as needs in the orthodontic treatment was conducted in three age groups: I mixed dentition period (6-9 years), II mixed dentition period (10-13 years), and permanent dentition (14-17). To determine the needs in the orthodontic treatment were used two most common international index (DAI and IOTN). In Kirishi district of Leningrad region dentoalveolar anomalies were found in 88.8% of children of school age, which is in accordance with the indices and IOTN DAI needs in orthodontic treatment is 38.8% and 54.5%, respectively. In order to reduce unnecessarily high load volume medical institutions orthodontic profile, optimize utilization of financial resources, as well as reducing social tension it is recommended to introduce the practice of doctors-orthodontists methodology for determining the needs in orthodontic treatment by objective indices. PMID:27239997

  13. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 73 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, with different diurnal variations of the integrated total humidity content. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). The numerical tools, Singular Value Decomposition and classical Multidimensional Scaling methods, are used to study these variations, considering the measurements made at each stations, as sample in the analysis. The aim of this investigation is to identify the IWV variability with respect to the local time associated to the different climate regions. In order to improve our analysis, all available weather information, such as radiosondes measurements (which are few), measurements of pressure and temperature and Numerical Weather Models reanalysis data, are used. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl, 1999 a: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451-2473. Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999 b: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States.J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402. KEYWORDS: water vapor, diurnal cycle, GNSS

  14. The acetylome regulators Hdac1 and Hdac2 differently modulate intestinal epithelial cell dependent homeostatic responses in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Naomie; Gagné, Julie Moore; Blais, Mylène; Gendron, Fernand-Pierre; Boudreau, François; Asselin, Claude

    2014-04-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdac) remove acetyl groups from proteins, influencing global and specific gene expression. Hdacs control inflammation, as shown by Hdac inhibitor-dependent protection from dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. Although tissue-specific Hdac knockouts show redundant and specific functions, little is known of their intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) role. We have shown previously that dual Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-specific loss disrupts cell proliferation and determination, with decreased secretory cell numbers and altered barrier function. We thus investigated how compound Hdac1/Hdac2 or Hdac2 IEC-specific deficiency alters the inflammatory response. Floxed Hdac1 and Hdac2 and villin-Cre mice were interbred. Compound Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-deficient mice showed chronic basal inflammation, with increased basal disease activity index (DAI) and deregulated Reg gene colonic expression. DSS-treated dual Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-deficient mice displayed increased DAI, histological score, intestinal permeability, and inflammatory gene expression. In contrast to double knockouts, Hdac2 IEC-specific loss did not affect IEC determination and growth, nor result in chronic inflammation. However, Hdac2 disruption protected against DSS colitis, as shown by decreased DAI, intestinal permeability and caspase-3 cleavage. Hdac2 IEC-specific deficient mice displayed increased expression of IEC gene subsets, such as colonic antimicrobial Reg3b and Reg3g mRNAs, and decreased expression of immune cell function-related genes. Our data show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 are essential IEC homeostasis regulators. IEC-specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 may act as epigenetic sensors and transmitters of environmental cues and regulate IEC-mediated mucosal homeostatic and inflammatory responses. Different levels of IEC Hdac activity may lead to positive or negative outcomes on intestinal homeostasis during inflammation. PMID:24525021

  15. Comparative Assessment of the Prognostic Value of Biomarkers in Traumatic Brain Injury Reveals an Independent Role for Serum Levels of Neurofilament Light.

    PubMed

    Al Nimer, Faiez; Thelin, Eric; Nyström, Harriet; Dring, Ann M; Svenningsson, Anders; Piehl, Fredrik; Nelson, David W; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability, worldwide. Early determination of injury severity is essential to improve care. Neurofilament light (NF-L) has been introduced as a marker of neuroaxonal injury in neuroinflammatory/-degenerative diseases. In this study we determined the predictive power of serum (s-) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-) NF-L levels towards outcome, and explored their potential correlation to diffuse axonal injury (DAI). A total of 182 patients suffering from TBI admitted to the neurointensive care unit at a level 1 trauma center were included. S-NF-L levels were acquired, together with S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). CSF-NF-L was measured in a subcohort (n = 84) with ventriculostomies. Clinical and neuro-radiological parameters, including computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, were included in the analyses. Outcome was assessed 6 to 12 months after injury using the Glasgow Outcome Score (1-5). In univariate proportional odds analyses mean s-NF-L, -S100B and -NSE levels presented a pseudo-R2 Nagelkerke of 0.062, 0.214 and 0.074 in correlation to outcome, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, in addition to a model including core parameters (pseudo-R2 0.33 towards outcome; Age, Glasgow Coma Scale, pupil response, Stockholm CT score, abbreviated injury severity score, S100B), S-NF-L yielded an extra 0.023 pseudo-R2 and a significantly better model (p = 0.006) No correlation between DAI or CT assessed-intracranial damage and NF-L was found. Our study thus demonstrates that S-NF-L correlates to TBI outcome, even if used in models with S100B, indicating an independent contribution to the prediction, perhaps by reflecting different pathophysiological processes, not possible to monitor using conventional neuroradiology. Although we did not find a predictive value of NF-L for DAI, this cannot be completely excluded. We suggest further studies, with volume quantification of axonal injury

  16. Construction of a high-tech operating room for image-guided surgery using VR.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Otake, Yoshito; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Susumu; Nezu, Takehiko; Sakai, Haruo; Umezawa, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    This project aimed to construct an operating room to implement high dimensional (3D, 4D) medical imaging and medical virtual reality techniques that would enable clinical tests for new surgical procedures. We designed and constructed such an operating room at Dai-san Hospital, the Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. The room was equipped with various facilities for image-guided, robot and tele- surgery. In this report, we describe an outline of our "high-tech operating room" and future plans. PMID:15718793

  17. News and Views: Perspectives for Nuclear Energy in Brazil After Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldemberg, José

    2011-09-01

    More than two decades after the Chernobyl accident, the world was experiencing a nuclear renaissance when an earthquake followed by a tsunami, both of uncommon proportions, led to major releases of radiation at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear central. Many countries are now reevaluating decisions to expand their nuclear parks, a change of course motivated by a number of considerations. Combined with the same premises, lessons learned from the history of its nuclear program compel Brazil to turn to the renewable sources of energy at its disposal.

  18. September 2016 Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Corrections to an article published in the May 2016 issue of JOSPT: Lentz TA, Beneciuk JM, Bialosky JE, Zeppieri G Jr, Dai Y, Wu SS, George SZ. Development of a yellow flag assessment tool for orthopaedic physical therapists: results from the Optimal Screening for Prediction of Referral and Outcome (OSPRO) cohort J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):327-345. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6487 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):813. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.46.9.813. PMID:27581183

  19. VLSI MIL-STD-1750A processor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, M.; Winter, T.; Brauchmann, W.

    An American company is developing a VLSI program to design, fabricate, characterize, and deliver a family of General Purpose Computers optimized to execute MIL-STD-1750A Notice 1. The CPU architecture is fashioned in an extensible functional module configuration with a performance range from 0.9 MIPS to 1.5 MIPS (DAIS-type Mix). The three configurations which have emerged include baseline CPU, baseline CPU plus floating point accelerator, and 32-bit data path CPU (ISA Invisible). It is pointed out that these machines will employ multisource VLSI low power CMOS technology and will be fully qualified to meet military environmental specifications.

  20. Ability of xeno- and phytoestrogens to modulate expression of estrogen-sensitive genes in rat uterus: estrogenicity profiles and uterotropic activity.

    PubMed

    Diel, P; Schulz, T; Smolnikar, K; Strunck, E; Vollmer, G; Michna, H

    2000-05-01

    The function of the uterus is regulated by female sex steroids and it is, therefore, used as the classical target organ to detect estrogenic action. Uterine response to estrogens involves the activation of a large pattern of estrogen-sensitive genes. This fact offers the opportunity to analyze the estrogenic activity of xeno- and phytoestrogens, and the mechanisms of their molecular action by a correlation of the uterotropic activity and their ability to modulate the expression of estrogen-sensitive genes. We have analyzed the expression of androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ER), clusterin (CLU), complement C3 (C3), and GAPDH mRNA in the rat uterus following oral administration of ethinylestradiol (EE), bisphenol A (BPA), o,p'-DDT (DDT), p-tert-octylphenol (OCT) and daidzein (DAI). A significant stimulation of the uterine wet weight could be observed after administration of all the substances. The activity of all analyzed compounds to stimulate uterine weight was low in comparison to EE. DDT has the highest activity to stimulate uterine weight whereas BPA and DAI turned out to be less potent. The analysis of gene expression revealed a very specific profile of molecular action in response to the different compounds which cannot be detected by judging the uterotropic response alone. A dose dependent analysis revealed that C3 mRNA is already modulated at doses where no uterotropic response was detectable. Although DAI and BPA were very weak stimulators of uterine growth, these substances were able to alter the expression of AR, ER and C3 very strongly. Based on these investigations the analyzed compounds can be subdivided into distinct classes: First, compounds which exhibit a similar gene expression fingerprint as EE (e.g. OCT); second, compounds exhibiting a significant uterotropic activity, but inducing a pattern of gene expression different from EE (e.g. DDT); and third, compounds like BPA and especially DAI which exhibit a very

  1. Ultracompact plasmonic switch based on graphene-silica metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Longzhi; Pei, Chongyang; Shen, Ao; Zhao, Changyun; Li, Yan; Dai, Tingge; Yu, Hui; Li, Yubo; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jianyi

    2014-05-01

    Controlling the light transmission in the epsilon-near-zero channel, which is covered by the perfect-electric-conductor (PEC) walls, has been demonstrated in [L. Yang, T. Hu, A. Shen, C. Pei, B. Yang, T. Dai, H. Yu, Y. Li, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, Opt. Lett. 39, 1909 (2014)]. In this work, we investigate the possibility of replacing the PEC by some practical metal materials. Based on it, an ultracompact plasmonic switch with the length of 15 nm is presented. Its highest extinction ratio is more than 13 dB, while the 3-dB extinction ratio is obtained with a 0.41 V gate voltage.

  2. Applications of text processing using natural processing system in Printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Tadashi

    DAI NIPPON PRINTING CO., Ltd. developed a natural language processing system for the automatic indexing and assorting readable kana characters to kanji characters, which is called ruby. This system based on the automatic indexing system called INDEXER produced by NTT Communications and Information Processing Laboratories and NTT Data Communications Co., Ltd. This paper describes some applications using the system. This system creates kana characters for kanji characters which is useful for address books, name lists and books. Further we apply this system for an automatic indexing on CD-ROM.

  3. CD-ROM-aided Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Hideo

    Dai Nippon Printing Company which has been developing a processing technology of characters, graphs and images for a long time, launched “DNP Multi-media Conversion System” by applying CTS (Computerized Typesetting System) technology. Media conversion of the bulky database into CD-ROM using this System is explained. Data input method to CD-ROM and system operation are also described. The examples are as follows. (1)Sanshusha Publishing “CD-WORD”, (2)Iwanami Shoten Publishers “Kojien CD-ROM ed.”(3)Nippon Shuppan Hanbai “CD-NOCS”.

  4. Systematic technology evaluation program for SiC/SiC composite-based accident-tolerant LWR fuel cladding and core structures: Revision 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-08-01

    Fuels and core structures in current light water reactors (LWR’s) are vulnerable to catastrophic failure in severe accidents as unfortunately evidenced by the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This vulnerability is attributed primarily to the rapid oxidation kinetics of zirconium alloys in a water vapor environment at very high temperatures. Zr alloys are the primary material in LWR cores except for the fuel itself. Therefore, alternative materials with reduced oxidation kinetics as compared to zirconium alloys are sought to enable enhanced accident-tolerant fuels and cores.

  5. Production of phenolics and the emission of volatile organic compounds by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)/Neotyphodium lolii association as a response to infection by Fusarium poae.

    PubMed

    Pańka, Dariusz; Piesik, Dariusz; Jeske, Małgorzata; Baturo-Cieśniewska, Anna

    2013-07-15

    Grasses very often form symbiotic associations with Neotyphodium/Epichloë endophytic fungi. These endophytes often allow the host grass to be protected from different pathogens. However, there is little known about the mechanisms of such endophyte influence on the host. Thus, the purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the N. lolii endophyte on the total production of phenolic compounds, VOCs emission and the resistance of three perennial ryegrass genotypes infected by pathogenic Fusarium poae. Analyses of total phenolics content were performed in control (not inoculated) and inoculated plants after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days (DAI) and for VOCs after 0, 3, 6 and 12 DAI. The presence of endophytes significantly reduced the disease index in two of the three genotypes relative to that in E-. Plants infected by N. lolii exhibited higher production of phenolics relative to the E- plants. The highest amounts of phenolics were observed on the second and sixth DAI. Genotype Nl22 showed the strongest effect of the endophyte on the production of phenolics, which increased by over 61%. Both the endophyte infected and non-infected plants emitted most abundantly two GLVs ((Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate), three terpenes (linalool, (Z)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene) and three shikimic acid pathway derivatives (benzyl acetate, indole, and methyl salicylate). The endophyte presence and the intervals of VOCs detection were a highly significant source of variation for all emitted volatiles (P<0.001). The genotype of the perennial ryegrass significantly affected only the emission of methyl salicylate (P<0.05) and β-caryophyllene (P<0.05). Most of the VOCs ((Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenal, linalool and methyl salicylate) reached their highest levels of emission on the sixth DAI, when averaged over genotypes and endophyte status. The results highlight the role of Neotyphodium spp. in the mediation of quadro-trophic interactions among plants, symbiotic

  6. Review of Chinese species of the leafhopper genus Scaphoidella Vilbaste, 1968 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae), with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jichun; Li, Zizhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese leafhopper species of the genus Scaphoidella Vilbaste are reviewed, and one new species Scaphoidella dietrichi sp. n. is described and illustrated. Two species are recorded from China for the first time: Scaphoidella clavatella Dai & Dietrich, 2011 and Scaphoidella zhangi (Viraktamath & Mohan, 2004). A key based on the male genitalia is given to distinguish Chinese species of this genus and a map provided their geographic distribution. The type specimens of the new species is deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC). PMID:25878538

  7. Risk communication, geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Issues in Japan's disaster management system were revealed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, and by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident. Many important decisions were based on scientific data, but appear not to have sufficiently considered the uncertainties of the data and the societal aspects of the problems. The issues that arose show the need for scientists to appropriately deal with risk communication and geoethics and issues. This paper discusses necessity of education for risk communication, geoethics and decisions science in school before students become sicentific decision makers in future.

  8. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-Effective, and Simultaneous Detection of Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA Antibodies by Use of Very Small Serum Volumes.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J

    2016-07-01

    Rapid, cost-effective, and early determination of the serological status of potentially infected individuals, particularly pregnant women, can be critical in preventing life-threatening infections and subsequent fetal congenital abnormalities. An article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (X. Li, C. Pomares, G. Gonfrier, B. Koh, S. Zhu, M. Gong, J. G. Montoya, and H. Dai, J Clin Microbiol 54:1726-1733, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03371-15) describes an innovative multiplexed immunoassay that offers a path toward universal screening. PMID:27170019

  9. Towards the Prediction of Decadal to Centennial Climate Processes in the Coupled Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhengyu; Kutzbach, J.; Jacob, R.; Prentice, C.

    2011-12-05

    In this proposal, we have made major advances in the understanding of decadal and long term climate variability. (a) We performed a systematic study of multidecadal climate variability in FOAM-LPJ and CCSM-T31, and are starting exploring decadal variability in the IPCC AR4 models. (b) We develop several novel methods for the assessment of climate feedbacks in the observation. (c) We also developed a new initialization scheme DAI (Dynamical Analogue Initialization) for ensemble decadal prediction. (d) We also studied climate-vegetation feedback in the observation and models. (e) Finally, we started a pilot program using Ensemble Kalman Filter in CGCM for decadal climate prediction.

  10. [The events of the last one year in Fukushima Hamadori].

    PubMed

    Seki, Hareaki; Oda, Nobuhito; Aita, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The coastal area of Fukushima prefecture is usually called "Hamadori", and Iwaki city occupies the southernmost part of Hamadori. Our hospital locates in the seashore of Iwaki city. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which developed a catastrophic accident after the Great East Japan Earthquake, locates in the middle part of Hamadori. On the 11th of March 2011, tsunamis caused by the great earthquake severely damaged our hospital and we were forced to evacuate inpatients to other hospitals for several months. Today the air radiation dose around our hospital is sufficiently low, but the anxiety for the re-attack of tsunami still remains. We are now planning the removal of our hospital to an inland estate. In the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, residence is still prohibited because of the grave radioactive contamination. On the other hand, the northern and southern parts of Hamadori are restoring their functions. The population of these areas is increasing gradually, but the number of medical staff is far from satisfactory level. As to neurology, only nine specialists work in Hamadori, so we strongly hope the recruitment of enthusiastic neurologists. PMID:23196613

  11. Preparation of Spray-Dried Soy Isoflavone-Loaded Gelatin Microspheres for Enhancement of Dissolution: Formulation, Characterization and in Vitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Panizzon, Gean Pier; Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado

    2014-01-01

    The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI), daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to microencapsulate DAI and GEN from soy extract (SE) by spray drying, in order to obtain solid dispersions to overcome solubility problems and to allow controlled release. The influences of 1:2 (MP2) and 1:3 (MP3) SE/polymer ratios on the solid state, yield, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, release kinetics and cumulative release were evaluated. Analyses showed integral microparticles and high drug content. MP3 and MP2 yield were 43.6% and 55.9%, respectively, with similar mean size (p > 0.05), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous solid state of SE. In vitro release tests showed that dissolution was drastically increased. The results indicated that SE microencapsulation might offer a good system to control SI release, as an alternative to improve bioavailability and industrial applications. PMID:25494200

  12. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E

    2002-04-01

    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations. PMID:12005916

  13. Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Mario; Zaelke, Durwood; Sarma, K. Madhava; Andersen, Stephen O.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Kaniaru, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Current emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) have already committed the planet to an increase in average surface temperature by the end of the century that may be above the critical threshold for tipping elements of the climate system into abrupt change with potentially irreversible and unmanageable consequences. This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI). Scientific and policy literature refers to the need for “early,” “urgent,” “rapid,” and “fast-action” mitigation to help avoid DAI and abrupt climate changes. We define “fast-action” to include regulatory measures that can begin within 2–3 years, be substantially implemented in 5–10 years, and produce a climate response within decades. We discuss strategies for short-lived non-CO2 GHGs and particles, where existing agreements can be used to accomplish mitigation objectives. Policy makers can amend the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with high global warming potential. Other fast-action strategies can reduce emissions of black carbon particles and precursor gases that lead to ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, and increase biosequestration, including through biochar. These and other fast-action strategies may reduce the risk of abrupt climate change in the next few decades by complementing cuts in CO2 emissions. PMID:19822751

  14. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  15. Emu Oil Reduces Small Intestinal Inflammation in the Absence of Clinical Improvement in a Rat Model of Indomethacin-Induced Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Abimosleh, Suzanne M.; Tran, Cuong D.; Howarth, Gordon S.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug (NSAID) enteropathy is characterized by small intestinal damage and ulceration. Emu Oil (EO) has previously been reported to reduce intestinal inflammation. Aim. We investigated EO for its potential to attenuate NSAID-enteropathy in rats. Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10/group) were gavaged with Water, Olive Oil (OO), or EO (0.5 mL; days 0–12) and with 0.5 mL Water or the NSAID, Indomethacin (8 mg/kg; days 5–12) daily. Disease activity index (DAI), 13C-sucrose breath test (SBT), organ weights, intestinal damage severity (IDS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. In Indomethacin-treated rats, DAI was elevated (days 10–12) and SBT values (56%) and thymus weight (55%) were decreased, relative to normal controls. Indomethacin increased duodenum (68%), colon (24%), SI (48%), caecum (48%), liver (51%) and spleen (88%) weights, IDS scores, and MPO levels (jejunum: 195%, ileum: 104%) compared to normal controls. Jejunal MPO levels were decreased (64%) by both EO and OO, although only EO decreased ileal MPO (50%), compared to Indomethacin controls. Conclusions. EO reduced acute intestinal inflammation, whereas other parameters of Indomethacin-induced intestinal injury were not affected significantly. Increased EO dose and/or frequency of administration could potentially improve clinical efficacy. PMID:23573127

  16. Estimation of the time-dependent radioactive source-term from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeppner, M.; Plastino, W.; Budano, A.; De Vincenzi, M.; Ruggieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    Several nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant have been severely damaged from the Tōhoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Due to the extremely difficult on-site situation it has been not been possible to directly determine the emissions of radioactive material. However, during the following days and weeks radionuclides of 137-Caesium and 131-Iodine (amongst others) were detected at monitoring stations throughout the world. Atmospheric transport models are able to simulate the worldwide dispersion of particles accordant to location, time and meteorological conditions following the release. The Lagrangian atmospheric transport model Flexpart is used by many authorities and has been proven to make valid predictions in this regard. The Flexpart software has first has been ported to a local cluster computer at the Grid Lab of INFN and Department of Physics of University of Roma Tre (Rome, Italy) and subsequently also to the European Mediterranean Grid (EUMEDGRID). Due to this computing power being available it has been possible to simulate the transport of particles originating from the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant site. Using the time series of the sampled concentration data and the assumption that the Fukushima accident was the only source of these radionuclides, it has been possible to estimate the time-dependent source-term for fourteen days following the accident using the atmospheric transport model. A reasonable agreement has been obtained between the modelling results and the estimated radionuclide release rates from the Fukushima accident.

  17. Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, John; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    2012-10-01

    During the conflicts of the Global War on Terror, which are Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), there have been over a quarter of a million diagnosed cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The vast majority are due to explosive blast. Although explosive blast TBI (bTBI) shares many clinical features with closed head TBI (cTBI) and penetrating TBI (pTBI), it has unique features, such as early cerebral edema and prolonged cerebral vasospasm. Evolving work suggests that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) seen following explosive blast exposure is different than DAI from focal impact injury. These unique features support the notion that bTBI is a separate and distinct form of TBI. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to bTBI. Areas of discussion are: the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of explosive blast neurotrauma. PMID:22836523

  18. Consequences of multiple withdrawals from alcohol.

    PubMed

    Duka, Theodora; Gentry, John; Malcolm, Robert; Ripley, Tamzin L; Borlikova, Gilyanna; Stephens, Dai N; Veatch, Lynn M; Becker, Howard C; Crews, Fulton T

    2004-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Fort Lauderdale, FL, organized by Theodora Duka and chaired by Dai Stephens. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the effects of multiple experiences of withdrawal from alcohol in animals made dependent on alcohol and in humans who are alcohol dependent. Parallels were drawn to the effects of repeated short-lived high-content alcohol exposures in animals and in humans who are social drinkers but indulge in binge drinking. The presentations were (1) Multiple detoxifications and risk of relapse in abstinent alcoholics, by John Gentry and Robert Malcolm; (2) Emotional and cognitive impairments after long-term use of alcohol: relationship to multiple detoxifications and binge drinking, by Theodora Duka; (3) The effect of repeated withdrawal from ethanol on conditioning to appetitive stimuli, by Tamzin Ripley, Gilyanna Borlikova, and Dai Stephens; (4) Alcohol withdrawal kindling: electrographic measures in a murine model of behavioral seizure sensitization, by Lynn Veatch and Howard Becker; and (5) Binge drinking induced changes in CNS, by Fulton Crews. PMID:15112931

  19. Production of Lytic Enzymes by Trichoderma Isolates during in vitro Antagonism with Aspergillus Niger, The Causal Agent of Collar ROT of Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Gajera, H. P.; Vakharia, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, five of T. viride, one of T. virens), which reduced variably the incidence of collar rot disease caused in peanut by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, were evaluated for their potential to produce lytic enzymes during in vitro antagonism. T. viride 60 inhibited highest (86.2%) growth of test fungus followed by T. harzianum 2J (80.4%) at 6 days after inoculation (DAI) on PDA media. The specific activities of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease were 11, 3.46 and 9 folds higher in T6 antagonist (T. viride 60 and A. niger interactions) followed by 8.72, 2.85 and 9 folds in T8antagonist (T. harzianum 2J and A. niger interactions), respectively, compared to the activity produced by control petri plate T13 (A. niger alone) at 6 DAI. Activity of these lytic enzymes induced in antagonists’ plates comprises the growth of Trichoderma isolates. However, cellulase and poly galacturonase were found least amount in these antagonists treatment. A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) between percentage growth inhibition of test fungus and lytic enzymes – (chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease) in the culture medium of antagonist treatment established a relationship to inhibit growth of fungal pathogen by increasing the levels of these enzymes. Among the Trichoderma isolates, T. viride 60 was found best strain to be used in biological control of plant pathogen A. niger. PMID:24031802

  20. Tanshinone IIA Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium- (DSS-) Induced Colitis in Mice by Modulation of Neutrophil Infiltration and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowei; He, Haiyue; Huang, Tingting; Lei, Zhen; Liu, Fuquan; An, Guangyu; Wen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. However, conventional neutrophil-targeted therapies can impair normal host defense. Tanshinone IIA has been recently revealed to act directly on neutrophils. Hence, we aimed at investigating whether Tanshinone IIA can protect against experimental colitis through modulation of neutrophils. We induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) orally, and meanwhile, we treated mice daily with Tanshinone IIA intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was evaluated by calculating disease activity index (DAI) and histological parameters. Neutrophil infiltration and activation in the colons of mice were measured. Moreover, whether Tanshinone IIA has direct effects on neutrophil migration and activation was determined in vitro. Our data showed that Tanshinone IIA significantly ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, evidenced by the reduced DAI and improved colonic inflammation. In addition, Tanshinone IIA decreased neutrophil infiltration of intestinal mucosa and activation and reduced colonic inflammatory cytokines in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA was demonstrated to significantly suppress neutrophil migration and activation. These results provide compelling evidence that Tanshinone IIA has a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice, which is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of neutrophils. PMID:26881040

  1. Panax notoginseng attenuates experimental colitis in AOM/DSS mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyu; Matin, Adiba; Wang, Yunwei; Li, Ping; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease are at a high risk of developing colorectal cancer. To assess the anti-cancer potential of botanicals, in this study, we evaluated the effects of Panax notoginseng on azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. One week after A/J mice received AOM, the animals received DSS for 8 days, or were supplemented with P. notoginseng extract, at 30 or 90 mg/kg. DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index (DAI). The severity of the inflammatory lesions was evaluated by a colon tissue histological assessment. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also explored. We observed that the effects of P. notoginseng on the reduction of colon inflammation, expressed in DAI score, were in a dose-related manner (P < 0.01). P. notoginseng inhibited the reduction of the colon length and the loss of bodyweight in dose-related manner (all P < 0.05). The histological assessment of the colitis and inflammatory related immunohistochemical data also supported the pharmacological observations. Our data suggest that P. notoginseng is a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24142591

  2. Multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection for hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mahesh

    2012-02-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of three feature selection methods based on multinomial logistic regression, and compares the performance of the best multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approach with the support vector machine based recurring feature elimination approach. Two hyperspectral datasets, one consisting of 65 features (DAIS data) and other with 185 features (AVIRIS data) were used. Result suggests that a total of between 15 and 10 features selected by using the multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approach as proposed by Cawley and Talbot achieve a significant improvement in classification accuracy in comparison to the use of all the features of the DAIS and AVIRIS datasets. In addition to the improved performance, the Cawley and Talbot approach does not require any user-defined parameter, thus avoiding the requirement of a model selection stage. In comparison, the other two multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approaches require one user-defined parameter and do not perform as well as the Cawley and Talbot approach in terms of (i) the number of features required to achieve classification accuracy comparable to that achieved using the full dataset, and (ii) the classification accuracy achieved by the selected features. The Cawley and Talbot approach was also found to be computationally more efficient than the SVM-RFE technique, though both use the same number of selected features to achieve an equal or even higher level of accuracy than that achieved with full hyperspectral datasets.

  3. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  4. Effect of a Multi-Dimensional and Inter-Sectoral Intervention on the Adherence of Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Anne; Wolf, Carolin; Mayr, Andreas; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Friedland, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, hospital stays and transitions to the ambulatory sector are susceptible to major changes in drug therapy that lead to complex medication regimens and common non-adherence among psychiatric patients. A multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral intervention is hypothesized to improve the adherence of psychiatric patients to their pharmacotherapy. Methods 269 patients from a German university hospital were included in a prospective, open, clinical trial with consecutive control and intervention groups. Control patients (09/2012-03/2013) received usual care, whereas intervention patients (05/2013-12/2013) underwent a program to enhance adherence during their stay and up to three months after discharge. The program consisted of therapy simplification and individualized patient education (multi-dimensional component) during the stay and at discharge, as well as subsequent phone calls after discharge (inter-sectoral component). Adherence was measured by the “Medication Adherence Report Scale” (MARS) and the “Drug Attitude Inventory” (DAI). Results The improvement in the MARS score between admission and three months after discharge was 1.33 points (95% CI: 0.73–1.93) higher in the intervention group compared to controls. In addition, the DAI score improved 1.93 points (95% CI: 1.15–2.72) more for intervention patients. Conclusion These two findings indicate significantly higher medication adherence following the investigated multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral program. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00006358 PMID:26437449

  5. Fukushima and the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesseler, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases at Fukushima Dai-ichi were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. The earthquake was the fourth largest ever recorded; the tsunami resulted in over 20,000 dead or missing and destroyed entire towns; and the radiation releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants created the largest accidental release of man-made radionuclides to the oceans in history— a release that continues to this day. Compared to monitoring on land, studies of the ocean are far fewer, yet the area impacted and quantity delivered- 80% of all radioactivity released- is far greater. For oceanographers, this presents a challenge of unprecedented scope and complexity: to understand exactly how these events played out, how radiation continues to move through the marine system (including important seafood items), and, in turn, how best to communicate scientific findings that will inform public policy decisions far into the future. This presentation will provide an overview of the sources and fate of radionuclides released from Fukushima to the ocean. An emphasis will be given on the sources of cesium, its transport in waters, and fluxes associated with sinking particles and accumulation in sediments.

  6. Malocclusion and deleterious oral habits among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Although malocclusions represent a serious public health issue, there is insufficient information about this problem in adolescents in Brazil, especially in poorer areas. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of facial alterations, dental malocclusions, and deleterious oral habits (DOH) among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of DOH in infancy is associated with DOH during adolescence. The study included a probabilistic population-based sample of 2,060 Brazilian students aged 12-15 years. Facial characteristics (type of facial profile, facial symmetry, and passive lip sealing) and malocclusions (Angle and Dental Aesthetic Index, DAI) were evaluated. DOH in infancy and adolescence were evaluated by interviews with the parents and adolescents. Most adolescents presented with normal facial characteristics. The malocclusion prevalence (Angle) was 83%. The DAI ranged from 13 to 69 (mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 7.7). Orthodontic treatment was necessary in 45.1% of the sample. The most prevalent DOH in adolescents were nail biting, object biting, cheek/lip biting, and bruxism, which were associated with finger sucking during infancy (P < 0.05). We conclude that malocclusions and DOH are common among Brazilian adolescents and that finger sucking during infancy may be a good predictor of DOH occurrence during adolescence. PMID:23207900

  7. Therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of Zhenrenyangzang decoction in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Li, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Guan, Jie; Wu, Yan-Min; Wang, Qi; Luo, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Zhenrenyangzang Decoction (ZD) has been used as a classic formula in China for the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction such as chronic gastritis. However, there is less study on its application in ulcerative colitis (UC) and the effects are not yet clearly defined. To explore the effectiveness of ZD in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced UC rats, ZD was administered orally for 8 days at a dosage of 2, 4 or 8 g/kg/day. Following drug administration, the disease activity index (DAI) and tissue damage scores were recorded. In addition, mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in colon tissues were examined by real time PCR and western blotting assay. As compared with the UC model group, ZD promoted the recovery of colitis and inhibited the colonic inflammation damage in UC rats by reducing the mRNA or protein expression of NF-κB and p38MAPK, as well as activating the production of TLR2 in colon tissues. And ZD significantly reduced the DAI and tissue damage scores. The therapeutic effect of ZD was found to be comparable to that of SASP. Our results suggested that ZD could improve colonic mucosa impairment and possesses favorable therapeutic action in TNBS-induced colitis, which provides direct pharmacological evidence for its clinical application. PMID:26629011

  8. A Picrorhiza kurroa Derivative, Picroliv, Attenuates the Development of Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, De-Kui; Yu, Jian-Jie; Li, Yu-Min; Wei, Li-Na; Yu, Yi; Feng, Yan-Hu; Wang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Background. Free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Picroliv, a Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of picroliv on experimental model of UC in mice. Materials and Methods. Picroliv was administrated orally by gavage to mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histology score were observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and SOD, MDA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the expression of cytokine mRNAs was studied by real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and also ELISA. The expression of NF-κB p65 was observed by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Results. A significant improvement was observed in DAI and histological score in mice treated with picroliv, and incerased MPO activity, MDA concentrations, and the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in mice with DSS-induced colitis were significantly reduced while decreased SOD level increased following administration of picroliv. Conclusion. The administration of picroliv leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting administration of picroliv may provide a therapeutic approach for UC. PMID:23125487

  9. mantisGRID: a grid platform for DICOM medical images management in Colombia and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Garcia Ruiz, Manuel; Garcia Chaves, Alvin; Ruiz Ibañez, Carlos; Gutierrez Mazo, Jorge Mario; Ramirez Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Pelaez Echavarria, Alejandro; Valencia Diaz, Edison; Pelaez Restrepo, Gustavo; Montoya Munera, Edwin Nelson; Garcia Loaiza, Bernardo; Gomez Gonzalez, Sebastian

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the mantisGRID project, an interinstitutional initiative from Colombian medical and academic centers aiming to provide medical grid services for Colombia and Latin America. The mantisGRID is a GRID platform, based on open source grid infrastructure that provides the necessary services to access and exchange medical images and associated information following digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) and health level 7 standards. The paper focuses first on the data abstraction architecture, which is achieved via Open Grid Services Architecture Data Access and Integration (OGSA-DAI) services and supported by the Globus Toolkit. The grid currently uses a 30-Mb bandwidth of the Colombian High Technology Academic Network, RENATA, connected to Internet 2. It also includes a discussion on the relational database created to handle the DICOM objects that were represented using Extensible Markup Language Schema documents, as well as other features implemented such as data security, user authentication, and patient confidentiality. Grid performance was tested using the three current operative nodes and the results demonstrated comparable query times between the mantisGRID (OGSA-DAI) and Distributed mySQL databases, especially for a large number of records. PMID:20127269

  10. The Decision Analysis Interview Approach in the Collaborative Management of a Large Regulated Water Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marttunen, Mika; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.

    2008-12-01

    There are always conflicting goals in the management of large water courses. However, by involving stakeholders actively in the planning and decision-making processes, it is possible to work together toward commonly acceptable solutions. In this article, we describe how we applied interactive multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in a collaborative process which aimed at an ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable water course regulation policy. The stakeholders’ opinions about the alternative regulation schemes and the relative importance of their impacts were elicited with the HIPRE software. Altogether, 20 personal interactive decision analysis interviews (DAIs) were carried out with the stakeholders. Our experience suggests that the DAIs can considerably improve the quality and efficiency of the collaborative planning process. By improving communication and understanding of the decision situation in the steering group, the approach helped to develop a consensus solution in a case having strong conflicts of interest. In order to gain the full benefits of the MCDA approach, interactive preference elicitation is vital. It is also essential to integrate the approach tightly into the planning and decision-making process. The project’s home pages are available to the public at http://www.paijanne.hut.fi/ .

  11. The decision analysis interview approach in the collaborative management of a large regulated water course.

    PubMed

    Marttunen, Mika; Hämäläinen, Raimo P

    2008-12-01

    There are always conflicting goals in the management of large water courses. However, by involving stakeholders actively in the planning and decision-making processes, it is possible to work together toward commonly acceptable solutions. In this article, we describe how we applied interactive multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in a collaborative process which aimed at an ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable water course regulation policy. The stakeholders' opinions about the alternative regulation schemes and the relative importance of their impacts were elicited with the HIPRE software. Altogether, 20 personal interactive decision analysis interviews (DAIs) were carried out with the stakeholders. Our experience suggests that the DAIs can considerably improve the quality and efficiency of the collaborative planning process. By improving communication and understanding of the decision situation in the steering group, the approach helped to develop a consensus solution in a case having strong conflicts of interest. In order to gain the full benefits of the MCDA approach, interactive preference elicitation is vital. It is also essential to integrate the approach tightly into the planning and decision-making process. The project's home pages are available to the public at http://www.paijanne.hut.fi/. PMID:18830741

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance: a tool for imaging belowground damage caused by Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Hillnhütter, C; Sikora, R A; Oerke, E-C; van Dusschoten, D

    2012-01-01

    Belowground symptoms of sugar beet caused by the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii include the development of compensatory secondary roots and beet deformity, which, thus far, could only be assessed by destructively removing the entire root systems from the soil. Similarly, the symptoms of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) caused by infections of the soil-borne basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani require the same invasive approach for identification. Here nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the non-invasive detection of belowground symptoms caused by BCN and/or RCRR on sugar beet. Excessive lateral root development and beet deformation of plants infected by BCN was obvious 28 days after inoculation (dai) on MRI images when compared with non-infected plants. Three-dimensional images recorded at 56 dai showed BCN cysts attached to the roots in the soil. RCRR was visualized by a lower intensity of the MRI signal at sites where rotting occurred. The disease complex of both organisms together resulted in RCRR development at the site of nematode penetration. Damage analysis of sugar beet plants inoculated with both pathogens indicated a synergistic relationship, which may result from direct and indirect interactions. Nuclear MRI of plants may provide valuable, new insight into the development of pathogens infecting plants below- and aboveground because of its non-destructive nature and the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the method. PMID:21948851

  13. Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p<0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p<0.001), and a 22-32% reduction in neck loading (p<0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  14. Phosphatidylethanol in blood as a marker of chronic alcohol use: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Fais, Paolo; Nalesso, Alessandro; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims at a systematic review of the current knowledge on phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood as a direct marker of chronic alcohol use and abuse. In March 2012, the search through "MeSH" and "free-text" protocols in the databases Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Ovid/Embase, combining the terms phosphatidylethanol and alcohol, provided 444 records, 58 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used to summarize the current evidence on the formation, distribution and degradation of PEth in human blood: (1), the presence and distribution of different PEth molecular species (2), the most diffused analytical methods devoted to PEth identification and quantization (3), the clinical efficiency of total PEth quantification as a marker of chronic excessive drinking (4), and the potential utility of this marker for identifying binge drinking behaviors (5). Twelve papers were included in the meta-analysis and the mean (M) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of total PEth concentrations in social drinkers (DAI ≤ 60 g/die; M = 0.288 μM; CI 0.208-0.367 μM) and heavy drinkers (DAI > 60 g/die; M = 3.897 μM; CI 2.404-5.391 μM) were calculated. The present analysis demonstrates a good clinical efficiency of PEth for detecting chronic heavy drinking. PMID:23203094

  15. Expression of guanylate cyclase-C, guanylin, and uroguanylin is downregulated proportionally to the ulcerative colitis disease activity index

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Danfeng; Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Dong, Xiangqian; Wang, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling pathway has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Activation of GC-C via guanylin (Gn) and uroguanylin (Ugn) regulates intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, how it regulates the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of GC-C signaling in ulcerative colitis (UC) of different clinical severities. A total of 60 UC patients and 20 normal controls were recruited. Evaluation of the UC disease activity index (DAI) was performed using a modified Mayo scoring system. The expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn in the colonic mucosa was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that the UC patients had significantly lower expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn than the controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences for GC-C, Gn and Ugn expression for the UC groups of Grade 1, 2 and 3, and their expression levels were reduced with increases in their DAI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC-C, Gn and Ugn are downregulated in UC, and this downregulation is more significant with aggravation of the clinical condition. Therefore, the GC-C signaling pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. PMID:27125248

  16. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Donato; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05) were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI) or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) and chloroperoxidase (cpo) was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome. PMID:26765536

  17. The relationship between insight and subjective experience in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kako, Yuki; Ito, Koki; Hashimoto, Naoki; Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Yutaka; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between level of insight and various subjective experiences for patients with schizophrenia. Materials and methods Seventy-four patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from our hospital were evaluated. The level of insight into their illness and various subjective experiences were evaluated at discharge. We used the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) for evaluation of insight. In addition, five different rating scales were used to evaluate subjective experiences: Subjective Experience of Deficits in Schizophrenia (SEDS), Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS), Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI)-30. Results The SWNS and the scores for awareness of mental disorder and awareness of the social consequences of mental disorder on SUMD showed a weak positive correlation. The DAI-30 showed a significant negative correlation with most general items on SUMD and a negative correlation between the subscale scores for the awareness and attribution of past symptoms. SEDS, SWNS, SQLS, and the BDI significantly correlated with the subscale scores for awareness of current symptoms on SUMD, and weakly correlated with the subscale scores for attribution of current negative symptoms. Conclusion Awareness of subjective distress was related to awareness of having a mental disorder. Feeling subjective distress was related to awareness of current symptoms, as well as to the ability to attribute current negative symptoms to a mental disorder. Positive attitudes toward medication correlated with better general insight into the illness. PMID:25114533

  18. Cytosolic DNA Sensor Upregulation Accompanies DNA Electrotransfer in B16.F10 Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Znidar, Katarina; Bosnjak, Masa; Cemazar, Maja; Heller, Loree C

    2016-01-01

    In several preclinical tumor models, antitumor effects occur after intratumoral electroporation, also known as electrotransfer, of plasmid DNA devoid of a therapeutic gene. In mouse melanomas, these effects are preceded by significant elevation of several proinflammatory cytokines. These observations implicate the binding and activation of intracellular DNA-specific pattern recognition receptors or DNA sensors in response to DNA electrotransfer. In tumors, IFNβ mRNA and protein levels significantly increased. The mRNAs of several DNA sensors were detected, and DAI, DDX60, and p204 tended to be upregulated. These effects were accompanied with reduced tumor growth and increased tumor necrosis. In B16.F10 cells in culture, IFNβ mRNA and protein levels were significantly upregulated. The mRNAs for several DNA sensors were present in these cells; DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor (DAI), DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 60 (DDX60), and p204 were significantly upregulated while DDX60 protein levels were coordinately upregulated. Upregulation of DNA sensors in tumors could be masked by the lower transfection efficiency compared to in vitro or to dilution by other tumor cell types. Mirroring the observation of tumor necrosis, cells underwent a significant DNA concentration-dependent decrease in proliferation and survival. Taken together, these results indicate that DNA electrotransfer may cause the upregulation of several intracellular DNA sensors in B16.F10 cells, inducing effects in vitro and potentially in vivo. PMID:27271988

  19. Phosphatidylethanol in Blood as a Marker of Chronic Alcohol Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Viel, Guido; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Fais, Paolo; Nalesso, Alessandro; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims at a systematic review of the current knowledge on phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood as a direct marker of chronic alcohol use and abuse. In March 2012, the search through “MeSH” and “free-text” protocols in the databases Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Ovid/Embase, combining the terms phosphatidylethanol and alcohol, provided 444 records, 58 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used to summarize the current evidence on the formation, distribution and degradation of PEth in human blood: (1), the presence and distribution of different PEth molecular species (2), the most diffused analytical methods devoted to PEth identification and quantization (3), the clinical efficiency of total PEth quantification as a marker of chronic excessive drinking (4), and the potential utility of this marker for identifying binge drinking behaviors (5). Twelve papers were included in the meta-analysis and the mean (M) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of total PEth concentrations in social drinkers (DAI ≤ 60 g/die; M = 0.288 μM; CI 0.208–0.367 μM) and heavy drinkers (DAI > 60 g/die; M = 3.897 μM; CI 2.404–5.391 μM) were calculated. The present analysis demonstrates a good clinical efficiency of PEth for detecting chronic heavy drinking. PMID:23203094

  20. Effect of a Ropy Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain Orally Administered on DSS-Induced Colitis Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Margolles, Abelardo; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gálvez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bifidobacteria, particularly Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, are used in the functional food industry as promising probiotics with purported beneficial effects. We used three isogenic strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis, with different EPS producing phenotypes (mucoid-ropy and non-ropy), in order to determine their capability to survive the murine gastrointestinal tract transit, as well as to evaluate their role in improving clinical outcomes in a chemically-induced colitis model. The three strains were able to survive in the intestinal tract of C57BL/6J mice during the course of the intervention study. Furthermore, the disease activity index (DAI) of the animal group treated with the ropy strain was significantly lower than of the DAI of the placebo group at the end of the treatment. However, no significant differences were found among the three strains. The analysis of several immune parameters, such as TNFα and IL-10 quantified in blood plasma and lymphocyte populations enumerated in mesenteric nodes, showed some significant variations among the four experimental animal groups. Remarkably, a higher capability of the ropy strain to increase regulatory T-cells in mesenteric lymphoid nodes was demonstrated, suggesting a higher ability of this strain to regulate inflammatory responses at mucosal level. Our data indicate that strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis producing EPS that confer a mucoid-ropy phenotype could represent promising candidates to perform further studies targeting intestinal inflammatory processes. PMID:27375589

  1. Regulating expression of cell and tissue-specific genes by modifying transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Beachy, Roger N; Dai, Shunhong

    2010-06-14

    Transcriptional regulation is the primary step to control gene expression, therefore function. Such regulation is achieved primarily via a combination of the activities of the promoter cis regulatory DNA elements and trans regulatory proteins that function through binding to these DNA elements. Rice bZIP transcription factors RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 play key roles in regulating the activity of a vascular tissue specific promoter isolated from Rice Tungro Bacilliform Virus (RTBV), through their interactions with the Box II essential cis element located in the promoter (Dai et al., 2006., Dai et al., 2004., Yin et al., 1997). RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 possess multiple regulatory domains. Functional characterization reveals that those domains can activate or repress the activity of the RTBV promoter. It is equally as important to recognize that these proteins control plant development by regulating differentiation and/or function of the vascular tissues. Studies of transcriptional regulation of the RTBV promoter by this group of bZIP proteins will not only provide insights about gene expression in the vascular tissue, but also insights about general mechanisms of transcription activation and repression. The knowledge gained from this research will also enable us to develop a well-described set of tools that can be used to control expression of multiple genes in transgenic plants. We have proposed characterize the function domains of RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 and explore the biological function of the transcription repressor RLP1.

  2. Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 Axis-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Tang-you; Shi, Rui; Zhao, Wei-han; Guo, Yi; Gao, Kang-li; Chen, Chen; Xie, Tian-hong; Li, Jun-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction (QCWZD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription. Our previous studies have shown that QCWZD has significant efficacy in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and in colonic mucosa repair in UC rat models. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. Thus, this study was conducted to determine QCWZD's efficacy and mechanism in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced UC rat models, which were established by 7-day administration of 4.5% DSS solution. QCWZD was administered daily for 7 days, after which the rats were euthanized. Disease activity index (DAI), histological score (HS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level were determined to evaluate UC severity. Serum interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) levels were determined using ELISA kits. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were, respectively, used to determine colonic protein and gene expression of IP10, chemokine (cys-x-cys motif) receptor (CXCR)3, and nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65. Intragastric QCWZD administration ameliorated DSS-induced UC, as evidenced by decreased DAI, HS, and MPO levels. Furthermore, QCWZD decreased the protein and gene expression of IP10, CXCR3, and NF-κB p65. Overall, these results suggest that QCWZD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in rats by downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 axis-mediated inflammatory response and may be a novel UC therapy. PMID:27413386

  3. Lactobacillus fermentum BR11, a potential new probiotic, alleviates symptoms of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats.

    PubMed

    Geier, Mark S; Butler, Ross N; Giffard, Philip M; Howarth, Gordon S

    2007-03-20

    Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are relatively ineffective. Recently, probiotics have emerged as a potential treatment modality for numerous gastrointestinal disorders, including IBD. Few probiotics, however, have undergone appropriate preclinical screening in vivo. The current study compared the effects of four candidate probiotics on development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged 1 mL of the potential probiotic (1 x 10(10) CFU/mL), or vehicle, twice daily for 14 days. Strains tested were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) and Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 (BR11). Colitis was induced from day 7 to 14 via administration of 2% DSS in drinking water. Disease activity index (DAI) was monitored daily until rats were killed at day 14. DAI decreased in DSS+Bb12 and DSS+BR11 compared to DSS+Vehicle. Colon length increased in DSS+BR11 (10%) and DSS+LGG (10%) compared to DSS+Vehicle. DSS+Bb12 and DSS+BR11 prevented the distal colon crypt hyperplasia evident in DSS+Vehicle, DSS+LGG and DSS+TH-4. BR11 was most effective at reducing colitic symptoms. Bb12 had minimal effects, whilst TH-4 did not prevent DSS-colitis and LGG actually exacerbated some indicators of colitis. Further studies into the potential benefits of L. fermentum BR11 are indicated. PMID:17150273

  4. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius

    PubMed Central

    Gerin, Donato; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05) were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI) or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) and chloroperoxidase (cpo) was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome. PMID:26765536

  5. Magnetic order the iron spins in NdOFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lynn, J. W.; Li, J.; Li, G.; Chen, G. F.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Dai, Pengcheng; Dela Cruz, C.; Mook, H. A.

    2009-03-01

    Polarized and unpolarized powder neutron-diffraction measurements have been carried out to investigate the iron magnetic order in the parent compound of one of the highest Tc system, NdFeAsO. Antiferromagnetic order is observed below 141 K [1], which is in close proximity to the structural distortion observed in this material [2]. The magnetic structure consists of chains of parallel spins that are arranged antiparallel between chains, which is the same in-plane spin arrangement as observed in all the other iron oxypnictide materials. Nearest-neighbor spins along the c axis are antiparallel like LaFeAsO [3]. The ordered moment is 0.25 (7) μB, which is the smallest ordered moment found so far in these systems. [3pt] [1]Ying Chen, J. W. Lynn, J. Li, G. Li, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, Pengcheng Dai, C. dela Cruz and H. A. Mook, Phys. Rev. B 78, 064515 2008. [0pt] [2]Y. Qiu, W. Bao, Q. Huang, T. Yildirim, J. M. Simmons, M. A. Green, J.W. Lynn, Y.C. Gasparovic, J. Li, T. Wu, G. Wu, and X.H. Chen, arXiv:0806.2195 (Phys. Rev. Lett. accepted). [0pt] [3] C. dela Cruz, Q. Huang, J. W. Lynn, J. Li, W. Ratcliff II, J. L. Zarestky, H. A. Mook, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, and P. Dai, Nature 453, 899 (2008).

  6. Chemical profiling and anti-psoriatic activity of methanolic extract of Andrographis nallamalayana J.L.Ellis.

    PubMed

    Parlapally, Sunitha; Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Bhumireddy, Sudarshana Reddy; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Anisetti, Ravindernath; Giri, Charu Chandra; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao; Reddy Vudem, Dashavantha

    2016-06-01

    Andrographis nallamalayana is being widely used as tribal medicine in the treatment of leucoderma and mouth ulcers. Chemical profiling of methanolic extract of the whole plant (PE), using GC-MS and LC-MS, revealed the presence of compounds viz. α-tocopherol, β-sitosterol, tetradecanoic acid, monostearin, flavones/flavanones and their glycosides, chromones, etc. Topical application of imiquimod on the dorsal portion of male BALB/C mice resulted in the development of psoriatic symptoms (erythema, scaling, thickening and folding) with a mean disease activity index (DAI) of >7.0. Topical treatment with 100-μL PE (~6.4%/12.8%) formulations, for 12-days, resulted in the alleviation of disease symptoms. Compared to water-based formulations, emu oil-based formulation, PE400EO was found more effective in reducing the mean DAI (>84%), keratinocyte count (>65%) (p < 0.01) and interleukin-22 (~70%) (p < 0.05). We report, for the first time, anti-psoriatic activity of A. nallamalayana having great potential in developing a potent phytomedicine against psoriasis. PMID:26153074

  7. Valuing Precaution in Climate Change Policy Analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations to prevent “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI) with the global environment. This treaty language emphasizes a precautionary approach to climate change policy in a setting characterized by substantial uncertainty regarding the timing, magnitude, and impacts of climate change. In the economics of climate change, however, analysts often work with deterministic models that assign best-guess values to parameters that are highly uncertain. Such models support a “policy ramp” approach in which only limited steps should be taken to reduce the future growth of greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation will explore how uncertainties related to (a) climate sensitivity and (b) climate-change damages can be satisfactorily addressed in a coupled model of climate-economy dynamics. In this model, capping greenhouse gas concentrations at ~450 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent provides substantial net benefits by reducing the risk of low-probability, catastrophic impacts. This result formalizes the intuition embodied in the DAI criterion in a manner consistent with rational decision-making under uncertainty.

  8. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches. PMID:27597984

  9. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6–60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches. PMID:27597984

  10. Angular Impact Mitigation System for Bicycle Helmets to Reduce Head Acceleration and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M.; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p < 0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p < 0.001), and a 22% to 32% reduction in neck loading (p < 0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  11. Skeleton-and-bubble model of polyether-polyurethane elastic open-cell foams for finite element analysis at large deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuwala, Tapan; Gioia, Gustavo

    2013-03-01

    We formulate a new micromechanical model of elastic open-cell (EOC) foams. In this model, the usual skeleton of open-cell foams is supplemented by fitting a thin-walled bubble within each cavity of the skeleton, as a substitute for the membranes that occlude the "windows" of the foam cells in polyether-polyurethane EOC foams. The model has nine parameters; each parameter has a clear geometrical or mechanical significance, and its value may be readily estimated for any given foam. To calibrate the model, we carry out fully nonlinear, three-dimensional finite-element simulations of the experiments of Dai et al. (2011a), in which a set of five polyether-polyurethane EOC foams covering a range of commercially available relative densities was tested under compression along the rise direction, compression along a transverse direction, tension along the rise direction, simple shear combined with compression along the rise direction, and hydrostatic pressure combined with compression along the rise direction. We show that, with a suitable choice of the values of the parameters of the model, the model is capable of reproducing the most salient trends evinced in the experimental stress-stretch curves. Yet the model can no longer reproduce all of these trends if the bubbles be excluded from the model, and we conclude that the bubbles play a crucial role at large deformations. We also show that the stretch fields that obtain in our computational simulations are in good accord with the digital-image-correlation (DIC) measurements of Dai et al. For simple shear combined with compression along the rise direction, the DIC measurements of Dai et al. prove insufficient to our purposes, and we carry out DIC measurements of our own. To demonstrate the performance of the model in a typical application of polyether-polyurethane EOC foams, we carry out experiments and simulations of foam specimens loaded through a cylindrical punch and a spherical punch. We conclude the paper with a

  12. Comparative analysis of the structure and function of adenovirus virus-associated RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y; Mathews, M B

    1993-01-01

    The protein kinase DAI is an important component of the interferon-induced cellular defense mechanism. In cells infected by adenovirus type 2 (Ad2), activation of the kinase is prevented by the synthesis of a small, highly ordered virus-associated (VA) RNA, VA RNAI. The inhibitory function of this RNA depends on its structure, which has been partially elucidated by a combination of mutagenesis and RNase sensitivity analysis. To gain further insight into the structure and function of this regulatory RNA, we have compared the primary sequences, secondary structures, and functions of seven VA RNA species from five human and animal adenoviruses. The sequences exhibit variable degrees of homology, with a particularly close relationship between the VA RNAII species of Ad2 and Ad7 and notably divergent sequence for the avian (CELO) virus VA RNA. Apart from two pairs of mutually complementary tetranucleotides which are highly conserved, homologies are limited to transcription signals located within the RNA sequence and at its termini. Secondary structure analysis indicated that all seven RNAs conform to the model in which VA RNA possesses three main structural regions, a terminal stem, an apical stem-loop, and a central domain, although these elements vary in size and other details. The apical stem is implicated in binding to DAI, and the central domain is essential for inhibition of DAI activation. One of the pairs of conserved tetranucleotides (CCGG:C/UCGG) provides further evidence for the existence of the apical stem, but the other conserved pair (GGGU:ACCC) strongly suggests a revised structure for the central domain. In two functional assays conducted in vivo, the VA RNAI species of Ad2 and Ad7 were the most active, their corresponding VA RNAII species displayed little activity, and the single VA RNAs of Ad12 and simian adenovirus type 7 exhibited intermediate activity. Correlation of the structural and functional data suggests that the VA RNAII species adopt a

  13. Different Effects of Three Selected Lactobacillus Strains in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Wei, Hongyun; Lu, Fanggen; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Deliang; Gu, Li; Ouyang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the changes of different Lactobacillus species in ulcerative colitis patients and to further assess the therapeutic effects of selected Lactobacillus strains on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice. Methods Forty-five active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 45 population-based healthy controls were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and real-time PCR were performed for qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively, of the Lactobacillus species in UC patients. Three Lactobacillus strains from three species were selected to assess the therapeutic effects on experimental colitis. Sixty 8-week-old BALB/c mice were divided into six groups. The five groups that had received DSS were administered normal saline, mesalazine, L. fermentum CCTCC M206110 strain, L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 strain, or L. plantarum NCIMB8826 strain. We assessed the severity of colitis based on disease activity index (DAI), body weight loss, colon length, and histologic damage. Results The detection rate of four of the 11 Lactobacillus species decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the detection rate of two of the 11 Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05) in UC patients. Relative quantitative analysis revealed that eight Lactobacillus species declined significantly in UC patients (P < 0.05), while three Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05). The CCTCC M206110 treatment group had less weight loss and colon length shortening, lower DAI scores, and lower histologic scores (P < 0.05), while the CCTCC M206119 treatment group had greater weight loss and colon length shortening, higher histologic scores, and more severe inflammatory infiltration (P < 0.05). NCIMB8826 improved weight loss and colon length shortening (P < 0.05) with no significant influence on DAI and histologic damage in the colitis model. Conclusions Administration of an L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 supplement aggravated

  14. Moxibustion regulates inflammatory mediators and colonic mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tie-Ming; Xu, Na; Ma, Xian-De; Bai, Zeng-Hua; Tao, Xing; Yan, Hong-Chi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy and mechanism of grain-sized moxibustion at different acupoints in a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, UC model, grain-sized moxibustion at a single acupoint (CV 12), grain-sized moxibustion at two acupoints (CV 12 and CV 4), grain-sized moxibustion at three acupoints (CV 12, CV 4, and ST 36), and medication groups (n = 8/group). The UC model was established by enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Direct moxibustion was used once a day for 7 d. Disease activity index (DAI) was evaluated before and after the treatment. Morphologic changes of intestinal tissue were observed under an optical microscope. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) in colonic tissue was detected using Western blot, and the levels of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNAs were detected using reverse transcription PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intestinal mucosae were incomplete in the model group, glandular structures were irregular, and submucosae were edematous, hyperemic, and infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The DAI scores and expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were increased significantly in the model group compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were reduced significantly (Ps < 0.01). Compared with the model group, colonic mucosa and the arrangement of glands were complete and regular in the treatment groups. DAI scores and the expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were reduced significantly in moxibustion groups compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were increased significantly (Ps < 0.01). The improvements in the above indices in the three acupoints group and the medication group were superior to those in the single and two acupoints groups (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Reduction of TNF-α and p38MAPK and increased expression of

  15. Comparison of the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts with phytoestrogens on the reproductive physiology and sexual behavior in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Juárez-Rojas, L; Hernández, A; Romero, C; López, G; Miranda, L; Guerrero-Aguilera, A; Solano, F; Hernández, E; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-10-01

    Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) and Leucaena leucocephala are widespread legumes, widely used to feed several livestock species and as food source for human populations in several countries. Both mesquite and Leucaena contain several phytoestrogens which might have potential estrogenic effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the male rat. The effects of the extracts were compared with those of estradiol (E2) and of two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact male rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; Leucaena extract; E2; DAI; GEN. The results indicate that mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts disrupt male sexual behavior in a similar way to DAI and GEN, but less than E2. The main disruptor of sexual behavior was E2, however after 40 and 50days of administration, both extracts and phytoestrogens disrupted sexual behavior in a similar way to E2. The extracts also increased testicular germ cell apoptosis, decreased sperm quality, testicular weight, and testosterone levels, as phytoestrogens did, although these effects were less than those caused by estradiol. The number of seminiferous tubules with TUNEL-positive germ cells increased in extracts treated groups in a similar way to phytoestrogens groups, and E2 caused the greatest effect. The number of TUNEL-positive cells per tubule increased only in Leucaena extract and E2 groups, but not in mesquite- and phytoestrogens-treated groups. Spermatocytes and round spermatids were the TUNEL-positive cells observed in all experimental groups. This effect was associated with smaller testicular weights without atrophy in experimental groups compared with control. Testicular atrophy was only observed in estradiol-treated males. Testosterone decreased in males of all experimental groups, compared with control, this androgen was undetectable in E2

  16. Cross-sectional comparison of first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injections vs risperidone long-acting injection: patient-rated attitudes, satisfaction and tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sourabh Moti; Haddad, Peter M.; Husain, Nusrat; Heaney, Eamonn; Tomenson, Barbara; Chaudhry, Imran B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare patients’ attitudes and satisfaction with medication and patient-rated tolerability between those prescribed a first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection (FGA-LAI) and those prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Method: A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of outpatients prescribed an FGA-LAI or RLAI for a minimum of 6 months and attending a depot clinic. Attitudes to medication were assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), tolerability was measured by the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) and satisfaction with antipsychotic medication was assessed by the Satisfaction with Antipsychotic Medication (SWAM) scale. Results: The RLAI (n = 28) and FGA-LAI (n = 39) groups did not differ in terms of mean age, sex, diagnosis and ethnicity. All individual LAIs were prescribed within British National Formulary limits. The most commonly prescribed FGA-LAI was flupentixol decanoate (n = 22). There was no significant difference between the RLAI and FGA-LAI groups in terms of mean total scores on the DAI-30, LUNSERS and SWAM or the tolerability subscales of the LUNSERS or the two subscales (treatment acceptability and medication insight) of the SWAM. In both LAI groups there was a low level of side effects (LUNSERS) and a generally positive attitude (DAI-30) and reasonable satisfaction (SWAM) with medication. Conclusions: Patients treated with FGA-LAI and RLAI for at least 6 months did not differ in terms of patient-rated tolerability, attitudes and satisfaction with medication. The current design cannot determine whether differences would have been evident earlier on during treatment. These results should be regarded as preliminary and are subject to prescribing bias. Randomized studies avoid prescribing bias and are a superior way to compare specific LAIs. Ideally randomized studies should include patient-rated outcome measures including

  17. Association of arterial stiffness with coronary flow reserve in revascularized coronary artery disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Tritakis, Vlassis; Tzortzis, Stavros; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Dima, Kleanthi; Pavlidis, Georgios; Trivilou, Paraskevi; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Katsimaglis, Giorgos; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of arterial wave reflection with coronary flow reserve (CFR) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients after successful revascularization. METHODS: We assessed 70 patients with angiographically documented CAD who had undergone recent successful revascularization. We measured (1) reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using fingertip peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT Endo-PAT); (2) carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVc-Complior); (3) augmentation index (AIx), the diastolic area (DAI%) and diastolic reflection area (DRA) of the central aortic pulse wave (Arteriograph); (4) CFR using Doppler echocardiography; and (5) blood levels of lipoprotein-phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure parameter, lipidemic, diabetic and smoking status, we found that coronary flow reserve was independently related to AIx (b = -0.38, r = 0.009), DAI (b = 0.36, P = 0.014), DRA (b = 0.39, P = 0.005) and RT (b = -0.29, P = 0.026). Additionally, patients with CFR < 2.5 had higher PWVc (11.6 ± 2.3 vs 10.2 ± 1.4 m/s, P = 0.019), SBPc (139.1 ± 17.8 vs 125.2 ± 19.1 mmHg, P = 0.026), AIx (38.2% ± 14.8% vs 29.4% ± 15.1%, P = 0.011) and lower RHI (1.26 ± 0.28 vs 1.50 ± 0.46, P = 0.012), DAI (44.3% ± 7.9% vs 53.9% ± 6.7%, P = 0.008), DRA (42.2 ± 9.6 vs 51.6 ± 11.4, P = 0.012) and LpPLA2 (268.1 ± 91.9 vs 199.5 ± 78.4 ng/mL, P = 0.002) compared with those with CFR ≥ 2.5. Elevated LpPLA2 was related with reduced CFR (r = -0.33, P = 0.001), RHI (r = -0.37, P < 0.001) and DRA (r = -0.35, P = 0.001) as well as increased PWVc (r = 0.34, P = 0.012) and AIx (r = 0.34, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Abnormal arterial wave reflections are related with impaired coronary flow reserve despite successful revascularization in CAD patients. There is a common inflammatory link between impaired aortic wall properties, endothelial dysfunction and coronary flow impairment in CAD. PMID:26981218

  18. Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L.

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall

  19. Tracing the dispersion of sediment contaminated with fallout radionuclides along the main rivers draining the contaminated plume in Fukushima Prefecture (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, O.; Patin, J.; Lefèvre, I.; Chartin, C.; Ayrault, S.; Bonté, Ph.; Onda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident led to the release of important quantities of radionuclides into the environment. Several of those substances (e.g., Cs-134; Cs-137) strongly sorb onto soil particles. Resulting radiations lead to an external exposure threat associated with the spatial distribution of radionuclides. This threat, associated with the possibility of transfer of contamination to plants and direct ingestion of contaminated particles, will affect human activities such as agriculture, forest exploitation and fishing for long periods of time, depending on the half life of the radionuclides (e.g., 2 yrs for Cs-134; 30 yrs for Cs-137). Furthermore, sediment can be a preferential vector of contaminants in rivers, and its transfer can lead to the dispersion of radioactive contamination across larger areas over time. We present here preliminary results obtained during a field campaign conducted in November 2011 in a part of Fukushima Prefecture located in the main contamination plume and covering an area of about 5000 km2. We had the unique opportunity to measure and "trace" the dispersion of sediment contaminated with radionuclides shortly after the catastrophe. In total, 125 soil and sediment samples were collected along the main rivers of the area (i.e., Abukuma, Nitta, Mano, Kutchibuto and Hirose Rivers). This hydrological network drains the contamination plume located 20 to 80 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant. Furthermore, radiation dose rates were measured all throughout the field survey. Preliminary results show that, 8 months after the accident, radiation dose rates constitute a good proxy to trace contamination dispersion in the region, especially along rivers. Radiation dose rates varied between 0.5 µSv/h and 200 µSv/h in the field. Transfer of contaminated sediment has already started in rivers, and it was accelerated by the occurrence of violent typhoons in the region between July and October, 2011. Main gamma

  20. Identification of adducts derived from reactions of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane with nucleosides and calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Munter, Tony; Cottrell, Lisa; Hill, Stuart; Kronberg, Leif; Watson, William P; Golding, Bernard T

    2002-12-01

    (1-Chloroethenyl)oxirane is a major mutagenic metabolite of chloroprene, an important large-scale petrochemical used in the manufacture of synthetic rubbers. The reactions of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane with 2'-deoxyguanosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxycytidine, thymidine, and calf thymus DNA have been studied in aqueous buffered solutions. The adducts from the nucleosides were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC, and characterized by their UV absorbance and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric features. The reaction with 2'-deoxyguanosine gave one major adduct, N7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-guanine (dGI), and eight minor adducts which were identified as diastereoisomeric pairs of N1-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (dGII, dGIII), N3,N7-bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-guanine (dGIV, dGV), N7,N9-bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-guanine (dGVI, dGVII), and N1,N7-bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-guanine (dGVIII, dGIX). The reaction of 2'-deoxyadenosine with (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane gave two adducts: N1-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (dAI) and N(6)-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (dAII). The adduct dAII was shown to arise via a Dimroth rearrangement of adduct dAI. The HPLC analyses of the reaction mixtures of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane with 2'-deoxycytidine and thymidine showed the formation of one major product in each reaction. The adduct from 2'-deoxycytidine was identified as N3-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyuridine (dCI) derived by alkylation at N-3 followed by deamination. The adduct from thymidine was identified as N3-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-thymidine (TI). Reaction of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane with calf thymus DNA gave all of the adducts observed from the individual nucleosides except dGII and dGIII. However, there was selectivity for the formation of dGI and dCI. The adduct levels in DNA were 9,630 (dGI), 240 (dCI), 83 (dAI), 6 (dAII), and 28 (TI

  1. Novel Nitro-PAH Formation from Heterogeneous Reactions of PAHs with NO2, NO3/N2O5, and OH Radicals: Prediction, Laboratory Studies and Mutagenicity

    PubMed Central

    JARIYASOPIT, NARUMOL; INTOSH, MELISSA MC; ZIMMERMANN, KATHRYN; AREY, JANET; ATKINSON, ROGER; CHEONG, PAUL HA-YEON; CARTER, RICH G.; YU, TIAN-WEI; DASHWOOD, RODERICK H.; SIMONICH, STACI L. MASSEY

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of benzo[a]pyrene-d12 (BaP-d12), benzo[k]fluoranthene-d12 (BkF-d12), benzo[ghi]perylene-d12 (BghiP-d12), dibenzo[a,i]pyrene-d14 (DaiP-d14), and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DalP) with NO2, NO3/N2O5, and OH radicals were investigated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in an indoor Teflon chamber and novel mono NO2-DaiP, and mono NO2-DalP products were identified. Quartz fiber filters (QFF) were used as a reaction surface and the filter extracts were analyzed by GC/MS for nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs) and tested in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 (with and without metabolic activation). In parallel to the laboratory experiments, a theoretical study was conducted to rationalize the formation of NPAH isomers based on the thermodynamic stability of OH-PAH intermediates, formed from OH-radical-initiated reactions. NO2 and NO3/N2O5 were effective oxidizing agents in transforming PAHs to NPAHs, with BaP-d12 being the most readily nitrated. Reaction of BaP-d12, BkF-d12 and BghiP-d12 with NO2 and NO3/N2O5 resulted in the formation of more than one mono-nitro isomer product, while the reaction of DaiP-d14 and DalP resulted in the formation of only one mono-nitro isomer product. The direct-acting mutagenicity increased the most after NO3/N2O5 exposure, particularly for BkF-d12 in which di-NO2-BkF-d10 isomers were measured. The deuterium isotope effect study suggested that substitution of deuterium for hydrogen lowered both the direct and indirect acting mutagenicity of NPAHs and may result in an underestimation of the mutagencity of the novel NPAHs identified in this study. PMID:24350894

  2. IL-27 Found to Play Significant Role in Conferring HIV Resistance | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets specific immune cells in the body known as macrophages because these are the cells that eliminate foreign material such as bacteria or viruses. HIV is able to reproduce and spread throughout the body if it can avoid destruction by macrophages. A recent study by Lue Dai, Ph.D., and colleagues revealed that the human cytokine IL-27 helps promote the body’s production of macrophages that are resistant to HIV. The study further found that IL-27 suppresses a gene known as SPTBN1, which facilitates the survival of HIV cells. This breakthrough research was recently published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

  3. A new method for derivation of statistical weight of the Gentile Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvi, Sevilay; Uncu, Haydar

    2015-10-01

    We present a new method for obtaining the statistical weight of the Gentile Statistics. In a recent paper, Perez and Tun presented an approximate combinatoric and an exact recursive formula for the statistical weight of Gentile Statistics, beginning from bosonic and fermionic cases, respectively Hernandez-Perez and Tun (2007). In this paper, we obtain two exact, one combinatoric and one recursive, formulae for the statistical weight of Gentile Statistics, by another approach. The combinatoric formula is valid only for special cases, whereas recursive formula is valid for all possible cases. Moreover, for a given q-maximum number of particles that can occupy a level for Gentile statistics-the recursive formula we have derived gives the result much faster than the recursive formula presented in Hernandez-Perez and Tun (2007), when one uses a computer program. Moreover we obtained the statistical weight for the distribution proposed by Dai and Xie (2009).

  4. Superconducting proximity effect in superconductor / semiconducting-carbon-nanotube / superconductor junctions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbara, Paola

    2005-03-01

    We measure the proximity effect in devices made of two superconducting electrodes bridged by a 3-micrometer long semiconducting carbon nanotube. The electrodes are made of a Pd/Nb bilayer and the junctions are fabricated by using standard photolithography [1]. The superconducting proximity effect manifests itself with a peak in the low-bias differential conductance due to Andreev reflection at the superconductor/carbon nanotube interfaces. Application of a gate voltage allows the transparency of the junction to be tuned from high (Andreev reflection) to low (tunneling) [2]. We have studied the temperature dependence of the features in each regime. This work is supported by the NSF (DMR-0239721) and by the Research Corporation. [1] A. Tselev, K. Hatton, M. S. Fuhrer, M. Paranjape and P. Barbara, Nanotechnology 15, 1475 (2004). [2] A. F. Morpurgo, J. Kong, C. M. Marcus, and H. Dai, Science 286, 263 (1999).

  5. Development and Operation of the D-Grid Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieseler, Thomas; Gűrich, Wolfgang

    D-Grid is the German national grid initiative, granted by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. In this paper we present the Core D-Grid which acts as a condensation nucleus to build a production grid and the latest developments of the infrastructure. The main difference compared to other international grid initiatives is the support of three middleware systems, namely LCG/gLite, Globus, and UNICORE for compute resources. Storage resources are connected via SRM/dCache and OGSA-DAI. In contrast to homogeneous communities, the partners in Core D-Grid have different missions and backgrounds (computing centres, universities, research centres), providing heterogeneous hardware from single processors to high performance supercomputing systems with different operating systems. We present methods to integrate these resources and services for the DGrid infrastructure like a point of information, centralized user and virtual organization management, resource registration, software provision, and policies for the implementation (firewalls, certificates, user mapping).

  6. The importance of water control to PEM fuel cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Cisar, A.; Murphy, O.J.; Simpson, S.F.

    1996-12-31

    All membranes currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells have sulfonate (-SO{sub 3}{sup -}) groups as the anionic functionalities attached to the backbone of the polymer electrolyte. As a consequence of this fact, all PEM membranes depend on the presence of water in the electrolyte to facilitate proton transport. This includes perfluorinated membranes, such as Nafion{reg_sign} (DuPont), and Gore Select{trademark} (W. L. Gore), partially fluorinated membranes, such as the Ballard membrane, which is a derivatized trifluorostyrene, non-fluorinated membranes, including both sulfonated polyparaphenylene (Maxdem`s Poly-X{trademark}) and sulfonated styrene-butadiene (DAIS), and the various grafted materials that have been described in the literature. In every case, without water, the proton conductivity of the membrane is insufficient to support fuel cell operation.

  7. [The version and academic characteristics of Mai jue kan wu (Correcting Errors in Pulse Study in Verse)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianjü; Hu, Fanglin; Xiang, Chen

    2014-09-01

    Mai jue kan wu (Correcting Errors in Pulse Study in Verse) was written by Dai Qizong of the Yuan Dynasty without block-printing when completed. It was reviewed and checked by Wang Ji, attached with the main discourses on pulse taking from various scholars of pulse taking and Jiao shi huo mai lun (On Pulse-taking with Corrections on Its Popular Difficult Issues) and was block-printed in 1523. This book corrects the fallacies on the descriptions of pulse shape and pulse body reflecting its underlying diseases appeared in Mai jue (Pulse Study in Verse), refutes its classification of the so-called "Seven exterior", "Eight interior" and "Nine dao (channels)". It also creates the measures for the studies of pulse-taking, including "differentiating, combining, doubling, comparing and classifying". PMID:25579217

  8. Accumulation of accident-derived radiocesium in lake and coastal sediments at 300-700 km distance from Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, S; Miyata, Y; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Murakami, T; Nishimura, S; Itono, T; Suzuki, T; Hamataka, K; Kawano, Y; Hamajima, Y; Kashiwaya, K

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of accident-derived radiocesium was investigated in nine water bodies located 300-700 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). (134)Cs from the accident was detected in surface sediment of five water bodies. The (134)Cs concentration, corrected to the time of the accident in 2011, was generally lower than that of (137)Cs, and its spatial pattern does not fully correspond to that of (137)Cs. These results suggest that radiocesium derived from both FDNPP and past global fallout can be separately observed and that the contributions of both sources are non-uniform within these sites. The (134)Cs inventory in surface sediments is smaller than its deposition, suggesting that almost all deposited (134)Cs remains within the catchment and/or a part has been discharged from the saline and brackish water bodies. PMID:25953793

  9. Profile of traditional birth attendants in a rural area of north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, A

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred traditional birth attendants (TBAs) of a community development block of India were interviewed. The majority were age 45 years or above (81%), illiterate (85%), and of low caste (78%). Most (88%) had three or more children. Although 27% had inherited the profession from older female relatives, only 4% have daughters or daughters-in-law in the profession. Almost half (48%) had conducted 11 or more deliveries in last year. The TBAs charged more money to deliver a male infant than to deliver a female. The TBA workforce in India appears to be shrinking, possibly because of gradual reduction in family size. Backup support from state maternal health care services is lacking. Existing cadre of TBAs should be involved in primary health care to ensure the survival of the institution of dais (TBAs) and to ensure the availability of basic maternity services to rural women. PMID:8027848

  10. IL-27 Found to Play Significant Role in Conferring HIV Resistance | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets specific immune cells in the body known as macrophages because these are the cells that eliminate foreign material such as bacteria or viruses. HIV is able to reproduce and spread throughout the body if it can avoid destruction by macrophages. A recent study by Lue Dai, Ph.D., and colleagues revealed that the human cytokine IL-27 helps promote the body’s production of macrophages that are resistant to HIV. The study further found that IL-27 suppresses a gene known as SPTBN1, which facilitates the survival of HIV cells. This breakthrough research was recently published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

  11. Molecular responses of Lotus japonicus to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Yukihiro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Lotus japonicus genes responsive to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica were isolated by using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy. O. aegyptiaca and S. hermonthica parasitism specifically induced the expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and phytoalexin biosynthesis, respectively. Nodulation-related genes were almost exclusively found among the Orobanche-induced genes. Temporal gene expression analyses revealed that 19 out of the 48 Orobanche-induced genes and 5 out of the 48 Striga-induced genes were up-regulated at 1 dai. Four genes, including putative trypsin protease inhibitor genes, exhibited systemic up-regulation in the host plant parasitized by O. aegyptiaca. On the other hand, S. hermonthica attachment did not induce systemic gene expression. PMID:19088337

  12. Reference levels in the context of Fukushima and related lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    About 1 mo after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, which was caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, Japanese authorities set a dose criterion for the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima at 20 mSv y⁻¹ based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendation for the reference level for the public under the existing exposure situation. This dose criterion was intended as a start line for reducing the dose to children; however, it caused much confusion among the public due to the misunderstanding of the concept of optimization and the application of reference level. Also, concerns were caused by the lack of precise but understandable information on radiation effects. This situation highlighted the importance of an understanding of radiation protection concepts by members of the general public and the outreach activities of radiation protection experts, both of which are essential for Fukushima recovery. PMID:24077049

  13. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue. PMID:24165695

  14. Forecast of a Daily Halo CME Occurrence Probability Depending on Class and Area Change of the Associated Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kangjin; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Jin-Yi

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the halo (partial and full) coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrence probability depending on class and area change of the associated sunspot using front-side halo CMEs from 1996 to 2011. We select the most halo CME-productive 14 sunspot classifications: Cao, Cko, Dai, Dao, Dko, Dki, Dkc, Eao, Eai, Eko, Eki, Ekc, Fki, and Fkc. For each class, we assign three subgroups according to sunspot class area change: "Decrease", "Steady", or "Increase". As a result, in the case of asymmetric (k) and compact (c) groups, their CME occurrence probabilities increase. We also find that the halo-CME occurrence probabilities for the "Increase" subgroups are noticeably higher than those for the other subgroups. Our results demonstrate statistically that magnetic-flux emergence or cancellation enhances CME occurrence. We expect that this model can be routinely operated to forecast the halo-CME occurrence probability.

  15. Risk assessment of radioisotope contamination for aquatic living resources in and around Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Shiro; Morita, Takami; Eguchi, Shinto

    2016-04-01

    Food contamination caused by radioisotopes released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant is of great public concern. The contamination risk for food items should be estimated depending on the characteristics and geographic environments of each item. However, evaluating current and future risk for food items is generally difficult because of small sample sizes, high detection limits, and insufficient survey periods. We evaluated the risk for aquatic food items exceeding a threshold of the radioactive cesium in each species and location using a statistical model. Here we show that the overall contamination risk for aquatic food items is very low. Some freshwater biota, however, are still highly contaminated, particularly in Fukushima. Highly contaminated fish generally tend to have large body size and high trophic levels. PMID:26929347

  16. Some observations on perinatal mortality in rural health centre.

    PubMed

    Damodar; Mathur, H N; Sharma, P N

    1983-01-01

    A 4-year study of perinatal mortality in Rural Health Training Centre, Vallabhnagar, affiliated to R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur was conducted. The chief objective of the study was to analyze underlying causes of perinatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was calculated to be 74.19/100 births. Age and parity of mother and sex of the child did not affect perinatal mortality significantly. Antenatal care of mother had a significant role in determining fetal outcome and 1st week survival. Fate of the newborn was substantially affected by birth weight less than 2 kg. Training of "dais" in view of identification of "at risk" cases and nutrition education, better facilities in terms of personnel and equipment, and improvement in referral services emerged as necessary steps needed to plan strategy for lowering perinatal mortaltiy in rural areas. PMID:6680112

  17. Neglected puerperal inversion of the uterus: ignorance makes acute a chronic form.

    PubMed

    Minakshi, Sardha; Shivani, Atri; Arshad, Anjum

    2012-01-01

    Inversion of uterus is a rare complication of vaginal delivery. The reported incidence of puerperal inversion varies from approximately 1 in 550 to 1 in several thousand normal deliveries. Maternal mortality has been reported to be as high as 15%, mainly because of associated life threatening blood loss and shock. Early diagnosis, prompt and aggressive management decrease the morbidity and mortality to minimal. We report a case of 21 year old primi, who presented to us with uterine inversion after delivery at a rural set up by untrained birth attendant ("Dai"). She was managed surgically with Haultain's operation and discharged after 5 days. She didn't turn up for follow up and was readmitted after 4 weeks with uterine reinversion associated with endometritis. A recent case is described, followed by a short review of literature. PMID:23077710

  18. Energy situations in Japan before and after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, K.

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the various effects on the public conception on nuclear energy and more generally on energy policies in Japan due to the nuclear accident that occurred on 11th March 2011 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station, which is owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Before the accident, nuclear energy had been conceived as the main energy source of electricity in Japan for reducing CO2 emission beyond 2020. However, public opinion has turned almost completely against nuclear energy after observing how vulnerable the nuclear system had been. The present Japanese government is now trying to buy time before taking a decision. After explaining these circumstances, the author tries to chart his personal projection of energy sources for Japan to 2050.

  19. [On Annotation on the Names and Syndromes of Ancient Diseases, with textual research on"dian (depressive psychosis)","kuang (manic psychosis)", and"xian (epilepsy)"].

    PubMed

    Li, Z H; Wang, Y L

    2016-01-28

    The book Gu dai ji bing ming hou shu yi (Annotation on the Names and Syndromes of Ancient Diseases) written by Yu Yunxiu holds that dian can be divided into two conditions, namely, epilepsy and manic psychosis. By analysis on related materials in ancient lexicographical works, ancient medical books and other ancient books, it reveals that dian and kuang are two very different diseases, but dian and xian refer to the same conditions. Dian was the special name of a disease, while xian was a stage of syndrome of that disease with typical symptoms. Dian and xian might also refer to two different types of that disease. Dian always refers to epilepsy from its very beginning besides cephalopathy, including both mental symptom and physical symptom. PMID:27049739

  20. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

  1. Programmed necrosis in the Cross Talk of Cell Death and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Francis Ka-Ming; Luz, Nivea Farias; Moriwaki, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are integral elements in maintaining homeostatic balance in metazoans. Disease pathologies ensue when these processes are disturbed. A plethora of evidence indicates that malfunction of cell death can lead to inflammation, autoimmunity or immuno-deficiency. Programmed necrosis or necroptosis is a form of non-apoptotic cell death driven by the receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and its substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). RIPK3 partners with its upstream adaptors RIPK1, TRIF or DAI to signal for necroptosis in response to death receptor or toll-like receptor stimulation, pathogen infection, or sterile cell injury. Necroptosis promotes inflammation through leakage of cellular contents from damaged plasma membrane. Intriguingly, many of the signal adaptors of necroptosis have dual functions in innate immune signaling. This unique signature illustrates the cooperative nature of necroptosis and innate inflammatory signaling pathways in managing cell and organismal stresses from pathogen infection and sterile tissue injury. PMID:25493335

  2. Cooperating intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Some of the issues connected to the development of a bureaucratic system are discussed. Emphasis is on a layer multiagent approach to distributed artificial intelligence (DAI). The division of labor in a bureaucracy is considered. The bureaucratic model seems to be a fertile model for further examination since it allows for the growth and change of system components and system protocols and rules. The first part of implementing the system would be the construction of a frame based reasoner and the appropriate B-agents and E-agents. The agents themselves should act as objects and the E-objects in particular should have the capability of taking on a different role. No effort was made to address the problems of automated failure recovery, problem decomposition, or implementation. Instead what has been achieved is a framework that can be developed in several distinct ways, and which provides a core set of metaphors and issues for further research.

  3. Localized temporal variation of Earth's inner-core boundary from high-quality waveform doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    The accurate determination of the topography of an Earth's internal boundary is difficult because of the possible trade-off with the velocity of the media above it. Here we use waveform-doublet method to map the ICB topography. A waveform doublet is a pair of earthquakes occurring at essentially the same spatial position and received by the same station with high similarity in their waveforms (Poupinet et al. 1984), which make the exact detection of the ICB topography possible. In this study, we used this method to detect temporal change of the ICB using doublets from the Western Pacific (WP) area to increase global coverage of the ICB. Compared with previous study using doublets from South Sandwich Islands (SSI) (Song and Dai, 2008), the new samples showed negligible temporal change of the ICB.

  4. Risk assessment of radioisotope contamination for aquatic living resources in and around Japan

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Shiro; Morita, Takami; Eguchi, Shinto

    2016-01-01

    Food contamination caused by radioisotopes released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant is of great public concern. The contamination risk for food items should be estimated depending on the characteristics and geographic environments of each item. However, evaluating current and future risk for food items is generally difficult because of small sample sizes, high detection limits, and insufficient survey periods. We evaluated the risk for aquatic food items exceeding a threshold of the radioactive cesium in each species and location using a statistical model. Here we show that the overall contamination risk for aquatic food items is very low. Some freshwater biota, however, are still highly contaminated, particularly in Fukushima. Highly contaminated fish generally tend to have large body size and high trophic levels. PMID:26929347

  5. Deleterious effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparations on the course of psoriasis--a case report.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Aldona; Bartosińska, Joanna; Dreiher, Jacob; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Podhorecka, Monika; Chodorowska, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic and difficult to treat condition which negatively affects the patient's quality of life. Frustrated and unsatisfied with the conventional therapies, psoriatic patients start looking for alternative treatment which they believe to be safe and effective. Very common traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) appears to offer various topical and systemic herbal preparations, as well as massages, acupuncture, diet and lifestyle alternations. The presented study concerns a 48-year-old female patient with exacerbated psoriatic skin lesions (tending to become erythrodermic), and certain systemic complications that appeared after taking a TCM herbal medication, Fu Fang Quing Dai Wan, as well as the use of a Chinese herbal bath gel and staying on a diet rich in meat. After in vitro examinations were made of the herbal preparation and its biological properties determined, it was concluded that the TCM herbal preparation should not be considered harmless. Therefore, patients should be made aware of its adverse reactions. PMID:24364460

  6. [Textual research of Bencaogangmu Yizhilu].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Wang, Xu-Guang; Deng, Yong; Zhao, Li; Xu, Shi-Hai; Zhang, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Ruo-Ting

    2012-03-01

    Bencaogangmu Yizhilu was compiled by DAI Baoyuan according to Bencao Gangmu in the late Qing dynasty. Due to the limited circulation of the book, it was little studied by people in later ages. Errors could be found concerning the book's content, editions and the author's life. After in-depth research, we concluded that the author's name was Baoyuan (courtesy name Xintian and pseudonym Shouyu). He was born about in 1818 and the year of death was unclear. Compilation of the book was completed in 1885 and the book was published in 1887. Recording 2240 kinds of herbs, the book included 8 volumes, 7 of which were text and the 8(th) volume was the index. It has two editions-the Wu Yuansi added Shanfang printed edition (the 13th year of the Guangxu Period, 1887) and the copy edition of the Qing dynasty. PMID:22782029

  7. Effects of tides on Riverine and Glacial freshwater transport in the Arctic Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luneva, Maria; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Harle, James; Holt, Jason

    2016-04-01

    In this study we use a novel pan-Arctic sea NENO-shelf ice-ocean coupled model, to examine the effects of tides, river runoff and vertical mixing schemes on sea ice and the mixing of water masses. Several 20-year long (1990-2010) simulations were performed: with explicitly resolved tides and without any tidal dynamics, with climatology river runoff, Dai et al. ,2009 database and freshwater source from melting Greenland glaciers. We examine also three different turbulent closures structural functions, based on the k-epsilon version of the Generic Length Scale Model: by Canuto group (2001) and two by Kantha and Clayson (1994, 2004). The results have been compared with sea ice volume and concentration trends and temperature and salinity profiles from World Ocean Database . We compared the following characteristics: potential energy anomalies, depth of halocline, mixed layer depth , salinity at the subsurface layer.

  8. Experimental realization of quantized anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qi-Kun

    2014-03-01

    Anomalous Hall effect was discovered by Edwin Hall in 1880. In this talk, we report the experimental observation of the quantized version of AHE, the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 magnetic topological insulator. At zero magnetic field, the gate-tuned anomalous Hall resistance exhibits a quantized value of h /e2 accompanied by a significant drop of the longitudinal resistance. The longitudinal resistance vanishes under a strong magnetic field whereas the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value. The realization of QAHE paves a way for developing low-power-consumption electronics. Implications on observing Majorana fermions and other exotic phenomena in magnetic topological insulators will also be discussed. The work was collaborated with Ke He, Yayu Wang, Xucun Ma, Xi Chen, Li Lv, Dai Xi, Zhong Fang and Shoucheng Zhang.

  9. Multipurpose council chambers ``in the round'' poses acoustical challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logsdon, Edward L.

    2003-10-01

    The City of Aurora Council Chambers is used for both municipal and public meetings. The room is configured to provide close-in seating with good sightlines from each of the 300 stadium-style seats. Presentations can be made from the central podium location to either the audience or council dais requiring multiple loudspeaker zoning and control. The cylindrical ceiling, shaped to accommodate video projection and lighting equipment, is acoustically treated to eliminate late reflections. The City Council meetings are broadcast to public TV on a regular basis from this room requiring good room acoustics and sound isolation to reduce echo and achieve acceptably low background noise levels while satisfying the aesthetic palette of the interior designers. A case history will be presented along with photographs showing how specialty wood materials, both absorptive and diffusive, were incorporated along with absorptive plaster and cloth-covered fiberglass panels into the design of the building.

  10. Tracking the origin and dispersion of contaminated sediments transported by rivers draining the Fukushima radioactive contaminant plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, H.; Evrard, O.; Onda, Y.; Chartin, C.; Lefevre, I.; Sophie, A.; Bonte, P.

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted in several catchments draining the main Fukushima Dai-ichi Power Plant contaminant plume in Fukushima prefecture, Japan. We collected soils and sediment drape deposits (n = 128) and investigated the variation in 137Cs enrichment during five sampling campaigns, conducted every six months, which typically occurred after intense erosive events such as typhoons and snowmelt. We show that upstream contaminated soils are eroded during summer typhoons (June-October) before being exported during the spring snowmelt (March-April). However, this seasonal cycle of sediment dispersion is further complicated by the occurrence of dam releases that may discharge large amounts of contaminants to the coastal plains during the coming years.

  11. New species and records of Burmagomphus Williamson, 1907 (Odonata, Gomphidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Kosterin, Oleg E; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of Burmagomphus Williamson, 1907 are described from Southwestern China: B. apricus sp. nov. from Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, Menglun Town, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province; B. magnus sp. nov. from Huayudong, Nanxi Town, Hekou County, Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Honghe, Yunnan Province, B. dentatus sp. nov. from Zhangjiang River in Xiaoqikong scenic spot, altitude 400 m, Libo County, Guizhou Province, and B. latescens sp. nov. from Sifangjing, Mengding Town, Gengma County, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. New records of Burmagomphus spp. in China are provided, with B. asahinai and B. williamsoni williamsoni for the first time reported from China. A revised checklist of Burmagomhus spp. of China is provided which includes 14 species. A doubtful record of B. arboreus and relations of the newly described species are discussed. All types are deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. PMID:26250326

  12. KSC-03PD-2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut John H. Glenn (at podium) presents former astronaut Robert 'Hoot' Gibson (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (left), and former astronauts Sally K. Ride and Daniel Brandenstein (right), both inducted into the Hall of Fame today. Also being inducted is Space Shuttle astronaut Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  13. KSC-03PD-2025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert 'Hoot' Gibson (at podium) addresses the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen and former astronaut John H. Glenn. Also being inducted with Gibson are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  14. Development of defect inspection and repair systems for EPL mask infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Jiro; Iriki, Nobuyuki; Arimoto, Hiroshi

    2004-12-01

    Selete is developing a series of defect inspection and repair systems for electron projection lithography (EPL) stencil mask infrastructure, that includes tools and software development, and also verification by EPL exposure systems. The work is carried out in collaboration with Dai Nippon Printing, Toppan Printing and HOYA. A system for defect inspection of EPL stencil mask is developed with TOKYO SEIMITSU and HOLON. Another system for defect repairs is developed with SII NanoTechnology. The performances of these systems need to be verified for their further improvement and optimization. In this paper, we verified a series of defect inspection and repair systems through a sequential process. We can say that EPL mask infrastructure is established and our work has made significant contribution to it.

  15. Quality evaluation of Lippmann-type hologram using CGH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Tsuyoshi; Kurashige, Makio; Kumasawa, Tomoko; Kitamura, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Masachika; Ueda, Kenji

    2008-02-01

    Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. (DNP, Tokyo, Japan) has succeeded in recording Lippmann holograms with an image of Computer-Generated Holograms (CGHs). As Lippmann holograms are usually made by real three-dimensional object, design variation of the objects are restricted by the possibility of manufacturing the object. On the other hand, as CGHs are made by computer graphics (CG), many different kinds of virtual images can be built into holographic images. Also, it has very fine resolution because it is made by the Electron-Beam lithography system. By incorporating the image expression of the CGH into Lippmann hologram, we have developed a new hologram combining both CGHs and the Lippmann holograms.

  16. Development of peripheral materials for color graphic arts holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtaki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masachika; Kodama, Daijiro; Noujima, Fumiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2000-03-01

    Dai Nippon Printing is the first company in the world to succeed in the mass production of full-color 3D Lippmann type holograms, which are marketed under the name of TRUE IMAGETM. TRUE IMAGETM labels consist of a panchromatic photopolymer material and pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). This new medium is expected to have wide application in various fields, such as publishing, labels for authentication, and so on. For commercial use, TRUE IMAGETM labels require high-quality PSAs. In this study, two new PSAs and a new layer structure were developed. One PSA provides TRUE IMAGETM labels with good environmental stability, and the other adjusts the playback wavelengths. These two PSAs together with a new layer structure have enabled the development of a new type of TRUE IMAGETM label for security applications.

  17. [Radioactive caesium contamination in Inago and sustainability of Inago cuisine in Fukushima].

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Ryota; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Saeki, Shinjiro; Uchiyama, Sho-ichi; Yoshida, Makoto; Takamatsu, Yuki; Fugo, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Inago (edible grasshoppers, Oxya spp.) was a popular food in the Fukushima area, before the reactor accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011. We investigated the radioactivity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 contained in Inago captured in Sukagawa, Motomiya, Inawashiro, Date, and Iidate in Fukushima prefecture in 2011 and 2012. The maximum combined radioactivity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Inago was 60.7 Bq/kg, which is below the maximum permitted level (100 Bq/kg) in foods established by the government of Japan in April 2012. Furthermore, conventional cooking processes decreased the radioactivity in cooked Inago to under 15.8 Bq/kg, a quarter of that in uncooked Inago. Therefore, we concluded that the health risk of eating Inago is low. PMID:24389472

  18. [Brief history of cosmetology in the imperial palace of China].

    PubMed

    Li, C; Li, J; Liu, D

    2001-07-01

    The development of Chinese Palace's cosmetology is divided into three periods. It is in its embryonic stage that from the Xia to the Western Jin. The drugs and perfumes related to cosmetology were taken seriously by the Palace. The formulation of facial beauty was established. From the Eastern Jin to the end of Tang Dynasty was the forming periods. Cosmetology has been fully developed, and became the physical civilization which could enjoy by both nobels and common people. The developing and enriching time was from the Wu Dai to the end of the Qing Dynasty. The theory of cosmetology achieved a great development. The number of prescriptions of the Palace's cosmetology were increased greatly. PMID:11762371

  19. Super-PIRE: International Consortium for Proving Novel Superconducors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Yasutomo

    2012-02-01

    The Super-PIRE project aims to study high-Tc cuprates, FeAs, heavy-ferimon and other unconventional superconductors by using neutron scattering, muon spin relaxation, X-ray scattering, optical conductivity, ARPES and STM measurements in international collaboration. The project includes US PI's Billinge, Pasupathy, Uemura (Columbia), amd Dai (UTK/ORNL), Project Patner (PP) Balatsky (LANL), and foreign PI's Uchida, Tajima, Maekawa, Eisaki (Japan), Hayden (UK), Wang (China), Luke (Canada), and about 40 additional ``Local Experts'' from institutions of the PI/PP's. In this talk, we introduce the organization of the project, initial scientific products including 4 papers published in Nature group journals, and the out-reach effort centered in organizing special graduate and undergraduate courses at Columbia recorded as voice-synchronized ppt presentations, and then broadcasted in a class-room of Tokyo University. Homepage address: http://www.phys.utk.edu/superpire/members.html

  20. KSC-03PD-2021

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, Buzz Aldrin, Walter Cunningham, Edgar B. Mitchell, and Fred W. Haise, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  1. KSC-03PD-2019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (right) presents former astronaut Sally K. Ride (standing center) at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais are, from left, former astronauts John H. Glenn, Gordon Cooper, Buzz Aldrin, and Walter Cunningham, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  2. KSC-03PD-2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) applauds former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, and Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  3. KSC-03PD-2017

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) greets former astronaut Story Musgrave (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also seated on the dais are, from left, former astronaut and Senator John H. Glenn, astronaut and Associate Director (Technical) of the Johnson Space Center John W. Young, and former astronaut Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Musgrave are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  4. Influence of radiocesium transfer and decontamination on ambient dose in Japanese forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of post-depositional migration of radiocesium and decontamination on ambient dose rate in Japanese forest environment following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We measured cesium-137 deposition from canopy to forest floor in association with rainfall and litterfall in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine). We also measured temporal evolution of ambient dose rate at different height in each forest site. Radiocesium inventory balance in each forest component (e.g., canopy, litter and mineral soil layer) were established to determine causes of the measured changes of ambient dose rate in three forest sites. Furthermore, we assessed influence of forest decontamination (removal of organic layer of forest floor) on spatial pattern of radiocesium at the forest floor and reduction of ambient dose rate.

  5. Uterine inversion after an unskilled delivery - still a concern for maternal mortality: A case report and discussion of the related medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Monisha; Barwa, Jyoti; Baraw, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Uterine inversion is a life-threatening medical emergency, which can result in fatal shock and sudden unexpected death during and after delivery. Most cases of uterine inversion occur due to mismanagement of the third stage of labour. We report a case of sudden death occurring post full-term vaginal delivery conducted by a traditional birth attendant (TBA) popularly known as dai. Autopsy revealed signs of haemorrhage and shock due to an inverted uterus. This emergency medical condition, though frequently fatal, can be treated if prompt action is taken by a trained and skilled obstetrician, preventing morbidity and mortality. We discuss the incidence, aetiology, symptomatology, complications and the management of uterine inversion. We also review the capability and eligibility of TBAs in handling such obstetrical emergencies, along with their culpability, if any, in such cases of negligence as per the applicable statutes. PMID:26232213

  6. Dehumidifying Air for Cooling & Refrigeration: Nanotechnology Membrane-based Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Dais is developing a product called NanoAir which dehumidifies the air entering a building to make air conditioning more energy efficient. The system uses a polymer membrane that allows moisture but not air to pass through it. A vacuum behind the membrane pulls water vapor from the air, and a second set of membranes releases the water vapor outside. The membrane’s high selectivity translates into reduced energy consumption for dehumidification. Dais’ design goals for NanoAir are the use of proprietary materials and processes and industry-standard installation techniques. NanoAir is also complementary to many other energy saving strategies, including energy recovery.

  7. Boehmeria nivea Attenuates the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun Ju; Sung, Mi Jeong; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2014-01-01

    We examined the therapeutic effect of an ethanol extract derived from Boehmeria nivea (Linn.) Gaudich in a mouse model of experimental colitis. Treatment with 70% ethanol extract derived from B. nivea (EBN) at a dose of 100, 200, or 500 mg/(kg·d) improved colon shortening, body weight, the disease activity index (DAI), and histopathological score of DSS-induced colitis mice. DSS significantly increased the levels of cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 in colon tissue relative to that of the untreated control group. EBN administered at 100, 200, or 500 mg/(kg·d) reduced COX-2 levels in the DSS-treated mice. In addition, EBN decreased the DSS-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Taken together, these data suggest that B. nivea extract is effective in preventing colitis. PMID:25045208

  8. Characteristics and verification of a car-borne survey system for dose rates in air: KURAMA-II.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, S; Yoshida, T; Tsutsumi, M; Saito, K

    2015-01-01

    The car-borne survey system KURAMA-II, developed by the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, has been used for air dose rate mapping after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. KURAMA-II consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, a GPS device, and a control device for data processing. The dose rates monitored by KURAMA-II are based on the G(E) function (spectrum-dose conversion operator), which can precisely calculate dose rates from measured pulse-height distribution even if the energy spectrum changes significantly. The characteristics of KURAMA-II have been investigated with particular consideration to the reliability of the calculated G(E) function, dose rate dependence, statistical fluctuation, angular dependence, and energy dependence. The results indicate that 100 units of KURAMA-II systems have acceptable quality for mass monitoring of dose rates in the environment. PMID:24698118

  9. Multi-sensor radiation detection, imaging, and fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Glenn Knoll was one of the leaders in the field of radiation detection and measurements and shaped this field through his outstanding scientific and technical contributions, as a teacher, his personality, and his textbook. His Radiation Detection and Measurement book guided me in my studies and is now the textbook in my classes in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley. In the spirit of Glenn, I will provide an overview of our activities at the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program reflecting some of the breadth of radiation detection technologies and their applications ranging from fundamental studies in physics to biomedical imaging and to nuclear security. I will conclude with a discussion of our Berkeley Radwatch and Resilient Communities activities as a result of the events at the Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan more than 4 years ago.

  10. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and (137)Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. PMID:25113169

  11. Evaluation and improvement on external-hazard proof of JSFR fuel handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, A.; Chikazawa, Y.; Uzawa, M.

    2012-07-01

    Responding to the the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1F-NPP) accident, the earthquake and the tsunami proof of the fuel handling system (FHS) in Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) is studied. In the earthquake proof estimation, the margin of seismic resistance against the earthquake of the 1F-envelop condition and the sloshing behavior in the EVST is estimated. In terms of the tsunami proof, the scenario to lead fuel subassemblies into the stable cooling state and the potential of the cooling system is introduced in case of loss of the emergency power supply. As a result, it is clear that JSFR FHS originally could already be prepared to have the potential to prevent the release of radioactive material. (authors)

  12. Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident is covered by forest. To facilitate effective countermeasure strategies to mitigate forest contamination, we simulated the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited into Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The simulation revealed that the radiocesium inventories in tree and soil surface organic layer components drop rapidly during the first two years after the fallout. Over a period of one to two years, the radiocesium is predicted to move from the tree and surface organic soil to the mineral soil, which eventually becomes the largest radiocesium reservoir within forest ecosystems. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be considered, the results provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident. PMID:23995073

  13. Global gene expression profiling of two switchgrass cultivars following inoculation with Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN.

    PubMed

    Lara-Chavez, Alejandra; Lowman, Scott; Kim, Seonhwa; Tang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jiyi; Udvardi, Michael; Nowak, Jerzy; Flinn, Barry; Mei, Chuansheng

    2015-07-01

    Improvement and year-to-year stabilization of biomass yields are primary objectives for the development of a low-input switchgrass feedstock production system using microbial endophytes. An earlier investigation of the effect of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN on switchgrass germplasm demonstrated differential responses between genotypes. PsJN inoculation of cv. Alamo (lowland ecotype) increased the plant root system, shoot length, and biomass yields, whereas it had no beneficial effect on cv. Cave-in-Rock (upland ecotype). To understand the gene networks governing plant growth promotion responses triggered by PsJN, the gene expression profiles were analysed in these two hosts, following seedling inoculation. The Affymetrix platform switchgrass expressed sequence tag (EST) microarray chip representing 122 972 probe sets, developed by the DOE BioEnergy Science Center, was employed to assess transcript abundance at 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 DAI (days after PsJN inoculation). Approximately 20 000 switchgrass probe sets showed significant responses in either cultivar. Switchgrass identifiers were used to map 19 421 genes in MapMan software. There were apparent differences in gene expression profiling between responsive and non-responsive cultivars after PsJN inoculation. Overall, there were 14 984 and 9691 genes affected by PsJN inoculation in Alamo and Cave-in-Rock, respectively. Of these, 394 are annotated as pathogenesis-related genes. In the responsive cv. Alamo, 68 pathogenesis-related genes were affected, compared with only 10 in the non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock. At the very early stage at 0.5 DAI, both cultivars exhibited similar recognition and defence responses, such as genes in signalling and proteolysis, after which the defence reaction in the responsive cv. Alamo became weaker while it was sustained in non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock. PMID:25788737

  14. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Leufen, Georg; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai) from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei). Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of different excitation

  15. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses statistically

  16. Evaluation of the effect of Punica granatum juice and punicalagin on NFκB modulation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tanmay A; Parikh, Mihir; Patel, Kirti V; Patel, Kalpana G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Gandhi, Tejal R

    2016-08-01

    Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the modulation of cellular transcription factors and signaling proteins. No pharmacological work is reported on the effects of P. granatum juice on the cellular signaling pathways involved in initiation and progression of inflammation. The present investigation evaluates the effect of P. granatum juice (PJ) and purified punicalagin (PW) on nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the signaling pathways leading to its expression in colon inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: positive and negative control, vehicle (50 % ethanol), standard (5-ASA 100 mg/kg, p.o.), PJ (400 mg/kg, p.o.), PW (4 mg/kg, p.o.). Colitis was induced with 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and animals were euthanized on 18th day. Colon samples collected were subjected to various histological assessment (CMDI, DAI), and biochemical parameters (MPO, MDA, SOD, NO). Gene expression study was carried out using RT-PCR for cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and NF-κβ). Pretreatment with PJ and PW significantly (p < 0.05) lowered the disease extent and severity as indicated by reduction in CMDI (2 ± 0.31) and DAI (1.83(#) ± 0.22) when compared with DNBS-treated rats (3.83* ± 0.17). Gene expression studies showed decreased mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-18, and IL-1β in PJ and PW-treated groups. NF-κβ mRNA levels were found to be reduced 84 and 64 % by PJ and PW, respectively. These results suggest that P. granatum juice is more biologically active over punicalagin alone and can be potentially used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27352379

  17. Inaugural address of the 162nd president of the American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ronald M

    2007-12-01

    On June 26, 2007, Ronald M. Davis, MD, was inaugurated as the 162nd president of the American Medical Association at an ornate ceremony in the Grand Ballroom of the Hilton Chicago Hotel. He is the first AMA president to be board-certified in preventive medicine. After Dr. Davis completed the Epidemic Intelligence Service program and the preventive medicine residency program at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, he served as director of CDC's Office on Smoking and Health and then as medical director of the Michigan Department of Public Health. Since 1995, he has served as director of the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. By tradition, the presidents of state medical societies and the leaders of a few other medical organizations sit on the dais during the AMA president's inaugural speech. Reflecting Dr. Davis's interest in strengthening the partnership between clinical medicine and public health, he invited leaders of seven preventive medicine and public health organizations to join him on the dais during his address: the Aerospace Medical Association, the American Association of Public Health Physicians, the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the American College of Preventive Medicine, the American Public Health Association, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, and the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Dr. Davis's inaugural address appears below, except for a portion at the beginning in which he gave tribute to many family members, friends, and colleagues for their support through the years. This portion of his speech can be found on the Journal's website at www.ajpm-online.net. PMID:18022067

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate-induced inhibition of interleukin-6 release and adjustment of the regulatory T/T helper 17 cell balance in the treatment of colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    XU, ZHENGLEI; WEI, CHENG; ZHANG, RU; YAO, JUN; ZHANG, DINGUO; WANG, LISHENG

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has a promising therapeutic effect for ulcerative colitis (UC), but the treatment mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of EGCG in the treatment of UC. Experimental colitis mouse models were prepared. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control, model (MD), 50 mg/kg/day EGCG treatment and 100 mg/kg/day EGCG treatment. The daily disease activity index (DAI) of the mice was recorded, changes in the organizational structure of the colon were observed and the spleen index (SI) was measured. In addition, levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the plasma and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 protein expression in colon tissues were evaluated. Compared with the MD group, the mice in the two EGCG treatment groups exhibited decreased DAIs and SIs and an attenuation in the colonic tissue erosion. EGCG could reduce the release of IL-6 and IL-17 and regulate the mouse splenic regulatory T-cell (Treg)/T helper 17 cell (Th17) ratio, while increasing the plasma levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 and decreasing the HIF-1α and STAT3 protein expression in the colon. The experiments confirmed that EGCG treated mice with experimental colitis by inhibiting the release of IL-6 and regulating the body Treg/Th17 balance. PMID:26668622

  19. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Tegg, Robert S; Wilson, Calum R

    2015-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable) pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato) roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15-20 days after inoculation (DAI) and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15-45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response) suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate) rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate. PMID:26352757

  20. Field Survey of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, H. H.; Sato, S.; Tajima, Y.; Okayasu, A.; Fritz, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake struck the coast of Japan's Tohoku region causing loss of life and catastrophic damage. The infamous nuclear accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred immediately after the event. The earthquake and tsunami flooding of the nuclear power plant resulted in a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of radioactive materials. Because of the sudden impact of the accident, all the residents had to vacate the area within a 20 km radius from the NPP. Consequently, no tsunami survey had been permitted in the restricted area. Likewise debris removal and reconstruction had been widely postponed. In February 2012, almost eleven months later, a small group of tsunami scientists entered the exclusion zone with a special permit and surveyed tsunami effects along this 40 km stretch of coastline for the first time. The recent partial lift of the access restriction allowed more detailed follow-up surveys in June and August 2012. Here we report tsunami runup measurements along the Fukushima coasts where the data had been absent. The envelope of the tsunami runup heights along the coast was found to be approximately at the level of 13 m T.P. (Tokyo Peil), while a localized maximum runup of 21.1 m T.P. was measured on a coastal bluff 8.5 km south of the nuclear power plant. The runup pattern along the restricted Fukushima coast is consistent with the interpolation from the runup values previously measured outside of the restricted area. We also discuss the persistence of observed tsunami effects that remained in the environment given the human absence for almost one full year: included are the damage patterns of coastal structures, geomorphologic changes, and tsunami deposits.; A scene of Tomioka Fishing Port: 9 km south of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi NPP.

  1. Development of the TLALOCNet GPS-Met Network in Northwestern Mexico: Supporting Continuous Water Vapor Observations of the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetzka, J.; Feaux, K.; Cabral, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Adams, D. K.; Serra, Y. L.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    TLALOCNet is a combined atmospheric and tectonic cGPS-Met network in Mexico designed for the investigation of climate, atmospheric processes, the earthquake cycle, and tectonics. While EarthScope-Plate Boundary Observatory (conterminous US, Alaska, Puerto Rico) is among the networks poised to become a nucleus for hemisphere-scale GPS observations, the completion of TLALOCNet at the end of 2015 will close a gap between PBO and other Latin American GPS networks that include COCONet (Central America, Caribbean, and Northern South America), CAnTO, CAP, and IGS extending from Alaska to Patagonia. The National Science Foundation funded the construction and operation of TLALOCNet, with significant matching funds and resources provided by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The project will involve the construction or refurbishment of 38 cGPS-Met stations in Mexico built to PBO standards. The first three TLALOCNet stations were installed in the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua in July 2014, following the North American Monsoon GPS Transect Experiment 2013. Together these observations better characterize critical components of water transport in the region. Data from these stations are now available through the UNAVCO data archive and can be downloaded from http://facility.unavco.org/data/dai2/app/dai2.html#. By the end of 2014, TLALOCNet data, together with complementary data from other regional cGPS networks in Mexico, will also be openly available through a Mexico-based data center. We will present the status of the project to date, including an overview of the station hardware, data communications, data flow, construction schedule, and science objectives. We will also present some of the challenges encountered, including regional logistics, shipping and importation, site security, and other issues associated with the construction and operation of a large continuous GPS network.

  2. Autosomal STRs Provide Genetic Evidence for the Hypothesis That Tai People Originate from Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their “siblings” to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01–0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524–0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211–0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses

  3. Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

  4. Blueberry Husks and Probiotics Attenuate Colorectal Inflammation and Oncogenesis, and Liver Injuries in Rats Exposed to Cycling DSS-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Åsa; Bränning, Camilla; Molin, Göran; Adawi, Diya; Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jeppsson, Bengt; Nyman, Margareta; Ahrné, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated. Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313) supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI). A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and translocation

  5. Thalamus and Cognitive Impairment in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Elan J.; Ge, Yulin; Jensen, Jens H.; Babb, James S.; Miles, Laura; Reaume, Joseph; Silver, Jonathan M.; Grossman, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Conventional imaging is unable to detect damage that accounts for permanent cognitive impairment in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can help to detect diffuse axonal injury (DAI), it is a limited indicator of tissue complexity. It has also been suggested that the thalamus may play an important role in the development of clinical sequelae in mTBI. The purpose of this study was to determine if diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), a novel quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, can provide early detection of damage in the thalamus and white matter (WM) of mTBI patients, and can help ascertain if thalamic injury is associated with cognitive impairment. Twenty-two mTBI patients and 14 controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Mean kurtosis (MK), fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in the thalamus and several WM regions classically identified with DAI. Compared to controls, patients examined within 1 year after injury exhibited variously altered DTI- and DKI-derived measures in the thalamus and the internal capsule, while in addition to these regions, patients examined more than 1 year after injury also showed similar differences in the splenium of the corpus callosum and the centrum semiovale. Cognitive impairment was correlated with MK in the thalamus and the internal capsule. These findings suggest that combined use of DTI and DKI provides a more sensitive tool for identifying brain injury. In addition, MK in the thalamus might be useful for early prediction of permanent brain damage and cognitive outcome. PMID:21639753

  6. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen, S. F.; Cesur, A.; Boztosun, I.; Yavuz, M.

    2014-10-01

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 228Ac (232Th), 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment.

  7. Self-perceived need for dental treatment and related factors. A cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Freitas Gomes E; Thomaz, Erika Barbara Abreu Fonseca; Freitas, Heloiza Viana; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Pereira, Alex Luiz Pozzobon; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coelho

    2016-05-31

    This study compared adolescents' self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment with the normative need for such treatment and investigated associations between socioeconomic and demographic variables and self-perceptions of dental malocclusion. This cross-sectional study involved 1015 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The following data were collected using a questionnaire and an orthodontic examination card: demographic and identifying data, socioeconomic data, educational levels of family, household income, economic classification criteria, and self-reported skin color behavioral data, and oral health data. Normative occlusal condition was examined using the Angle classification and Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test (to analyze differences in the frequency distribuition of qualitative variables) and Poisson regression (to stimate associations between the perceived need of orthodontic treatment and study covariates), with a 5% significance level. Schoolchildren's self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment was associated with sex (p = 0.022) and the normative need for treatment (p = 0.004). Among socioeconomic, demographic, and oral health variables, only sex [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.04-1.28; p = 0.009] and the normative need for orthodontic treatment (PR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.08-1.32; p < 0.001) were associated with the perception of malocclusion, with female adolescents reporting a greater need for orthodontic treatment. Female adolescents seems to be more sensitive to oral health problems. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment and the Angle classification might overestimate the orthodontic treatment need. PMID:27253139

  8. Oral administration of geraniol ameliorates acute experimental murine colitis by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Medicherla, Kanakaraju; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sudhakar, Godi; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is associated with a considerable reduction in the quality of life of patients. The use of phyto-ingredients is becoming an increasingly attractive approach for the management of colitis. Geraniol is a monoterpene with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of geraniol as a complementary and alternative medicine against dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Disease activity indices (DAI) comprising body weight loss, presence of occult blood and stool consistency were assessed for evaluation of colitis symptoms. Intestinal damage was assessed by evaluating colon length and its histology. Pre-treatment with geraniol significantly reduced the DAI score, improved stool consistency (without occult blood) and increased the colon length. The amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and the activity of myeloperoxidase in colon tissue were significantly decreased in geraniol pre-treated mice. Western blot analyses revealed that geraniol interfered with NF-κB signaling by inhibiting NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding, and IκBα phosphorylation, degradation and subsequent increase in nuclear translocation. Moreover, the expressions of downstream target pro-inflammatory enzymes such as iNOS and COX-2 were significantly reduced by geraniol. Pre-treatment with geraniol also restored the DSS-induced decline in antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and attenuated the increase in lipid peroxidation marker, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitrative stress marker, nitrites in colon tissue. Thus, our results suggest that geraniol is a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26190278

  9. Negative self-perception of smile associated with malocclusions among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moura, Cristiano; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Gusmão, Estela Santos; Soares, Renata de Souza Coelho; Moura, Fabiana Torres Cavalcante; Santillo, Patrícia Morgana Hordonho

    2013-08-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of negative self-perception of smile because of occlusion abnormalities and investigated their association according to standard clinical criteria. The sample consisted of 1290 randomly selected Brazilian adolescent boys and girls aged 12-16 years. The outcome of interest was dissatisfaction with smile, and data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Occlusion characteristics were assessed using the dental aesthetic index (DAI). The other study variables were gender, age, and use of dental services. A chi-square test and Poisson multiple regression were used for statistical analysis. Of the 1290 students interviewed and examined, 539 (41.8 per cent) were dissatisfied with their smile; of these, 373 (69.2 per cent) assigned their dissatisfaction to the presence of an occlusal abnormality, and 166 (30.8 per cent) reported reasons other than occlusal abnormalities for their negative self-perception of their smile. In multivariate analysis, the following variables were associated with the outcome of interest: maxillary anterior irregularity [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.40; 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-1.80], incisal spacing (PR = 1.37; 95 per cent CI = 1.19-1.57), vertical open bite (PR = 1.34; 95 per cent CI = 1.15-1.55), mandibular anterior irregularity (PR = 1.29; 95 per cent CI = 1.14-1.46), permanent anterior teeth missing (PR = 1.21; 95 per cent CI = 1.05-1.39), and incisal diastema (PR = 1.14; 95 per cent CI = 1.01-1.31). The negative self-perception of smile was statistically associated with severity of occlusal disorders according to the DAI scores, which suggests that self-perception should be used together with standard clinical criteria when decisions about orthodontic treatments are made in public health care systems. PMID:22531664

  10. In-plane and c-axis optical spectroscopy study on 122 Fe-pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan Lin

    2011-03-01

    I present the in-plane and the c-axis optical spectroscopy investigations on 122 Fe-pnictides. For the parent compound BaFe 2 As 2 , the in-plane measurement revealed two different energy gaps in the SDW state, whereas for the c-axis polarized measurement only the energy gap at smaller energy scale could be clearly observed. We suggest different driving mechanisms for the formation of the two energy gaps. The large energy gap is caused by the nesting between disconnected 2D cylinder-like electron and hole Fermi surfaces. It is the main driving force for the SDW instability. The small energy gap is the one formed on the 3D Fermi surface due to the presence of reduced magnetic Brillouin zone which crosses the 3D Fermi surface. It is the consequence of the establishment of the magnetic order. For the doped superconducting 122 samples, the in-plane optical measurement revealed a formation of full superconducting energy gap, whereas the c-axis optical measurement indicated a large residual quasiparticle population down to very low temperature. Those quasiparticles contribute specifically to the c-axis transport. We suggest that there exist horizontal nodes in the superconducting gap in regions of the 3D Fermi surface that contribute dominantly to the c-axis optical conductivity. Work done with Z. G. Chen, W. Z. Hu, B. Cheng, G. Li, J. Dong, T. Dong, R. H. Yuan, P. Zheng, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, Z. Fang, X. Dai, C. L. Zhang and P. Dai.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone ER in patients with unsatisfactorily controlled schizophrenia by other antipsychotics: a flexible-dose approach.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Mauro; Mauri, Massimo C; Adami, Marina; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Giulio, Corrivetti

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of paliperidone ER in patients with symptomatic but not highly acute schizophrenia in terms of efficacy, safety, and patients' perception of their social functioning and well-being. This is a multicenter, open-label prospective study with a flexible-dose approach; 133 patients were enrolled and followed for 13 weeks after switching to paliperidone ER. Outcome efficacy measures were as follows: the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale, and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale; in addition, the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics (SWN-20) scale, the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), and the sleep evaluation scale were used. Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), adverse events, and subjective side effects were recorded. 118/133(88.7%) patients completed the study. The mean PANSS score decreased (88.98 ± 10.09 to 66.52 ± 16.29; P < 0.001); 40.5% of the patients achieved improvement of at least 30%. PSP and CGI-S scores as well as DAI-30 and SWN-20 decreased (P < 0.001). ESRS (P < 0.001) decreased significantly from the baseline. Throughout the trial, no deaths occurred and only one serious adverse event was reported. Paliperidone ER has proved to be efficacious, safe, and well tolerated also with this approach more closely resembling actual clinical practice. Patient-relevant outcome parameters such as social functioning and quality of life improved, which is crucial for treatment adherence in clinical practice. PMID:26230269

  12. Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A.; Boline, Jyl

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project. PMID

  13. Proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in spring barley with three fluorescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Leufen, Georg; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai) from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei). Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the 'Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio' and the 'Simple Fluorescence Ratio'. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of different excitation

  14. Pivotal Role of Carbohydrate Sulfotransferase 15 in Fibrosis and Mucosal Healing in Mouse Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kenji; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Yokoyama, Junji; Kawauchi, Yusuke; Honda, Yutaka; Sato, Hiroki; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Terai, Shuji; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Mizumoto, Shuji; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Atreya, Raja; Neurath, Markus F.; Watanabe, Kenichi; Hashiguchi, Taishi; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Asakura, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Induction of mucosal healing (MH) is an important treatment goal in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the molecular mechanisms underlying MH in IBD is not fully explored, local fibrosis would contribute to interfere mucosal repair. Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 (CHST15), which catalyzes sulfation of chondroitin sulfate to produce rare E-disaccharide units, is a novel mediator to create local fibrosis. Here we have used siRNA-based approach of silencing CHST15 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice, human colon fibroblasts and cancer cell lines. In a DSS-induced acute colitis model, CHST15 siRNA reduced CHST15 mRNA in the colon, serum IL-6, disease activity index (DAI) and accumulation of F4/80+ macrophages and ER-TR7+ fibroblasts, while increased Ki-67+ epithelial cells. In DSS-induced chronic colitis models, CHST15 siRNA reduced CHST15 mRNA in the colon, DAI, alpha-smooth muscle actin+ fibroblasts and collagen deposition, while enhanced MH as evidenced by reduced histological and endoscopic scores. We also found that endoscopic submucosal injection achieved effective pancolonic delivery of CHST15 siRNA in mice. In human CCD-18 Co cells, CHST15 siRNA inhibited the expression of CHST15 mRNA and selectively reduced E-units, a specific product biosynthesized by CHST15, in the culture supernatant. CHST15 siRNA significantly suppressed vimentin in both TGF-ß-stimulated CCD18-Co cells and HCT116 cells while up-regulated BMP7 and E-cadherin in HCT116 cells. The present study demonstrated that blockade CHST15 represses colonic fibrosis and enhances MH partly though reversing EMT pathway, illustrating a novel therapeutic opportunity to refractory and fibrotic lesions in IBD. PMID:27410685

  15. Nodulation in Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. (Caesalpinioideae), a Threatened Species Native to the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Márcia Bacelar; Peix, Alvaro; de Faria, Sergio Miana; Mateos, Pedro F.; Rivera, Lina P.; Simões-Araujo, Jean L.; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Cruz, Cristina; Velázquez, Encarna; Scotti, Maria Rita; Sprent, Janet I.; James, Euan K.

    2012-01-01

    The threatened caesalpinioid legume Dimorphandra wilsonii, which is native to the Cerrado biome in Brazil, was examined for its nodulation and N2-fixing ability, and was compared with another, less-threatened species, D. jorgei. Nodulation and potential N2 fixation was shown on seedlings that had been inoculated singly with five bradyrhizobial isolates from mature D. wilsonii nodules. The infection of D. wilsonii by two of these strains (Dw10.1, Dw12.5) was followed in detail using light and transmission electron microscopy, and was compared with that of D. jorgei by Bradyrhizobium strain SEMIA6099. The roots of D. wilsonii were infected via small transient root hairs at 42 d after inoculation (dai), and nodules were sufficiently mature at 63 dai to express nitrogenase protein. Similar infection and nodule developmental processes were observed in D. jorgei. The bacteroids in mature Dimorphandra nodules were enclosed in plant cell wall material containing a homogalacturonan (pectic) epitope that was recognized by the monoclonal antibody JIM5. Analysis of sequences of their rrs (16S rRNA) genes and their ITS regions showed that the five D. wilsonii strains, although related to SEMIA6099, may constitute five undescribed species of genus Bradyrhizobium, whilst their nodD and nifH gene sequences showed that they formed clearly separated branches from other rhizobial strains. This is the first study to describe in full the N2-fixing symbiotic interaction between defined rhizobial strains and legumes in the sub-family Caesalpinioideae. This information will hopefully assist in the conservation of the threatened species D. wilsonii. PMID:23185349

  16. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Tegg, Robert S.; Wilson, Calum R.

    2015-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable) pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato) roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15–20 days after inoculation (DAI) and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15–45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response) suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate) rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate. PMID:26352757

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    EL-SALHY, MAGDY; UMEZAWA, KAZUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of the two novel anti-inflammatory substances, 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G) and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), on DSS-induced colitis in rats. For this purpose, rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 animals in each group as follows: i) the control group, which received 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; vehicle), ii) rats that received DTCM-G (20 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DTCM-G group), and iii) rats that received DHMEQ (15 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DHMEQ group). The animals were sacrificed after the 5-day treatment period, and tissue samples were taken from their colons and sectioned for histological evaluation. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained for leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The disease activity index (DAI), histological grading of colitis, and densities of several types of submucosal immune cells were compared between the controls, and the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups. The DAI values were significantly lower in both the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The total scores for the histological grading of colitis were also significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The submucosal densities of leucocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells were significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. Our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of DTCM-G and DHMEQ, and the absence of any associated toxicity render them excellent therapeutic candidates for clinical use in the treatment of colitis. PMID:27082818

  18. Examining the relationship between head trauma and neurodegenerative disease: A review of epidemiology, pathology and neuroimaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sundman, Mark H; Hall, Eric E; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are induced by sudden acceleration-deceleration and/or rotational forces acting on the brain. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been identified as one of the chief underlying causes of morbidity and mortality in head trauma incidents. DAIs refer to microscopic white matter (WM) injuries as a result of shearing forces that induce pathological and anatomical changes within the brain, which potentially contribute to significant impairments later in life. These microscopic injuries are often unidentifiable by the conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans employed by emergency departments to initially assess head trauma patients and, as a result, TBIs are incredibly difficult to diagnose. The impairments associated with TBI may be caused by secondary mechanisms that are initiated at the moment of injury, but often have delayed clinical presentations that are difficult to assess due to the initial misdiagnosis. As a result, the true consequences of these head injuries may go unnoticed at the time of injury and for many years thereafter. The purpose of this review is to investigate these consequences of TBI and their potential link to neurodegenerative disease (ND). This review will summarize the current epidemiological findings, the pathological similarities, and new neuroimaging techniques that may help delineate the relationship between TBI and ND. Lastly, this review will discuss future directions and propose new methods to overcome the limitations that are currently impeding research progress. It is imperative that improved techniques are developed to adequately and retrospectively assess TBI history in patients that may have been previously undiagnosed in order to increase the validity and reliability across future epidemiological studies. The authors introduce a new surveillance tool (Retrospective Screening of Traumatic Brain Injury Questionnaire, RESTBI) to address this concern. PMID:25324979

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone ER in patients with unsatisfactorily controlled schizophrenia by other antipsychotics: a flexible-dose approach

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Massimo C.; Adami, Marina; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Giulio, Corrivetti

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of paliperidone ER in patients with symptomatic but not highly acute schizophrenia in terms of efficacy, safety, and patients’ perception of their social functioning and well-being. This is a multicenter, open-label prospective study with a flexible-dose approach; 133 patients were enrolled and followed for 13 weeks after switching to paliperidone ER. Outcome efficacy measures were as follows: the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale, and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale; in addition, the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics (SWN-20) scale, the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), and the sleep evaluation scale were used. Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), adverse events, and subjective side effects were recorded. 118/133(88.7%) patients completed the study. The mean PANSS score decreased (88.98±10.09 to 66.52±16.29; P<0.001); 40.5% of the patients achieved improvement of at least 30%. PSP and CGI-S scores as well as DAI-30 and SWN-20 decreased (P<0.001). ESRS (P<0.001) decreased significantly from the baseline. Throughout the trial, no deaths occurred and only one serious adverse event was reported. Paliperidone ER has proved to be efficacious, safe, and well tolerated also with this approach more closely resembling actual clinical practice. Patient-relevant outcome parameters such as social functioning and quality of life improved, which is crucial for treatment adherence in clinical practice. PMID:26230269

  20. PECAM-1 (CD 31) mediates transendothelial leukocyte migration in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Rijcken, Emile; Mennigen, Rudolf B; Schaefer, Sebastian D; Laukoetter, Mike G; Anthoni, Christoph; Spiegel, Hans-Ullrich; Bruewer, Matthias; Senninger, Norbert; Krieglstein, Christian F

    2007-08-01

    Transendothelial migration of circulating leukocytes into the colonic wall is a key step in the development of the inflammatory infiltrate in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 PECAM-1 (CD31) is expressed in the tight junction area of endothelial cells, where it is supposed to support the transmigration process. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PECAM-1 in experimental IBD and to show whether blockade of PECAM-1 has therapeutic effects. Chronic colitis was induced in female BALB/c mice by cyclic oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) 3% (wt/vol). Expression of PECAM-1 was visualized by immunohistochemistry. In the treatment group animals received 1 mg/kg anti-PECAM-1 (2H8) ip daily starting on day 26. On day 30 leukocyte adhesion and migration was measured during N(2)O-isoflurane anesthesia in the distal colon by intravital microscopy. Disease activity index (DAI), histology, and MPO levels were compared with healthy and diseased controls. PECAM-1 was expressed in colitic mice. Chronic DSS colitis was characterized by a marked increase in rolling, adherent, and transmigrated leukocytes compared with healthy controls. Immunoblockade of PECAM-1 reduced leukocyte transmigration significantly and also diminished leukocyte rolling and sticking in an indirect manner. It also resulted in a significantly diminished DAI and MPO levels, as well as an amelioration of the histological inflammation score. PECAM-1 plays an important role in transendothelial leukocyte migration in DSS colitis. PECAM-1 could be a novel target for antibody-based treatment in IBD. PMID:17510197

  1. Defining a personal, allele-specific, and single-molecule long-read transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Tilgner, Hagen; Grubert, Fabian; Sharon, Donald; Snyder, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Personal transcriptomes in which all of an individual's genetic variants (e.g., single nucleotide variants) and transcript isoforms (transcription start sites, splice sites, and polyA sites) are defined and quantified for full-length transcripts are expected to be important for understanding individual biology and disease, but have not been described previously. To obtain such transcriptomes, we sequenced the lymphoblastoid transcriptomes of three family members (GM12878 and the parents GM12891 and GM12892) by using a Pacific Biosciences long-read approach complemented with Illumina 101-bp sequencing and made the following observations. First, we found that reads representing all splice sites of a transcript are evident for most sufficiently expressed genes ≤3 kb and often for genes longer than that. Second, we added and quantified previously unidentified splicing isoforms to an existing annotation, thus creating the first personalized annotation to our knowledge. Third, we determined SNVs in a de novo manner and connected them to RNA haplotypes, including HLA haplotypes, thereby assigning single full-length RNA molecules to their transcribed allele, and demonstrated Mendelian inheritance of RNA molecules. Fourth, we show how RNA molecules can be linked to personal variants on a one-by-one basis, which allows us to assess differential allelic expression (DAE) and differential allelic isoforms (DAI) from the phased full-length isoform reads. The DAI method is largely independent of the distance between exon and SNV--in contrast to fragmentation-based methods. Overall, in addition to improving eukaryotic transcriptome annotation, these results describe, to our knowledge, the first large-scale and full-length personal transcriptome. PMID:24961374

  2. Statistical machine learning to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI) from structural disconnections of white matter networks.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jhimli; Shen, Kai-kai; Ghose, Soumya; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Salvado, Olivier; Pannek, Kerstin; Taylor, D Jamie; Mathias, Jane L; Rose, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting with normal appearing radiological MRI presents a significant challenge. Neuroimaging methods such as diffusion MRI and probabilistic tractography, which probe the connectivity of neural networks, show significant promise. We present a machine learning approach to classify TBI participants primarily with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on altered structural connectivity patterns derived through the network based statistical analysis of structural connectomes generated from TBI and age-matched control groups. In this approach, higher order diffusion models were used to map white matter connections between 116 cortical and subcortical regions. Tracts between these regions were generated using probabilistic tracking and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) measures along these connections were encoded in the connectivity matrices. Network-based statistical analysis of the connectivity matrices was performed to identify the network differences between a representative subset of the two groups. The affected network connections provided the feature vectors for principal component analysis and subsequent classification by random forest. The validity of the approach was tested using data acquired from a total of 179 TBI patients and 146 controls participants. The analysis revealed altered connectivity within a number of intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter pathways associated with DAI, in consensus with existing literature. A mean classification accuracy of 68.16%±1.81% and mean sensitivity of 80.0%±2.36% were achieved in correctly classifying the TBI patients evaluated on the subset of the participants that was not used for the statistical analysis, in a 10-fold cross-validation framework. These results highlight the potential for statistical machine learning approaches applied to structural connectomes to identify patients with diffusive axonal injury. PMID

  3. Modeling determinants of medication attitudes and poor adherence in early nonaffective psychosis: implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Drake, Richard J; Nordentoft, Merete; Haddock, Gillian; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leboyer, Marion; Leucht, Stefan; Leweke, Markus; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Sommer, Iris E; Kahn, René S; Lewis, Shon W

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to design a multimodal intervention to improve adherence following first episode psychosis, consistent with current evidence. Existing literature identified medication attitudes, insight, and characteristics of support as important determinants of adherence to medication: we examined medication attitudes, self-esteem, and insight in an early psychosis cohort better to understand their relationships. Existing longitudinal data from 309 patients with early Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nonaffective psychosis (83% first episode) were analyzed to test the hypothesis that medication attitudes, while meaningfully different from "insight," correlated with insight and self-esteem, and change in each influenced the others. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale insight were assessed at presentation, after 6 weeks and 3 and 18 months. Drug Attitudes Inventory (DAI) and treatment satisfaction were rated from 6 weeks onward. Structural equation models of their relationships were compared. Insight measures' and DAI's predictive validity were compared against relapse, readmission, and remission. Analysis found five latent constructs best fitted the data: medication attitudes, self-esteem, accepting need for treatment, self-rated insight, and objective insight. All were related and each affected the others as it changed, except self-esteem and medication attitudes. Low self-reported insight at presentation predicted readmission. Good 6-week insight (unlike drug attitudes) predicted remission. Literature review and data modeling indicated that a multimodal intervention using motivational interviewing, online psychoeducation, and SMS text medication reminders to enhance adherence without damaging self-concept was feasible and appropriate. PMID:25750247

  4. Influence of proxy data uncertainty on data assimilation for the past climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsikaris, Anastasios; Widmann, Martin; Jungclaus, Johann

    2016-07-01

    Data assimilation (DA) is an emerging topic in palaeoclimatology and one of the key challenges in this field. Assimilating proxy-based continental mean temperature reconstructions into the MPI-ESM model showed a lack of information propagation to small spatial scales . Here, we investigate whether this lack of regional skill is due to the methodology or to errors in the assimilated reconstructions. Error separation is fundamental, as it can lead to improvements in DA methods. We address the question by performing a new set of simulations, using two different sets of target data; the proxy-based PAGES 2K reconstructions (DA-P scheme), and the HadCRUT3v instrumental observations (DA-I scheme). Again, we employ ensemble-member selection DA using the MPI-ESM model, and assimilate Northern Hemisphere (NH) continental mean temperatures; the simulated period is 1850-1949 AD. Both DA schemes follow the large-scale target and observed climate variations well, but the assimilation of instrumental data improves the performance. This improvement cannot be seen for Asia, where the limited instrumental coverage leads to errors in the target data and low skill for the DA-I scheme. No skill on small spatial scales is found for either of the two DA schemes, demonstrating that errors in the assimilated data are not the main reason for the unrealistic representation of the regional temperature variability in Europe and the NH. It can thus be concluded that assimilating continental mean temperatures is not ideal for providing skill on small spatial scales.

  5. Use of Aerial Images for Regular Updates of Buildings in the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hron, V.; Halounova, L.

    2015-03-01

    Digital aerial images (DAI) include position, elevation and also spectral information (visible bands and near-infrared band) about the captured area. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of automatic analysis of DAI for updating of the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic with a focus on buildings. Regular updates of buildings (automatic detection of new and demolished buildings) are based on the analysis of coloured point clouds created by an automatic image matching technique from each time period. The created approach compares point clouds from different time periods to each other. The advantage of this solution is that it is independent of the manner of keeping the buildings in the database. It does not matter whether the buildings in the database have correct positions and their footprints correspond to the roof shapes or external walls. The involved method is robust because a digital surface model generated by image matching techniques can contain numerous errors. Shaded areas and objects with blurred textures are problematic for automatic image correlation algorithms and lead to false results. For this reason, derived layers containing additional information are used. Shadow masks (layers with modelled shadows) are used for the verification of indications and to filter out errors in the shaded areas using a contextual evaluation. Furthermore, additional information about the road and railway networks and morphological operations of opening and closing were used to achieve more accurate results. All these information sources are then evaluated using decision logic, which uses the generally applicable rules that are available for different datasets without the need for modification. The method was tested on different datasets with various types of buildings (villages, suburbs and city centres) which cover more than 20 square kilometres. The developed solution leads to very promising results without the need of acquiring

  6. Expression of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Genes in Maize Lines Differing in Susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Yang, W.; Yan, Y.; Crutcher, F.; Kolomiets, M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is a well-known host for Meloidogyne incognita, and there is substantial variation in host status among maize genotypes. In previous work it was observed that nematode reproduction increased in the moderately susceptible maize inbred line B73 when the ZmLOX3 gene from oxylipid metabolism was knocked out. Additionally, in this mutant line, use of a nonspecific primer for phenyl alanine ammonialyase (PAL) genes indicated that expression of these genes was reduced in the mutant maize plants whereas expression of several other defense related genes was increased. In this study, we used more specific gene primers to examine the expression of six PAL genes in three maize genotypes that were good, moderate, and poor hosts for M. incognita, respectively. Of the six PAL genes interrogated, two (ZmPAL3 and ZmPAL6) were not expressed in either M. incognita–infected or noninfected roots. Three genes (ZmPAL1, ZmPAL2, and ZmPAL5) were strongly expressed in all three maize lines, in both nematode-infected and noninfected roots, between 2 and 16 d after inoculation (DAI). In contrast, ZmPAL4 was most strongly expressed in the most-resistant maize line W438, was not detected in the most-susceptible maize line CML, and was detected only at 8 DAI in the maize line B73 that supported intermediate levels of reproduction by M. incognita. These observations are consistent with at least one PAL gene playing a role in modulating host status of maize toward M. incognita and suggest a need for additional research to further elucidate this association. PMID:25580029

  7. Effect of 17β-estradiol and flavonoids on the regulation of expression of newly identified oestrogen responsive genes in a rat raphe nuclei-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Amer, Dena A M; Jähne, Maria; Weigt, Carmen; Kretzschmar, Georg; Vollmer, Günter

    2012-10-01

    Due to the health risks attributed to perimenopausal hormone therapy, phytoestrogens such as flavonoids are receiving widespread attention to help alleviate menopausal symptoms, including hormone-driven mood disorders. Based on our previous reporter gene study regarding their transactivational activity in raphe nuclei cells from a brain region involved in regulation of mood disturbances, we herein study their effects on the regulation of expression of 17β-estradiol (E2)-regulated genes. DNA microarray was used to globally assess E2-induced gene expression in RNDA cells, a rat raphe nuclei-derived cellular model expressing oestrogen receptor β. Out of 212 regulated genes, six were selected for verification and as endpoints for the effect of flavonoids on the regulation of mRNA expression in proliferating as well as differentiating RNDA cells. Under proliferative conditions, E2 up-regulated mRNA expression of Cml-5, Sox-18 and Krt-19. Similar effects were observed in response to 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), genistein (GEN), daidzein (DAI) and equol (EQ). In line with E2, mRNA expression of Nefm and Zdhhc-2 was down-regulated following 8-PN, GEN, DAI, EQ and naringenin treatment. No regulation was observed on Slc6a4 mRNA expression in response to E2 or the flavonoids in proliferating RNDA cells. When cells were shifted to conditions promoting differentiation, changes in cell morphology, in mRNA expression levels and in responsiveness towards E2 and the tested flavonoids were noticed. These expression studies additionally highlighted some of the genes as markers for RNDA cellular differentiation. RNDA cells should prove useful to elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms of exogenous oestrogen receptor ligands with neural cell populations. PMID:22213181

  8. Activation of transgenic estrogen receptor-beta by selected phytoestrogens in a stably transduced rat serotonergic cell line.

    PubMed

    Amer, Dena A M; Kretzschmar, Georg; Müller, Nicole; Stanke, Nicole; Lindemann, Dirk; Vollmer, Günter

    2010-06-01

    Many flavonoids, a major group of phenolic plant-derived secondary metabolites, are known to possess estrogen-like bioactivities. However, little is known about their estrogenic properties in the central nervous system due to the lack of suitable cellular models expressing sufficient amounts of functional estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). To overcome this deficit, we have created a cellular model, which is serotonergic in origin, to study properties of estrogenic substances by stably transducing RN46A-B14 cells derived from raphe nuclei region of the rat brain with a lentiviral vector encoding a human ERbeta. We clearly showed that the transgenic human ERbeta is a spontaneously expressed and a functional receptor. We have further assessed the estrogenicity of three different isoflavones and four different naringenin-type flavanones in this cell line utilizing a luciferase reporter gene assay. Genistein (GEN), Daidzein (DAI), Equol (EQ), Naringenin (NAR) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) showed strong estrogenic activity in a concentration-dependent manner as compared to 7-(O-prenyl)naringenin-4'-acetate (7-O-PN) which was only slightly estrogenic and 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin (6-DMAN) that neither showed estrogenic nor anti-estrogenic activity in our model. All observed effects could be antagonized by the anti-estrogen fulvestrant. Moreover, co-treatment of cells with 17beta-estradiol (E2) and either GEN or DAI showed a slight additive effect as compared to EQ. On the other hand, 8-PN in addition to 7-O-PN, but not NAR and 6-DMAN, were able to slightly antagonize the responses triggered by E2. Our newly established cellular model may prove to be a useful tool in explicating basic physiological properties of ERbeta in the brain and may help unravel molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in serotonergic mood regulation by estrogen or potential plant-derived secondary metabolites. PMID:20433925

  9. Effects of the Sijunzi decoction on the immunological function in rats with dextran sulfate-induced ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    YU, WANGUI; LU, BING; ZHANG, HENGWEN; ZHANG, YANXIANG; YAN, JIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the Sijunzi decoction (SJZD) at various dosages on the immunological function of rats with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS; molecular weight 5,000)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC). A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: Normal, model, low-dose SJZD, moderate-dose SJZD and high-dose SJZD groups. The 3% DSS was intragastrically administered for 7 consecutive days in order to induce the UC model. The normal group consumed distilled water. Subsequently, SJZD (5.0, 10.0 and 30.0 g/kg) was intragastrically administered, and scores of the disease activity index (DAI) were calculated. After 2 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed. Scores of the colon mucosa damage index (CMDI) were evaluated; and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were measured in intestinal tissue by ELISA assays. The model group rats had ulcers, hyperemia and interstitial edema and infiltrated inflammatory cells. SJZD attenuated the severity of the gross lesions and reduced the histopathological injuries. Compared with the normal group, DAI and CMDI were significantly increased (P<0.01), and levels of determined sIgA in the intestinal mucosa and IL-2 in the intestinal tissue were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, moderate and high doses of SJZD showed a restoration effect on all the aforementioned indexes, and the high dose was the most effective. In conclusion, SJZD can ameliorate inflammation in DSS-induced UC rats. The mechanism is most likely due to enhancing intestinal local immunity. PMID:27347409

  10. Berberine Blocks the Relapse of Clostridium difficile Infection in C57BL/6 Mice after Standard Vancomycin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhi; Peng, Guoli; Liu, Weihua; Xu, Hufeng

    2015-01-01

    Vancomycin is a preferred antibiotic for treating Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and has been associated with a rate of recurrence of CDI of as high as 20% in treated patients. Recent studies have suggested that berberine, an alternative medical therapy for gastroenteritis and diarrhea, exhibits several beneficial effects, including induction of anti-inflammatory responses and restoration of the intestinal barrier function. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of berberine on preventing CDI relapse and restoring the gut microbiota in a mouse model. Berberine was administered through gavage to C57BL/6 mice with established CDI-induced intestinal injury and colitis. The disease activity index (DAI), mean relative weight, histopathology scores, and levels of toxins A and B in fecal samples were measured. An Illumina sequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the overall structural change in the microbiota in the mouse ileocecum. Berberine administration significantly promoted the restoration of the intestinal microbiota by inhibiting the expansion of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and counteracting the side effects of vancomycin treatment. Therapy consisting of vancomycin and berberine combined prevented weight loss, improved the DAI and the histopathology scores, and effectively decreased the mortality rate. Berberine prevented CDIs from relapsing and significantly improved survival in the mouse model of CDI. Our data indicate that a combination of berberine and vancomycin is more effective than vancomycin alone for treating CDI. One of the possible mechanisms by which berberine prevents a CDI relapse is through modulation of the gut microbiota. Although this conclusion was generated in the case of the mouse model, use of the combination of vancomycin and berberine and represent a novel therapeutic approach targeting CDI. PMID:25824219

  11. Oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei alleviates clinical symptoms of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium salt in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, T; Guo, H Y; Zhang, H; Liu, A P; Wang, X X; Ren, F Z

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the alleviating effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LC-01 (LC-01) on the murine model of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). 50 pathogen-free, 6-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided randomly into 5 groups, including a control group and four DSS-LC-01-treated groups (DSS, DSS-106, DSS-108, and DSS-1010 with 0, 1×106, 1×108 and 1×1010 cfu/ml LC-01, respectively). To test the effectiveness of LC-01 as a prophylactic it was administered for 7 days before the onset of the disease in DSS-LC-01-treated mice. After 7 days, colitis was induced by administration of 2.5% (w/v) DSS in drinking water for a further 7 days. The disease activity index (DAI), histological score, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were measured. DAI, histological scores and MPO activity of mice treated with a medium or high dose of LC-01 were significantly lower compared to a low-dose of LC-01 and DSS treatment alone (P<0.05). Colon length shortening could be prevented with increasing dose of LC-01. In addition, the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were suppressed significantly by treatment with a medium and high dose of LC-01. However, no significant difference in the indices mentioned above were observed between a low dose of LC-01 and treatment with DSS alone (P≯0.05). An appropriate dose of LC-01 can prevent intestinal damage in mice with DSS-induced colitis. The expression of inflammatory cytokines related to pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis decreased following treatment with LC-01. PMID:24889889

  12. Trichinella spiralis infection suppressed gut inflammation with CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Choi, Seon Hee; Ahn, Soon Cheol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2012-12-01

    In order to know the effect of pre-existing Trichinella spiralis infection on experimentally induced intestinal inflammation and immune responses, we induced colitis in T. spiralis-infected mice and observed the severity of colitis and the levels of Th1, Th2, and regulatory cytokines and recruitment of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T (regulatory T; T(reg)) cells. Female C57BL/6 mice were infected with 250 muscle larvae; after 4 weeks, induction of experimental colitis was performed using 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). During the induction period, we observed severity of colitis, including weight loss and status of stool, and evaluated the disease activity index (DAI). A significantly low DAI and degree of weight loss were observed in infected mice, compared with uninfected mice. In addition, colon length in infected mice was not contracted, compared with uninfected mice. We also observed a significant increase in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IFN-γ, in spleen lymphocytes treated with DSS; however, such an increase was not observed in infected mice treated with DSS. Of particular interest, production of regulatory cytokines, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, in spleen lymphocytes showed a significant increase in mice infected with T. spiralis. A similar result was observed in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Subsets of the population of T(reg) cells in MLN and spleen showed significant increases in mice infected with T. spiralis. In conclusion, T. spiralis infection can inhibit the DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing the regulatory cytokine and T(reg) cells recruitment. PMID:23230342

  13. COCONet and TLALOCNet: Multi-hazard GNSS/Met Observatories, Enhancing Geodetic Infrastructure and the Scientific Community in Mexico and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaux, K.; Adams, D. K.; Braun, J.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Dausz, K.; Dittmann, S. T.; Fend, M.; Galetzka, J.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Sandru, J.; Serra, Y. L.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO manages the construction of two large NSF-funded networks of geophysical instruments in Central America and the Caribbean. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network), which consists of 83 new and refurbished cGNSS/Met stations, spans the entire Caribbean region. TLALOCNet (Trans-boundary Land and Atmospheric Long-term Observational and Collaborative Network) is a similar 24-station in Mexico. Data are being used to study solid earth processes such as plate kinematics, plate boundary deformation, and the earthquake cycle; in addition, by providing more precise estimates of tropospheric water vapor to better forecast the dynamics associated with the annual Caribbean hurricane cycle and the North American monsoon, they also address atmospheric science objectives. COCONet and TLALOCNet rely on the concept of building partnerships with a range of stakeholders that support a common goal of providing free, high-quality, low-latency, open-format data and data products. As part of COCONet, UNAVCO completed installation of sea level monitoring instruments at two locations in the Caribbean Basin. Additionally, two existing sea level stations were upgraded with co-located GNSS hardware. The locations (Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, and the Dominican Republic) enhance the coverage of tide gauge instrumentation in the Caribbean region. Each station consists of tide gauge instruments (radar and pressure gauge) on a marine pier co-located with a cGNSS/Met system. A second cGNSS system is installed nearby (<5km). GNSS data from over 100 COCONet and TLALOCNet stations are available at http://www.unavco.org/data/gps-gnss/data-access-methods/dai2/app/dai2.html. Sea level data are available at the IOC sea level archive (ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org). We present the siting plan, construction status, and other highlights of the COCONet and TLALOCNet projects, including the establishment of regional GNSS/Met data centers in Mexico and the Caribbean.

  14. Radiocesium distribution in sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) in eastern Japan: translocation from needles to pollen.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Sugiura, Yuki; Takenaka, Chisato; Hijii, Naoki; Umemura, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the radiocesium contamination of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) forests in eastern Japan from November 2012 to February 2013, including 80 sites in Fukushima and 35 sites in other regions (Tohoku and Kanto-Koshinetsu), by measuring the (137)Cs concentrations in needles of different ages, male flowers, and pollen. Over a wide geographic area, needles that were present at the time of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident contained much higher (137)Cs concentrations than needles that emerged after the accident. This result, together with visual analysis of (137)Cs distribution using autoradiography, indicated that some of the (137)Cs derived from direct fallout remained on the surface of the older needles. Since we also detected (137)Cs in younger needles and male flowers, we concluded that (137)Cs was translocated toward the tips of sugi needles. The (137)Cs concentration in male flowers was higher than and positively correlated with that in the currently growing (2012) needles. Also, a positive relationship was observed between the (137)Cs concentration of male flowers and pollen, and they were found to be nearly identical (137)Cs concentration. These results indicate the occurrence of acropetal translocation of (137)Cs from old needles to young needles, male flowers and pollen. However, the results as related to (137)Cs concentration in the needles of three different ages differed from the results of similar studies conducted more than 4 y after the Chernobyl accident. This suggests that, 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident, the distribution of (137)Cs in the sugi forests has not yet reached a steady state. PMID:25042076

  15. Flaxseed extract exhibits mucosal protective effect in acetic acid induced colitis in mice by modulating cytokines, antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palla, Amber Hanif; Iqbal, Najeeha Talat; Minhas, Khurram; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2016-09-01

    New treatments for inflammatory bowel disease are of interest due to high rate of remission failure. Natural products have been effective in IBD therapeutics as they have multiple constituents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Flaxseed extract (Fs.Cr) on ulcerative colitis and identify the possible mechanisms involved. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 6% AA in BALB/c mice. Colonic mucosal damage was assessed after 24h by calculating disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic and histological damage scores, biochemical measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and total glutathione activities. Since cytokines are involved in exacerbating inflammatory cascade with emerging role of innate immune cytokines in IBD therapeutics, we hence assessed the effect on the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17, at 6, 12 and 24h by ELISA. Fs.Cr ameliorated the severity of AA colitis as evident by improved DAI, macroscopic damage and the histopathological scores along with restoration of goblet cells. Fs.Cr decreased MDA and MPO activities and enhanced antioxidant activity compared to the AA group. Finally, Fs.Cr in doses (300 and 500mg/kg) decreased TNF-α and IFN-γ levels at all time points with simultaneous increase in IL-17 levels at 24h as compared to the AA group. These results suggest that Fs.Cr ameliorates the severity of AA colitis by reducing goblet cell depletion, scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, reduce neutrophil infiltration that may be attributed due to decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α and increasing IL-17 levels. PMID:27280586

  16. Novel Model of Frontal Impact Closed Head Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Michael; Kuehn, Reed; Tosun, Cigdem; Caridi, John; Keledjian, Kaspar; Bochicchio, Grant; Scalea, Thomas; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Frontal impact, closed head trauma is a frequent cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in motor vehicle and sports accidents. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is common in humans and experimental animals, and results from shearing forces that develop within the anisotropic brain. Because the specific anisotropic properties of the brain are axis-dependent, the anatomical site where force is applied as well as the resultant acceleration, be it linear, rotational, or some combination, are important determinants of the resulting pattern of brain injury. Available rodent models of closed head injury do not reproduce the frontal impact commonly encountered in humans. Here we describe a new rat model of closed head injury that is a modification of the impact-acceleration model of Marmarou. In our model (the Maryland model), the impact force is applied to the anterior part of the cranium and produces TBI by causing anterior-posterior plus sagittal rotational acceleration of the brain inside the intact cranium. Skull fractures, prolonged apnea, and mortality were absent. The animals exhibited petechial hemorrhages, DAI marked by a bead-like pattern of β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) in damaged axons, and widespread upregulation of β-APP in neurons, with regions affected including the orbitofrontal cortex (coup), corpus callosum, caudate, putamen, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. Activated caspase-3 was prominent in hippocampal neurons and Purkinje cells at the grey-white matter junction of the cerebellum. Neurobehavioral dysfunction, manifesting as reduced spontaneous exploration, lasted more than 1 week. We conclude that the Maryland model produces diffuse injuries that may be relevant to human brain injury. PMID:19929375

  17. Development of a Low Input and sustainable Switchgrass Feedstock Production System Utilizing Beneficial Bacterial Endophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Chuansheng; Nowak, Jerzy; Seiler, John

    2014-10-24

    JN bacterization. With the MapMan software to analyze microarray data, the number of up- and down-regulated probes was calculated. The number of up-regulated probes in Alamo was 26, 14, 14, and 12% at 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 days after inoculation (DAI) with PsJN, respectively while the corresponding number in CR was 24, 22, 21, and 19%, respectively. In both cultivars, the largest number of up-regulated probes occurred at 0.5 DAI. Noticeable differences throughout the timeframe between Alamo and CR were that the number was dramatically decreased to half (12%) in Alamo but remained high in CR (approximately 20%). The number of down regulated genes demonstrated different trends in Alamo and CR. Alamo had an increasing trend from 9% at 0.5 DAI to 11, 17, and 28% at 2, 4, and 8 DAI, respectively. However, CR had 13% at 0.5 and 2 DAI, and declined to 10% at 4 and 8 DAI. With the aid of MapMan and PageMan, we mapped the response of the ID probes to the observed major gene regulatory network and major biosynthetic pathway changes associated with the beneficial bacterial endophyte infection, colonization, and early growth promotion process. We found significant differences in gene expression patterns between responsive and non-responsive cultivars in many pathways, including redox state regulation, signaling, proteolysis, transcription factors, as well as hormone (SA and JA in particular)-associated pathways. Form microarray data, a total of 50 key genes have been verified using qPCR. Ten of these genes were chosen for further functional study via either overexpression and/or RNAi knockout technologies. These genes were calmodulin-related calcium sensor protein (CAM), glutathione S-transferase (GST), histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein (H-221), 3 different zinc finger proteins (ZF-371, ZF131 and ZF242), EF hand transcription factor (EF-622), peroxidase, cellulose synthase catalytic submit A2 (CESA2), and Aux/IAA family. A total of 8 overexpression and 5 RNAi transgenic plants have been

  18. [The suitability of orthodontical groups of indications (OGI) for preventive dental examinations of the public health service].

    PubMed

    Gottstein, I; Borutta, A

    2007-10-01

    In the context of the dental preventive medical examinations of the public health service, the orthodontical data-gathering in children's day-care centre and schools, in contrast to the diagnoses of caries disease, was made was based so far on a non-uniform methodology. In order to provide in future, also in the orthodontical sector, data material that is usable for comparative national and local health reporting, a uniform methodology should form the basis for the data acquisition. The present study makes a contribution to this objective. A goal of the work was to test two different collection instruments for their suitability as objective tools in the context of the preventive dental medical examinations. The occurrence and the severity level of dentofacial anomalies as well as the orthodontic treatment status of Thuringian school children of defined age groups (9 to 11 years old, 12 to 13 years old) were recorded and the orthodontic treatment need was determined. In the younger age group valid the orthodontical groups of indications (OGI) were found for the first time in Germany; in the older group we tested the already long established Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and equipment application recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The work was a component of the task spectrum of the WHO Collaboration Centre "Prevention of Oral disease" of the Health Centre for Preventive Dentistry at the Centre for Tooth, Mouth and Jaw Dentistry of the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena in Thuringia. As investigation region, a rural area ("Landkreis Eichsfeld") of Thuringia was choosen. The study was arranged into a sociological and a clinical-epidemiological part. Altogether 1845 pupils were recruited from national schools. The questionnaire was based on the WHO-initiated "International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes" (ICS II study). The investigations took place in the context of the preventive medical examinations of the public health service. The

  19. Impact of river-lake-groundwater interaction on boundless carbon cycle in continental basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, T.; Shankman, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Changjiang River in south China, deforestation and land reclamation have induced serious soil erosion and increased floods. Although the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) will provide flood control, the aquatic environment might be changed by discharge control and pollutant loads caused by the deposition of large amounts of sediment in the upper dam (Yang et al., 2006). Some research implies that seepage of groundwater along the lower regions plays important role in maintaining stream flow and after TGD impounding by using natural radionuclides (Dai et al., 2010). It is effective to clarify complicated river-lake-groundwater interaction (Eltahir and Yeh, 1999; Dai et al., 2010), and to evaluate optimum amount of transferred water and environmental consequences in the basin. The authors have so far developed the process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model (Nakayama, 2008a, 2008b, 2010, 2011a-b, 2012a-c; Nakayama and Fujita, 2010; Nakayama and Hashimoto, 2011; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2008a, 2008b; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012), which includes complex interactions between the forest canopy, surface water, the unsaturated zone, aquifers, lakes, and rivers. The objective of this research is to estimate the impact of river-lake-groundwater interaction on hydrologic cycle and to predict the impact of TGD on the hydrologic change in the downstream Dongting and Poyang Lakes region by using a process-based model. Analysis of power spectra in river discharge also helps to understand its complex mechanism. This integrated system also throws some light on the improvement in boundless biogeochemical cycle along terrestrial-aquatic continuum (Cole et al., 2007). References; Cole, J.J. et al., Ecosystems, doi:10.1007/s10021-006-9013-8, 2007. Dai, Z. et al., Hydrogeol. J., 18, 359-369, 2010. Eltahir, E.A.B.& Yeh, P.J.-F., Water Resour. Res., 35(4), 1199-1217, 1999. Nakayama, T., Ecol. Model., doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008

  20. Ophthalmological manifestations in hereditary transthyretin (ATTR V30M) carriers: a review of 513 cases

    PubMed Central

    Beirão, João Melo; Malheiro, Jorge; Lemos, Carolina; Beirão, Idalina; Costa, Paulo; Torres, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Assessment of ocular involvement in transthyretin-related familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP) in a large cohort of Portuguese patients. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 513 Portuguese FAP mutation carriers, at the Ophthalmology Service, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, between 1 January 2008 and 31 January 2013. Abnormal conjunctiva vessels (ACV), Schirmer test, tear break-up time (TBUT), amyloid deposition on the iris (DAI), scalloped iris, amyloid deposition on the anterior capsule of the lens (DAL), vitreous amyloidosis, retinal amyloid angiopathy and glaucoma were evaluated and registered. Results: Of the 513 carriers, 477 (93%) had clinical systemic disease with a median duration of 9.3 (5.1–13.7) years and 247 were men. Of these, 343 (72%) had been liver transplanted, on median of 6.6 (3.3–10.8) years before inclusion in this study. No ocular abnormalities were identified in the asymptomatic carriers (7%). The abnormalities observed with decreasing frequency were abnormal TBUT (379 patients, 79.5%, 751 eyes), abnormal Schirmer test (320 patients, 67%, 635 eyes), DAI (183 patients, 38.4%, 350 eyes), DAL (157 patients, 32.9%, 308 eyes), scalloped iris (133 patients, 27.9%, 238 eyes), glaucoma (97 patients, 20%, 165 eyes), vitreous amyloidosis (83 patients, 17.4%, 139 eyes), ACV (68 patients, 14%, 136 eyes) and amyloidotic retinal angiopathy (21 patients, 4%, 32 eyes). Patients with abnormal Schirmer test (p < 0.001), scalloped iris (p = 0.006) and vitreous amyloidosis (p = 0.007) were significantly older than the others. According to their age of onset of systemic disease, the patients have been split into early-onset (<40 years old), intermediate-onset (40–50 years old), late onset (>50 years old) and asymptomatic carriers. We observed a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ACV (p = 0.045) and of an abnormal Schirmer test (p = 0.004) between groups. Transplanted patients have a

  1. ADMIRE framework for data mining and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hluchy, Ladislav; Tran, Viet; Habala, Ondrej

    2010-05-01

    is to be a canonical representation of data integration process, described in an implementation independent manner. The instance of processing elements is specified by the DISPEL description of the process that should be executed, the specification of the data/processing resource it should be executed at and instance identifier that is unique within the workflow specification. The prototype of proposed data integration engine for environmental data is implemented in JAVA programming language. It uses OGSA-DAI framework as the platform for exposing data resources in the distributed testbed and for executing the partial workflows of processing elements; it also provide us with the data transfer capabilities and streaming of the list of tuples between remote nodes. The data integration engine takes as inputs the integration task parameters and workflow specification in DISPEL. From the workflow specification, the engine constructs an oriented graph of processing elements (defined by the mapping between inputs and outputs of processing elements), compiles the workflow to OGSA-DAI workflow objects, submits the workflow to OGSA-DAI service for execution, monitor the execution status and retrieve the result of data integration. The graphical editor for workflows is in progress and should allow experts in environmental applications to make data integration easily. This work is partially supported also by VEGA project 2009-2011 and APVV project DMM. URL : http://www.admire-project.eu/

  2. The Attenuation of Scutellariae radix Extract on Oxidative Stress for Colon Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 Cell and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Yang, Jun; Lin, Lianjie; Lin, Yan; Zheng, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) has been regarded as one of the major pathogeneses of ulcerative colitis (UC) through damaging colon. It has been shown that Scutellariae radix (SR) extract has a beneficial effect for the prevention and treatment of UC. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether SR had a potential capacity on oxidant damage for colon injury both in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods: The 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce UC rats model while 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was for RAW264.7 cell damage. Disease activity index (DAI) was determined to response the severity of colitis. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in rat colon was also estimated. The 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assay was performed to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of SR. Furthermore, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) in cell supernatant and rat serum were detected by appropriate kits. In addition, an immunohistochemical assay was applied to examine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) protein expression in colon tissue. Results: The treatment with SR could significantly increase the activity of GSH-PX, CAT, and SOD associated with OS in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell damage and TNBS-induced UC rats. However, the level of MDA was markedly reduced both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, SR significantly decreased DAI and reversed the increased MPO activity. Thus, SR could decrease the severity of acute TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Immunohistochemical assay showed that SR significantly downregulated TGF-β1 protein expression in colon tissue. Conclusion: Our data provided evidence to support this fact that SR attenuated OS in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell and also in TNBS-induced UC rats. Thus, SR may be an interesting candidate drug for the management of UC. SUMMARY Scutellariae radix (SR

  3. The McMurdo Dry Valleys Magmatic Laboratory Workshop of 2005 in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.; Simon, A.; Charrier, A. D.; Hersum, T. G.; Eschholz, E.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2005, twenty-five petrologists, volcanologists, geochemists, structural geologists, and magma dynamicists spent two weeks studying and discussing the Magmatic Mush Column represented by the 180 Ma Ferrar Dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. This exceptionally well-exposed system shows a series of massive interconnected sills culminating in a capping of regional flood basalts. The lowermost sill, the Basement Sill, contains a massive ultramafic tongue of large phenocrysts of orthopyroxene (Opx) with subordinate Cpx and much smaller plagioclase. The 3-D distribution of this Opx Tongue serves as a tracer for the filling dynamics and local motion of the magma. Ponding of the Basement Sill has resulted in a small (500 m), but exceedingly diversified and extensively layered ultramafic intrusion, the Dais Intrusion. Because of the relatively rapid cooling time of this body, the Dais textures have been preserved before extensive annealing, which presents the possibility of using these textures to understand those of much larger, slowly cooled bodies. The combination of seeing in detail a wide variety of exceptional field relations depicting layering, sill emplacement mechanics, internal ordering and crystal sorting in the Opx Tongue, dike and fissure distributions, wall rock thermal effects, and many other first order features of central interest to understanding magmatic processes and performing research in real time was a new challenge to all involved. Facilities were set up at McMurdo Station for rock cutting, thin-section making, map making, GIS analysis, petrographic analysis, and computer modeling using existing chemical and physical data on a spectrum of the representative rock types. At any one time half the group was housed in the field in Bull Pass near Wright Valley and the remaining group was shuttled in by helicopter each day. The principal groups were switched about every three days. Areas for daily field-work were decided upon by

  4. In vitro and in vivo effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain M-17: immunomodulation and attenuation of murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Leo R; Small, Jeffrey; Hoerr, Robert A; Bostwick, Eileen F; Maines, Lynn; Koltun, Walter A

    2008-09-01

    We examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of a probiotic, Escherichia coli strain M-17 (EC-M17), on NF-kappaB signalling, cytokine secretion and efficacy in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. NF-kappaB signalling was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter cell line that was stimulated with TNF-alpha (100 ng/ml). p65 Nuclear binding and cytokine secretion (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6) were evaluated using a RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line that was exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 microg/ml). Mice were administered vehicle, EC-M17, metronidazole, or EC-M17 plus metronidazole for 13 d. During the final 6 d, mice also received 2 % DSS. Parameters evaluated included disease activity index (DAI), histology, myeloperoxidase and NF-kappaB p65. EC-M17 dose dependently inhibited TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB signalling. At 5 x 109 colony-forming units/ml, EC-M17 inhibited NF-kappaB by >95 %. LPS-induced nuclear p65 binding was significantly inhibited (78 %; P 90 %) the LPS-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. In mice with DSS-induced colitis, EC-M17, metronidazole, and EC-M17 plus metronidazole significantly reduced DAI and colonic histology scores. Both EC-M17 and metronidazole reduced colonic IL-12, IL-6, IL-1beta and interferon-gamma. The combination of EC-M17 plus metronidazole resulted in more substantial cytokine reductions than were found with either treatment alone, and combination therapy significantly (P < 0.05 in both cases) reduced IL-1beta compared with EC-M17 and colonic histology scores compared with metronidazole. Alone, and in combination with metronidazole, EC-M17 improved murine colitis, probably due to an inhibitory effect on NF-kappaB signalling. PMID:18279557

  5. Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios - project overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzen, Tatjana; Mainul Hoque, M.; Wilken, Volker; Minkwitz, David; Schlüter, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is the European Satellite Based Augmentation Service (SBAS) that provides value added services, in particular to Safety of Live (SoL) users of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In the frame of the European GNSS Evolution Programme (EGEP), ESA has launched several activities, which are aiming to support the design, development and qualification of the future operational EGNOS infrastructure and associated services. The ionosphere is the part of the upper Earth's atmosphere between about 50 km and 1000 km above the Earth's surface, which contains sufficient free electrons to cause strong impact on radio signal propagation. Therefore, treatment of the ionosphere is a critical issue to guarantee the EGNOS system performance. In order to conduct the EGNOS end-to-end performance simulations and to assure the capability for maintaining integrity of the EGNOS system especially during ionospheric storm conditions, Ionospheric Reference Scenarios (IRSs) are introduced by ESA. The project Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios (DAIS) - aims to generate improved EGNOS IRSs by combining space borne and ground based GNSS observations. The main focus of this project is to demonstrate that ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) measurements can significantly contribute to fill data gaps in GNSS ground networks (particularly in Africa and over the oceans) when generating the IRSs. The primary tasks are the calculation and validation of time series of IRSs (i.e. TEC maps) by a 3D assimilation approach that combines IRO and ground based GNSS measurements with an ionospheric background model in an optimal way. In the first phase of the project we selected appropriate test periods, one presenting perturbed and the other one - nominal ionospheric conditions, collected and filtered the corresponding data. We defined and developed an applicable technique for the 3D assimilation and applied

  6. Association mapping of common bacterial blight resistance QTL in Ontario bean breeding populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Common bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Host resistance is practically the most effective and environmentally-sound approach to control CBB. Unlike conventional QTL discovery strategies, in which bi-parental populations (F2, RIL, or DH) need to be developed, association mapping-based strategies can use plant breeding populations to synchronize QTL discovery and cultivar development. Results A population of 469 dry bean lines of different market classes representing plant materials routinely developed in a bean breeding program were used. Of them, 395 lines were evaluated for CBB resistance at 14 and 21 DAI (Days After Inoculation) in the summer of 2009 in an artificially inoculated CBB nursery in south-western Ontario. All lines were genotyped using 132 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) evenly distributed across the genome. Of the 132 SNPs, 26 SNPs had more than 20% missing data, 12 SNPs were monomorphic, and 17 SNPs had a MAF (Minor Allelic Frequency) of less than 0.20, therefore only 75 SNPs were used for association study, based on one SNP per locus. The best possible population structure was to assign 36% and 64% of the lines into Andean and Mesoamerican subgroups, respectively. Kinship analysis also revealed complex familial relationships among all lines, which corresponds with the known pedigree history. MLM (Mixed Linear Model) analysis, including population structure and kinship, was used to discover marker-trait associations. Eighteen and 22 markers were significantly associated with CBB rating at 14 and 21 DAI, respectively. Fourteen markers were significant for both dates and the markers UBC420, SU91, g321, g471, and g796 were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, 12 significant SNP markers were co-localized with or close to the CBB-QTLs identified previously in bi-parental QTL mapping

  7. Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications Sheng Dai Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6201 Porous carbon materials are ubiquitous in separation, catalysis, and energy storage/conversion. Well-defined mesoporous carbon materials are essential for a number of the aforementioned applications. Ordered porous carbon materials have previously been synthesized using colloidal crystals and presynthesized mesoporous silicas as hard templates. The mesostructures of these carbon materials are connected via ultrathin carbon filaments and can readily collapse under high-temperature conditions. Furthermore, these hard-template methodologies are extremely difficult to adapt to the fabrication of large-scale ordered nanoporous films or monoliths with controlled pore orientations. More recently, my research group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several others around the world have developed alternative methods for synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous carbons via self-assembly. Unlike the mesoporous carbons synthesized via hard-template methods, these mesoporous carbons are highly stable and can be graphitized at high temperature (>2800ᵒC) without significant loss of mesopores. The surface properties of these materials can be further tailored via surface functionalization. This seminar will provide an overview and perspective of the mesoporous carbon materials derived from soft-template synthesis and surface functionalization and their fascinating applications in catalysis, separation, and energy storage devices. Dr. Sheng Dai got his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Zhejiang University in 1984 and 1986, respectively. He subsequently obtained a PhD degree from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in 1990. He is currently a Senior Staff Scientist and Group Leader of Nanomaterials Group and Center for Nanophase Materials Science of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and

  8. Sediment fingerprinting by using the Ag-110m: Cs-137 ratio along the main rivers draining the Fukushima radioactive pollution plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Lepage, Hugo; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, large quantities of radionuclides were released into the environment between 12 and 19 March 2011. Even though about 80% of these emissions were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited as wet and dry deposits on soils of Fukushima Prefecture on 15-16 March. In particular, 6.4 PBq of Cs-137 were modeled to have deposited on Japanese soils over a distance of 70 km to the northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. As most radionuclides are strongly sorbed by fine particles, and their mineralogical clay and organic matter fractions, they are likely to be redistributed within the landscape in association with soil and sediment particles transported by erosion processes and runoff. Based on a spatial analysis of the gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment respectively eight and thirteen months after the accident, we aim to provide a radioactive tracer to investigate the temporal evolution of the contaminant dispersion across Fukushima Prefecture. For this purpose, sediments were collected along rivers draining the main contamination plume in Fukushima Prefecture (i.e, Rivers Kutchibuto, Mano, Nitta and Ota) in November 2011 and April 2012.These campaigns directly followed the main hydro-sedimentary events that occurred in this region, i.e., the typhoon season (July and September-October) and the snowmelt (March 2012). The river sediment activities in gamma-emitting radionuclides were then compared to the initial activities measured in soils provided by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology (MEXT). The initial fallout patterns in 110mAg appeared to differ from those of the main contamination plume defined mainly by radiocaesium fallout (i.e., Cs-134+137). The Ag-110m:Cs-137 ratio was then used to trace the spatial origin of contaminated sediment collected in rivers. Sediments collected within the coastal

  9. Berberine ameliorates chronic relapsing dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing Th17 responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Hu, Dong-Dong; Fatima, Sarwat; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Mu, Huai-Xue; Lee, Nikki P; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an increasingly common condition particularly in developed countries. The lack of satisfactory treatment has fueled the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. In recent studies, berberine, a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, has shown beneficial effects against animal models of acute UC. However, UC usually presents as a chronic condition with frequent relapse in patients. How berberine will act on chronic UC remains unclear. In the present study, we adopted dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic relapsing colitis model to assess the ameliorating activity of berberine. Colitis was induced by two cycles of 2.0% DSS for five days followed by 14days of drinking water plus a third cycle consisting of DSS only for five days. The colitis mice were orally administered 20mg/kg berberine from day 13 onward for 30days and monitored daily. The body weight, stool consistency, and stool bleeding were recorded for determination of the disease activity index (DAI). At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected and subjected to histological, RT-qPCR, Western blot, and LC-MS analyses. Lymphocytes were isolated from spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cultured for flow cytometry analysis of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells and the Th17 cell differentiation. Results showed that berberine significantly ameliorated the DAI, colon shortening, colon tissue injury, and reduction of colonic expression of tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 and occludin of colitis mice. Notably, berberine treatment pronouncedly reduced DSS-upregulated Th17-related cytokine (IL-17 and ROR-γt) mRNAs in the colon. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-23, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 in colon tissues from DSS-treated mice were pronouncedly inhibited by berberine. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells of spleens and MLNs caused by DSS were significantly

  10. Current status of neonatal care and alternate strategies for reduction of neonatal mortality in the decade of nineties.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, S K; Ramji, S; Sachdev, H P

    1991-12-01

    Improvement in neonatal care in India is needed in order to fulfill the National Health Policy to reduce infant and perinatal mortality and low birth weight babies. 50-60% of perinatal and infant mortality is due to neonatal mortality, specifically low birth weight. There have been no declines in any of the states even though there are literacy, fertility, poverty and health personnel differences between states. The health delivery system is described. Basic facilities are lacking in subcenters and primary health centers: weighing scales, blood pressure recorder, urine analysis, and blood transfusion capability; pregnancy registration is 40%. 40% of women believe that the female multipurpose worker (ANM) is a maternal and child health worker; Dais made postnatal visits to 25% of the women and infants, while physicians and ANM's visited 10%. The most frequent method of delivery is home delivery with a Dai or relative in attendance. Information on temperature control at birth, hand washing, feeding, and identification of high risk infants by health personnel is inadequate. There are no neonatal units in the entire country even though there are 8 million low birth weight babies/year and 1 million neonatal deaths/year. Neonatal causes are primarily birth injuries, aspiration syndrome, and neonatal infections (tetanus, pneumonia, and diarrhea). Studies have identified health service improvements to reduce neonatal mortality. In India, the priority should be to 1) establish delivery of neonatal and perinatal care at all 3 levels of care, 2) train and educate all health personnel in perinatal and neonatal care, and 3) improve community participation by involving the community in decision making on kind of care, perinatal care, and health education and by monitoring such services. Infant care must extend from prenatal through postnatal care, which is currently fragmented, through a 3-tiered system. 80-85% of all infants need care at Level I; 15-20% require Level II care

  11. 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D relieves colitis in rats via down-regulation of toll-like receptor 9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhang-han; Tan, Bei; Yang, Hong; Wang, Ou; Qian, Jia-ming; Lv, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the therapeutic and immunoregulatory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D3) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) -induced colitis in rats. Methods Experimental colitis induced by enema administration of TNBS plus ethanol was treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and/or 1,25(OH)D3. Disease activity was measured using the disease activation index (DAI), colon macroscopic damage index (CMDI), histological colonic damage score, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the colon was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Results Rats with TNBS-induced colitis had significantly elevated DAI, CMDI, histological colonic damage score, and MPO activity (all P < 0.001) compared to rats without colitis. Treatment with 5-ASA or 1,25(OH)D3 ameliorated colitis by lowering CMDI (P = 0.049, P = 0.040, respectively), histological colonic damage score (P = 0.010, P = 0.005, respectively), and MPO activity (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0013, respectively) compared with the TNBS group. Combined treatment with 5-ASA and 1,25(OH)D3 significantly decreased MPO activity (P = 0.003). 1,25(OH)D3 attenuated colitis without causing hypercalcemia or renal insufficiency. TNBS significantly increased the number of TLR9 positive cells compared to control (P < 0.010), while 5-ASA, 1,25(OH)D3, and combined treatment with 5-ASA and 1,25(OH)D3 significantly decreased it compared to TNBS group (all P < 0.010). In TNBS group a moderate correlation was observed between MPO activity and the number of TLR9-positive cells (r = 0.654, P < 0.001). Conclusion TLR9 expression correlates with the extent of inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis. 1,25(OH)D3 relieves this inflammation possibly by decreasing TLR9 expression. PMID:26718757

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of the two novel anti-inflammatory substances, 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G) and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), on DSS-induced colitis in rats. For this purpose, rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 animals in each group as follows: i) the control group, which received 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; vehicle), ii) rats that received DTCM-G (20 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DTCM-G group), and iii) rats that received DHMEQ (15 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DHMEQ group). The animals were sacrificed after the 5-day treatment period, and tissue samples were taken from their colons and sectioned for histological evaluation. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained for leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The disease activity index (DAI), histological grading of colitis, and densities of several types of submucosal immune cells were compared between the controls, and the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups. The DAI values were significantly lower in both the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The total scores for the histological grading of colitis were also significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The submucosal densities of leucocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells were significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. Our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of DTCM-G and DHMEQ, and the absence of any associated toxicity render them excellent therapeutic candidates for clinical use in the treatment of colitis. PMID:27082818

  13. Functional oxide nanobelts - from materials to nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhong; Wang

    2003-11-01

    Nanowire and nanotube based materials have been demonstrated as building blocks for nanocircuits, nanosystems and nano-optoelectronics. Recently, ultra-long belt-like, quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures (so called nanobelts or nanoribbons) have been successfully synthesized for semiconducting oxides of zinc, tin, indium, cadmium and gallium, by simply evaporating the desired commercial metal oxide powders at high temperatures [1]. The as-synthesized oxide nanobelts are pure, structurally uniform, single crystalline and most of them free from dislocations; they have a rectangular-like cross-section with typical widths of 30 - 300 nm, width-to-thickness ratios of 5 - 10 and lengths of up to a few millimeters. The belt-like morphology appears to be a unique and common structural characteristic for the family of semiconducting oxides with cations of different valence states and materials of distinct crystallographic structures. Using the technique demonstrated for measuring the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes based on in-situ transmission electron microscopy [2,3], the bending modulus of the oxide nanobelts has been measured and the nanobelt is shown to be a dual mode nanoresonator for NEMS technology. Field effect transistors [4] and ultra-sensitive nano-size gas sensors [5], nanoresonators and nanocantilevers [6] have also been fabricated based on individual nanobelts. Thermal transport along the nanobelt has also been measured. Nanocantilevers based on nanobelts have been fabricated. Very recently, structurally nanobelts exhibiting piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties have been synthesized, which could be a candidate for nano-scale traducers, actuators and sensors. [1] Z.W. Pan, Z.R. Dai and Z.L. Wang, Science, 209 (2001) 1947. [2] P. Poncharal, Z.L. Wang, D. Ugarte and W.A. de Heer, Science, 283 (1999) 1513; Electron Microscopy of Nanotubes, ed. Z.L. Wang and C. Hui, Kluwer Academic Publisher (2003). [3] R.P. Gao, Z.L. Wang, Z.G. Bai, W. de Heer

  14. Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/ Pu-239 atom ratios in the water column off Sanriku, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred in the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has resulted in a substantial release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and ocean, and has caused extensive contamination of the environment. However, no information is available on the amounts of radionuclides such as Pu isotopes released into the ocean at this time. Investigating the background baseline concentration and atom ratio of Pu isotopes in seawater is important for assessment of the possible contamination in the marine environment. Pu-239 (half-life: 24,100 years), Pu-240 (half-life: 6,560 years) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 years) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater samples collected in the western North Pacific off Sanriku before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant will provide useful background baseline data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing additional Pu sources. Seawater samples were collected with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the KH-98-3 cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations were 2.07 and 1.67 mBq/m3 in the surface water, respectively, and increased with depth; a subsurface maximum was identified at 750 m depth, and the concentrations decreased with depth, then increased at the bottom layer. The total Pu-239+240 inventory in the entire water column (depth interval 0

  15. In planta gene expression analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, African strain MAI1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Results Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. Conclusions This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that as-yet-unidentified and

  16. Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios - project overview and achieved outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzen, Tatjana; Wilken, Volker; Hoque, Mainul; Minkwitz, David; Schlueter, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The ionosphere is the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere, where sufficient free electrons exist to affect the propagation of radio waves. Therefore, the treatment of the ionosphere is a critical issue for many applications dealing with trans-ionospheric signals such as GNSS positioning, GNSS related augmentation systems (e.g. EGNOS and WAAS) and remote sensing. The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is the European Satellite Based Augmentation Service (SBAS) that provides value added services, in particular to safety critical GNSS applications, e.g. aviation and maritime traffic. In the frame of the European GNSS Evolution Programme (EGEP), ESA has launched several activities, supporting the design, development and qualification of the operational EGNOS infrastructure and associated services. Ionospheric Reference Scenarios (IRSs) are used by ESA in order to conduct the EGNOS performance simulations and to assure the capability for maintaining accuracy, integrity and availability of the EGNOS system, especially during ionospheric storm conditions. The project Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios (DAIS) - aims the provision of improved EGNOS IRSs. The main tasks are the calculation and validation of time series of IRSs by a 3D assimilation approach that combines space borne and ground based GNSS observations as well as ionosonde measurements with an ionospheric background model. The special focus thereby is to demonstrate that space-based measurements can significantly contribute to fill data gaps in GNSS ground networks (particularly in Africa and over the oceans) when generating the IRSs. In this project we selected test periods of perturbed and nominal ionospheric conditions and filtered the collected data for outliers. We defined and developed an applicable technique for the 3D assimilation and applied this technique for the generation of IRSs covering the EGNOS V3 extended service area. Afterwards the

  17. Detailed Sidescan Imageries Obtained From the Southern Mariana Trough and the Suiyo Seamount of the Izu-Bonin Arc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshima, M.; Kisimoto, K.; Nishimura, K.

    2004-12-01

    Side-scan-sonar (SSS) is a tool to create 2-dimensional imagery of the seafloor, and sub-bottom-profiler (SBP) is for a cross sectional (vertical) structure beneath the seafloor. These 2 instruments were combined into a compact (portable) package (off-line system) to accommodate into various vehicles such as ROVs and deep-tow frame. We named the system _eDAI-PACK: Deep-sea Acoustic Imaging Package_f. During the cruise TN167 at the back-arc spreading area in the southern Mariana, ROPOS-dive#777 was assigned to do the mapping by DAI-PACK. 2 box survey lines were planned at Fryer site and Yamanaka site on the axial hydrothermal area. Mesotech 971 forward-scanning sonar was used and its record was saved digitally. We were able to process the Mesotech 971 data and the images were plotted on maps. 2 boxes and transit between them were successfully processed using smoothed data of LBL positions. The cruise NT03-14 was carried out at the Suiyo seamount using ROV Hyper-Dolphin -dive#262,#265,#266, with SSBL acoustic positioning system. The ROPOS and the Hyper-Dolphin could have been maintained at the height of 3-5m from the sea-bottom. From the records of ROPOS_fs 7.5 hours, 4 and a half survey lines (East-West direction) were successfully recovered from Box-1. Each survey line was separated by 50m and the half swath range of the SSS was set to 30m to make full coverage of the box 1 and 2. We can recognize the rocks of 1m in size from the mosaic imagery, but the preliminary image is skewed and distorted because the vehicle_fs attitude correction is not quite right yet. Although the SSS transmits 10 pulses per second, attitude sensors of the ROPOS were recorded only one per second, which sometimes makes it difficult to relocate every pulse of the SSS to its true position. At the pre-cruise meeting it was announced that ROPOS would be installed with new navigational/scanning tools, i.e. a doppler sonar and a pencil-beam sonar, which could make the post processing of the SSS

  18. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats. PMID:27465728

  19. Workshop session on pros and cons for different target materials/corrosion and corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Y.; Mansur, L.K.; Dai, Y.; DiStefano, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    Two of the originally planned workshop sessions, indicated by the titles on each side of the {open_quotes}/{close_quotes} in the above title were combined. The session was structured into four areas in which target material attributes were considered: nuclear properties; physical properties; compatibility; and liquid metal engineering/safety. Short presentations were either volunteered by participants or requested by the session organizers to help establish a background and stimulate discussion. G. Bauer, J. Takeda, T. Gabriel and S. Wender covered the first two areas; J. DiStefano, Y. Dai and Y. Orlov made presentations in the third area. O. Lielausis and R. Dressler spoke on the fourth area. L.K. Mansur served as moderator for the combined session. Although there was much discussion and some differences of opinion, the overall recommendations, considering all available factors, as distilled by this session`s organizers, are as follows. Choose Hg as the prime candidate target material to which most resources should be devoted. A strong alternate candidate is considered to exist in Pb-Bi eutectic. Other candidate materials such as Pb, Pb-Mg eutectic and Bi are weaker choices for various reasons, with Bi being the weakest.

  20. Andrographolide derivative AL-1 ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis in mice: involvement of NF-кB and PPAR-γ signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yali; Yan, Hui; Jing, Mei; Zhang, Zaijun; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Shan, Luchen; Yu, Pei; Wang, Yuqiang; Xu, Lipeng

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide is a traditional herb medicine, widely used in Asia for conditions involving inflammation. The andrographlide-lipoic acid conjugate, AL-1, has been found being able to alleviate inflammation in our previous reports. Although the anti-inflammatory activity of AL-1 contributes to its cytoprotective effects, whether AL-1 can improve inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the underlying mechanisms of its action remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of AL-1 in C57BL/6 mice with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. The body weight loss and length change of colon after TNBS instillation were more severe than those in normal mice. AL-1 treatment led to significant reductions in disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic score and colon mucosa damage index (CMDI) associated with TNBS administration. AL-1 inhibited the inflammatory response via lowering the level of inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. AL-1 attenuated the expression of p-p65, p-IκBα and COX-2 in the colitis mice. The alleviation of colon injury by AL-1 treatment was also evidenced by the increased expression of PPAR-γ. These results indicated that AL-1 could protect intestinal tract from the injury induced by TNBS in mice, suggesting that AL-1 may have potential in treatment for IBD. PMID:27435110