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1

Mantle Transition Zone Structure Beneath Kenya, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cenozoic East African Rift System has been attributed to the impingement of a mantle plume, however the geometry of such a plume is poorly defined. Investigations of mantle structure beneath Tanzania suggest that the region is underlain by a plume head, but that the plume stem may be located further to the north in Kenya. To further define the three-dimensional thermal structure beneath East Africa, and to further delineate any plume geometry, we use receiver-function stacking to image the topography of the 410 and 660 km mantle discontinuities beneath Kenya. Data collected from the 2001-2002 Kenya Passcal project and the permanent GSN stations NAI and KMBO have been processed to generate receiver functions using a frequency-domain deconvolution with water-level stabilization. Preliminary results from stacking the receiver functions with a 1D velocity model reveal that the 410 km discontinuity is depressed by ~20 km, suggesting thermally perturbed mantle structure. This geometry is consistent with results from Tanzania. Initial analysis of the 660 km discontinuity is less definitive. Stacking with a 3D velocity model and a larger data set will improve the quality of the stacks and allow us to image the discontinuities more clearly.

Huerta, A. D.; Nyblade, A. A.; Larson, A. M.

2006-12-01

2

Mantle Transition Zone Structure Beneath Kenya, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cenozoic East African Rift System has been attributed to the impingement of a mantle plume, however the geometry of such a plume is poorly defined. Investigations of mantle structure beneath Tanzania suggest that the region is underlain by a plume head, but that the plume stem may be located further to the north in Kenya. To further define the

A. D. Huerta; A. A. Nyblade; A. M. Larson

2006-01-01

3

Large scale climatological controls of the mass balance of tropical Lewis Glacier, Mt Kenya, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among other effects on the mass and energy balance, tropical glaciers are particularly sensitive to precipitation, which increases both mass accumulation and albedo (and thus reduces ablation). Therefore, precipitation variability is directly linked to mass balance variability. Multi-year and inter-annual fluctuations in large scale climate patterns (IOZM, ENSO) are known to strongly correlate with precipitation variability in equatorial East Africa, but little is known about how this effects the precipitation at high elevations on Mt Kenya. In this study we compare (i) the mass balance time series of Lewis Glacier, Mt Kenya (1978 - 1996) and (ii) high altitude precipitation measurements from the mountain to gridded regional climate data and multi-year climate oscillations. These regional influences, superimposed on the overarching tropical climate conditions and seasonality, play a key role for seasons with abundant snowfall on the glacier and, in combination with radiative forcing, explain the predominantly negative mass balances on Lewis glacier.

Prinz, Rainer; Nicholson, Lindsey; Mölg, Thomas; Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg

2010-05-01

4

Late Quaternary changes in carbon cycling on Mt. Kenya, East Africa: an overview of the ? 13C record in lacustrine organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?13C signature of sedimentary organic matter acts as a tracer for past changes in the terrestrial and aquatic carbon cycles. Compound-specific ?13C analysis enables these two signals to be disentangled. We compare the molecular-isotopic records from a transect of five lakes between 1820 and 4595m a.s.l. on Mt. Kenya, East Africa, spanning the last ?100,000 years, with multiproxy palaeoenvironmental

Katherine J. Ficken; Yongsong Huang; Geoffrey Eglinton

2004-01-01

5

Recent land?cover\\/use change associated with land degradation in the Lake Baringo catchment, Kenya, East Africa: evidence from Landsat TM and ETM+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parts of East Africa are experiencing dramatic changes in land?cover\\/use at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, due to both climatic variability and human activities. Information about such changes is often required for planning, management, and conservation of natural resources. Several methods for land cover\\/change detection using Landsat TM\\/ETM+ imagery were employed for Lake Baringo catchment in Kenya,

L. M. Kiage; N. D. Walker; N. Lam; O. K. Huh

2007-01-01

6

DIATOM DIVERSITY IN HAUSBURG TARN, A GLACIAL LAKE ON MOUNT KENYA, EAST AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of 30 fossil diatom samples found in a 500-year sediment record from Hausburg Tarn, a glacial lake located in the Alpine zone of Mount Kenya, revealed a diatom diversity of 57 specific and infraspecific taxa. Of the eight taxa (14% of total species diversity) with a distribution restricted to the African continent, two species (3.5%) are unique to

Christine Cocquyt

2007-01-01

7

Antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals from Kenya, East Africa.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in six wild Artiodactyla species, and in five wild Carnivora species from Kenya. Blood sera (104 wild ungulates from Marula Estates (MEs), and 31 wild carnivores from Masai-Mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and Southern Kenya), were screened using a Neospora agglutination test (NAT), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). Presence of NAT antibodies to N. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra (Equus burchelli), eland (Taurotragus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Thompson gazelle (Gazella thompsoni), impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and in free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). At 1:80 dilution, prevalence was 61.5% in eland, 58.5% in zebra, 19.2% in Thompson gazelle, 33.3% in warthog, 50% in African buffalo, 30% in lion (Panthera leo), 20% in cheetah, and 33.3% in spotted hyena. Antibodies up to 1:320 titre were detected in eland (38.4%), zebra (19.5%), Thompson gazelle (3.8%) and lion (5%). Amongst herbivores, sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher, at all dilutions, in "grazer/digger" species (e.g. eland and zebra) than in non-"grazer/digger" species (e.g. impala and Thompson gazelle). No antibodies to N. caninum were found in two leopards (Panthera pardus) and one serval (Felis serval). Our results indicates a steady presence of N. caninum in wild mammals from Kenya. The hypothesis of a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum could be suggested, but more data are needed to verify the hypothesis, as to evaluate the role of N. caninum infection on the dynamics of wild animals population in the study area. PMID:14651874

Ferroglio, E; Wambwa, E; Castiello, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Prouteau, A; Pradere, E; Ndungu, S; De Meneghi, D

2003-12-01

8

The Sun Rises in the East (of Africa): A Comparison of the Development and Status of the Solar Energy Markets in Kenya and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes, compares and analyses the historical development and current status of Kenya's and Tanzania's emerging solar energy markets. The analysis is based on an extensive literature survey and 25 in-depth personal interviews with experts on the East African solar power market. Kenya's solar market is found to be one of the world's leading markets for off-grid solar uses,

Janosch Ondraczek

2012-01-01

9

Recent changes in the level of Lake Naivasha, Kenya, as an indicator of equatorial westerlies over East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously unpublished record of lake levels from Lake Naivasha, Kenya from 1880 to 1976 has been analysed and shows little similarity to the level record from nearby Lake Victoria. Level changes from year to year of the two lakes show no significant correlation (at 5%) and spectral analysis of the two records shows no common significant peaks. Both lakes

C. E. Vincent; T. D. Davies; A. K. C. Beresford

1979-01-01

10

Kenya.  

PubMed

Attention in this discussion of Kenya is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between Kenya and the US. In 1987, the population was estimated at 21.6 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 4.1%. Traditional herders, Arab Muslims, and cosmopolitan residents of Nairobi all contribute to the culture of Kenya. The standard of living in major cities is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Fossils located in east Africa suggest that protohumans roamed the area more than 20 million years ago. Recent anthropological finds near Kenya's Lake Turkana indicate that the "Homo" genus of humans lived in the area 2.6 million years ago. Kenya's colonial history dates from the Berlin conference of 1885. In 1895, the British government established the East African Protectorate and, soon after, opened the fertile highlands to white settlers. The settlers were allowed a voice in government before it officially was made a British colony in 1920, but Africans were not permitted any direct political participation until 1944. Kenya became independent on December 12, 1963, and in 1964 assumed the status of a republic within the Commonwealth. The president is elected by the National Assembly to serve a 5-year term, but if the president dissolves the assembly, a new presidential election must be held. Since independence, Kenya has maintained remarkable stability during many changes within the democratic system. Kenya's major political challenge is to reinvigorate its economy, which has suffered from a combination of problems such as government deficit spending, a chronic shortage of foreign exchange, and the rising cost of oil imports. Economic growth has declined since 1973, and real gross domestic product (GDP) has grown only by about 2.75% for the 1980-86 period. One of Kenya's basic problems is its population growth rate. With less than 20% of the land classified as potentially arable and much of that already densely populated, food crop production faces serious constraints. The US and Kenya enjoy cordial relations. The main purpose of US bilateral assistance to Kenya is to promote broad-based economic development as the basis for continued progress in political, social, and related areas of national life. US aid strategy is structured around 3 major objectives: reduced population growth; increased rural production, employment, and income; and efficient, basic social services. PMID:12177968

1988-01-01

11

Smallholder dairying under transactions costs in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that dairying is vital to future viability of many small farms in East Africa and that high transactions costs for dairy production and marketing limit participation by asset- and information-poor smallholders. Case studies from Kenya and Ethiopia illustrate the role of dairy cooperatives in reducing transactions costs. Analysis of the determinants of producer prices received by a

Charles Nicholson; Christopher Delgado

1997-01-01

12

Countering Terrorism in East Africa: The U.S. Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States government has implemented a range of programs to counter violent extremist threats in East Africa in response to Al Qaeda's bombing of the U.S. embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998 and subsequent transnational terrorist activity in t...

L. Ploch

2010-01-01

13

Maximizing the impact of print media in church development in the Presbyterian Church of East Africa (P.C.E.A.) (Kenya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the report of the Communications Committee of the Presbyterian Church of East Africa (P.C.E.A.) to the 15th General Assembly, the church is aware of the immensity of information, education and revelation that can be shared and disseminated through the print media in the church. 1 However, to effectively disseminate the Gospel through the print media requires some creativity

James Mwangi Munyi

1997-01-01

14

Coastal marine biodiversity in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean coastline of mainland Africa is over 9 500 km long and comprises the tropical coasts of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, plus the subtropical and warm-temperate Indian Ocean coastline of South Africa. The regional marine fisheries catch (Indian Ocean catch only for South Africa) is about 200 000 t, more than 80 % of which is taken

Charles L. Griffiths

2005-01-01

15

Phylodynamics of HIV-1 Subtype C Epidemic in East Africa  

PubMed Central

The HIV-1 subtype C accounts for an important fraction of HIV infections in east Africa, but little is known about the genetic characteristics and evolutionary history of this epidemic. Here we reconstruct the origin and spatiotemporal dynamics of the major HIV-1 subtype C clades circulating in east Africa. A large number (n?=?1,981) of subtype C pol sequences were retrieved from public databases to explore relationships between strains from the east, southern and central African regions. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of those sequences revealed that most (>70%) strains from east Africa segregated in a single regional-specific monophyletic group, here called CEA. A second major Ethiopian subtype C lineage and a large collection of minor Kenyan and Tanzanian subtype C clades of southern African origin were also detected. A Bayesian coalescent-based method was then used to reconstruct evolutionary parameters and migration pathways of the CEA African lineage. This analysis indicates that the CEA clade most probably originated in Burundi around the early 1960s, and later spread to Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, giving rise to major country-specific monophyletic sub-clusters between the early 1970s and early 1980s. The results presented here demonstrate that a substantial proportion of subtype C infections in east Africa resulted from dissemination of a single HIV local variant, probably originated in Burundi during the 1960s. Burundi was the most important hub of dissemination of that subtype C clade in east Africa, fueling the origin of new local epidemics in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Subtype C lineages of southern African origin have also been introduced in east Africa, but seem to have had a much more restricted spread.

Delatorre, Edson Oliveira; Bello, Gonzalo

2012-01-01

16

Chronology of the Later Stone Age and Food Production in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from several archaeological sites in sub-Saharan Africa suggests that the transition to modern human technology, marked by the change from the Middle to the Later Stone Age (LSA), occurred first in East Africa. Enkapune Ya Muto rockshelter, in the central Rift Valley of Kenya, contains the oldest known archaeological horizons spanning this transition. Radiocarbon and obsidian hydration dates from

Stanley H. Ambrose

1998-01-01

17

East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa) (Fritz et al., 2009). Majority of data suggest an anticlockwise P-T loop and prolonged, slow cooling at deep crustal levels without significant exhumation. Isobaric cooling is explained by horizontal flow with rates faster than thermal equilibration of the lower crust. Those settings are found in domains of previously thinned lithosphere such as extended passive margins. Such rheolgically weak plate boundaries do not produce self-sustaining one-sided subduction but large areas of magmatic underplating that enable melt enhanced lateral flow of the lower crust. Western Granulites deformed by high-vorticity westwards thrusting at c. 550 Ma (Kuunga orogeny). Rocks exhibit clockwise P-T paths and experienced significant exhumation during isothermal decompression. Overprint between Kuungan structures and 620 Ma East African fabrics resulted in complex interference pattern within the Eastern Granulites. The three orogen portions that converge in Tanzania / Southern Kenya have different orogen styles. The southern ANS formed by transcurrent deformation of an island arc root; the Eastern Granulites by lower crustal channelized flow of a hot inverted passive margin; the Western Granulites by lower to mid crustal stacking of old and cold crustal fragments. Collins, A.S., Pisarevsky, S.A. (2005). Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: The evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens. Earth-Science Reviews, 71, 229-270. De Waele, B., Kampunzu, A.B., Mapani, B.S.E., Tembo, F. (2006). The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 46, 36-70 Fritz, H., Tenczer, V., Hauzenberger, C., Wallbrecher, E., Muhongo, S. (2009). Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa. Tectonophysics, 477, 160-173.

Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

2012-04-01

18

Lake Challa (Kenya/Tanzania) sediments, a varved climate archive of environmental variability in equatorial East Africa of the last 25.000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, an increasing number of climate records from low-latitude regions underscore the importance of tropical atmospheric processes in the global climate system. Nevertheless, the regional synchrony of temperature and humidity variations, as well as teleconnecting mechanisms between high and low latitudes are still poorly understood. The EuroCLIMATE project CHALLACEA aims to provide a continuous high- resolution multi-proxy record of temperature and moisture-balance variability in equatorial East Africa from the Last Glacial Maximum (25 ka BP) to the present. Lake Challa is a crater lake located about 40 km east of Mt. Kilimanjaro at an altitude of 880 m a.s.l. It is a freshwater lake whose water column is stratified during most of the year. It is fed by subsurface inflow which derives mainly from percolation of precipitation falling in the montane forest zone higher up the mountain. Within the lake form lacustrine deposits which predominantly consist of autochthonous components (carbonate, biogenic silica, organic matter). The present study focuses on microfacies analyses and isotope measurements. Fine laminations are preserved over wide parts of a 22 m long sediment profile. Microfacies analyses reveal that the light/dark couplets represent true calcite varves. The darker layers contain organic matter and endogenic calcite. Sediment trap studies show that these layers form during the warm season (Nov to Mar) when water temperatures are high and the lake is biological productive. The light layers consist predominantly of diatom frustules. They accumulate in the sediment trap between June and October. By counting and measuring the thickness of the varves on thin sections, we establish a varve record that currently covers the last 1500 years. Stable isotope analyses on bulk carbonates will complement this record and give further insights into the hydrological variability of the region and enhance our knowledge of climate change in the highly sensitive climate region of the Mt. Kilimanjaro area.

Wolff, C.; Haug, G.; Plessen, B.; Kristen, I.; Verschuren, D.; Participants, C.

2008-12-01

19

Kansyore fisher-foragers and transitions to food production in East Africa: the view from Wadh Lang'o, Nyanza Province, Western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site of Wadh Lang'o in southern Nyanza Province (Kenya) has produced a very large faunal assemblage in association with Kansyore, Elmenteitan and Urewe ceramics. The stratigraphy of the site appears to be intact and six dates have been obtained from the sequence, making this the best opportunity to look at diachronic change in subsistence strategies in this region. The

Mary E. Prendergast

2010-01-01

20

Sub-fossil Chironomidae from East Africa. 2. Chironominae (Chironomini and Tanytarsini)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper and a companion article present illustrated guides to the identification of sub-fossil chironomid larvae (Insecta: Diptera: Chironomidae) preserved in the sediments of low- and mid-elevation lakes in East Africa. They are based on analysis of surface-sediment death assemblages from 61 lakes located in the humid to semi-arid environments in equatorial East Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania), supplemented with similar

Hilde Eggermont; Dirk Verschuren

2004-01-01

21

2009 Drought in East Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The module examines the 2009 drought in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), focusing on conditions in Kenya. The module begins by reviewing drought conditions in the years leading up to 2009. From there, it examines the seasonal climate forecast for the beginning of 2009 and see what it portends. Satellite products are used to study rainfall performance throughout the year and its impact on the drought situation. Finally, the module describes the climate oscillations that can impact drought in the GHA and identifies patterns that were present in 2009 and contributed to its severity. By the end of the module, weather forecasters and students should have a better understanding of drought and the tools available for its early detection and monitoring.

2012-01-01

22

Race Portrayals in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa Television Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines racial portrayals in television advertisements from Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. Whites are over-represented relative to their actual demographic presence in all three countries, and both Blacks and Whites are depicted as over-employed. In general, however, depictions are not significantly different for either race, though there is a hint that a stereotyped portrayal of Blacks as

Laura M. Milner

2007-01-01

23

Hunter–Gatherer Land Use Patterns in Later Stone Age East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses land use patterns of hunter–gatherers inhabiting arid grasslands of later Pleistocene East Africa, inferred from an analysis of raw material economy in five Later Stone Age (LSA) lithic assemblages from Lukenya Hill, southern Kenya. Later Stone Age lithic assemblages at Lukenya fall into two groups, one based predominantly on the use of quartz to manufacture scrapers and

Sibel Barut Kusimba

1999-01-01

24

Teleconnection between Seasonal Rainfall over East Africa and Global Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, global sea surface temperature anomalies within ±30° latitudes of the equator were correlated with the time series of the major rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) modes of the seasonal rainfall over East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania) for the period 1950-79. Regionally averaged rainfall anomalies were also correlated with the SST anomalies. The physical reality and climatological

Laban J. Ogallo; J. E. Janowiak; M. S. Halpert

1988-01-01

25

A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...

26

The role of soil science in agricultural development in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy of the three countries of East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda). It employs about 80 to 90 percent of the population of these countries and is also the main source of food and foreign exchange earnings. However, the agricultural development in the region has remained below expectation during the last five decades. Although

F. N. Muchena; R. M. Kiome

1995-01-01

27

A Biocultural Framework for Examining Maternal Cravings and Aversions among Pastoral Women in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food preferences during pregnancy result from a complex set of biocultural interactions with important implications for maternal and child health. This article explores the social context of maternal food choice in marginal environments of East Africa. Biocultural data collected among Turkana and Datoga women living in Kenya and Tanzania indicate there is a significant social context to food choice that

Alyson G. Young; Ivy L. Pike

2012-01-01

28

Kenya.  

PubMed

The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5 degrees S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterized by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25 degrees C and 31 degrees C during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and tourist centers proceeds with little regard for environmental and social impacts. With a faltering economy, industrial development in Mombasa proceeds with few checks on pollution and other impacts. In 1998 Kenya's coral reefs suffered 50-80% mortality from the El Niño-related coral bleaching event that affected the entire Indian Ocean. The institutional, human resource and legal infrastructure for managing the coastal environment has in the past been low, however these are rapidly improving with the revitalization of national institutions and the passing in 1999 of an Environment Act. Marine Protected Areas are the key tool currently used in management of marine ecosystems, and focus principally on coral reefs and biodiversity protection. New initiatives are underway to improve application of fisheries regulations, and to use Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) as a framework for protecting marine and coastal environments. PMID:11827110

Obura, D O

2001-12-01

29

Development of a Testate Amoebae Calibration Dataset from a freshwater wetland in a semi-arid environment: Loboi Swamp, Kenya, East Africa.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African Rift Valley is characterized as an arid to semi-arid region, with several large, well studied, alkaline lakes; within the region, freshwater wetlands persist. These wetland systems, locally are important sources of freshwater. They also provide overlooked important paleoclimate archives, as the fragile ecology of these wetlands can be affected by even minor changes in hydrology and climate. Loboi Swamp is a 1.5 km2 freshwater wetland located near the equator in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The region receives approximately 700 mm of precipitation per year, while potential evaporation exceeds 2500 mm annually. Analysis of 25-years of precipitation data from local weather stations indicate that significant positive precipitation anomalies occur during El Niño years. Radiocarbon, pollen, and diatom data from Loboi Swamp indicates that the current wetland developed approximately 700 years ago. Sediment surface samples were collected for pollen, seeds and testate amoebae, along with water chemistry and vegetation data from throughout the Loboi Marsh. In this paper we present preliminary data and results in the development of a calibration dataset to test the feasibility of using testate amoebae as a proxy for hydrological and geochemical changes in a semi-arid setting. Initial results indicate significant qualitative differences in testate amoebae taxon distribution within geographic regions of the marsh, which likely correlate with a variety of hydrologic parameters (e.g., alkalinity, PH, DO, and temperature).

Goman, M. F.; Ashley, G. M.; Hover, V. C.; Muasya, A. M.

2005-12-01

30

Agricultural Extension in East Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the status of agricultural extension in the AF2 countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Mauritius and Uganda). The report discusses key problems and makes recommendations on how to make agricultural extension services to small-scale...

L. A. Schwartz J. Kampen

1992-01-01

31

East and Southern Africa English Accents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses English pronunciation features in the anglophone countries of East and Southern Africa. Focus is on restructuring of the STRUT vowel to /a/,/i/, and /e/ epenthesis, and short tone groups.(Author/VWL)|

Bobda, Augustin Simo

2001-01-01

32

Evolution of telecommunications policy reforms in East Africa: Setting new policy strategies to anchor benefits of policy reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a strategic evaluation of telecommunica tions policy reform over a ten-year period 1993-2002. The focus of the paper is the three countries of East Africa - Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The evaluation is framed against policy objectives set out by the three governments and their outcomes as measured against relevance to stakeholders, performance by implementers based on

Muriuki Mureithi

33

Use of participatory epidemiology in studies of the persistence of lineage 2 rinderpest virus in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, rinderpest virus of African lineage 2 was detected in East Africa after an apparent absence of more than 30 years. In 1996, a disease search, based on participatory epidemiological techniques supplemented by serological and virological analyses, was undertaken in southern Somalia and northeastern Kenya to collate past and current epidemiological information about rinderpest-compatible disease events, and to test

J. C. Mariner; P. L. Roeder

2003-01-01

34

Reduced interannual rainfall variability in East Africa during the last ice age.  

PubMed

Interannual rainfall variations in equatorial East Africa are tightly linked to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with more rain and flooding during El Niño and droughts in La Niña years, both having severe impacts on human habitation and food security. Here we report evidence from an annually laminated lake sediment record from southeastern Kenya for interannual to centennial-scale changes in ENSO-related rainfall variability during the last three millennia and for reductions in both the mean rate and the variability of rainfall in East Africa during the Last Glacial period. Climate model simulations support forward extrapolation from these lake sediment data that future warming will intensify the interannual variability of East Africa's rainfall. PMID:21817050

Wolff, Christian; Haug, Gerald H; Timmermann, Axel; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Brauer, Achim; Sigman, Daniel M; Cane, Mark A; Verschuren, Dirk

2011-08-01

35

Thermal plume models and melt generation in East Africa: A dynamic modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis that thermal plumes contribute to the Cenozoic magmatism in East Africa is now widely accepted. The controversy lies on how many plumes exist and where they may be located. In this study we show numerical experiments of mantle convection models for a number of thermal plume models and discuss the implications for the melt generation in East Africa. We investigate how the plume(s), the Tanzania craton, and the African lithospheric structure may interplay to result in the magmatism distribution in East Africa since the Eocene. Our results demonstrate that the variable thickness of the lithosphere modulates melt generation. A single-plume model cannot reproduce the observations consistently. Double-plume models with plumes located at Afar and Kenya regions are viable with reasonable physical properties. The distribution of the plume material, however, is sensitive to the angle at which the Tanzania craton and regions of thick lithosphere approach the plume, as the African plate moves. Models that have present-day location of the second plume (Kenya plume) under the Eastern rift or the interior of the Tanzania craton can best match the basalt distribution. Our model results suggest that the basaltic eruptions associated with the Afar plume tap a relatively deep source of the plume body in general, whereas melting occurs at shallower depths for the Kenya plume except for the Eocene episode. The magmatism is derived from a more depleted mantle source in the low-Ti basalt province of northwestern Ethiopia. Our experiments indicate the thermal influence of the Afar plume but predict an absence of plume-derived melts, suggesting the melt generation within lithosphere triggered by thermal influence of Afar plume in this region. Our model results suggest that plume plays an active role on the initiation of the rifting process in East Africa.

Lin, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Chiao, Ling-Yun; van Keken, Peter E.

2005-08-01

36

Helicobacter pylori in Immigrants from East Africa  

PubMed Central

This study determines the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in a group of immigrants from East Africa with dyspepsia symptoms. Costs of treatment (including financial costs, adverse effects of treatment, and complexity of care) are compared for empiric treatment and treatment guided by serologic testing. Of the symptomatic patients, 93% had H. pylori antibodies. Empiric treatment of all patients with dyspepsia could reduce the cost of care by approximately half, with minimal risk to uninfected patients.

Wang, Peiyi; Adair, Richard

1999-01-01

37

Temperature and Malaria Trends in Highland East Africa  

PubMed Central

There has been considerable debate on the existence of trends in climate in the highlands of East Africa and hypotheses about their potential effect on the trends in malaria in the region. We apply a new robust trend test to mean temperature time series data from three editions of the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit database (CRU TS) for several relevant locations. We find significant trends in the data extracted from newer editions of the database but not in the older version for periods ending in 1996. The trends in the newer data are even more significant when post-1996 data are added to the samples. We also test for trends in the data from the Kericho meteorological station prepared by Omumbo et al. We find no significant trend in the 1979-1995 period but a highly significant trend in the full 1979-2009 sample. However, although the malaria cases observed at Kericho, Kenya rose during a period of resurgent epidemics (1994-2002) they have since returned to a low level. A large assembly of parasite rate surveys from the region, stratified by altitude, show that this decrease in malaria prevalence is not limited to Kericho.

Stern, David I.; Gething, Peter W.; Kabaria, Caroline W.; Temperley, William H.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Okiro, Emelda A.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snow, Robert W.; Hay, Simon I.

2011-01-01

38

Hepatitis A shifting epidemiology in the Middle East and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Africa and the Middle East are scant, but most of Africa appears to remain a high endemicity region, with the exception of subpopulations in some areas, e.g. White people in South Africa. Saudi Arabia is a model for the Middle East, and is a country in which shifting HAV

Haysam Tufenkeji

2000-01-01

39

The Growth of Private Universities in Kenya: Implications for Gender Equity in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of private universities in Kenya and Africa is relatively new. At independence (1960s) there were about seven universities on the continent. How- ever, by 2005 there were 85 private and 316 public universities in Africa (Kihara 2005). Kenya is leading in this expansion of private higher education in East Africa with 16 in 2006 compared to three in

Jane Onsongo

2007-01-01

40

Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake sediments in 10 Ethiopian, Kenyan, and Tanzanian rift basins suggest that there were three humid periods at 2.7 to 2.5 million years ago (Ma), 1.9 to 1.7 Ma, and 1.1 to 0.9 Ma, superimposed on the longer-term aridification of East Africa. These humid periods correlate with increased aridity in northwest and northeast Africa and with substantial global climate transitions. These episodes could have had important impacts on the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominins, because a number of key events, such as the origin of the genus Homo and the evolution of the species Homo erectus, took place in this region during that time.

Trauth, Martin H.; Maslin, Mark A.; Deino, Alan; Strecker, Manfred R.

2005-09-01

41

Artesian blister wetlands, a perennial water resource in the semi-arid rift valley of East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster of artesian springs encircled by mounds of marsh and wet meadows was discovered near the equator in Kenya, East\\u000a Africa. Each spring is capped by a dense fibrous root mat that covers a mound of clayey peat with a blister of water in the\\u000a center. Individual mounds are ?15 m wide, 1–2 m high, and affect an area

Gail M. Ashley; Michelle Goman; Victoria C. Hover; R. Bernhart Owen; Robin W. Renaut; A. Muthama Muasya

2002-01-01

42

Khat in East Africa: taking women into or out of sex work?  

PubMed

Women's drug use is often associated with sex work as a means of raising money for consumption. Similarly, in Kenya and Uganda, journalists, the general public and aid agencies associate female consumption of the stimulant drug, khat (Catha edulis), as pulling women into prostitution. In contrast to Yemen and Ethiopia, these views are expressed by people living in areas where there are no rituals or traditions of female khat consumption. This paper presents data from a study carried out in Kenya and Uganda in 2004 and 2005 that documents that the majority of women engaging in khat chewing are not sex workers. Frequently, however, women who retail khat are often assumed by men to be sexually immoral. The role of women in the retail and wholesale khat trade is examined. The stigma attached to selling khat is linked to the overall situation of independent women in East Africa and the place of commercial sex in urban life. PMID:18649237

Beckerleg, Susan

2008-07-01

43

Public health laboratory systems development in East Africa through training in laboratory management and field epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Laboratories are integral to the delivery of quality health care and for public health functions; however laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings such as the East African region. In order to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, there is a need to train laboratory personnel to work in clinical as well as public health laboratories. In 2004,Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan began training public health laboratory workers jointly with field epidemiologists in the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), and later through the Tanzania FELTP, as a strategy to strengthen public health laboratories. These programs train laboratory epidemiologists through a two-year public health leadership development course, and also offer various types of short course training for frontline staff. The FELTP laboratory graduates in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan are working in their respective countries to strengthen public health laboratory systems while the short course participants provide a pool of frontline implementers with the capacity to support the lower tiers of health systems, as well as serve as surge capacity for the regions and the national level. Through training competent public health laboratory workers, the East African ministries of health, in collaboration with other regional partners and stakeholders are now engaged in developing and implementing a holistic approach that will guarantee an overall strengthening of the health system by using well-trained public health laboratory leaders to drive the process. Strengthening public health laboratory medicine in East Africa is critical to improve health-care systems. The experience with the FELTP model in East Africa is a step in the right direction towards ensuring a stronger role for the laboratory in public health.

Mosha, Fausta; Oundo, Joseph; Mukanga, David; Njenga, Kariuki; Nsubuga, Peter

2011-01-01

44

International Rentierism in the Middle East Africa, 1971–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the trend in rentierism in the Middle East and North Africa? Defining a rentier state as one that extracts a significant share of its revenues from rents extracted from international transactions, we examine a range of such transactions that together constitute a third or more of the Middle East\\/North Africa economies. Outlining a rentierism index that is based

J. Craig Jenkins; Katherine Meyer; Matthew Costello; Hassan Aly

2011-01-01

45

The Precambrian crustal structure of East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, the Precambrian crustal structure of East African is investigated along with the crustal structures of three Cenozoic rift basins located in the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). In the first part of the thesis, P-wave receiver functions are modeled using the H-k method to obtain new insights about the bulk composition and thickness of the crust for Precambrian terrains throughout East Africa. The average crustal thickness for all but one of the terrains is between 37 and 39 km. An exception is the Ubendian terrain, which has an average crustal thickness 42 km. In all terrains, the average Poisson's ratio is similar, ranging from 0.25 to 0.26, indicating a bulk crustal composition that is felsic to intermediate. The main finding of this study is that crustal structure is similar across all terrains, which span more than 4.0 Ga of earth history. There is no discernable difference in the crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios between the Archean and Proterozoic terrains, or between the Proterozoic terrains, unlike the variability in Precambrian crustal structure found in many other continents. In the second part of the thesis, a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities and receiver functions was used to investigate the shear wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Precambrian terrains of East Africa. In comparison with other areas of similar age in southern and western Africa where the same joint inversion method has been applied, I find that while there is little difference in the mean shear wave velocities for the entire crust across all of the Precambrian terrains, and also few differences in the thickness of the crust, there exists substantial variability in lower crustal structure. This variability is reflected primarily in the thickness of the lower crustal layers with shear wave velocities ? 4.0 km/s. This variability is found both within terrains of the same age (i.e., Archean) as well as terrains of different ages. In global studies of continental crustal structure, it is shown that high velocity (Vp ˜ 7km/s and Vs ˜4.0 km/s) lower crustal layers indicate the presence of mafic rocks, and that such layers are common in most Precambrian terrains. In contrast, my results show large variability in lower crustal structure between terrains of similar age within Africa, suggesting that making generalizations about the structure and evolution of continental crust based on global averages of the crustal velocity structure is difficult to do. The results of this study indicate that the local geological history of each terrain can lead to significant variability in crustal structure, making the use of global averages less representative of global processes than previously thought. In the third part of this thesis, forward modeling of receiver functions is used to investigate the crustal structure beneath three of the rift basins in the western branch of the East African Rift System (Lake Albert, Lake Edward and the northern part of the Lake Malawi rifts). Modeling results reveal sediment thickness of about 1 km beneath stations BUTI and KATE, located at the margins of the Lake Albert and Lake Edward rifts, respectively, and about 1.5 km beneath station KYLA in the northern part of the Lake Malawi rift. The Poisson's ratio obtained (0.4) indicate that the sediments are poorly consolidated. A thin sedimentary layer (1--1.5 km) and high Poisson's ratio is consistent with the young age (Miocene) of the rift basins. The Ps from the Moho cannot be easily identified because the first 5--6 sec of data are dominated by the Ps conversion from the sediment-bedrock interface and its reverberations. Therefore crustal thickness beneath these stations remains unknown.

Tugume, Fred Alex

46

Somalian Earthquakes of May, 1980, East Africa  

SciTech Connect

A seismic crisis, with a m/sub b/ = 5.3 main shock, occured in the Somali Republic East Africa (10 /sup 0/N, 43 /sup 0/E) from April to November 1980. Up to 2000 earthquakes with M/sub L/>2 have been recorded during this period. This earthquake sequence is of particular interest because it occurred in a seismically inactive zone and include a rather long aftershock sequence. Two groups of epicenters were identified using a relative location procedure. Aftershocks observed during the first two weeks fall very close to the Borama City, while latter shocks are situated 10km west. This may suggest that the second group of earthquakes has been induced continental margin between the Somalian Plateau shield and the quasi-oceanic crust of the Afar-Gulf of Aden region, remains active to day and is relevant to intraplate seismicity.

Ruegg, J.C.; Lepine, J.C.; Tarantola, A.; Leveque, J.J.

1981-04-01

47

Soil fertility management on small farms in Africa: evidence from Nakuru District, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from a 1998 survey of farming households in Nakuru District, Kenya to explore factors influencing soil fertility management decisions of smallholder farmers in Africa. The modeling strategy builds on results of research in soil science that point to the joint determination of inorganic and organic soil nutrient stocks and flows on-farm. Farmers’ decisions on levels of

S. W. Omamo; J. C. Williams; G. A. Obare; N. N. Ndiwa

2002-01-01

48

Learning To Compete: Education, Training & Enterprise in Ghana, Kenya & South Africa. Education Research Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multinational, multidisciplinary team examined the impact of globalization on education, training, and small and medium sized enterprise development in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. The study focused on the following issues: developing a learner-led competitiveness approach; building learning enterprises; education for microenterprises and…

Afenyadu, Dela; King, Kenneth; McGrath, Simon; Oketch, Henry; Rogerson, Christian; Visser, Kobus

49

East African Rift System (EARS) Plume Structure: Insights from Quaternary Mafic Lavas of Turkana, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quaternary mafic lavas from Lake Turkana (northern Kenya) provide information on processes operating beneath the East African Rift in an area of anomalous lithospheric and crustal thinning. Inferred depths of melting beneath Turkana (15---20km) are shal- lower than those recorded elsewhere along the rift, consistent with the anomalously thin crustal section. The mafic lavas have elevated incompatible trace element contents

TANYA FURMAN; JULIA G. BRYCE; JEFFREY KARSON; ANNAMARIA IOTTI

2004-01-01

50

Analysis of the Junction of the East African Rift and the Cretaceous-Paleogene Rifts in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African rift (EAR) is a Tertiary-Miocene system that extends from the Middle East, through East Africa, to Mozambique in southern Africa. Much of the present information is from the Ethiopian and Kenyan parts of the rift. Several characteristics of the EAR such as rift-related volcanism, faulting and topographic relief being exposed make it attractive for studying continental rift processes. Structural complexities reflected in the geometries of grabens and half-grabens, the existence of transverse fault zones and accommodation zones, and the influence of pre-existing geologic structures have been documented. In particular, the EAR traverses the Anza graben and related structures near the Kenya/Ethiopian border. The Anza graben is one in a series of Cretaceous-Paleogene failed rifts that trend across Central Africa from Nigeria through Chad to Sudan and Kenya with an overall northwest-southeast trend. In spite of a number of recent studies, we do not understand the interaction of these two rift systems. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, the rift segments share some broad similarities in timing and are related in a geographic sense. For example, volcanism appears to have generally preceded or in some cases have been contemporaneous with major rift faulting. Although, these segments are distinct entities, each with its own tectonic and magmatic evolution, and they do connect in the region crossed by the Anza graben and related structures. In our present study, we are using a combination of recently collected seismic, gravity and remote sensing data to increase our understanding of these two segments of the EAR. We hope that by analysing the satellite data, the variety and differences in the volume of magmatic products extruded along in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya will be identified. The geometry of structures (in particular, those causing the gravity axial high) will be modelled to study the impact of the older Anza graben structural trends with the younger EAR. For example there is significant crustal thinning in the Lake Turkana area of the northern Kenya segment of the EAR system. In regard to the recent EAGLE experiment in Ethiopia, we are ivestigating if the transition from relatively thick crust (~40 km) to thinned, rifted crust is as abrupt in Ethiopia as it is in Kenya.

Mariita, N. O.; Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.

2003-12-01

51

Environmental impact assessment practices in the sub-Saharan Africa: cases from Kenya  

SciTech Connect

The aim for this research is to review environmental impact assessment (EIA) practices in sub-Saharan Africa, drawing upon appropriate theoretical and methodological work on EIA. This study uses a comparative evaluation method to examine the extent of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in project analysis. It uses site and services low cost housing projects from Kenya. The research has three major components: (1) review of environmental practice in Sub-Saharan Africa through literature review and case studies; (2) review of general literature on EIA as practiced by international agencies and developed countries; and (3) formulation of more suitable guidelines for EIA procedures in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ngunjiri, P.G.

1987-01-01

52

Sulphur and nitrogen changes in forest soils of East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sulphur measurements made on soils in East Africa revealed the unexpected occurrence of sulphates in forest subsoils. Soil profiles from plantation and natural forests were analysed and a general pattern of sulphur distribution was found.

P. R. Hesse

1957-01-01

53

East African mid-Holocene wet-dry transition recorded in palaeo-shorelines of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'wet' early to mid-Holocene of tropical Africa, with its enhanced monsoon, ended with an abrupt shift toward drier conditions and was ultimately replaced by a drier climate that has persisted until the present day. The forcing mechanisms, the timing, and the spatial extent of this major climatic transition are not well understood and remain the subject of ongoing research. We have used a detailed palaeo-shoreline record from Lake Turkana (Kenya) to decipher and characterise this marked climatic transition in East Africa. We present a high-precision survey of well-preserved palaeo-shorelines, new radiocarbon ages from shoreline deposits, and oxygen-isotope measurements on freshwater mollusk shells to elucidate the Holocene moisture history from former lake water-levels in this climatically sensitive region. In combination with previously published data our study shows that during the early Holocene the water-level in Lake Turkana was high and the lake overflowed temporarily into the White Nile drainage system. During the mid-Holocene (~ 5270 ± 300 cal. yr BP), however, the lake water-level fell by ~ 50 m, coeval with major episodes of aridity on the African continent. A comparison between palaeo-hydrological and archaeological data from the Turkana Basin suggests that the mid-Holocene climatic transition was associated with fundamental changes in prehistoric cultures, highlighting the significance of natural climate variability and associated periods of protracted drought as major environmental stress factors affecting human occupation in the East African Rift System.

Garcin, Yannick; Melnick, Daniel; Strecker, Manfred R.; Olago, Daniel; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques

2012-05-01

54

Bridging Geodynamics, Hazards, and Capacity Building in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced Workshop on Evaluating, Monitoring, and Communicating Volcanic and Seismic Hazards in East Africa; Trieste, Italy, 17-28 August 2009; Africa exhibits some of the most spectacular volcanic and tectonic features on Earth. Hazards associated with these features include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and carbon dioxide (CO2) degassing. For example, in 2002 an eruption destroyed 25% of the city of Goma, Congo,

Tobias P. Fischer

2010-01-01

55

Night Pass over Central Africa and the Middle East  

NASA Video Gallery

This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 1, 2011, from 21:20:24 to 21:41:24 GMT, on an ascending pass from just southwest of Cote d'Ivoire in Africa to southern Russia.

Mark Garcia

2011-10-24

56

Cassava mosaic virus disease in East Africa: a dynamic disease in a changing environment.  

PubMed

Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), now known to be caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses (Family Geminiviridae; Genus Begomovirus), was first reported in East Africa in 1894. Epidemics occurred in Madagascar and Uganda in the 1930s and 1940s, and more localised rapid spread of CMD was observed in parts of coastal Tanzania in the 1930s and coastal Kenya in the 1970s. During the 1990s, a major regional pandemic of an unusually severe form of CMD has expanded to affect parts of at least five countries, causing massive economic losses and destabilising food security. Mechanisms responsible for the development and progress of the pandemic have been described, and comparisons of epidemiological data for varieties grown throughout the period under review suggest that the recent pandemic has been characterised by rapid rates of CMD spread hitherto unknown in East Africa. A key factor in the genesis and spread of the pandemic has been the recombination between two distinct cassava mosaic geminiviruses to produce a novel and more virulent hybrid. Although such events may be common, the known history of CMD in East Africa suggests that the frequency with which they become epidemiologically significant is low. A corollary of this is that resistance, developed originally in Tanzania between 1934 and 1960, and utilized and supplemented at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria, since 1971, is providing effective CMD control in current pandemic-affected areas of East Africa. Consequently, it is concluded that prospects for managing CMD in the 21st century are good, and that the approach adopted should build on the model of collaborative research and implementation that has been established in tackling the current CMD pandemic. PMID:11137168

Legg, J P; Thresh, J M

2000-11-01

57

Sediment biogeochemistry in an East African mangrove forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of mangrove sediments was investigated in several mangrove forest communities in Gazi Bay, a coastal lagoon in Kenya, Africa. Carbon dioxide fluxes, sediment median grain sizes, sedimentary organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and pore-water characteristics (ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and chloride) could be related to forest type. Mangrove sediments have pH values that range from 3.5 to 8.3

Jack J. Middelburg; Joop Nieuwenhuize; Frederik J. Slim; Boaz Ohowa

1996-01-01

58

Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers.  

PubMed

Unravelling the genetic history of any livestock species is central to understanding the origin, development and expansion of agricultural societies and economies. Domestic village chickens are widespread in Africa. Their close association with, and reliance on, humans for long-range dispersal makes the species an important biological marker in tracking cultural and trading contacts between human societies and civilizations across time. Archaezoological and linguistic evidence suggest a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species on the continent, with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis revealing the presence of five distinct haplogroups in East African village chickens. It supports the importance of the region in understanding the history of the species and indirectly of human interactions. Here, through a detailed analysis of 30 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 657 village chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan), we identify three distinct autosomal gene pools (I, II and III). Gene pool I is predominantly found in Ethiopia and Sudan, while II and III occur in both Kenya and Uganda. A gradient of admixture for gene pools II and III between the Kenyan coast and Uganda's hinterland (P = 0.001) is observed, while gene pool I is clearly separated from the other two. We propose that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region. Our results provide new insights on the history of chicken husbandry which has been shaped by terrestrial and maritime contacts between ancient and modern civilizations in Asia and East Africa. PMID:23611649

Mwacharo, J M; Nomura, K; Hanada, H; Han, J L; Amano, T; Hanotte, O

2013-05-01

59

Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers  

PubMed Central

Unravelling the genetic history of any livestock species is central to understanding the origin, development and expansion of agricultural societies and economies. Domestic village chickens are widespread in Africa. Their close association with, and reliance on, humans for long-range dispersal makes the species an important biological marker in tracking cultural and trading contacts between human societies and civilizations across time. Archaezoological and linguistic evidence suggest a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species on the continent, with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis revealing the presence of five distinct haplogroups in East African village chickens. It supports the importance of the region in understanding the history of the species and indirectly of human interactions. Here, through a detailed analysis of 30 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 657 village chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan), we identify three distinct autosomal gene pools (I, II and III). Gene pool I is predominantly found in Ethiopia and Sudan, while II and III occur in both Kenya and Uganda. A gradient of admixture for gene pools II and III between the Kenyan coast and Uganda's hinterland (P = 0.001) is observed, while gene pool I is clearly separated from the other two. We propose that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region. Our results provide new insights on the history of chicken husbandry which has been shaped by terrestrial and maritime contacts between ancient and modern civilizations in Asia and East Africa.

Mwacharo, J M; Nomura, K; Hanada, H; Han, J L; Amano, T; Hanotte, O

2013-01-01

60

Permian to tertiary faunas and paleogeography: Somalia, Kenya Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permian to Tertiary faunas along the eastern margin of Africa, and on Madagascar, are presented, described, and discussed. Presentation of the faunas is made in four charts: Permo-Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary. A correlation chart provides tentative time-rock units. Paleogeography northeast and east of Africa is derived from the writer's analysis of marine invertebrate fauna, and is delineated in sketches

Maurice Kamen-Kaye

1978-01-01

61

The Late Quaternary glaciation of Africa: A regional synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous mountain ranges in Africa which carry evidence of Quaternary glaciation, though few have glaciers now and these are rapidly disappearing. The best studied sites are in East Africa and Ethiopia. In East Africa, the three highest mountains, Kilimanjaro, Kenya and the Rwenzori, each have evidence of 3–5 major glaciations dating back to an estimated 400,000 BP, one

Henry A. Osmaston; Sandy P. Harrison

2005-01-01

62

Alternatives for electoral reform in Kenya: Lessons from southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In presenting its review of the conduct of the 2007 Kenyan elections, the Kriegler Commission put forward suggestions for electoral reform. The present contribution discusses these alternatives, for both parliamentary and presidential elections, against the background of experience of electoral reform in South Africa and Lesotho. Arguing about the need for electoral reform to change electoral incentives in order to

Roger Southall

2009-01-01

63

Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

2007-01-01

64

Epidemic Meningococcal meningitis in Africa and the Middle East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt has been made to review the problem of meningococcal disease as it exists as an endemic and epidemic disease in Africa and the Middle East. Such information should be available to individuals traveling to regions of such high disease incidence,...

D. C. Kent

1969-01-01

65

Early Iron Age Pottery Types from East Africa: Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early Iron Age in East Africa is represented by two major related pottery types, Urewe ware (originally called Dimple-based ware) and Kwale ware, while a third collection from Lelesu in central Tanzania has clear similarities to both. This article provides a detailed typological comparison between representative collections of the three types and defines their differences and similarities, concluding that

Robert Soper

1971-01-01

66

Event location in the Middle East and North Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R(ampersand)D program has made significant progress towards improving the ability of the IMS seismic network to locate small-magnitude events in the Middle East and North Africa (MIYNA). Given that hi...

C. A. Schultz S. C. Myers S. D. Ruppert

1997-01-01

67

LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R(ampersand)D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB...

S. D. Ruppert T. F. Hauk R. Leach

1997-01-01

68

Reducing Pesticide Hazards to Honey Bees in Tropical East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various insecticide uses in East Africa are analysed for their actual or potential danger to honey bees. A list of commonly used chemicals is classified according to bee hazard and specific recommendations made on the protection of honey bees under tropical conditions.

M. T. Chandler

1976-01-01

69

Reducing vulnerability: the supply of health microinsurance in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microinsurance in various forms has been available in East Africa for many generations. More recently, new efforts and formal programmes have been introduced to improve people's ability to manage their risks. Some hospitals and clinics have developed prepayment schemes. Some non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that work with low-income clients have developed risk management products like emergency credit or microinsurance products. Even

Michael J. McCord; Sylvia Osinde

2005-01-01

70

Challenges facing CEDAW in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rights of women are still being violated in the Arab countries of Middle East and North Africa (MENA), despite their ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This article addresses the challenges facing the attainment of gender equality in this region, arguing not only that culture plays a major role in

Samar El-Masri

2011-01-01

71

Financial Services Regulation in the Middle East and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive explanation of the financial services regulatory framework in 19 countries in the Middle East and Africa region, provided by leading commercial law firms in the jurisdictions. The analysis includes a description of the nature of the regulatory regime; recent regulatory developments; analysis of the regulatory bodies, their policies, operational activity and relationships; scope of regulatory

72

Summary of modeling studies of the East Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya  

SciTech Connect

A detailed three-dimensional well-by-well model of the East Olkaria geothermal field in Kenya has been developed. The model matches reasonably well the flow rate and enthalpy data from all wells, as well as the overall pressure decline in the reservoir. The model is used to predict the generating capacity of the field, well decline, enthalpy behavior, the number of make-up wells needed and the effects of injection on well performance and overall reservoir depletion. 26 refs., 10 figs.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Bjornsson, S.; Ojiambo, S.B.

1985-03-01

73

Archaeological approaches to East Africa's changing seascapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The East African coast has a relatively uniform topography and environment but has been witness to a complex mosaic of human and cultural influences. This paper examines these influences from a chronological and theoretical perspective over the last 2500 years and argues that increased atten- tion should be paid to the sea and its influence on and role in past

Colin Breen

2004-01-01

74

Geodetic constraints on rifting processes in East Africa (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many features in rift zones and passive margins have been successfully explained by stretching models where lithospheric thinning and crustal extension are driven by far-field tectonic stresses. However, recent observations in East Africa show that magma intrusions can accommodate large amounts of strain during the initial stages of continental rifting and prior to significant crustal thinning. We will present a large-scale kinematic model for the East African Rift derived from space geodetic observations, earthquake slip vectors, transform azimuths, and spreading rates that includes three subplates (Victoria, Rovuma, and Lwandle) between Nubia and Somalia, with total opening increasing from ~1 mm/yr in southern Mozambique to 7 mm/yr in northern Ethiopia. We will use regional-scale geodetic results to show that far-field plate divergence in East Africa can involve a significant amount of strain accommodation by magma intrusions. We will argue that contributions other than tectonic forces are required to overcome the strength of the continental lithosphere and to initiate and sustain rifting in East Africa.

Calais, E.; Stamps, D. S.; Bennati, L.; Saria, E.; Flesch, L. M.; Freed, A. M.

2009-12-01

75

Halophytic coastal marsh vegetation in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Indian Ocean coasts of the East African mainland and the Madagascar subcontinent have estuarine and brackish water coastal\\u000a marshes that support significant vegetation which is predominantly mangrove. The anthropogenic impacts on mangrove vegetation\\u000a in all these countries are similar and are mostly due to urbanization, sewerage disposal, solid waste and toxic waste disposal,\\u000a threats due to oil pollution, dredging

R. K. Ruwa

76

Coping With Lake Kivu, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workshop on Tropical Rift Lake Systems: Integrated Volcanogenic, Tectonic, Biogeochemical, and Geohazard Assessment of Lake Kivu; Gisenyi, Rwanda, 13-15 January 2010; Situated in the volcanic highlands of the East African Rift Valley's western branch, Lake Kivu contains one of the most unusual and fascinating aquatic ecosystems on the planet. Bottom waters in the 480-meter-deep lake are warmer and saltier than

Thomas C. Johnson; Christopher A. Scholz

2010-01-01

77

A recent outbreak of rinderpest in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rinderpest was brought under control in Kenya in 1976 but in April 1986 an outbreak of the disease occurred in cattle in Western Kenya, five kilometres from the Kenya - Uganda border. This was the first confirmed field outbreak of the disease in Kenya after a lull of over 10 years. Clinical disease was confined to unvaccinated zebu calves aged

J. S. Wafula; D. P. Kariuki

1987-01-01

78

Islam in Tanzania and Kenya: Ally or Foe in the War on Terror.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores the historical emergence of Islam in East Africa, details the political background of Tanzania and Kenya, the role of Islam in each country, and US foreign policy in the region. The recent US strategy of intelligence-sharing with Kenya...

J. Vittori K. Bremer

2009-01-01

79

Conducting health-related social science research in low income settings: ethical dilemmas faced in Kenya and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of the social sciences is increasingly recognised in health services and clinical research, contributing to an increasing number of multi-disciplinary, multi-method studies. Such studies offer numerous advantages, but also pose particular challenges, including different approaches to or foci in research ethics across disciplines. Drawing on two similar studies conducted in coastal Kenya and in rural South Africa, we

Catherine Molyneux; Jane Goudge; Steve Russell; Jane Chuma; Tebogo Gumede; Lucy Gilson

2009-01-01

80

ADVANCES IN DEVELOPING INSECT RESISTANT MAIZE VARIETIES FOR KENYA WITHIN THE INSECT RESISTANT MAIZE FOR AFRICA (IRMA) PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidopteran stem borers are economically important pests of maize, a major staple in Kenya. The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) Project aims at increasing maize production and food security through the development and deployment of insect resistant maize. Bt maize utilizes genes that encode delta-endotoxins; proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Suitable genes have been acquired

S. Mugo; H. DeGroote; J. Songa; M. Mulaa; B. Odhiambo; C. Taracha; D. Bergvinson; D. Hoisington; M. Gethi

81

The Washington File for Middle East and North Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new email list from the US Department of State's Office of International Information Programs, the Washington File for Middle East and North Africa offers email reports about US policies in the Middle East and North Africa. Mostly transcripts, excerpts, and text statements, the materials provided should give interested users primary source knowledge of US State Department positions, unfiltered by newspapers or other media. Each report has a summary list of all enclosed topics, making browsing much quicker and easier, especially considering the amount of information that some reports provide. Two examples of issues covered by the report are: "Transcript: Rumsfeld Sees Progress Toward Afghan National Army" and "Text: U.S. Sees No Credible Evidence of Ukraine Arms Transfers to Iraq." Interested readers should note that, while never unnecessary, a lot of information is provided, meaning that it could take some time to sort through all material in each report.

82

Types of variation in DNA-A among isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus from Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA-A-like molecules of three East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) isolates from Kenya (-K, 2801 nt) and Malawi (-MH and -MK, both 2804 nt) were determined. These sequences were compared with that published for a Tanzanian isolate (-T, 2801 nt) and the partial sequence of a third Malawian isolate. Intergenic region sequences of all isolates,

Xueping Zhou; David J. Robinson; Bryan D. Harrison

83

Newborn screening: Experiences in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review presents the current experiences with newborn screening in the Middle East and North Africa region. The population\\u000a in the region is about 400 million, with high birth rate and an estimated 10 million newborns per year. The majority of the\\u000a population is of the Islamic faith and mostly Arab. The population is characterized by a high consanguinity (25–70%)

A. A. Saadallah; M. S. Rashed

2007-01-01

84

International energy outlook. Volume 1. Mideast, Far East, and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing nations of the Mideast, Far East, and Africa face a bleaker - and more-complicated - energy picture than that of the West. Rapid industrial and agricultural expansion in the region severely drains already-inadequate energy systems. Energy-importing countries find they must diversify and develop indigenous resources, but often lack the technical known-how to do so. Volume 1 is a

Jablonski

1982-01-01

85

Recent Rainfall Trends in Africa, the Middle East and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the Middle East and Africa north of the Sahara the wet season extends from October to May; small amounts of rain also fall in Pakistan and north-west India at that time of year. Winter-spring rainfall in these areas is controlled primarily by divergence patterns in pressure troughs in the mid- and upper-tropospheric circumpolar westerlies. Rainfall is associated with the

Derek Winstanley

1973-01-01

86

LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME\\/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle

D Dodge; T Hauk; R M Moore; J OBoyle; S Ruppert

1999-01-01

87

Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.  

PubMed

In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

2012-06-29

88

Spatial phylodynamics of HIV-1 epidemic emergence in east Africa  

PubMed Central

Design We sought to investigate the evolutionary and historical reasons for the different epidemiological patterns of HIV-1 in the early epidemic. In order to characterize the demographic history of HIV-1 subtypes A and D in east Africa, we examined molecular epidemiology, geographical and historical data. Methodology We employed high-resolution phylodynamics to investigate the introduction of HIV-1A and D into east Africa, the geographic trends of viral spread, and the demographic growth of each subtype. We also used geographic information system data to investigate human migration trends, population growth, and human mobility. Results HIV-1A and D were introduced into east Africa after 1950 and spread exponentially during the 1970s, concurrent with eastward expansion. Spatiotemporal data failed to explain the establishment and spread of HIV based on urban population growth and migration. The low prevalence of the virus in the Democratic Republic of Congo before and after the emergence of the pandemic was, however, consistent with regional accessibility data, highlighting the difficulty in travel between major population centers in central Africa. In contrast, the strong interconnectivity between population centers across the east African region since colonial times has likely fostered the rapid growth of the epidemic in this locale. Conclusion This study illustrates how phylodynamic analysis of pathogens informed by geospatial data can provide a more holistic and evidence-based interpretation of past epidemics. We advocate that this ‘landscape phylodynamics’ approach has the potential to provide a framework both to understand epidemics' spread and to design optimal intervention strategies.

Gray, Rebecca R.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Lamers, Susanna; Hou, Wei; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson; Gray, Ronald H.; Wawer, Maria; Quinn, Thomas C.; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Salemi, Marco

2009-01-01

89

Coronary artery disease in Africa and the Middle East  

PubMed Central

Countries in Africa and the Middle East bear a heavy burden from cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of coronary heart disease is promoted in turn by a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and sedentary lifestyles. Patients in Africa and the Middle East present with myocardial infarction at a younger age, on average, compared with patients elsewhere. The projected future burden of mortality from coronary heart disease in Africa and the Middle East is set to outstrip that observed in other geographical regions. Recent detailed nationally representative epidemiological data are lacking for many countries, and high proportions of transient expatriate workers in countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates complicate the construction of such datasets. However, the development of national registries in some countries is beginning to reveal the nature of coronary heart disease. Improving lifestyles (reducing calorie intake and increasing physical activity) in patients in the region will be essential, although cultural and environmental barriers will render this difficult. Appropriate prescribing of pharmacologic treatments is essential in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. In particular, recent controversies relating to the therapeutic profile of beta-blockers may have reduced their use. The current evidence base suggests that beta-blockers are as effective as other therapies in preventing cardiovascular disease and that concerns relating to their use in hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been overstated.

Almahmeed, Wael; Arnaout, Mohamad Samir; Chettaoui, Rafik; Ibrahim, Mohsen; Kurdi, Mohamed Ibrahim; Taher, Mohamed Awad; Mancia, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

90

Variation in effective elastic plate thickness of the East Africa lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use new and existing Bouguer gravity data to characterize the long-term flexural rigidity of the lithosphere beneath East Africa. Four tectonic provinces are characterized by distinct effective elastic plate thicknesses. These are the Tanzanian Craton, the Proterozoic Mobile Belts, the Paleogene rift basins in Sudan and Kenya, and the Cenozoic East African Rift System. Beneath the Tanzanian craton the elastic plate thickness is ˜75 km, while the Pan African Mobile Belts and the Ubendian Belts are ˜55 and ˜65 km, respectively. The Paleogene rift basins exhibit an elastic plate thickness varying between 40 and 45 km. The effective elastic plate thickness within the faulted East African Rift System ranges from 14 km in the north to 33 km in the south. The minimum is found beneath the active rift of the Afar depression. The north to south along-rift axis variation in effective elastic plate thickness can be attributed to contrasts in the mechanical strength of the lithosphere. This is consistent with the north-south decrease in extensional velocity and the northward decrease in the focal depths of the earthquakes, reflecting a northward thinning in the brittle layer of the crust. The maximum elastic plate thickness is found beneath the Tanzanian craton, while the surrounding Mobile Belts have relatively moderate elastic plate thicknesses. The high effective elastic plate thickness of the Tanzanian craton suggests that this part of the lithosphere is rheologically competent compared to the surrounding Mobile Belts. The craton effectively resists deformation, even though it is located within a broad zone of an east-west extensional tectonic regime. Consequently, it has altered the direction of the rift propagation into the warmer and weaker lithosphere of the surrounding Mobile Belts.

Tessema, A.; Antoine, L. A. G.

2003-05-01

91

Counterterrorism in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist attacks of 7 August 1998 raised serious questions about transnational and domestic terrorism in Kenya and the Horn of Africa. What motivated terrorists to target Kenya? Why Kenya? Could these attacks have been stopped? How did Kenya and the international community respond to the attacks? Not only did the attacks target Western (US and Israel) interests but also

Edward Mogire; Kennedy Mkutu Agade

2011-01-01

92

BROADCASTING DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH IN KENYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the second in a series concentrating on educational mass media devlopment and research in East Africa. Kenya's use of broadcasting and notably radio, has been primarily in the formal education sector; emphasis is directed toward an analysis of the major projects undertaken since independence. The survey was conducted during 1978, while the author was Visiting Research Professor

G. O. Coldevin

1980-01-01

93

Coping With Lake Kivu, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Tropical Rift Lake Systems: Integrated Volcanogenic, Tectonic, Biogeochemical, and Geohazard Assessment of Lake Kivu; Gisenyi, Rwanda, 13-15 January 2010; Situated in the volcanic highlands of the East African Rift Valley's western branch, Lake Kivu contains one of the most unusual and fascinating aquatic ecosystems on the planet. Bottom waters in the 480-meter-deep lake are warmer and saltier than its surface waters. The concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide and methane are so high in the deep water that catastrophic overturn, an abrupt upwelling of deep water and gas driven by the buoyancy of expanding gas bubbles as they rise from the depths, could well happen in the coming century. Were this to occur, human fatalities would likely number in the hundreds of thousands—a disaster similar to what occurred when Lake Nyos (Cameroon) in 1986 emitted a large amount of carbon dioxide, causing hundreds of local residents to suffocate—but with orders-of-magnitude more gas release.

Johnson, Thomas C.; Scholz, Christopher A.

2010-07-01

94

mtDNA variation in East Africa unravels the history of Afro-Asiatic groups.  

PubMed

East Africa (EA) has witnessed pivotal steps in the history of human evolution. Due to its high environmental and cultural variability, and to the long-term human presence there, the genetic structure of modern EA populations is one of the most complicated puzzles in human diversity worldwide. Similarly, the widespread Afro-Asiatic (AA) linguistic phylum reaches its highest levels of internal differentiation in EA. To disentangle this complex ethno-linguistic pattern, we studied mtDNA variability in 1,671 individuals (452 of which were newly typed) from 30 EA populations and compared our data with those from 40 populations (2970 individuals) from Central and Northern Africa and the Levant, affiliated to the AA phylum. The genetic structure of the studied populations--explored using spatial Principal Component Analysis and Model-based clustering--turned out to be composed of four clusters, each with different geographic distribution and/or linguistic affiliation, and signaling different population events in the history of the region. One cluster is widespread in Ethiopia, where it is associated with different AA-speaking populations, and shows shared ancestry with Semitic-speaking groups from Yemen and Egypt and AA-Chadic-speaking groups from Central Africa. Two clusters included populations from Southern Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Despite high and recent gene-flow (Bantu, Nilo-Saharan pastoralists), one of them is associated with a more ancient AA-Cushitic stratum. Most North-African and Levantine populations (AA-Berber, AA-Semitic) were grouped in a fourth and more differentiated cluster. We therefore conclude that EA genetic variability, although heavily influenced by migration processes, conserves traces of more ancient strata. PMID:23283748

Boattini, Alessio; Castrì, Loredana; Sarno, Stefania; Useli, Antonella; Cioffi, Manuela; Sazzini, Marco; Garagnani, Paolo; De Fanti, Sara; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

2013-01-03

95

Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant: Experience in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe short term outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve [AGV] implantation in East African patients. Materials and Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series we reviewed eyes of Black African patients with refractory glaucoma, treated consecutively with Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation, in two centers in Kenya between January 2006 and October 2007. Results: About 25 cases including 18 [72%] pediatric eyes and seven [28%] adult eyes were identified. Results have been presented with a median follow-up of two months with inter-quartile range [IQR] of one to 12 months. intraocular pressure [IOP] was reduced from a mean of 36.4 mmHg preoperatively to 16.7 mmHg and glaucoma medications were lowered from a mean of 1.32 before surgery to 0.2 after surgery. The success rate during short term follow-up was 79%. The mean visual acuity dropped slightly from 6/18 pre-operatively to 6/24. There was only one major complication of an extruded, infected valve in a child. Conclusions: The Ahmed Valve Implant is safe and effective in lowering IOP for the short term in pediatric and adult East African patients with refractory glaucoma. Further studies with more patients and longer term follow-up are needed in this population.

Kiage, D.O.; Gradin, D.; Gichuhi, S.; Damji, K.F.

2009-01-01

96

New Australopithecus boisei specimens from east and west Lake Turkana, Kenya.  

PubMed

New specimens of Plio-Pleistocene Australopithecus boisei are described from east and west Lake Turkana in Northern Kenya. These include a cranium and partial mandible from deposits close to 2.5 Myr and two partial crania and two mandibles from later horizons. The earlier fossils enable us to decipher, for the first time, some of the in situ evolution of this species within the Turkana Basin. The following are among the important changes in the cranium through time: 1) increase in size and change in shape of the braincase, 2) changes in the meningeal vessel pattern and possibly in the venous drainage pattern, 3) increased flexion of the cranial base and decreased prognathism, and 4) changes in the temporal bone to bring about a more vertical posterior face of the petrous pyramid and the development of a strong articular eminence. PMID:3136654

Leakey, R E; Walker, A

1988-05-01

97

Landscape feedbacks, Climate Change, and Food Production Risk in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Cover/ Land Use Change (LCLUC) and climate change due to elevated levels of greenhouse gases (GHG) both exert strong influence over agricultural production in developing countries. In addition, LCLUC is a first-order climate forcing capable of mitigating or exacerbating GHG effects on climate. LCLUC and GHG forcings that alter climate may then in turn influence agricultural systems, thereby creating a feedback to LCLUC. These human-land-climate interactions are complex- particularly in heterogeneous landscapes like East Africa- where subsistence farming and highly variable growing season conditions are excellent for investigating the nature and magnitude of these interactions. Here we present results of a sensitivity test exploring these feedbacks in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. First, we assess the impacts of "aggressive" agricultural expansion and generally warmer, wetter boundary conditions due to large increases in GHG for 2050-2059 using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). These results are contrasted to simulations conducted for 2000- 2009 conditions. Second, we examine simulated changes in agricultural yield using the process-based crop model CERES-Maize; we use maize as a proxy for all East African agricultural productivity. These simulated yields are imported into the Land Transformation Model (LTM), which, informed by socioeconomic constraints, develops a new projection of land cover under the new yield conditions. Third, by comparing the original "aggressive" landscape with the new yield-feedback landscape, we show areas exhibiting sensitivity to LCLUC under elevated GHG conditions. Although this is a mere sensitivity test, we can identify areas prone to potential food production disturbances. These sensitive areas, while unlikely to see climate and landscape changes this dramatic, can serve as "canaries in the coal mine" for predicting larger changes in East African food production. Additionally, we discuss key challenges of propagating error in coupling these systems.

Moore, N.; Pijanowski, B.; Lofgren, B.; Alagarswamy, G.

2008-12-01

98

Recent work on the production and utilization of tree fodder in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the work discussed in the paper is part of the Agroforestry Research Network for Africa (AFRENA). In the sub-humid highlands the most common form of livestock management is a mixture of grazing, tethering and stall feeding. In the arid and semi-arid lowlands of Kenya the normal livestock management practice is grazing. Leucaena leucocephala was a popular fodder species

R. L. Roothaert; R. T. Paterson

1997-01-01

99

Off-axis volcanism in the Gregory rift, east Africa: implications for models of continental rifting  

SciTech Connect

The largest volcanic centers of the Gregory rift occur in two belts located 100 to 150 km east and west of the axis of the rift valley. These off-axis volcanic belts include the highest peaks on the continent of Africa and are interpreted to lie above the intersection of low-angle detachment systems with the base of a regionally thinned lithosphere. These detachment systems are manifested at the surface as a series of breakaway zones and regional bounding faults that produce subbasins with half-graben form. The asymmetry of subbasins alternates along the rift axis, indicating that the polarity of the underlying active detachment systems also reverses. The detachments are separated laterally by regional oblique-slip accommodation zones typified by wrench-style tectonism. Off-axis from the rift, the detachments are inferred to merge along strike as they cut to the base of the lithosphere. This results in irregular but persistent paired zones of volcanism and lithospheric thinning off-axis from the rift proper. The development of major volcanic cones such as Mount Kilimanjaro may be controlled by the interaction of leaky accommodation zones with the regions of structurally thinned lithosphere. The central Kenya hot spot has produced the anomalous quantities of volcanic material that fills the Gregory rift and probably enhances the off-axis volcanism but does not directly control its location. The model proposed here for tectonic controls of volcanism in the Gregory rift may be applicable to Phanerozoic continental rifts in general.

Bosworth, W.

1987-05-01

100

Plasmodium–Helminth Coinfection and Its Sources of Heterogeneity Across East Africa  

PubMed Central

Background.?Plasmodium–helminth coinfection can have a number of consequences for infected hosts, yet our knowledge of the epidemiology of coinfection across multiple settings is limited. This study investigates the distribution and heterogeneity of coinfection with Plasmodium falciparum and 3 major helminth species across East Africa. Methods.?Cross-sectional parasite surveys were conducted among 28 050 children in 299 schools across a range of environmental settings in Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia. Data on individual, household, and environmental risk factors were collected and a spatially explicit Bayesian modeling framework was used to investigate heterogeneities of species infection and coinfection and their risk factors as well as school- and individual-level associations between species. Results.?Broad-scale geographical patterns of Plasmodium–helminth coinfection are strongly influenced by the least common infection and by species-specific environmental factors. At the individual level, there is an enduring positive association between P. falciparum and hookworm but no association between P. falciparum and Schistosoma species. However, the relative importance of such within-individual associations is less than the role of spatial factors in influencing coinfection risks. Conclusions.?Patterns of coinfection seem to be influenced more by the distribution of the least common species and its environmental risk factors, rather than any enduring within-individual associations.

Pullan, Rachel L.; Gitonga, Caroline W.; Ashton, Ruth A.; Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Snow, Robert W.

2012-01-01

101

Mineral facilities of Africa and the Middle East  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map displays over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. The data used in this poster were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbook (Africa and Middle East volume), Minerals Statistics and Information from the USGS Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists. See Table 1 for general information about each mineral facility site including country, location and facility name, facility type, latitude, longitude, mineral commodity, mining method, main operating company, status, capacity, and units.

Eros, J.M.; Candelario-Quintana, Luissette

2006-01-01

102

Implementing e-Government Services in East Africa: Assessing Status through Content Analysis of Government Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis study was conducted to determine the status of government websites of three East African countries - Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda - using establishment year, visibility and usability attributes. The results were matched with a four-stage model of e-Government growth based on the status of websites from simple to sophisticated features. The study identified 98 government websites including

Janet Kaaya

103

Matthew Carotenuto - Riwruok E Teko: Cultivating Identity in Colonial and Postcolonial Kenya - Africa Today 53:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riwruok E Teko (Unity Is Strength) was the slogan of the Luo Union, an East African ethnically based welfare association, for all of its nearly sixty-year official existence. From its origins in the urban centers of colonial Kenya to its official demise in 1980, it sought to forge and govern a broad-based cultural identity among a diverse Dholuo-speaking population, yet

Matthew Carotenuto

2006-01-01

104

Use of participatory epidemiology in studies of the persistence of lineage 2 rinderpest virus in East Africa.  

PubMed

In 1994, rinderpest virus of African lineage 2 was detected in East Africa after an apparent absence of more than 30 years. In 1996, a disease search, based on participatory epidemiological techniques supplemented by serological and virological analyses, was undertaken in southern Somalia and north-eastern Kenya to collate past and current epidemiological information about rinderpest-compatible disease events, and to test the hypothesis that African lineage 2 rinderpest virus persists in populations of transhumant cattle in the Somali ethnic areas. The findings in Afmadu in Lower Juba led the search for rinderpest to the communities in the Bardera area and then on to the Kenya/Somalia border areas between Mandera and El Wak. The herders had a specific knowledge of the clinical signs of rinderpest and provided detailed and accurate descriptions of cases. They differentiated between classical acute rinderpest and a milder syndrome characterised by an ocular discharge and diarrhoea, few oral lesions, corneal opacity and occasional mortality. The studies provided evidence for the endemic occurrence of rinderpest back to at least 1981, with a periodicity of five years in the incidence of the disease. After a period of high mortality in 1992 to 1993, around Afmadu, herders reported a mild disease, with occasional increases in mortality, from other areas of Lower Juba and the Gedo Region. Reports by herders of a rinderpest-compatible disease in the El Wak area were pursued until active cases were located and rinderpest was confirmed. PMID:12790233

Mariner, J C; Roeder, P L

2003-05-24

105

Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses  

PubMed Central

Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time the presence of two isolates in East Africa: (EACMCV-[TZ1] and EACMCV-[TZ7]) of the species East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, originally described in West Africa. The complete nucleotide sequence of EACMCV-[TZ1] DNA-A and DNA-B components shared a high overall sequence identity to EACMCV-[CM] components (92% and 84%). The EACMCV-[TZ1] and -[TZ7] genomic components have recombinations in the same genome regions reported in EACMCV-[CM], but they also have additional recombinations in both components. Evidence from sequence analysis suggests that the two strains have the same ancient origin and are not recent introductions. EACMCV-[TZ1] occurred widely in the southern part of the country. Four other CMG isolates were identified: two were close to the EACMV-Kenya strain (named EACMV-[KE/TZT] and EACMV-[KE/TZM] with 96% sequence identity); one isolate, TZ10, had 98% homology to EACMV-UG2Svr and was named EACMV-UG2 [TZ10]; and finally one isolate was 95% identical to EACMV-[TZ] and named EACMV-[TZ/YV]. One isolate of African cassava mosaic virus with 97% sequence identity with other isolates of ACMV was named ACMV-[TZ]. It represents the first ACMV isolate from Tanzania to be sequenced. The molecular variability of CMGs was also evaluated using partial B component nucleotide sequences of 13 EACMV isolates from Tanzania. Using the sequences of all CMGs currently available, we have shown the presence of a number of putative recombination fragments that are more prominent in all components of EACMV than in ACMV. This new knowledge about the molecular CMG diversity in East Africa, and in Tanzania in particular, has led us to hypothesize about the probable importance of this part of Africa as a source of diversity and evolutionary change both during the early stages of the relationship between CMGs and cassava and in more recent times. The existence of multiple CMG isolates with high DNA genome diversity in Tanzania and the molecular forces behind this diversity pose a threat to cassava production throughout the African continent.

Ndunguru, J; Legg, JP; Aveling, TAS; Thompson, G; Fauquet, CM

2005-01-01

106

Stephen Walter Orvis - Conclusion: Bringing Institutions Back into the Study of Kenya and Africa - Africa Today 53:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion examines the Kenyan postcolony by focusing on the colonial origins of Kenya's political institutions and their impact in the postcolonial era, using the articles in this special issue as examples of that process. The reigning paradigm—neopatrimonialism—gives inadequate attention to institutions, limiting its ability to explain the relative stability and moderation of Kenya's authoritarian state. The article uses Migdal's

Stephen Orvis

2006-01-01

107

Analysis of cassava brown streak viruses reveals the presence of distinct virus species causing cassava brown streak disease in East Africa.  

PubMed

Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) isolates were analysed from symptomatic cassava collected between 1997 and 2008 in the major cultivation regions of East Africa. An analysis of complete RNA genomes of seven isolates from Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda and Malawi revealed a common genome structure, but the isolates clearly clustered in two distinct clades. The first comprised isolates from Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, north-western Tanzania and the CBSV described previously, and shared between 87 and 95% nucleotide sequence identity, whilst the second included isolates from coastal regions of Mozambique and Tanzania, which shared only 70% nucleotide sequence identities with isolates of the first clade. When the amino acid sequences of viral proteins were compared, identities as low as 47% (Ham1) and 59% (P1) between the two clades were found. An antiserum obtained against the capsid protein of a clade 1 isolate identified a 43 kDa protein in clade 1 isolates and a 45 kDa protein in clade 2 isolates. Several cassava cultivars were susceptible to isolates of clade 2 but resistant to those of clade 1. The differences observed both in biological behaviour and in genomic and protein sequences indicate that cassava brown streak disease in East Africa is caused by at least two distinct virus species. It is suggested that those of clade 1 retain the species name Cassava brown streak virus, whilst those of clade 2 be classified as Cassava brown streak Mozambique virus. PMID:20071490

Winter, Stephan; Koerbler, Marianne; Stein, Beate; Pietruszka, Agnes; Paape, Martina; Butgereitt, Anja

2010-01-13

108

The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: Perspectives from Kenya and South Africa  

PubMed Central

In October 2005, UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This was the culmination of nearly 2 years of deliberations and negotiations. As a non-binding instrument, the declaration must be incorporated by UNESCO’s member states into their national laws, regulations or policies in order to take effect. Based on documentary evidence and data from interviews, this paper compares the declaration’s universal principles with national bioethics guidelines and practice in Kenya and South Africa. It concentrates on areas of particular relevance to developing countries, such as protection of vulnerable persons and social responsibility. The comparison demonstrates the need for universal principles to be contextualised before they can be applied in a meaningful sense at national level. The paper also assesses the ‘added value’ of the declaration in terms of biomedical research ethics, given that there are already well-established international instruments on bioethics, namely the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and the CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) guidelines on biomedical research. It may be that the added value lies as much in the follow-up capacity building activities being initiated by UNESCO as in the document itself.

2007-01-01

109

The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: perspectives from Kenya and South Africa.  

PubMed

In October 2005, UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This was the culmination of nearly 2 years of deliberations and negotiations. As a non-binding instrument, the declaration must be incorporated by UNESCO's member states into their national laws, regulations or policies in order to take effect. Based on documentary evidence and data from interviews, this paper compares the declaration's universal principles with national bioethics guidelines and practice in Kenya and South Africa. It concentrates on areas of particular relevance to developing countries, such as protection of vulnerable persons and social responsibility. The comparison demonstrates the need for universal principles to be contextualised before they can be applied in a meaningful sense at national level. The paper also assesses the 'added value' of the declaration in terms of biomedical research ethics, given that there are already well-established international instruments on bioethics, namely the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and the CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) guidelines on biomedical research. It may be that the added value lies as much in the follow-up capacity building activities being initiated by UNESCO as in the document itself. PMID:18240025

Langlois, Adèle

2007-06-28

110

Sexual and treatment-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection in long-distance transport workers of East Africa  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the sexual and treatment?seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection (STI) in long?distance transport workers of East Africa. Methods A health?seeking behaviour survey was carried out at four sites on the Mombasa–Kampala trans?Africa highway (n?=?381). The questionnaires probed details of STI knowledge, symptoms and care?seeking behaviour. In one site at the Kenya–Uganda border, a sexual patterning matrix was used (n?=?202) to measure sexual behaviour in truck drivers and their assistants over the 12?month period before the interview. Results Over half of the sexual acts of long?distance transport workers over 12?months were with female sex workers, with an annual average of 2.8 sexual partners. Condom use was reported at 70% for liaisons with casual partners. 15% of truckers had had a self?reported STI and one?third exhibited high?risk sexual behaviour in the previous year. Of those with an STI, 85% had symptoms when on the road and 77.2% sought treatment within 1?week of onset of symptoms. 94% of drivers and 56% of assistants sought treatment for STI in a private health facility or pharmacy. The cost of private facilities and pharmacies was not significantly higher than in the public sector. Waiting times were three times longer in the public sector. Only 28.9% of patients completed their medication courses as prescribed. Conclusions Truck drivers and their assistants in East Africa have high rates of reported STIs and many continue to exhibit high?risk sexual behaviour. The transport workers studied here favoured private health facilities because of convenience and shorter waiting times.

Morris, Chester N; Ferguson, Alan G

2007-01-01

111

Towards understanding factors that govern fertilizer response in cassava: lessons from East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on fertilizer response in cassava in Africa is scarce. We conducted a series of on-farm and on-station trials\\u000a in two consecutive years to quantify yield responses of cassava to mineral fertilizer in Kenya and Uganda and to evaluate\\u000a factors governing the responses. Average unfertilized yields ranged from 4.2 to 25.7 t ha?1 between sites and years. Mineral fertilizer use increased yields

Anneke M. Fermont; Pablo A. Tittonell; Yona Baguma; Pheneas Ntawuruhunga; Ken E. Giller

2010-01-01

112

LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability studies. Additional data and ground truth from other countries are also currently being sought. Research results, along with descriptive metadata are stored and organized within the LLNL RDB and prepared for delivery and integration into the Department of Energy (DOE) Knowledge Base (KB). Deliverables consist of primary data products (raw materials for calibration) and derived products (distilled from the organized raw seismological data). By combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT research team for ground truth events and regional events, we have assembled a library of ground truth information, event location correction surfaces, tomographic models and mine explosion histories required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL RDB provide needed contributions to the KB for the MENA region and will enable the United States National Data Center (NDC) to effectively verify CTBT compliance. The LLNL portion of the DOE KB supports critical NDC pipeline functions in detection, location, feature extraction, discrimination, and analyst review in the Middle East and North Africa.

Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

1999-07-23

113

LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) is to help coordinate the LLNL Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) Middle East, North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FS...

J. L. OBoyle S. D. Ruppert T. F. Hauk D. Dodge M. Firpo

2000-01-01

114

The Cuban Military in Africa and the Middle East: from Algeria to Angola.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study first reviews Cuban-Soviet relations since 1960, emphasizing major turning points. It then examines Cuban military diplomacy in Africa and the Middle East over the same period, and compares the two records. Insights gained from that comparison,...

W. J. Durch

1977-01-01

115

Ten Years of Information Development in East, Central and Southern Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 10 years of library and information developments in East, Central, and Southern Africa. Topics include school libraries; public libraries and rural information services; academic libraries; education and training; and professional library and information associations. (AEF)

Raseroka, H. Kay

1995-01-01

116

Impact of mobile endoscopy on neurosurgical development in East Africa.  

PubMed

Hydrocephalus, a disease frequently associated with poverty, becomes even more challenging to treat in developing regions because of lack of neurosurgical manpower, inadequately equipped public health care facilities, meager resource allocations, high rates of neonatal infection, difficulty of accessibility to hospitals able to treat hydrocephalus, and high complication rates in patients who are able to access and receive shunting procedures. Definitive treatment of hydrocephalus that avoids shunting procedures and long-term shunt dependence is a safer option. In environments such as Sub-Saharan Africa (and, indeed, in other similar resource-challenged regions), neuroendoscopic ventriculostomy (NEV), in appropriately selected patients can overcome the problems associated with shunting, including long-term shunt dependence. A novel approach promoted by volunteer neurosurgical teams from the Neurosurgery Education Development (NED) Foundation is described, and its important role in successfully providing NEV at hospitals in regional sites away from main tertiary referral hospitals is outlined. Using a single portable neuroendoscopy equipment system and a versatile free-hand, single operator neuroendoscope, an easily mobile outreach model has been successfully used to perform 187 procedures in 19 hospital sites around six countries and on two continents. Neuroendoscopy is not just a priority surgical tool for East Africa; it represents a best practices philosophy of what is possible within a highly sophisticated surgical speciality like neurosurgery in developing countries. It offers an opportunity to highlight the importance of tertiary care specialties like neurosurgery in this region, to develop closer relationships between African neurosurgeons and to convince medical students, general residents, and nurses that "world-class neurosurgery" can be possible in a developing region. PMID:20849778

Piquer, Jose; Qureshi, Mubashi Mahmood; Young, Paul Henry

2010-04-01

117

Representativeness and climatology of carbon monoxide and ozone at the global GAW station Mt.~Kenya in equatorial Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropics strongly influence the global atmospheric chemistry budget. However, continuous in-situ observations of trace gases are rare especially in equatorial Africa. The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch programme aimed to close this gap with the installation of the Mt. Kenya baseline station. Here, the first continuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone O3 at this site are presented. The representativeness of the site was investigated by means of statistical data analysis, air mass trajectory clustering, interpretation of biomass burning variability and evaluation of O3-CO relationships. Despite its location in equatorial Africa the site was rarely directly influenced by biomass burning emissions, making it suitable for background observations. Located at 3678 m above sea level the night-time (21:00-04:00 UTC) measurements were in general representative of the free troposphere, while day-time measurements were influenced by atmospheric boundary layer air. Six representative flow regimes towards Mt. Kenya were determined: eastern Africa (21% of the time), Arabian Peninsula and Pakistan (16%), northern Africa free tropospheric (6%), northern Indian Ocean and India (17%), south-eastern Africa (18%) and southern India Ocean (21%). The seasonal alternation of these flow regimes was determined by the monsoon circulation and caused a distinct semi-annual cycle of CO with maxima during February and August and with minima in April and less pronounced in November. O3 showed a weaker annual cycle with a minimum in November and a broad summer maximum. Inter-annual variations were explained with variations in southern African biomass burning and in transport patterns. The measurements at MKN were representative of air masses with little photochemical activity as indicated by weak O3-CO correlations, underlining the baseline character of the site. Future extensions of the measurement programme will provide better understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of this globally important region.

Henne, S.; Klausen, J.; Junkermann, W.; Kariuki, J. M.; Aseyo, J. O.; Buchmann, B.

2007-12-01

118

Quaternary glaciation in Africa: key chronologies and climatic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple episodes of Quaternary glaciation are evidenced on >10 distinct mountain localities throughout Africa, with the best dated sites from Kilimanjaro and Mt Kenya in equatorial East Africa. A general paucity of radiogenic dates constrains the glacial chronology, and regional sequences have largely been based on correlations by relative weathering of features. Excellent glacial moraine preservation and other features of

Bryan G. Mark; Henry A. Osmaston

2008-01-01

119

High-temperature environments of human evolution in East Africa based on bond ordering in paleosol carbonates  

PubMed Central

Many important hominid-bearing fossil localities in East Africa are in regions that are extremely hot and dry. Although humans are well adapted to such conditions, it has been inferred that East African environments were cooler or more wooded during the Pliocene and Pleistocene when this region was a central stage of human evolution. Here we show that the Turkana Basin, Kenya—today one of the hottest places on Earth—has been continually hot during the past 4 million years. The distribution of 13C-18O bonds in paleosol carbonates indicates that soil temperatures during periods of carbonate formation were typically above 30 °C and often in excess of 35 °C. Similar soil temperatures are observed today in the Turkana Basin and reflect high air temperatures combined with solar heating of the soil surface. These results are specific to periods of soil carbonate formation, and we suggest that such periods composed a large fraction of integrated time in the Turkana Basin. If correct, this interpretation has implications for human thermophysiology and implies a long-standing human association with marginal environments.

Passey, Benjamin H.; Levin, Naomi E.; Cerling, Thure E.; Brown, Francis H.; Eiler, John M.

2010-01-01

120

Modelling malaria risk in East Africa at high-spatial resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary objectives Malaria risk maps have re-emerged as an important tool for appropriately targeting the limited resources available for malaria control. In Sub-Saharan Africa empirically derived maps using standardized criteria are few and this paper considers the development of a model of malaria risk for East Africa. methods Statistical techniques were applied to high spatial resolution remotely sensed, human settlement

J. A. Omumbo; S. I. Hay; R. W. Snow; A. J. Tatem; D. J. Rogers

2005-01-01

121

Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and balanced soil nutrient management are major foundations for sustainable food production, contribute to a sound management of natural resources and assist in controlling

Jager de A

2007-01-01

122

Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in

D. Manful; K. Tscherning; K. Kersebaum; J. Dietz; O. Dietrich; C. Gomani; H. Böhm; M. Büchner; G. Lischeid; M. Ojoyi

2009-01-01

123

Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…

Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

124

LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

1997-07-15

125

Representativeness and climatology of carbon monoxide and ozone at the global GAW station Mt. Kenya in equatorial Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropics strongly influence the global atmospheric chemistry budget. However, continuous in-situ observations of trace gases are rare especially in equatorial Africa. The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme aimed to close this gap with the installation of the Mt. Kenya (MKN) baseline station. Here, the first continuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) at this site covering the period June 2002 to June 2006 are presented. The representativeness of the site was investigated by means of statistical data analysis, air mass trajectory clustering, interpretation of biomass burning variability and evaluation of O3-CO relationships. Because of its location in eastern equatorial Africa, the site was rarely directly influenced by biomass burning emissions, making it suitable for background observations. Located at 3678 m above sea level the night-time (21:00 04:00 UTC) measurements of CO and O3 were in general representative of the free troposphere, while day-time measurements were influenced by atmospheric boundary layer air. Increased night-time concentrations were observed in 25% of all nights and associated with residual layers of increased CO and water vapour in the free troposphere. Six representative flow regimes towards Mt. Kenya were determined: eastern Africa (21% of the time), Arabian Peninsula and Pakistan (16%), northern Africa free tropospheric (6%), northern Indian Ocean and India (17%), south-eastern Africa (18%) and southern India Ocean (21%) flow regimes. The seasonal alternation of these flow regimes was determined by the monsoon circulation and caused a distinct semi-annual cycle of CO with maxima during February (primary) and August (secondary, annually variable) and with minima in April (primary) and November (secondary, annually variable). O3 showed a weaker annual cycle with a minimum in November and a broad summer maximum. Inter-annual variations were explained with differences in southern African biomass burning and transport towards MKN. Although biomass burning had little direct influence on the measurements at MKN it introduces inter-annual variability in the background concentrations of the southern hemisphere that subsequently reaches Kenya. The measurements at MKN were representative of air masses with little photochemical activity as indicated by weak O3-CO correlations, underlining the baseline character of the site. Inter-comparison of O3 at MKN with sounding data from Nairobi revealed a positive offset of the sounding data, most likely due to additional photochemical production of O3 in the Nairobi city plume. Future extensions of the measurement programme will provide better understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of this globally important region.

Henne, S.; Klausen, J.; Junkermann, W.; Kariuki, J. M.; Aseyo, J. O.; Buchmann, B.

2008-06-01

126

Serological Evidence for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 in East Africa. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) has not previously been described in North or East Africa. We examined over 1200 sera of high-risk individuals from three North/East African countries for antibodies to HIV-2. Results indicated that...

N. T. Constantine M. F. Sheba E. Fox J. N. Woody E. A. Abbatte

1990-01-01

127

Determinants of a regional port-centric logistics hub: The case of East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for port capacity in East Africa is rising rapidly, and possibilities for expansion in the existing ports are limited. Studies indicate that, by 2016, a new port north of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) should be operational, serving, as a regional hub, the needs of the total (captive and non-captive) hinterland of East African ports. The objective of this article

Hercules Haralambides; Simme Veldman; Eric van Drunen; Miaojia Liu

2011-01-01

128

Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

2011-01-01

129

Predictability of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in Kenya and Potential Applications as an Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in the Greater Horn of Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the progress made in producing predictions of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over Kenya in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) for the October-December (OND) season is discussed. Several studies have identified a statistically significant relationship between rainfall and NDVI in the region. Predictability of seasonal rainfall by global climate models (GCMs) during the OND season

Matayo Indeje; M. Neil Ward; Laban J. Ogallo; Glyn Davies; Maxx Dilley; Assaf Anyamba

2006-01-01

130

The Elusive Access to Education for Muslim Women in Kenya from the Late Nineteenth Century to the "Winds of Change" in Africa (1890s to 1960s)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the denial of access to education to Ismaili Muslim women in colonial Kenya during the 1890s and the 1960s. The Ismailis were part of the "Asians" in Africa, a working class, religious, Muslim immigrant group from India, circumscribed by poverty and a traditional culture, the orthodox elements of which, with regard to their…

Keshavjee, Rashida

2010-01-01

131

Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

2011-01-01

132

Geographical Variation in the Response of Visceral Leishmaniasis to Paromomycin in East Africa: A Multicentre, Open-Label, Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major health problem in developing countries. The untreated disease is fatal, available treatment is expensive and often toxic, and drug resistance is increasing. Improved treatment options are needed. Paromomycin was shown to be an efficacious first-line treatment with low toxicity in India. Methods This was a 3-arm multicentre, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare three treatment regimens for VL in East Africa: paromomycin sulphate (PM) at 15 mg/kg/day for 21 days versus sodium stibogluconate (SSG) at 20 mg/kg/day for 30 days; and the combination of both dose regimens for 17 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was cure based on parasite-free tissue aspirates taken 6 months after treatment. Findings Overall, 135 patients per arm were enrolled at five centres in Sudan (2 sites), Kenya (1) and Ethiopia (2), when the PM arm had to be discontinued due to poor efficacy. The trial has continued with the higher dose of PM as well as the combination of PM and SSG arms. These results will be reported later. Baseline patient characteristics were similar among treatment arms. The overall cure with PM was significantly inferior to that with SSG (63.8% versus 92.2%; difference 28.5%, 95%CI 18.8% to 38.8%, p<0.001). The efficacy of PM varied among centres and was significantly lower in Sudan (14.3% and 46.7%) than in Kenya (80.0%) and Ethiopia (75.0% and 96.6%). No major safety issues with PM were identified. Conclusion The efficacy of PM at 15 mg/kg/day for 21 days was inadequate, particularly in Sudan. The efficacy of higher doses and the combination treatment warrant further studies.

Hailu, Asrat; Musa, Ahmed; Wasunna, Monique; Balasegaram, Manica; Yifru, Sisay; Mengistu, Getahun; Hurissa, Zewdu; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Tesfaye, Samson; Makonnen, Eyasu; Khalil, Eltahir; Ahmed, Osama; Fadlalla, Ahmed; El-Hassan, Ahmed; Raheem, Muzamil; Mueller, Marius; Koummuki, Yousif; Rashid, Juma; Mbui, Jane; Mucee, Geoffrey; Njoroge, Simon; Manduku, Veronica; Musibi, Alice; Mutuma, Geoffrey; Kirui, Fredrick; Lodenyo, Hudson; Mutea, Dedan; Kirigi, George; Edwards, Tansy; Smith, Peter; Muthami, Lawrence; Royce, Catherine; Ellis, Sally; Alobo, Moses; Omollo, Raymond; Kesusu, Josephine; Owiti, Rhoda; Kinuthia, John

2010-01-01

133

Results of cataract surgery in young children in east Africa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in children in east Africa. The results of surgery are poor, partly because of inadequate correction of aphakia.?METHODS—A retrospective survey of 118 eyes in 71 children with bilateral cataract. All eyes had implantation of an IOL at the time of cataract surgery. The average age at surgery was 3.5 years. 28 patients(39%) were less than 2 years old at the time of surgery on their first eye.?RESULTS—Preoperatively, 75.4% of eyes and 76.1% of patients were blind. A follow up of at least 3 months was available in 91 (77.1%) eyes. In these eyes, 44% had a latest corrected vision of 6/18 or better and 91.2% had a latest corrected vision of 6/60 or better. Eyes with zonular cataract, and eyes operated after the age of 2 years were more likely to obtain a vision of 6/18 or better. 3.3% of eyes and 1.8% of patients had an acuity of less than 3/60. Nystagmus was present in 42.3% of patients before surgery. In those patients followed up for a minimum of 6 months, 10.2% still had nystagmus. The most frequent complication was severe fibrinous uveitis, which occurred in 36 (30.5%) eyes. 62 (52.5%) eyes had a posterior capsulotomy at the time of cataract extraction. Of the remaining 56 eyes, 20 (35.7%) had so far required a posterior capsulotomy. The leading cause of poor visual outcome was amblyopia. Two patients developed severe complications related to the intraocular lens.?CONCLUSIONS—Insertion of a lens implant at the time of cataract extraction appears to be well tolerated in the short term, and may offer significant advantages in an African setting.??

Yorston, D.; Wood, M.; Foster, A.

2001-01-01

134

Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. Methods Diverse ecological niche modelling techniques have been developed for this purpose: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent) approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex) responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Results Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Conclusion Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

Mweya, Clement Nyamunura; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Kija, John Bukombe; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

2013-01-01

135

Market Access, Soil Fertility, and Income in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We identify the major factors affecting farm and nonfarm income by using panel data in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda. We supplement\\u000a the panel data with household-level soil fertility data and road distance data to the nearest urban center. The proportion\\u000a of loose surface roads, instead of tarmac roads, has a clear negative association with crop income, livestock income, and\\u000a per

Takashi Yamano; Yoko Kijima

2010-01-01

136

The isotopic ecology of East African mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen have been used to trace diet and habitat selection of the larger mammals of East Africa. 238 individuals of 43 species from montane forests and grasslands in Kenya and Tanzania have been analyzed. The results show that carbon isotopes discriminate between (1) grazers and browsers in savanna grasslands, (2) forest

Stanley H. Ambrose; Michael J. DeNiro

1986-01-01

137

Challenging Orthodoxies: Understanding Poverty in Pastoral Areas of East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and alleviating poverty in Africa continues to receive consid- erable attention from a range of diverse actors, including politicians, inter- national celebrities, academics, activists and practitioners. Despite the on- slaught of interest, there is surprisingly little agreement on what constitutes poverty in rural Africa, how it should be assessed, and what should be done to alleviate it. Based on

Peter D. Little; John McPeak; Christopher B. Barrett; Patti Kristjanson

2008-01-01

138

On the relation between rainfall and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for diverse vegetation types in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation of the relation between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and rainfall in East Africa. The temporal and spatial patterns of both variables and their inter-relationships are evaluated. The NDVI and rain-fall associations are analysed for ten vegetation formations of East Africa: four forest zones, two woodland zones, and four drier bush, thicket and grassland

M. L. DAVENPORT; S. E. NICHOLSON

1993-01-01

139

Stratiform precipitation production over sub-Saharan Africa and the tropical East Atlantic as observed by TRMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Convective systems over sub-Saharan Africa and the tropical East Atlantic have distinct geographical and seasonal variations in convective intensity and stratiform precipitation production as observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar. Over the East Atlantic, convective rain rates are lower and the percentage of total rain that is stratiform is higher compared to over West Africa.

Courtney Schumacher; Robert A. Houze

2006-01-01

140

DEBUNKING THE MYTHS OF GM CROPS FOR AFRICA: THE CASE OF BT MAIZE IN KENYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence from research on Bt maize in Kenya puts to rest most concerns raised against GMOs (not responding to farmers' needs, expensive, benefiting agro-business, risk of decreased biodiversity), but does indicate that contamination of local varieties is likely and buildup of insect resistance possible, requiring careful monitoring and evaluation.

Benjamin Odhiambo; David Bergvinson; Stephen Mugo; Hugo de Groote

2004-01-01

141

Market Model of Financing Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Examples from Kenya.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the rationales for financial diversification and partial privatization of state universities in Kenya and the different manifestations of market-driven approaches to university education. Explores whether the market model can address increased demand while maintaining educational quality. (EV)

Oketch, Moses O.

2003-01-01

142

Population issues in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population figures, like all statistics, are inevitably highly subjective and often say more about the compiler than their supposed subject matter. Population figures for the Middle East are notoriously unreliable and yet contain within them important information concerning, the delicate equilibrium that exists within the Middle East. Here Harry Brown extends the discussion of pure demographics to an analysis of

Harry Brown

1995-01-01

143

Solar variability and the levels of Lake Victoria, East Africa, during the last millenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new diatom series with 1–6 year resolution from Lake Victoria, East Africa, shows that lake level minima occurred ca. 820–760, 680–660, 640–620, 370–340, and 220–150 calendar years BP. Inferred lake levels were exceptionally high during most of the ‘Little Ice Age’ (ca. 600–200 calendar years BP). Synchrony between East African high lake levels and prolonged sunspot minima during much of

J. Curt Stager; David Ryves; Brian F. Cumming; L. David Meeker; Juerg Beer

2005-01-01

144

Establishment, Spread and Impact of Neochetina spp. on Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute imported 12,300 curculionid weevils (Neochetina spp.) from diverse sources, for biological control of water hyacinth in Lake Victoria, as part of the World Bank-funded Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project in East Africa. In addition to the rearing and quarantine facility at Muguga, a second rearing facility was established in 1996 at Kibos, near Lake Victoria.

G. S. Ochiel; S. W. Njoka; A. M. Mailu; W. Gitonga

145

A Reassortant Bunyavirus Isolated from Acute Hemorrhagic Fever Cases in Kenya and Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 1997 and early 1998, a large outbreak of hemorrhagic fever occurred in East Africa. Clinical samples were collected in Kenya and southern Somalia, and 27 of 115 (23%) hemorrhagic fever patients tested showed evidence of acute infection with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus as determined by IgM detection, virus isolation, detection of virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain

Michael D. Bowen; Sam G. Trappier; Angela J. Sanchez; Richard F. Meyer; Cynthia S. Goldsmith; Sherif R. Zaki; Lee M. Dunster; C. J. Peters; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

2001-01-01

146

Magnetotelluric images of the crustal structure of Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic experiments were conducted in 1995 as part of a multidisciplinary research project to investigate the deep structure of the Chyulu Hills volcanic chain on the eastern flank of the Kenya Rift in East Africa. Transient electromagnetic (TEM) and broadband (120–0.0001 Hz) magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were made at eight stations along a seismic survey line and the data were processed

V. Sakkas; M. A. Meju; M. A. Khan; V. Haak; F. Simpson

2002-01-01

147

Education, Employment and Rural Development; Proceedings of a Conference (Kericho, Kenya, September, 1966).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which contains the discussion papers and the conclusions of The Kericho Conference held in September, 1966, focuses on rural problems in Kenya, including the related issues of education and employment. Papers dealing with general issues are: "Education, Employment, and Rural Development: The Problem in East Africa"; "Projected…

Sheffield, James R., Ed.

148

Dispersal and colonisation, long and short chronologies: how continuous is the Early Pleistocene record for hominids outside East Africa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the evidence for hominids outside East Africa during the Early Pleistocene. Most attention has focused recently on the evidence for or against a late Pliocene dispersal, ca. 1.8 Ma., of hominids out of Africa into Asia and possibly southern Europe. Here, the focus is widened to include North Africa as well as southern Asia and Europe, as

Robin Dennell

2003-01-01

149

Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa.  

PubMed

The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1. PMID:21935419

Jaramillo, Juliana; Muchugu, Eric; Vega, Fernando E; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin

2011-09-14

150

Some Like It Hot: The Influence and Implications of Climate Change on Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and Coffee Production in East Africa  

PubMed Central

The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

Vega, Fernando E.; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin

2011-01-01

151

Evaluation Report on Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching of Eastern Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted from 1967 to 1970 with the following goals: (1) to gather information on the use and teaching of languages in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia; (2) to stimulate research and development in linguistics and language pedagogy in East Africa; (3) to assist in strengthening the resources of East African institutions…

Abdulaziz, Mohamed H.; Fox, Melvin J.

152

Population Trends: Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kenya is the seventh largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa and has been one of the fastest-growing countries in the world. But the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) has shown that during the last decade fertility has declined for the first t...

1992-01-01

153

Citizenship and Partitioned People in East Africa: The Case of the Wamaasai  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the issues of globalization and citizenship. It takes to task the various ways in which the issue of African integration has been conceptual- ized, by bringing in the question of the partitioned communities. It examines the situation of a partitioned people in East Africa, the Wamaasai, as social actors capable of making interventions and reconstructing other

S. L. Chachage

2004-01-01

154

The lighting fixtures market in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This market research report analyses the lighting fixtures market in the Middle East and North Africa. The countries considered are: Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Lebanon and Jordan. The report includes the production, consumption, trade, short profiles of main players and macro-economic and social indicators. The lighting fixtures scenario provides the production,

Aurelio Volpe

2011-01-01

155

Muslims in East Africa Develop Their Own Higher-Education Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Private Islamic universities are increasing in East Africa, where higher education is increasingly privatized and diversified. The progressive scholars behind the trend are seeking opportunities for dynamic encounters between Islam and modern secular disciplines. The model is the 11-year-old Islamic University in Uganda, which is now attempting…

Useem, Andrea

1999-01-01

156

OCLC in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, 1998–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a continuation of the article of the same name by Christine Deschamps who described the evolution of OCLC in Europe 1981–1997. This article continues the story for the period 1998–2008 and covers the expansion of OCLC services to the Middle East and Africa. It also includes the organizational, governance and product portfolio developments for this period under

Janet Lees

2009-01-01

157

Communities of practice for development in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A joint initiative was launched in early 2002 to explore the potential of communities of practice (CoPs) as a tool for capacity building for development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Under the aegis of the Mediterranean Development Forum (MDF), the initiative took the form of a partnership between the World Bank Institute (WBI), the United Nations

Erik C. Johnson; Ramla Khalidi

158

Sunspots, El Niño, and the levels of Lake Victoria, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association of high sunspot numbers with rises in the level of Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the focus of many investigations and vigorous debate during the last century. In this paper, we show that peaks in the ?11-year sunspot cycle were accompanied by Victoria level maxima throughout the 20th century, due to the occurrence of positive rainfall anomalies

J. Curt Stager; Alexander Ruzmaikin; Declan Conway; Piet Verburg; Peter J. Mason

2007-01-01

159

Upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath Tanzania, east Africa: Implications for the stability of cratonic lithosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assertion of cratonic stability put forward in the model for deep continental structure can be tested by examining upper mantle structure beneath the Tanzania Craton, which lies within a tectonically active region in east Africa. Tomographic inversions of about 1200 teleseismic P and $ travel times indicate that high-velocity lithosphere beneath the Tanzania Craton extends to a depth of

Jeroen Ritsema; Andrew A. Nyblade; Thomas J. Owens; Charles A. Langston; John C. VanDecar

1998-01-01

160

Dry spell analysis and maize yields for two semi-arid locations in east Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

High variability in rainfall occurrence and amounts together with high evaporative demand create severe constraints for crop growth and yields in dry sub-humid and semi-arid farming areas in east Africa. Meteorological analyses on rainfall distribution are common, but generally focus on assessing drought occurrence on annual and seasonal basis. This paper presents two types of seasonal dry spell analysis, using

Jennie Barron; Johan Rockström; Francis Gichuki; Nuhu Hatibu

2003-01-01

161

The Middle Stone Age of East Africa and the beginnings of regional identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of research into the Middle Stone Age of East Africa and the present state of knowledge of this time period is examined for the region as a whole, with special reference to paleoenvironments. The known MSA sites and occurrences are discussed region by region and attempts are made to fit them into a more precise chronological framework and

J. Desmond Clark

1988-01-01

162

The origins, dynamics and generation of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense epidemics in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of sleeping sickness in East Africa has provoked controversy not only about the origins and spread of the disease, but also the identity of the causative organisms involved. Molecular methodology1 has shed new light on the genetic makeup of the organisms involved in recent epidemics. Here, Geoff Hide, Andrew Tait, Ian Maudlin and Susan Welburn discuss these new

G. Hide; A. Tait; I. Maudlin; S. C. Welburn

1996-01-01

163

Potential of Solar Desalination in the Arid States of North Africa and the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries of the Middle East and North Africa enjoy long beaches on the Mediterranean sea, Red sea, and the Persian-Arab Gulf and on these beaches lies highly concentrated population centres. In addition to the severe water shortage, the area is also characterized as a high solar insolation area. And therefore, it is very practical to search for ways of coupling

K. R. Agha; M. Abdel-Wahab; K. El-Mansouri

164

Country risk and stock market volatility, predictability, and diversification in the Middle East and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

With globalization, an understanding of country risk (political risk (PR), financial risk (FR), and economic risk (ER)) and its impact on stock market return volatility and predictability is important for evaluating direct investment and country selection decisions in globally and regionally diversified portfolios. This paper examines these issues in the context of the Middle East and Africa (MEAF) and analyzes

M. Kabir Hassan; Neal C. Maroney; Hassan Monir El-Sady; Ahmad Telfah

2003-01-01

165

Sensors, empowerment, and accountability: a Digital Earth view from East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several innovative ‘participatory sensing’ initiatives are under way in East Africa. They can be seen as local manifestations of the global notion of Digital Earth. The initiatives aim to amplify the voice of ordinary citizens, improve citizens' capacity to directly influence public service delivery and hold local government accountable. The popularity of these innovations is, among other things, a local

Yola Georgiadou; Benson Bana; Robert Becht; Justinian Ikingura; Menno-Jan Kraak; Kate Lance; Rob Lemmens; Juma Hemed Lungo; Michael McCall; Gianluca Miscione; Jeroen Verplanke

2011-01-01

166

Key characteristics of employment regulation in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note provides a general background of the main features of labor regulation in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and benchmarks them against international best practices. The note compiles information on available labor laws and other legal acts concerning employment protection regulation. Within the broader scope of labor regulation, and in order to assure regional comparability, information collected

Diego F. Angel-Urdinola; Arvo Kuddo

2010-01-01

167

MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA DATABASE DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH TO POPULATE THE DOE KNOWLEDGE BASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to update, analyze, and document data for the Middle East and North Africa regions in order to provide accurate input to the DOE's Knowledge Base system. Specifically, we aim to provide assessments and comparison of different geophysical databases, such as Moho and basement maps, for the region of study, in an effort to document

Muawia Barazangi; Dogan Seber; Eric Sandvol; Francisco Gomez; Christine Sandvol; Carrie Brindisi

168

Middle East and North Africa Database Development and Research to Populate the DOE Knowledge Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work is to update, analyze, and document data for the Middle East and North Africa regions in order to provide accurate input to the DOE's Knowledge Base system. Specifically, we aim to provide assessments and comparison of different...

C. Sandvol D. Seber E. Sandvol F. Gomez M. Barazangi

2000-01-01

169

Upper mantle attenuation structure beneath East Africa from relative t* measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are studying the attenuation structure of the upper mantle beneath east Africa using body waves recorded by a PASSCAL array that was deployed in Tanzania between 1994-1995. The array runs along two profiles (EW and NE-SW) that traverse the Tanzania craton and the surrounding rifted mobile belts. Studying this region may provide important clues on the initiation of Cenozoic

A. A. Nyblade; A. Venkataraman; J. Ritsema

2003-01-01

170

Compilation of the GSHAP regional seismic hazard for Europe, Africa and the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic hazard map of the larger Europe-Africa-Middle East region has been generated as part of the global GSHAP hazard map. The hazard, expressing Peak Ground Acceleration expected at 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, is obtained by combining the results of 16 independent regional and national projects; among these is the hazard assessment for Libya and for the

G. Grünthal; C. Bosse; S. Sellami; D. Mayer-Rosa; D. Giardini

171

Developing a Methodology for Assessing the Impact of Farmer Field Schools in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although farmer field schools (FFS) have been used worldwide in extension education for almost 20 years, most studies of their impact have been limited as to scope or rigor. This paper presents a methodology for better understanding how FFS have evolved in three countries in East Africa in response to various factors, and to see what the impact of FFS

Kristin Davis; Ephraim Nkonya

172

Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Agricultural Productivity and Poverty in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used a longitudinal impact evaluation with quasi-experimental methods to provide evidence on economic and production impact of a farmer field school (FFS) project in East Africa. FFSs were shown to have positive impact on production and income among women, low-literacy, and medium land size farmers. Participation in FFS increased income by 61%. Participation in FFS improved agricultural income

J. Nkuba; Ephraim Nkonya; Edward Kato; Daniel Ayalew Mekonnen; Martins Odendo; Richard Miiro

2012-01-01

173

Near East and North Africa: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selected bibliography focuses on the Near East and North Africa. Among the topics covered are: Documentary Collections, History, Politics, and International Relations, Islam and the Islamic World, the Arabs, Geography, Art, Literature, Education and Sociocultural Patterns, and Economics, Labor and Oil. An introduction to the series is in SO…

Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

174

Implications of the Growth of China and India for the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is expected to benefit more than most other regions from continued rapid growth in China and India. This paper analyzes the trade-related implications of this growth for the MENA countries using a global general equilibrium model, modified to take into account the focus of China and, increasingly, India on exports of manufactures

Elena Ianchovichina; Maros Ivanic; Will Martin

175

Mercury Concentrations in Water, Sediment, and Biota from Lake Victoria, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Victoria, East Africa, is the site of the world's most productive freshwater fishery. Mercury in muscle tissue of the 2+ and 3+ year old Nile perch (Lates niloticus), presently the largest constituent of the fishery, was 90 to 250 ng \\/g wet weight. This is similar to the range of mercury in fish muscle reported for the commercial fish

Patricia S. Ramlal; Fred W. B. Bugenyi; George W. Kling; Jerome O. Nriagu; John W. M. Rudd; Linda M. Campbell

2003-01-01

176

Concentrating solar power for seawater desalination in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a long-term scenario for the demand of freshwater in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and shows how it may be covered by a better use of the existing renewable water sources and by sea water desalination powered with solar energy. Growth of population and economy, increasing urbanization and industrialization, and the rather limited natural resources

Franz Trieb; Hans Müller-Steinhagen

2008-01-01

177

Discourses on Technology Policy in the Middle East and North Africa: Gender Mainstreaming vs. Local Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

UN leaders seek to promote gender equality by mandating that policymakers assess the implications for women and men of any planned action, including any legislation, policy, or program before it is implemented. We consider challenges posed by this ideal—gender mainstreaming (GM)—within an analysis of the gender inclusivity in information and communication technology (ICT) in the Middle East and North Africa.

Victoria Ann Newsom; Catherine Cassara; Lara Lengel

2011-01-01

178

Education in the Middle East and North Africa: The Current Situation and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the educational development in the Middle East and North Africa, drawing on data from different international and national institutions. The paper begins with a review of similarities between countries within the region, and continues by investigating the situation of basic education, literacy rates and quality of education. In the third section, issues of inequality between public and

Abdeljalil Akkari

179

HIV1 molecular epidemiology evidence and transmission patterns in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in a population tracks the spread and evolution of the epidemic. This study is a systematic review of all available evidence on HIV-1 molecular epidemiology and subtype distribution in the Middle East and North Africa. Sources of data included Medline and various institutional documents and databases. In several countries, a diverse distribution of HIV-1 subtypes

Ghina Mumtaz; Nahla Hilmi; Francisca Ayodeji Akala; Iris Semini; Gabriele Riedner; David Wilson; Laith J Abu-Raddad

2010-01-01

180

Iodine Content in Fish and Other Food Products from East Africa Analyzed by ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to measure the iodine content in sea water fish, fresh water fish, and different foods of plant origin commonly consumed in East Africa in order to evaluate dietary iodine sources for the population in the selected areas. Fish, and food items of cereals, vegetables, legumes, salt, and tea, were obtained from local market sampling

Karen M. Eckhoff; Amund Maage

1997-01-01

181

Biology of Octopus vulgaris off the east coast of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier inhabiting subtropical littoral reefs off the east coast of South Africa was investigated. Analyses of stomach contents and lair middens revealed that the mussel Perna perna was the dominant food organism. Growth rate of captive individuals was higher than has previously been recorded but food conversion was lower. Females became sexually mature at 900

M. J. Smale; P. R. Buchan

1981-01-01

182

The Seismicity of East Africa, the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian and Red Seas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maps of earthquake epicenters are presented for East Africa, the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian and Red Seas for the period January 1955 to March 1964. In the Gulf of Aden and in the Arabian Sea, the epicenters are confined to narrow linear segments. A larg...

L. R. Sykes M. Landisman

1964-01-01

183

Rainfall and Drought in Equatorial East Africa During the Past 1,100 Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first half of 2000, several data files were added to the North American Pollen Database. These include data from the publication: "Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1,100 years," by D. Verschuren and others (January 27, 2000, Nature, Vol. 403).

Verschuren, Dirk.; Laird, Kathleen R.; Cumming, Brian F.

2000-01-01

184

Lessons from Mount Kilimanjaro: Schooling, Community, and Gender in East Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents an ethnographic study of a school and community in East Africa. It focuses on the role school plays in the development of the children's identity and relationships to their parents and community, and in the development of the region. At issue here are the competing influences of Western modernity and the cultural traditions of…

Stambach, Amy

185

Women in the Middle East And North Africa and Universal Suffrage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emancipation of women and equalization of their political rights have been successful only in part in the coun tries of the Middle East and North Africa. The condition of women depends on the behavior of the man in the family and on the family's geographic location and cultural and economic level. Variations in these factors result in two basic types

Beraët Zeki Üngör

1968-01-01

186

FAMILY PATTERNS, WOMEN'S STATUS AND FERTILITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues for an approach to studying fertility patterns and other demographic phenomena in the Middle East and North Africa that takes into account changes in family life and women's status. A brief review of social science research and population studies suggests the need for interdisciplinary studies that place demographic change (including the effectiveness of family planning programs) in

JAMES ALLMAN

1978-01-01

187

Water Governance in the Middle East and North Africa: An Unfinished Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

All aspects of the fresh water situation in the Middle East and North Africa are underlain by the scarcity of fresh water in the region compared with the demands for it. However, physical scarcity has been worsened by institutions that may once have been adequate but that are increasingly failing to meet modern needs for water to be extracted in

Eglal Rached; David B. Brooks

2010-01-01

188

Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand,

Francis André

2000-01-01

189

Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about sexual practices and life experiences of men having sex with men in Kenya, and indeed in East Africa, is limited. Although the impact of male same-sex HIV transmission in Africa is increasingly acknowledged, HIV prevention initiatives remain focused largely on heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission. Using data from ten in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions (36 men), this

Jerry Okal; Scott Geibel; Matthew F. Chersich; Daniel Lango; Marleen Temmerman

2009-01-01

190

The Land Question in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Kenya: a Geographical Per  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sharp contrast to the debates concerning land policy, land tenure and sustainable resource management in South Africa is any input concerning the geographical distribution of land productivity. This paper attempts to redress this imbalance by providing an empirical investigation of land potential in South Africa. In this way we intend to provide the crucial context for policy and academic

Kate Rowntree

191

Human Development in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middle East and North African countries (MENA) have achieved much to be proud of in human development. Falling child mortality and fertility have transformed family structures in most MENA countries. Despite important advances in health, education, and income, there are certain aspects human development in which MENA countries have not progressed as far. There are inequalities in human development regionally,

Djavad Salehi-Isfahani

2010-01-01

192

Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

2013-01-01

193

The symptom and genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses infecting cassava in East Africa.  

PubMed

The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda) of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible) and Kiroba (tolerant) were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements. PMID:22454639

Mohammed, I U; Abarshi, M M; Muli, B; Hillocks, R J; Maruthi, M N

2012-02-21

194

Stratigraphic interpretation of the Kulu Formation (Early Miocene, Rusinga Island, Kenya) and its implications for primate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early Miocene fossils from Rusinga Island, Kenya, provide some of the best evidence for catarrhine evolution and diversification, and, together with more than eighty-five other mammalian species, form an important comparative reference for understanding faunal succession in East Africa. While there is consensus over the stratigraphic position of most of Rusinga's volcaniclastic deposits, the lacustrine Kulu Formation has been placed

Daniel J. Peppe; Kieran P. McNulty; Susanne M. Cote; William E. H. Harcourt-Smith; Holly M. Dunsworth; John A. Van Couvering

2009-01-01

195

Africa and Middle East Regional Water Conference Briefing Book. Held in Long Beach, California on October 19-21, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The briefing book contains information presented at the Africa-Middle East Regional Water Conference, held October 19-21 1999 in Long Beach, CA. Sections include a sector overview, organization and country profiles, project profiles and success stories.

1999-01-01

196

Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the lack of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations for particulate matter in SSA cities severely hinders our ability to describe temporal and spatial patterns of concentrations, characterize exposure response relationships for key health outcomes, estimate disease burdens, and promote policy initiatives to address air quality. As part of a collaborative transportation planning exercise between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, air monitoring was carried out in February 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The objective of the monitoring was to collect pilot data on air concentrations (PM2.5 and black carbon) encountered while driving in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and to compare those data to simultaneous 'urban background' concentrations measured in Nairobi but away from roadways. For both the background and roadway monitoring, we used portable air sampling systems that collect integrated filter samples. Results from this pilot study found that roadway concentrations of PM2.5 were approximately 20-fold higher than those from the urban background site, whereas black carbon concentrations differed by 10-fold. If confirmed by more extensive sampling, these data would underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution.

van Vliet, E. D. S.; Kinney, P. L.

2007-10-01

197

Grid search modeling of receiver functions: Implications for crustal structure in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grid search is used to estimate average crustal thickness and shear wave velocity structure beneath 12 three-component broadband seismic stations in the Middle East, North Africa, and nearby regions. The crustal thickness in these regions is found to vary from a minimum of 8.0+\\/-1.5km in East Africa (Afar) region to possibly a maximum of 64+\\/-4.8km in the lesser Caucasus.

Eric Sandvol; Dogan Seber; Alexander Calvert; Muawia Barazangi

1998-01-01

198

Some important fermented foods of Mid-Asia, the Middle East, and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Other speakers in this Symposium discussed fermented foods of China, Japan, and Southeast Asia; I will describe several other\\u000a fermented foods that are very important in Mid-Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. These fermentations, unlike those of the\\u000a Orient, use bacteria and yeasts instead of filamentous fungi. They are acid products prepared from cereals traditionally grown\\u000a in the areas, notably

C. W. Hesseltine

1979-01-01

199

The influence of European pollution on ozone in the Near East and northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. Eu- ropean emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollu- tion) of the European health standard

B. N. Duncan; J. J. West; Y. Yoshida; A. M. Fiore; J. R. Ziemke

2008-01-01

200

The influence of European pollution on ozone in the Near East and northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone

B. N. Duncan; J. J. West; Y. Yoshida; A. M. Fiore; J. R. Ziemke

2008-01-01

201

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of four East Africa Geologic Provinces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four geologic provinces along the east coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

2012-01-01

202

The Great Lakes in East Africa: biological conservation considerations for species flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three largest water bodies of East Africa, Lake Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi contain an estimated number of 2,000\\u000a endemic cichlid fish species, in addition, to a mostly uncounted wealth of invertebrates. While the terrestrial diversity\\u000a is reasonably well protected, as economic and touristic interests coincide with biological conservation strategies, this is\\u000a not the case for most African lakes and

Christian Sturmbauer

2008-01-01

203

Harnessing Africa's sun: China and the development of solar energy in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa has immense energy challenges, characterised by low rates of access to electricity, irregularities and a general shortage in electricity supply. Solar energy provides African governments with the opportunity to address these challenges. With an average quantity of five to six kilowatts of power from the sun per square metre per day, the continent has vast potential for producing energy

Tsidiso Disenyana

2009-01-01

204

An Observational Study of the Relationship between Excessively Strong Short Rains in Coastal East Africa and Indian Ocean SST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of SST, wind, rainfall, and humidity have been constructed for years of high rainfall during September, October, and November (SON) in equatorial and southern-central East Africa. These show that extreme East African short rains are associated with large-scale SST anomalies in the Indian Ocean that closely resemble those that develop during Indian Ocean dipole or zonal mode (IOZM) events.

Emily Black; Julia Slingo; Kenneth R. Sperber

2003-01-01

205

Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red

A Nyblade; R Brazier; A Adams; A Rodgers; A Al-Amri

2007-01-01

206

A participatory farming system approach for sustainable broomrape ( Orobanche spp.) management in the Near East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are aggressive and damaging parasitic weeds which have a tremendous impact on agriculture in East Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. Despite the availability of technologies to control broomrapes in economically important crops, Orobanche infestation continues to increase, threatening the livelihoods of millions of farmers. Many of the technologies developed have not been effectively disseminated

Mathew M. Abang; Bassam Bayaa; Barakat Abu-Irmaileh; Amor Yahyaoui

2007-01-01

207

Basic Data on the Economy of East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reports present basic authoritative information for exporters, importers, investors, manufacturers, researchers, and those concerned with international trade and economic conditions. For individual reports, see below:

S. P. Hansen

1972-01-01

208

Continental rift evolution: From rift initiation to incipient break-up in the Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Main Ethiopian Rift is a key sector of the East African Rift System that connects the Afar depression, at Red Sea-Gulf of Aden junction, with the Turkana depression and Kenya Rift to the South. It is a magmatic rift that records all the different stages of rift evolution from rift initiation to break-up and incipient oceanic spreading: it is thus an ideal place to analyse the evolution of continental extension, the rupture of lithospheric plates and the dynamics by which distributed continental deformation is progressively focused at oceanic spreading centres. The first tectono-magmatic event related to the Tertiary rifting was the eruption of voluminous flood basalts that apparently occurred in a rather short time interval at around 30 Ma; strong plateau uplift, which resulted in the development of the Ethiopian and Somalian plateaus now surrounding the rift valley, has been suggested to have initiated contemporaneously or shortly after the extensive flood-basalt volcanism, although its exact timing remains controversial. Voluminous volcanism and uplift started prior to the main rifting phases, suggesting a mantle plume influence on the Tertiary deformation in East Africa. Different plume hypothesis have been suggested, with recent models indicating the existence of deep superplume originating at the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa, rising in a north-northeastward direction toward eastern Africa, and feeding multiple plume stems in the upper mantle. However, the existence of this whole-mantle feature and its possible connection with Tertiary rifting are highly debated. The main rifting phases started diachronously along the MER in the Mio-Pliocene; rift propagation was not a smooth process but rather a process with punctuated episodes of extension and relative quiescence. Rift location was most probably controlled by the reactivation of a lithospheric-scale pre-Cambrian weakness; the orientation of this weakness (roughly NE-SW) and the Late Pliocene (post 3.2 Ma)-recent extensional stress field generated by relative motion between Nubia and Somalia plates (roughly ESE-WNW) suggest that oblique rifting conditions have controlled rift evolution. However, it is still unclear if these kinematical boundary conditions have remained steady since the initial stages of rifting or the kinematics has changed during the Late Pliocene or at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary. Analysis of geological-geophysical data suggests that continental rifting in the MER evolved in two different phases. An early (Mio-Pliocene) continental rifting stage was characterised by displacement along large boundary faults, subsidence of rift depression with local development of deep (up to 5 km) asymmetric basins and diffuse magmatic activity. In this initial phase, magmatism encompassed the whole rift, with volcanic activity affecting the rift depression, the major boundary faults and limited portions of the rift shoulders (off-axis volcanism). Progressive extension led to the second (Pleistocene) rifting stage, characterised by a riftward narrowing of the volcano-tectonic activity. In this phase, the main boundary faults were deactivated and extensional deformation was accommodated by dense swarms of faults (Wonji segments) in the thinned rift depression. The progressive thinning of the continental lithosphere under constant, prolonged oblique rifting conditions controlled this migration of deformation, possibly in tandem with the weakening related to magmatic processes and/or a change in rift kinematics. Owing to the oblique rifting conditions, the fault swarms obliquely cut the rift floor and were characterised by a typical right-stepping arrangement. Ascending magmas were focused by the Wonji segments, with eruption of magmas at surface preferentially occurring along the oblique faults. As soon as the volcano-tectonic activity was localised within Wonji segments, a strong feedback between deformation and magmatism developed: the thinned lithosphere was strongly modified by the extensive magma intrusion and extension was facilitated

Corti, Giacomo

2009-09-01

209

Patterns of abundance and diversity in late Cenozoic bovids from the Turkana and Hadar Basins, Kenya and Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After decades of fieldwork spurred by the search for human ancestors, paleontologists in East Africa are compiling networks\\u000a of databases to address questions of long-term evolutionary, environmental, and ecological change. Paleontological databases\\u000a from the Turkana Basin of Kenya and Ethiopia (East Turkana, West Turkana, Kanapoi, Lothagam, and Omo) and the Hadar Basin\\u000a of Ethiopia’s Afar region consist of nearly 70,000

René Bobe; Anna K. Behrensmeyer; G. G. Eck; J. M. Harris

210

Prevalence of human papillomavirus in women with invasive cervical carcinoma by HIV status in Kenya and South Africa.  

PubMed

Data on the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in cervical carcinoma in women with HIV are scarce but are essential to elucidate the influence of immunity on the carcinogenicity of different HPV types, and the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines in populations with high HIV prevalence. We conducted a multicentre case-case study in Kenya and South Africa. During 2007-2009, frozen tissue biopsies from women with cervical carcinoma were tested for HPV DNA using GP5+/6+-PCR assay. One hundred and six HIV-positive (mean age 40.8 years) and 129 HIV-negative women (mean age 45.7) with squamous cell carcinoma were included. Among HIV-positive women, the mean CD4 count was 334 cells/?L and 48.1% were on combined antiretroviral therapy. HIV-positive women had many more multiple HPV infections (21.6% of HPV-positive carcinomas) compared with HIV-negative women (3.3%) (p < 0.001) and the proportion of multiple infections was inversely related to CD4 level. An excess of HPV18 of borderline statistical significance was found in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative cases (Prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-3.7, adjusted for study centre, age and multiplicity of infection). HPV16 and/or 18 prevalence combined, however, was similar in HIV-positive (66.7%) and HIV-negative cases (69.1%) (PR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9-1.2). No significant difference was found for other HPV types. Our data suggest that current prophylactic HPV vaccines against HPV16 and 18 may prevent similar proportions of cervical SCC in HIV-positive as in HIV-negative women provided that vaccine-related protection is sustained after HIV infection. PMID:21960453

De Vuyst, Hugo; Ndirangu, Gathari; Moodley, Manivasan; Tenet, Vanessa; Estambale, Benson; Meijer, Chris J L M; Snijders, Peter J F; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia

2011-11-10

211

The distribution of C 3 and C 4 grasses and carbon isotope discrimination along an altitudinal and moisture gradient in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 species of the Poaceae are found in Kenya, East Africa. Eighteen of twenty-seven tribes are exclusively (except the Paniceae and Danthonieae) of the C3 photosynthetic type. A floristic analysis of low altitude grasslands suggests that nearly all species at these low altitudes are of the C4 photosynthetic type. At high altitudes, however, nearly all grasses are of

Larry L. Tieszen; Michael M. Senyimba; Simeon K. Imbamba; John H. Troughton

1979-01-01

212

CHANGE-DETECTION IN WESTERN KENYA - THE DOCUMENTATION OF FRAGMENTATION AND DISTURBANCE FOR KAKAMEGA FOREST AND ASSOCIATED FOREST AREAS BY MEANS OF REMOTELY-SENSED IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand causes and effects of disturbance and fragmentation on flora and fauna, a time series on land cover change is needed as basis for the BIOTA-East Africa project partners working in western Kenya. For 7 time steps over the past 30 years Land- sat data were collected for Kakamega Forest and its associated forest areas. Preprocessing involved

T. Lung; G. Schaab

213

Change in land water storage in the East Africa region inferred from GRACE and altimetry data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought can be regarded as one of the most damaging of natural disasters in human, environmental, and economic terms. It occurs as a result of extremes in climate that are driven by natural variability but may be exacerbated or dampened by anthropogenic influences. In East Africa rainfall exhibits a great spatial and temporal variability. Such events have impact on the water budget of this region. But water use and more generally anthropogenic forcing also affect regional hydrology. In this study, we investigate water storage change (surface and ground) using in synergy satellite radar altimetry, GRACE satellite gravity and other data to quantify recent change in surface waters and total land storage in East Africa over the recent years. Water levels of most East African lakes display significant decrease since the strong ENSO event of 1997- 1998. GRACE data available since 2002 also show decrease in total water storage over this region. The volume of water stored within lakes and reservoirs is a sensitive proxy for precipitation and may be used to study the combined impact of climate change and water-resource management. We also combine GRACE, altimetry and precipitation data sets to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal and interannual hydrological balance of this area and its link with the western Indian Ocean thermal change

Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.

2008-12-01

214

Community-based carbon sequestration in East Africa: Linking science and sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International agreements on climate change have set the stage for an expanding market for greenhouse gas emissions reduction credits. Projects that can generate credits for trading are diverse, but one of the more controversial types involve biological carbon sequestration. For several reasons, most of the activity on these "sinks" projects has been in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Yet people in sub-saharan Africa could benefit from properly implemented projects. This poster will discuss estimates of the potential and risks of such projects in East Africa, and will describe in detail a case study located in central Tanzania and now part of the World Bank's BioCarbon Fund portfolio. Understanding climate variability and risk can effectively link international agreements on climate change, local realities of individual projects, and the characteristics of targeted ecosystems.

Hultman, N. E.

2004-12-01

215

Curricula for Media Education in Anglophone Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a basis for reconstructing media curricula by integrating normative media theory within Africa's media education and media training programs. Profiles media education programs in Kenya. Proposes a model curriculum for Kenya and for anglophone Africa. (RS)|

Okigbo, Charles; Pratt, Cornelius B.

1997-01-01

216

HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa  

PubMed Central

Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their efforts to fight the HIV epidemic in the region.

Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

2011-01-01

217

World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-01-01

218

Honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

A systematic review of the research literature on honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) indicates a paucity of studies relative to the presumed magnitude of the problem. Forty articles were reviewed and critically appraised, of which only 9 contained primary data and 11 presented original secondary analyses. Despite a recent increase in published studies, persistent methodological limitations restrict the generalizability of findings. Most studies focus on legal aspects, determinants, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators. Victims are mostly young females murdered by their male kin. Unambiguous evidence of a decline in tolerance of honor killings remains elusive. PMID:22312039

Kulczycki, Andrzej; Windle, Sarah

2011-11-01

219

Managing Information for Rural Development: Lessons from Eastern Africa. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 379.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study summarizes discussions and conclusions of the Regional Workshop on Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Development Projects in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, April 1979), whose purpose was to share lessons learned from field experiences in managing information for rural development. An initial section summarizes information in papers…

Deboeck, Guido; Kinsey, Bill

220

Correlation of Pliocene and Pleistocene tephra layers between the Turkana Basin of East Africa and the Gulf of Aden  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electron-microprobe analyses of glass shards from volcanic ash in Pliocene and Pleistocene deep-sea sediments in the Gulf of Aden and the Somali Basin demonstrate that most of the tephra layers correlate with tephra layers known on land in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Previous correlations are reviewed, and new correlations proposed. Together these data provide correlations between the deep-sea cores, and to the land-based sections at eight levels ranging in age from about 4 to 0.7 Ma. Specifically, we correlate the Moiti Tuff (???4.1 Ma) with a tephra layer at 188.6 m depth in DSDP hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 150 m depth in DSDP hole 241, the Wargolo Tuff with a tephra layer at 179.7 m in DSDP Hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 155.3 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Lomogol Tuff (defined here) with a tephra layer at 165 m in DSDP Hole 232A, the Lokochot Tuff with a tephra layer at 140.1 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Tulu Bor Tuff with a tephra layer at 160.8 m depth in DSDP Hole 231, the Kokiselei Tuff with a tephra layer at 120 m depth in DSDP Hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 90.3 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Silbo Tuff (0.74 Ma) with a tephra layer at 35.5 m depth in DSDP Hole 231 and possibly with a tephra layer at 10.9 m depth in DSDP Hole 241. We also present analyses of other tephra from the deep sea cores for which correlative units on land are not yet known. The correlated tephra layers provide eight chronostratigraphic horizons that make it possible to temporally correlate paleoecological and paleoclimatic data between the terrestrial and deep-sea sites. Such correlations may make it possible to interpret faunal evolution in the Lake Turkana basin and other sites in East Africa within a broader regional or global paleoclimatic context. ?? 1992.

Brown, F. H.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C. E.; Haileab, B.

1992-01-01

221

A survey of Simulium control in Africa  

PubMed Central

It has become possible to control or even eradicate the Simulium fly vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative organism of onchocerciasis. There are two vectors in Africa—namely, S. damnosum, characteristic of the rivers of West Africa, and S. neavei, which breeds on the carapaces of crabs in the streams of East Africa. The use of DDT applied to the water at a concentration as low as 0.1 p.p.m. for 30 minutes eliminates the larvae of Simulium. Such larvicidal methods have eradicated S. neavei from western Kenya and virtually eradicated S. damnosum from the Victoria Nile in Uganda. Excellent control sufficient to render the transmission of onchocerciasis almost negligible has been obtained at Léopoldville (Republic of the Congo) and in circumscribed areas in southern Chad, Northern Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The following survey describes operational research on Simulium control carried out in Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, Chad, Nigeria, Ghana, Upper Volta and Sierra Leone.

Brown, A. W. A.

1962-01-01

222

Status report of propagation models: Middle East and North Africa (S5.3)  

SciTech Connect

An improved understanding of the influence that tectonic structure has on regional seismic phases is needed to improve the current performance of regional discriminants and their transportability to the Middle East and North Africa. In the case that the crustal structure can be approximated by a flat layered laterally invariant medium, layer-cake reflectivity modeling can be used to obtain an accurate representation of regional phases. However, a laterally heterogeneous crust is just as common as a layered cake structure and in this case large variations in regional phase amplitudes are not uncommon. For instance, it has been shown that rough surface topography and undulations in the Moho can cause the transfer of energy between various surface wave modes and between surface waves and body waves greatly increasing the potential variability of seismic phases. Larger scale structure such as thickening or thinning of the crust can also greatly affect phase propagation. In some instances, changes between different tectonic regions such as that which occurs at a continental-oceanic boundary can completely block phases such as Lg rendering certain discriminants useless. In addition to structure along the path, lateral structure and free surface topography near the source and receiver can cause complex scattering effects with strong directional, frequency, and near-field effects. Given that the Middle East and North Africa cross many different tectonic boundaries, the authors are using numerical propagation models to understand how the relevant tectonic features affect the propagation of primary discriminant phases.

Schultz, C.A.; Patton, H.J.; Goldstein, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1995-11-01

223

High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available.

Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

2007-01-01

224

Rare Surirella taxa (Bacillariophyta) from East Africa described by Otto Müller: typifications, recombinations, new names, annotations and distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocquyt, C. & Jahn, R.: Rare Surirella taxa (Bacillariophyta) from East Africa described by Otto Müller: typifications, recombinations, new names, annotations and distributions. - Willdenowia 35: 359-371. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2005 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.35.35218 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) East African original material from which Otto Müller had described more than 100 new diatom taxa at the beginning of the 20th

CHRISTINE COCQUYT; REGINE JAHN

2005-01-01

225

Isotopic evidence for neogene hominid paleoenvironments in the Kenya Rift Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipedality, the definitive characteristic of the earliest hominids, has been regarded as an adaptive response to a transition from forested to more-open habitats in East Africa sometime between 12 million and 5 million years ago. Analyses of the stable carbon isotopic composition ([delta][sup 13]C) of paleosol carbonate and organic matter from the Tugen Hills succession in Kenya indicate that a

J. D. Kingston; A. Hill; B. D. Marino

1994-01-01

226

Growth and Structural Change in East Africa: Domestic Policies, Agricultural Performance, and World Bank Assistance, 1963-86. Parts 1 and 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper on three East African countries, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania, draws upon the results of a wider study of the role of foreign assistance in African agricultural development, which is in turn a component of a major World Bank research project, 'Man...

U. Lele L. R. Meyers

1989-01-01

227

High-Throughput High-Resolution Class I HLA Genotyping in East Africa  

PubMed Central

HLA, the most genetically diverse loci in the human genome, play a crucial role in host-pathogen interaction by mediating innate and adaptive cellular immune responses. A vast number of infectious diseases affect East Africa, including HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, but the HLA genetic diversity in this region remains incompletely described. This is a major obstacle for the design and evaluation of preventive vaccines. Available HLA typing techniques, that provide the 4-digit level resolution needed to interpret immune responses, lack sufficient throughput for large immunoepidemiological studies. Here we present a novel HLA typing assay bridging the gap between high resolution and high throughput. The assay is based on real-time PCR using sequence-specific primers (SSP) and can genotype carriers of the 49 most common East African class I HLA-A, -B, and -C alleles, at the 4-digit level. Using a validation panel of 175 samples from Kampala, Uganda, previously defined by sequence-based typing, the new assay performed with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The assay was also implemented to define the HLA genetic complexity of a previously uncharacterized Tanzanian population, demonstrating its inclusion in the major East African genetic cluster. The availability of genotyping tools with this capacity will be extremely useful in the identification of correlates of immune protection and the evaluation of candidate vaccine efficacy.

Koehler, Rebecca N.; Walsh, Anne M.; Sanders-Buell, Eric E.; Eller, Leigh Anne; Eller, Michael; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Bautista, Christian T.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Hoelscher, Michael; Maboko, Leonard; Kim, Jerome; Michael, Nelson L.; Robb, Merlin L.; McCutchan, Francine E.; Kijak, Gustavo H.

2010-01-01

228

Impact of Invasive Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) on Snail Hosts of Schistosomiasis in Lake Victoria, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plants may change ecologic conditions to contribute to transmission of human diseases. This study examined whether water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) had an effect on the snails Biomphalaria sudanica and B. choanomphala, hosts of the disease organism Schistosoma mansoni in Lake Victoria, East Africa. Eight 16-m2 enclosures were established in shallow shoreline areas and were paired for water depth, substrate,

Mary L. Plummer

2005-01-01

229

Nutrition Transition and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Middle East and North Africa Countries: Reviewing the Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To examine the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Middle East and North Africa countries and their associations with dietary behaviors as nutrition transition is unfolding in the region. Data: Data on CVD risk factors were collected from scholarly papers and a systematic review of published articles was performed. Dietary patterns were derived from the WHO Food

Abla Mehio Sibai; Lara Nasreddine; Ali H. Mokdad; Nada Adra; Maya Tabet; Nahla Hwalla

2010-01-01

230

The Effects of Fiscal Policies on the Economic Development of Women in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics indicate that the economic and social development of women in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) compares unfavorably with most regions in the world. This paper assesses the influence of government expenditure and taxation policies on the economic and social welfare of women in the region. On the expenditure side, we test the explanatory power of public social

Tea Trumbic; Nicole Laframboise

2004-01-01

231

The Effects of Fiscal Policies on the Economic Development of Women in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics indicate that the economic and social development of women in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) compares unfavorably with most regions in the world. This paper assesses the influence of government expenditure and taxation policies on the economic and social welfare of women in the region. On the expenditure side, we test the explanatory power of public social

Nicole Laframboise; Tea Trumbic

2003-01-01

232

Age and growth determination of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, from the east coast of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, is found worldwide in cold and temperate coastal and shelf waters (Compagno, 1984). As a large, uncommon apex predator, it has received considerable atten- tion from scientists over the past few years. Because of its great re- sale value, compared with most Abstract.-Ages of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, from the east coast of South Africa

Sabine P. Wintner; Geremy Cliff

233

A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

Khattab, Mohammad Salih

234

Mapping Crustal Heterogeneity Using Lg Propagation Efficiency Throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

- In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance

D. E. McNamara; W. R. Walter

2001-01-01

235

Water Demand Management In The Middle East And North Africa: Observations From the IDRC Forums And Lessons For The Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002 and 2003, Canada's International Development Research Centre, in partnership with other donors, organized four regional Forums to facilitate the exchange of information, results and lessons learned on water demand management (WDM) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Over 500 decision-makers and water practitioners from 11 countries participated in Forums on wastewater reuse, water valuation, private-public partnerships,

David B. Brooks; Lorra Thompson; Lamia El Fattal

2007-01-01

236

The Use of Saline Water in Agriculture in the Near East and North Africa Region: Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is a major problem that negatively impacts agricultural activities in many regions in the world, and especially the Near East and North Africa region. Generally, salinity problems increase with increasing salt concentration in irrigation water. Crop growth reduction due to salinity is generally related to the osmotic potential of the root-zone soil solution. This will lead to certain phenological

Ayman F. Abou-Hadid

2003-01-01

237

Internationalization "vs" Regionalization of Higher Education in East Africa and the Challenges of Quality Assurance and Knowledge Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Internationalization of higher education in East Africa raises various questions related to its magnitude and intensity, its capacity to address issues of access, equity and regional research and developmental needs. Internationalization and regionalization as processes in higher education can synergize each other but can also limit the success…

Ogachi, Oanda

2009-01-01

238

A literature review: the role of the private sector in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa and Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background The demand for nurses is growing and has not yet been met in most developing countries, including India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. Efforts to increase the capacity for production of professional nurses, equitable distribution and better retention have been given high strategic priority. This study examines the supply of, demand for, and policy environment of private nurse production in four selected countries. Methods A scoping systematic review was undertaken to assess the evidence for the role of private sector involvement in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. An electronic database search was performed, and grey literature was also captured from the websites of Human Resources for Health (HRH)-related organizations and networks. The articles were reviewed and selected according to relevancy. Results The review found that despite very different ratios of nurses to population ratios and differing degrees of international migration, there was a nursing shortage in all four countries which were struggling to meet growing demand. All four countries saw the private sector play an increasing role in nurse production. Policy responses varied from modifying regulation and accreditation schemes in Thailand, to easing regulation to speed up nurse production and recruitment in India. There were concerns about the quality of nurses being produced in private institutions. Conclusion Strategies must be devised to ensure that private nursing graduates serve public health needs of their populations. There must be policy coherence between producing nurses for export and ensuring sufficient supply to meet domestic needs, in particular in under-served areas. This study points to the need for further research in particular assessing the contributions made by the private sector to nurse production, and to examine the variance in quality of nurses produced.

2013-01-01

239

Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.  

PubMed

This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. PMID:23648267

Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

2013-05-03

240

Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region  

PubMed Central

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships.

Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

2012-01-01

241

Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa.  

PubMed

The East African hominin Paranthropus boisei was characterized by a suite of craniodental features that have been widely interpreted as adaptations to a diet that consisted of hard objects that required powerful peak masticatory loads. These morphological adaptations represent the culmination of an evolutionary trend that began in earlier taxa such as Australopithecus afarensis, and presumably facilitated utilization of open habitats in the Plio-Pleistocene. Here, we use stable isotopes to show that P. boisei had a diet that was dominated by C(4) biomass such as grasses or sedges. Its diet included more C(4) biomass than any other hominin studied to date, including its congener Paranthropus robustus from South Africa. These results, coupled with recent evidence from dental microwear, may indicate that the remarkable craniodental morphology of this taxon represents an adaptation for processing large quantities of low-quality vegetation rather than hard objects. PMID:21536914

Cerling, Thure E; Mbua, Emma; Kirera, Francis M; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Grine, Frederick E; Leakey, Meave G; Sponheimer, Matt; Uno, Kevin T

2011-05-02

242

The Road Not Traveled: Education Reform in the Middle East and North Africa [pdf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has long been interested in looking at education throughout the world, and this recent report pays close attention to education systems across the Middle East and North Africa. The report was released in February 2008, and offers a comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of education investments in the region. The report notes that while most of the countries in this region have made great strides in recent decades, they will need to place a premium on so-called "soft skills" (such as problem solving) in order to compete in a global economy. Additionally, the report recommends that policy-makers should use incentives, public accountability, curriculum and labor market reforms in order to make the region's economies more dynamic.

Galal, Ahmed, 1948-

2008-01-01

243

Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region  

PubMed Central

Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women.

Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

2009-01-01

244

Why Did Abolishing Fees Not Increase Public School Enrollment in Kenya? Africa Growth Initiative. Working Paper 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large empirical literature has shown that user fees significantly deter public service utilization in developing countries. While most of these results reflect partial equilibrium analysis, we find that the nationwide abolition of public school fees in Kenya in 2003 led to no increase in net public enrollment rates, but rather a dramatic shift…

Bold, Tessa; Kimenyi, Mwangi S.; Mwabu, Germano; Sandefur, Justin

2013-01-01

245

Why Did Abolishing Fees Not Increase Public School Enrollment in Kenya? Africa Growth Initiative. Working Paper 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A large empirical literature has shown that user fees significantly deter public service utilization in developing countries. While most of these results reflect partial equilibrium analysis, we find that the nationwide abolition of public school fees in Kenya in 2003 led to no increase in net public enrollment rates, but rather a dramatic shift…

Bold, Tessa; Kimenyi, Mwangi S.; Mwabu, Germano; Sandefur, Justin

2013-01-01

246

MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa  

SciTech Connect

This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

2000-03-01

247

Upper mantle attenuation structure beneath East Africa from relative t* measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are studying the attenuation structure of the upper mantle beneath east Africa using body waves recorded by a PASSCAL array that was deployed in Tanzania between 1994-1995. The array runs along two profiles (EW and NE-SW) that traverse the Tanzania craton and the surrounding rifted mobile belts. Studying this region may provide important clues on the initiation of Cenozoic rifting in east Africa and hence, give us insights into the tectonic and geodynamic processes that occur during the initial stages of rift development. The same dataset has been used to obtain tomographic velocity models, so we can compare the velocity structure to the attenuation structure. We determined the P wave spectral amplitude ratios of data from the same earthquake recorded at different stations (thereby eliminating the source effect), and computed relative t* (path integrated attenuation) from the slopes of these ratios. We then used a least-squares inversion to determine the t* at each station relative to the average t* of the array. We applied the same procedure to determine relative t* for S waves from the transverse components of the data (i.e., SH only). To simplify the problem, we selected events that have azimuths along the two profiles, and we have initially focused on events along the EW profile. On comparing the estimates of t* to the residual travel times estimated by Ritsema et. al., (1998), we observe that the t* values and residual travel times are not always correlated. Also, the observed t* values from P wave data are anti-correlated to the observed S wave data for stations within the craton. We are planning to compute forward models in order to isolate elastic from anelastic effects on our t* measurements, and to place constraints on upper mantle Q values.

Nyblade, A. A.; Venkataraman, A.; Ritsema, J.

2003-12-01

248

Coxiella burnetii antibody prevalences among human populations in north-east Africa determined by enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Retrospective serosurveys were conducted to determine the prevalence of antibody to phase-I Coxiella burnetii among humans in various locations of north-east Africa. Sera were tested by the enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Initially the EIA was compared with the standard indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) method for the detection of antibody to C. burnetii. Results indicated that the EIA was slightly less sensitive (88%), but highly specific (94%) and less subjective than the IFA technique. EIA was subsequently adopted for estimating prevalences in the studied human populations. Data obtained by EIA indicated that the prevalence of C. burnetii antibody among adult Egyptian blood donors was 20% (n = 358) in the Suez Canal area, 16% (n = 501) in the Nile Valley and 10% (n = 427) in the Nile Delta. Among adult patients with acute, undifferentiated fever in Egypt, the prevalence was 28% (n = 50) of acute sera, with seroconversion in 12% of convalescent sera. Antibody to C. burnetii was detected by EIA in the sera of 25% (n = 71) of cattle workers in Egypt, 10% (n = 100) of housewives in Sudan, and 37% (n = 104) of adults in north-west Somalia. Following a fever outbreak affecting all ages in northern Sudan, IgG antibody to C. burnetii was present in 54% of the febrile persons (n = 185) and in 53% of afebrile persons (n = 186). IgM antibody to C. burnetii was demonstrated in 29% of the febrile persons and 15% of the afebrile persons. These results implicate C. burnetii as a possibly important and under-reported cause of human disease and undiagnosed fevers in north-east Africa. PMID:7783275

Botros, B A; Soliman, A K; Salib, A W; Olson, J; Hibbs, R G; Williams, J C; Darwish, M; el Tigani, A; Watts, D M

1995-06-01

249

From Denis Burkitt to Dar es Salaam. What happened next in East Africa?--Tanzania's story.  

PubMed

East Africa was at the forefront of early achievements and discoveries in paediatric oncology thanks to Denis Burkitt's seminal work. Although these successes have been built upon and continued elsewhere, they were sadly not sustained in sub-Saharan Africa for a variety of reasons. In recent years however this situation is slowly changing in countries across the continent. Tanzania is one such African country. Until very recently, survival rates of 5-10% for all children's cancers were expected. However, change has been brought about thanks to the combined efforts and commitments of the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, non-governmental organizations--such as The International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research, and Children in Crossfire-- and the participation of the private sector. Services are rapidly developing and outcomes are continuing to improve with 1-year survival rates of approximately 60% achieved. Efforts to maintain this early progress are concentrated around providing high quality local subspecialty medical training and continued local ownership of the programme. PMID:22233461

Scanlan, Trish; Kaijage, Jane

2012-01-11

250

AIDS and food production in East and Central Africa: a research outline.  

PubMed

AIDS has penetrated at least 42 countries in Africa. Death of Africans usually occurs within 3 years of diagnosis. Not much is currently known about the demographics of the disease or about its impact on economic and social behavior, farming, and food production. There is currently a food crisis in Africa, so it is appropriate to study how much of an impact this disease has on future food production. In order to study the problem, one must predict the spread of AIDS. 2nd, one must infer how labor loss effects current rural production. Labor loss will cause changes in organization of production, technology, and types of crops grown. As a crisis increases, certain groups will be cut out of the food distribution. Characterizations such as these allow the mapping of areas vulnerable to labor loss. Field analysis and modeling must substantiate the theories and predictions. This paper describes the research design which will be used by 2 researchers from the Overseas Development Group of the University of East Anglia to measure the impact of AIDS on food production, working initially in a high HIV - prevalent area in Uganda. PMID:12281937

Barnett, T; Blaikie, P

1989-02-01

251

Mineral deposit formation in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins of north-east Africa: the contribution of weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intra- and epicontinental basins in north-east Africa (Egypt, Sudan) bear ample evidence of weathering processes repeatedly having contributed to the formation of mineral deposits throughout the Phanerozoic. The relict primary weathering mantle of Pan-African basement rocks consists of kaolinitic saprolite, laterite (in places bauxitic) and iron oxide crust. On the continent, the reaccumulation of eroded weathering-derived clay minerals (mainly kaolinite) occurred predominantly in fluvio-lacustrine environments, and floodplain and coastal plain deposits. Iron oxides, delivered from ferricretes, accumulated as oolitic ironstones in continental and marine sediments. Elements leached from weathering profiles accumulated in continental basins forming silcrete and alunite or in the marine environment contributing to the formation of attapulgite/saprolite and phosphorites. The Early Paleozoic Tawiga bauxitic laterite of northern Sudan gives a unique testimony of high latitude lateritic weathering under global greenhouse conditions. It formed in close spatial and temporal vicinity to the Late Ordovician glaciation in north Africa. The record of weathering products is essentially complete for the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary. From the continental sources in the south to the marine sinks in the north, an almost complete line of lateritic and laterite-derived deposits of bauxitic kaolin, kaolin, iron oxides and phosphates is well documented.

Germann, Klaus; Schwarz, Torsten; Wipki, Mario

1994-12-01

252

The upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath the Arabian Shield and East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband seismic data from Ethiopia and the Arabian Shield have been used to image the seismic structure of the upper mantle beneath ˜70% of the Afar hotspot. In the northernmost area of the hotspot, the Arabian Shield, the results from a P wave tomography and a receiver function analysis of the mantle transition zone discontinuities reveal a low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle. The anomaly appears to extend to ˜300 kin depth but does not reach the transition zone. In contrast, the P and S wave velocity structure of the upper mantle and transition zone discontinuities beneath Ethiopia, also imaged using body wave tomography and receiver function analysis, reveal a broad, low wave speed anomaly in the upper mantle that extends to at least 660 km depth. Temperatures within the anomalous mantle, inferred from the tomographic models and relief on the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, are ˜300 K higher than normal. These results suggest that the Afar hotspot is caused by a broad, deep seated thermal upwelling in the mantle, possibly related to the African Superplume, as opposed to a shallow plume head. The southern extent of uplift associated with the Afar hotspot has also been examined. Rayleigh wave group velocities have been used in a grid search algorithm to model crustal and upper most mantle structure beneath a region of low elevation in northern Kenya and southeastern Sudan between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus. Model results reveal a thinned crust and slow upper most mantle velocities, suggesting that the low elevations are an isostatic response to thinned (i.e., rifted) crust, instead of a boundary in lithospheric structure marking the southern end of the Afar hotspot.

Benoit, Margaret H.

253

Geology and petroleum resources of central and east-central Africa  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum provinces of central and east-central Africa include the Somali basin, the Ethiopian plateau and rift belt, and the central African rift basins. The western shelf on the Somali basin in the horn of Africa contains a sedimentary cover 1000-10,000 m (3000-3500 ft) thick of Mesozoic and Tertiary marine and continental clastic, carbonate, and evaporite deposits with good reservoir and potentially adequate source rock properties. To date, no commercial oil or gas discoveries have been made. The Ethiopian plateau and rift belt is a high-risk area with minimum potential for commercial petroleum because the Neogene rifting origin of the province has resulted in high geothermal gradients, extensive volcanism, and inadequate marine deposits and petroleum source rocks. The central Africa interior basins are continental craton-rifted depressions of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age containing as much as 4000 m (13,000 ft) or more of fluvial and lacustrine clastic beds, which inter-tongue with nearshore marine clastic and carbonate beds in the western basins. Since the mid-1970s, approximately 13 oil discoveries have been made in the Upper Nile, Doba-Doseo, and Chad basins. These basins produce from fluvial and lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, sourced by lacustrine organic shale beds of Cretaceous age. The Benue trough is a rifted depression of middle Cretaceous age adjoined on the southwest by the prolific Niger Delta petroleum province. The trough is filled with 6000 m (20,000 ft) or more of clastic and carbonate marine and continental rocks of late Early Cretaceous and early Cenozoic age. Very few exploratory wells have been drilled, and no commercial discoveries have been made although good reservoir and source rocks are present.

Peterson, J.A.

1986-05-01

254

Two mantle plumes beneath the East African rift system: Sr, Nd and Pb isotope evidence from Kenya Rift basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major and trace element and radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd and Pb) are presented for a suite of Neogene to Recent basalts (MgO>4 wt%) from the axial regions of the Kenya Rift. Samples have compositions ranging from hypersthene-normative basalt through alkali basalt to basanite and are a subset of a larger database in which compositions extend to nephelinite. A broadly

Nick Rogers; Ray Macdonald; J. Godfrey Fitton; Rhiannon George; Martin Smith; Barbara Barreiro

2000-01-01

255

Mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus martini and P. orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of kala-azar in East Africa by use of geographic information systems.  

PubMed

The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual temperature and readily available soil moisture of the CPSZ data as the best ecological determinants for P. martini while LST annual composite was the only important ecological determinant for P. orientalis. Spearman's rank correlation revealed several factors to be important determinants for the distribution of the two vectors. None of the soil types analysed appeared to be important determinant for the two species in East Africa, unlike in Sudan where P. orientalis is mainly associated with eutric vertisol (black cotton clay soil). PMID:14739026

Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; Balkew, M; Ali, A; Berhe, N; Hailu, A; Herzi, A A

2004-03-01

256

Solar Forcing of climate fluctuations in East Africa recorded in southeastern Mediterranean sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportions of terrigenous components in Mediterranean sediments derived from the atmosphere and rivers strongly depend on climate conditions in the source areas. The rainfall regimes of the northern and central part of the African continent are controlled by an interplay between global climate patterns and the regional hydrological balance. High-resolution XRF element records of a marine sediment core of the southeastern Levantine Sea (Mediterranean Sea; GeoTü SL112, 32° 44.52 N, 34° 39.02 E, water depth: 892 m) indicate distinctive changes in the sediment supply to the southeastern Mediterranean by the Nile River as well as the influx of aeolian dust from the Saharan desert. We observe minima in the concentration of the element iron (Fe), which we interpret as minima in dust input, during the well-known solar minima Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder, and Dalton. Wavelet analyses reveals a close correspondence in the periodicity in Fe input with the typical frequencies of solar cycles of about 90 and 210 years during the last 1400 years. Furthermore, the Fe record from the Levantine Sea sediments shows a remarkable similarity with the lake level record of Lake Naivasha in the eastern branch of the East African Rift and the pre-colonial drought history of Lake Malawi in the southern part of the African Rift Valley. Enhanced Saharan dust flux as indicated by high Fe content in the Levantine Sea core coincides with well-known droughts in equatorial east Africa as indicated by Lake Naivasha lowstands.

Hamann, Y.; Dulski, P.; Hajdas, I.; Ehrmann, W. U.; Schmiedl, G. H.; Haug, G. H.

2010-12-01

257

Lake Challa (Mt. Kilimanjaro) sediments as recorder of present and past seasonality in equatorial East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In discussions on the impact of global warming on moisture balance and human water resources, natural archives of past hydrological variability in tropical regions are attracting increasing attention. The EuroCLIMATE project CHALLACEA studies the sediment archive of Lake Challa, a 4.5 km² and ~94 m deep crater lake located on the lower eastern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro with the aim to produce a continuous, high-resolution and multi-proxy reconstruction of past temperature and moisture-balance variability in equatorial East Africa over the past 25,000 years. Lake Challa is a freshwater lake with a water budget controlled mostly by sub-surface in- and outflow and lake-surface evaporation. Accordingly, microscopic thin-section investigation of sediment composition reveals an overall dominance of autochthonous components (diatom frustules, calcite, and organic matter). First results from an ongoing sediment trap study point to distinct seasonality in sediment input: calcite and organic matter accumulate during the warm southern hemisphere summer months (November - March), whereas the principal diatom blooms occur during the cool and windy period between June and October. Here we present the results of physical and chemical investigations of the lake water column between September 1999 and November 2007, which document the concomitant seasonal changes in lake mixing/stratification and related element cycling. High-resolution ?XRF profiles of these elements in the laminated sediments of Lake Challa thus also show marked seasonal cycles, as well as longer-term variability. In particular, variability in the Mn/Fe ratio along the top 15 cm of the sediment record is interpreted to reflect changes in lake stratification during the last ~100 years. This proxy record is evaluated in comparison with records of historical weather variability in East Africa, and of potentially influencing parameters such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole. Eventually these exercises may contribute to high-resolution reconstruction of tropical East African climate variability over the last 25,000 years.

Kristen, I.; Wolff, C.; Schettler, G.; Dulski, P.; Naumann, R.; Haug, G. H.; Blaauw, M.; Verschuren, D.

2008-12-01

258

Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion across Northern Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East  

SciTech Connect

THis report presents preliminary results from a large scale study of surface wave group velocity dispersion throughout Northern Africa, the Mediterranean, Southern Europe and the Middle East. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by improving the resolution of global surface wave tomographic studies. We hope to accomplish this goal by incorporating regional data at relatively short periods (less than 40 sec), into the regionalization of lateral velocity variation. Due to the sparse distributions of stations and earthquakes throughout the region (Figure 1) we have relied on data recorded at both teleseismic and regions; distances. Also, to date we have concentrated on Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements since valuable measurements can be made without knowledge of the source. In order to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity throughout the region, vertical component teleseismic and regional seismograms were gathered from broadband, 3-component, digital MEDNET, GEOSCOPE and IRIS stations plus the portable PASSCAL deployment in Saudi Arabia. Figure 1 shows the distribution of earthquakes (black circles) and broadband digital seismic stations (white triangles) throughout southern Europe, the middle east and northern Africa used in this study. The most seismicly active regions of northern Africa are the Atlas mountains of Morocco and Algeria as well as the Red Sea region to the east. Significant seismicity also occurs in the Mediterranean, southern Europe and throughout the high mountains and plateaus of the middle-east. To date, over 1300 seismograms have been analyzed to determine the individual group velocities of 10-150 second Rayleigh waves. Travel times, for each period, are then inverted in a back projection tomographic method in order to determine the lateral group velocity variation throughout the region. These results are preliminary, however, Rayleigh wave group velocity maps for a range of periods (10-95 sec) are presented and initial interpretations are discussed. Significant lateral group velocity variation is apparent at all periods. In general, shorted periods (10-45 sec) are sensitive to crustal structure as seen by the relatively low velocities associated with large sedimentary features (eastern Arabian shield, Persian Gulf, Eastern Mediterranean, Caspian Sea). At longer periods (50-95 sec), Rayleigh waves are most sensitive to topography on the Moho and upper mantle shear-wave velocity structure. This is observed in the group velocity maps as low velocities associated with features such as the Zagros Mountains, Iranian Plateau and the Red Sea. Analysis will eventually be expanded to include Love wave group and phase velocity. Knowledge of the lateral variation of group velocity and phase velocity will allow us to invert for shear velocity at each grid point. A detailed regionalization of shear-wave velocity will potentially lower the threshold for Ms determinations and improve event location capabilities throughout the region. Better Ms estimates and locations will improve our ability to reliably monitor the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

McNamara, D.E.; Walter, W.R.

1997-07-15

259

Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (< 0.5 Myr) and affected intracratonic basins of Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The organisation of the glacial sedimentary record is considered to be controlled at the basin-scale by the location of fast-flowing ice streams active during glacial maxima, and by the processes of meltwater release during glacial recession. In these latter phases, subglacial tunnel valley networks were cut at or near the ice margin. These tunnel valleys were filled in two main phases. The initial phase was characterised by debris flow release, whereas during later phases of ice retreat a range of glaciofluvial, shallow glaciomarine to shelf deposits were laid down, depending on the water depth at the ice front. Production of linear accumulations of sediment, parallel to the ice front, also occurred between tunnel valleys at the grounding line. In Arabia, the geometry of these features may have been influenced by local tectonic uplift. As glaciogenic reservoirs, Hirnantian deposits are already of great economic significance across central North Africa. Therefore, an appreciation of the processes of ice sheet growth and decay provides significant insights into the controls on large-scale heterogeneities within these sediments, and in analogue deposits produced by glaciations of different ages. Deglacial, Early Silurian black shale represents the most important Palaeozoic source rock across the region. Existing models do not adequately explain the temporal and spatial development of anoxia, and hence of black shale/deglacial source rocks. The origins of a palaeotopography previously invoked as the primary driver for this anoxia is allied to a complex configuration of palaeo-ice stream pathways, "underfilled" tunnel valley incisions, glaciotectonic deformation structures and re-activation of older crustal structures during rebound. A putative link with the development of Silurian glaciation in northern Chad is suggested. Silurian glaciation appears to have been restricted to the southern Al Kufrah Basin in the eastern part of North Africa, and was associated with the deposition of boulder beds. Equivalent deposits are lacking in shallow marine deposits in neighbouring outcrop belts. Evidence for Carboniferous-Permian glaciation is tentative in the eastern Sahara (SW Egypt) but well established on the Arabian Peninsula in Oman and more recently in Saudi Arabia. Pennsylvanian-Sakmarian times saw r

Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

2009-04-01

260

Tickborne arbovirus surveillance in market livestock, Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

To identify tickborne viruses circulating in Kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abattoirs in Nairobi, Kenya. Species of ticks collected included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (56%), Amblyomma gemma (14%), R. appendiculatus (8%), A. variegatum (6%), and others. A total of 56 virus isolates were obtained, 26 from A. gemma, 17 from R. pulchellus, 6 from A. variegatum, and 7 from other species. Virus isolates included Dugbe virus (DUGV), an unknown virus related to DUGV, Thogoto, Bhanja, Kadam, Dhori, Barur, and foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV) viruses. This is the first report of Dhori virus isolation in East Africa and the first known isolation of FMDV associated with tick collection. Our results demonstrate the potential for tickborne dissemination of endemic and emergent viruses and the relevance of A. gemma in the maintenance of tickborne viruses in this region. PMID:16836823

Sang, Rosemary; Onyango, Clayton; Gachoya, John; Mabinda, Ernest; Konongoi, Samson; Ofula, Victor; Dunster, Lee; Okoth, Fred; Coldren, Rodney; Tesh, Robert; da Rossa, Amelia Travassos; Finkbeiner, Stacy; Wang, David; Crabtree, Mary; Miller, Barry

2006-07-01

261

Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.  

PubMed

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n=754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10(6)-10(8)CFU/mL. lacS and lacZ genes were detected in all Kenyan and 25.8% (June) to 65.4% (Dec/Jan) of Ivorian Sii isolates. Regional differences in prevalence of Sii and dairy adaptations were observed, but no clear effect of dairy animal, fermentation procedure and climate was revealed. Conclusively, the high prevalence of Sii in Kenya, Côte d'Ivoire in addition to Somalia, Sudan and Mali strongly indicates a pivotal role of Sii in traditional African dairy fermentations potentially paralleling that of typical western dairy species S. thermophilus. Putative health risks associated with the consumption of high amounts of live Sii and potential different degrees of evolutionary adaptation or ecological colonization require further epidemiologic and genomic investigations, particularly in Africa. PMID:24131584

Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2013-09-21

262

Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

2009-04-01

263

Mapping Crustal Heterogeneity Using Lg Propagation Efficiency Throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation ofLgcharacteristics such asLgblockage, efficientLgpropagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions.Lgis used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring\\u000a compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can

D. E. McNAMARAl; W. R. Walter

264

Mapping Crustal Heterogeneity Using Lg Propagation Efficiency Throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this paper we,describe a technique,for mapping,the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismologicalapplications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive,Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

D. E. McNamara; W. R. Walter

2001-01-01

265

Paleosol carbonates from the Omo Group: Isotopic records of local and regional environmental change in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pliocene and Pleistocene sedimentary rocks from the Omo–Turkana Basin in East Africa are well known for fossil and archeological evidence of human evolution and provide a unique opportunity to study four million years of environmental change in a rift basin. This study uses carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of pedogenic carbonates to examine environmental variability across ~5000km2 within the Omo–Turkana

Naomi E. Levin; Francis H. Brown; Anna K. Behrensmeyer; René Bobe; Thure E. Cerling

2011-01-01

266

The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa

Marianne E Sinka; Michael J Bangs; Sylvie Manguin; Maureen Coetzee; Charles M Mbogo; Janet Hemingway; Anand P Patil; Will H Temperley; Peter W Gething; Caroline W Kabaria; Robi M Okara; Thomas Van Boeckel; H Charles J Godfray; Ralph E Harbach; Simon I Hay

2010-01-01

267

Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region), and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

Pitz-Paal, R.; Amin, A.; Bettzüge, M.; Eames, P.; Fabrizi, F.; Flamant, G.; Garcia Novo, F.; Holmes, J.; Kribus, A.; van der Laan, H.; Lopez, C.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.; Pihl, E.; Smith, P.; Wagner, H.-J.

2012-10-01

268

Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.  

PubMed

This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fat?wa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals. PMID:17512379

Hessini, Leila

2007-05-01

269

Aerial applications of insecticides for tsetse fly control in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Since 1948, research has progressed in East Africa on the control of tsetse flies by aeria, applications of insecticides. Initial experiments proved that residual spray treatments were ineffective while repeated applications of coarse aerosols gave promising fly mortalities. In recent years, with the development of more toxic insecticides used in conjunction with improved thermal exhaust equipment and modified rotary atomizers, sprays with fine aerosol characteristics have been produced at considerably reduced cost. Aerial applications of aerosols are confined to early morning and late afternoon when weather conditions are stable, but large areas can be treated during these short intervals, and the technique is efficient and economical. Control of tsetse flies has been good; where complete isolation of an area has been possible, eradication has been achieved. It would be economically worth while to assess the possibility of increasing spray swath widths, and also to continue with research into the biological effectiveness of pyrethrum, primarily because of its absolute safety in use. There is a need for a simple method for the determination of tsetse fly populations in woodland and savanna habitats. Finally, it is recommended that the results of research to date should be brought more forcefully to the attention of government bodies and commercial airspray operators so that the techniques be more fully exploited.

Lee, C. W.

1969-01-01

270

Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

2009-01-01

271

Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa  

SciTech Connect

As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

Sweeney, J.J.

1995-09-06

272

Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in a Rwanda population from East Central Africa.  

PubMed

We have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 69 unrelated male individuals of the Rwanda-Hutu population from East Central Africa using an AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ PCR amplification kit. A total of 62 unique haplotypes were identified among the 69 individuals studied. The haplotype diversity was found to be 0.9970 for this population. The gene diversity ranged from 0.1130 (DYS392) to 0.7722 (DYS385). Comparison of populations in this study with twenty-five other national and global populations using Principal Co-ordinate Analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic molecular analysis using a genetic distance matrix indicates a delineation of all the African populations from other unrelated populations. The results of population pair-wise Fst p values indicate statistically significant differentiation of the Rwandan population when compared with 25 other global populations including four African populations (p=0.0000). Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the Rwanda population with four other African populations indicated a 93% variance within populations and 7% variance among the five populations. A data base search of the 62 haplotypes yielded only one non-African haplotype match, suggesting these haplotypes are unique to the African continent. PMID:22285642

Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George

2012-01-28

273

Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

Key, R. M.; Pitfield, P. E. J.; Thomas, R. J.; Goodenough, K. M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D. I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Styles, M. T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D. J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R. A.; Walsh, G. J.; Ralison, A. V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J. -M.; Rabarimanana, M.

2011-01-01

274

Thermophilic Sulfate Reduction in Hydrothermal Sediment of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa  

PubMed Central

In environments with temperatures above 60°C, thermophilic prokaryotes are the only metabolically active life-forms. By using the 35SO42- tracer technique, we studied the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in hot sediment from a hydrothermal vent site in the northern part of freshwater Lake Tanganyika (East Africa). Incubation of slurry samples at 8 to 90°C demonstrated meso- and thermophilic sulfate reduction with optimum temperatures of 34 to 45°C and 56 to 65°C, respectively, and with an upper temperature limit of 80°C. Sulfate reduction was stimulated at all temperatures by the addition of short-chain fatty acids and benzoate or complex substrates (yeast extract and peptone). A time course experiment showed that linear thermophilic sulfate consumption occurred after a lag phase (12 h) and indicated the presence of a large population of SRM in the hydrothermal sediment. Thermophilic sulfate reduction had a pH optimum of about 7 and was completely inhibited at pH 8.8 to 9.2. SRM could be enriched from hydrothermal chimney and sediment samples at 60 and 75°C. In lactate-grown enrichments, sulfide production occurred at up to 70 and 75°C, with optima at 63 and 71°C, respectively. Several sporulating thermophilic enrichments were morphologically similar to Desulfotomaculum spp. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the studied hydrothermal area of Lake Tanganyika apparently has an upper temperature limit of 80°C.

Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel; Mukwaya, Gashagaza M.; J?rgensen, Bo B.

1994-01-01

275

Climate variability and conflict risk in East Africa, 1990-2009  

PubMed Central

Recent studies concerning the possible relationship between climate trends and the risks of violent conflict have yielded contradictory results, partly because of choices of conflict measures and modeling design. In this study, we examine climate–conflict relationships using a geographically disaggregated approach. We consider the effects of climate change to be both local and national in character, and we use a conflict database that contains 16,359 individual geolocated violent events for East Africa from 1990 to 2009. Unlike previous studies that relied exclusively on political and economic controls, we analyze the many geographical factors that have been shown to be important in understanding the distribution and causes of violence while also considering yearly and country fixed effects. For our main climate indicators at gridded 1° resolution (?100 km), wetter deviations from the precipitation norms decrease the risk of violence, whereas drier and normal periods show no effects. The relationship between temperature and conflict shows that much warmer than normal temperatures raise the risk of violence, whereas average and cooler temperatures have no effect. These precipitation and temperature effects are statistically significant but have modest influence in terms of predictive power in a model with political, economic, and physical geographic predictors. Large variations in the climate–conflict relationships are evident between the nine countries of the study region and across time periods.

O'Loughlin, John; Witmer, Frank D. W.; Linke, Andrew M.; Laing, Arlene; Gettelman, Andrew; Dudhia, Jimy

2012-01-01

276

Content of a novel online collection of traditional east African food habits (1930s - 1960s): data collected by the Max-Planck-Nutrition Research Unit, Bumbuli, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Knowledge of traditional African foods and food habits has been, and continues to be, systemati- cally extirpated. With the primary intent of collating data for our online collection documenting traditional Af- rican foods and food habits (available at: www.healthyeatingclub.com\\/Africa\\/), we reviewed the Oltersdorf Collection, 75 observational investigations conducted throughout East Africa (i.e. Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) between the 1930s

Verena Raschke; Ulrich Oltersdorf; Ibrahim Elmadfa; Mark L. Wahlqvist AO; Birinder S. B. Cheema; Antigone Kouris

2007-01-01

277

A national cholera epidemic with high case fatality rates--kenya 2009.  

PubMed

Background.?Cholera remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. We characterized the 2009 cholera outbreaks in Kenya and evaluated the response. Methods.?We analyzed surveillance data and estimated case fatality rates (CFRs). Households in 2 districts, East Pokot (224 cases; CFR = 11.7%) and Turkana South (1493 cases; CFR = 1.0%), were surveyed. We randomly selected 15 villages and 8 households per village in each district. Healthcare workers at 27 health facilities (HFs) were surveyed in both districts. Results.?In 2009, cholera outbreaks caused a reported 11 425 cases and 264 deaths in Kenya. Data were available from 44 districts for 6893 (60%) cases. District CFRs ranged from 0% to 14.3%. Surveyed household respondents (n = 240) were aware of cholera (97.5%) and oral rehydration solution (ORS) (87.9%). Cholera deaths were reported more frequently from East Pokot (n = 120) than Turkana South (n = 120) households (20.7% vs. 12.3%). The average travel time to a HF was 31 hours in East Pokot compared with 2 hours in Turkana South. Fewer respondents in East Pokot (9.8%) than in Turkana South (33.9%) stated that ORS was available in their village. ORS or intravenous fluid shortages occurred in 20 (76.9%) surveyed HFs. Conclusions.?High CFRs in Kenya are related to healthcare access disparities, including availability of rehydration supplies. PMID:24101648

Loharikar, Anagha; Briere, Elizabeth; Ope, Maurice; Langat, Daniel; Njeru, Ian; Gathigi, Lucy; Makayotto, Lyndah; Ismail, Abdirizak M; Thuranira, Martin; Abade, Ahmed; Amwayi, Samuel; Omolo, Jared; Oundo, Joe; De Cock, Kevin M; Breiman, Robert F; Ayers, Tracy; Mintz, Eric; O'Reilly, Ciara E

2013-11-01

278

Use of RFID Technologies to Combat Cattle Rustling in the East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution that could contain cattle rustling activities among the cross border communities between Kenya and adjoining areas of Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia is proposed. The region is characterized by nomadic movements of people with their livestock on vast and hostile terrains with inadequate physical and communication infrastructure. The vice has caused havoc to many inhabitants of the region

Joseph K. Siror; Huanye Sheng; Dong Wang; Jie Wu

2009-01-01

279

Farmer estimation of live bodyweight of cattle: Implications for veterinary drug dosing in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of smallholder farmers and animal health workers to estimate live bodyweight can critically affect the likelihood of under- or over-dosing of veterinary compounds in decentralised systems where farmers administer a significant proportion of the veterinary treatments. A survey of 324 cattle owned by 170 farmers was conducted in Busia District, Kenya. Cattle were weighed on a standard calibrated

Noreen Machila; Eric M. Fèvre; Ian Maudlin; Mark C. Eisler

2008-01-01

280

East Africa's Pastoralist Emergency: is climate change the straw that breaks the camel's back?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global warming trend of climate change is having severe adverse effects on the livelihoods of the Turkana pastoralists of northwestern Kenya. Care has to be taken in making assertions about the impact of climate change. The biggest effects may come not from lower average rainfall but from a widening of the standard deviation as weather extremes become more frequent.

PJ Blackwell

2010-01-01

281

Climate-disease connections: Rift Valley Fever in Kenya.  

PubMed

All known Rift Valley fever(RVF) outbreaks in Kenya from 1950 to 1998 followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. On an interannual scale, periods of above normal rainfall in East Africa are associated with the warm phase of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Anomalous rainfall floods mosquito-breeding habitats called dambos, which contain transovarially infected mosquito eggs. The eggs hatch Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the RVF virus preferentially to livestock and to humans as well. Analysis of historical data on RVF outbreaks and indicators of ENSO (including Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures and the Southern Oscillation Index) indicates that more than three quarters of the RVF outbreaks have occurred during warm ENSO event periods. Mapping of ecological conditions using satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data show that areas where outbreaks have occurred during the satellite recording period (1981-1998) show anomalous positive departures in vegetation greenness, an indicator of above-normal precipitation. This is particularly observed in arid areas of East Africa, which are predominantly impacted by this disease. These results indicate a close association between interannual climate variability and RVF outbreaks in Kenya. PMID:11426274

Anyamba, A; Linthicum, K J; Tucker, C J

2001-01-01

282

Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka.  

PubMed

The most explosive volcanic event of the Quaternary was the eruption of Mt. Toba, Sumatra, 75,000 y ago, which produced voluminous ash deposits found across much of the Indian Ocean, Indian Peninsula, and South China Sea. A major climatic downturn observed within the Greenland ice cores has been attributed to the cooling effects of the ash and aerosols ejected during the eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT). These events coincided roughly with a hypothesized human genetic bottleneck, when the number of our species in Africa may have been reduced to near extinction. Some have speculated that the demise of early modern humans at that time was due in part to a dramatic climate shift triggered by the supereruption. Others have argued that environmental conditions would not have been so severe to have such an impact on our ancestors, and furthermore, that modern humans may have already expanded beyond Africa by this time. We report an observation of the YTT in Africa, recovered as a cryptotephra layer in Lake Malawi sediments, >7,000 km west of the source volcano. The YTT isochron provides an accurate and precise age estimate for the Lake Malawi paleoclimate record, which revises the chronology of past climatic events in East Africa. The YTT in Lake Malawi is not accompanied by a major change in sediment composition or evidence for substantial temperature change, implying that the eruption did not significantly impact the climate of East Africa and was not the cause of a human genetic bottleneck at that time. PMID:23630269

Lane, Christine S; Chorn, Ben T; Johnson, Thomas C

2013-04-29

283

Evaluating and Communicating Seismo-Volcanic Hazards Within and Between Countries in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2005 seismo-volcanic crisis in a remote area of Ethiopia graphically illustrated the problems faced by research scientists in East Africa, as well as the need for regional hazard mitigation programs. Over a 3-week period in 2005, 163 mb > 3.9 earthquakes and a silicic eruption occurred as a 60 km-long dike was intruded along a previously identified rift segment ; the spatial scale is larger, and the deformation more intense, than historical seafloor spreading episodes in Iceland. A similar, but smaller dike intrusion episode with volcanic eruption began in July, 2007 in northern Tanzania. In both situations, geoscientists had communicated the potential seismic and volcanic hazards to politicians and planners, but they had little success obtaining funds for permanent seismic and geodetic monitoring networks. Ethiopian scientists seized the opportunity to both communicate science to the general public, and to increase pressure to develop national and regional hazard mitigation programs. The scientific aspects are equally daunting: how to coordinate international teams, each of whom has a national funding agency expecting output; how to incorporate geophysical training opportunities into field data acquisition programs; how to share seismic and geodetic data across sometimes tense political boundaries; how to allow E African scientists to be equal partners in the data analysis and interpretation? We use the response to these two volcano-seismic rifting events to illustrate ways to use short-term blue skies research projects to improve national and regional geophysical infrastructure in developing countries, and we discuss ongoing programs to communicate science to pastoralists and planners.

Ebinger, C. J.; Yirgu, G.; Mbede, E. I.; Calais, E.; Wright, T.

2007-12-01

284

Dynamical downscaling of ECMWF ensemble seasonal forecast over East Africa with RegCM3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical downscaling of ECMWF ERA-interim and ENSEMBLE seasonal hindcast is performed with ICTP's regional climate model (RegCM3) over the horn of Africa. The result from the ERA-interim reanalysis ('perfect boundary') condition run indicated that the regional model reproduced both the spatial and inter-annual variability of the regions rainfall. It also captured the teleconnection between ENSO and the regions precipitation pattern well. As these results were encouraging, the ECMWF ENSEMBLE seasonal hindcast experiment run were downscaled from May 1st to October 1st for each year for the period of 1991 - 2000 to produce nine RegCM3 ensemble hindcast. The one month lead ECMWF and RegCM3 ensemble seasonal (JJAS) precipitation hindcasts were assessed in a deterministic and probabilistic mode. The deterministic verification suggested that for most part of the East African domain both RegCM3 and ECMWF hindcasts reproduce the spatial and temporal variability very well, but overestimate the mean and variability over the Arabian peninsula and miss the teleconnection between ENSO and precipitation over the western Indian ocean. This positive bias over the Arabian peninsula and the teleconnection error between ENSO and precipitation anomalies over the western Indian Ocean in RegCM3 are due to the propagation of errors from the driving GCMs to the regional model. The probabilistic assessment (ROCS and RPSS) indicated that both ECMWF and RegCM3 are better than a random forecast and climatology suggesting the potential utility of dynamical forecast over the region. Comparing the skill of ECMWF and RegCM3 probabilistic hindcasts, ECMWF generally performs better on grid point by grid point comparison and at homogeneous zones over Ethiopia but RegCM3 performs better when aggregated on a country scale and when compared against high resolution rain gauge dataset.

Diro, G. T.; Tompkins, A. M.; Bi, X.

2012-04-01

285

Kenya's Cultural Complexity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Before the era of British colonialism, East Africa was inhabited mainly by Africans living a traditional subsistence existence. No money economy existed and all exchanges of local production were on a barter basis. Outside trade with other societies was a...

R. L. Brown

2003-01-01

286

Analogy between natural gas found in lakes of rift valley system of east Africa and its allied gas in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The Afar triangle in northeastern Ethiopia is where the Red Sea rift, the Carlsberg Ridge of the Indian Ocean, and the Rift Valley system of east Africa meet. In 1979, J. Welhan and H. Craig reported that hydrothermal vents at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise, are discharging turbid waters. Mixtures of the plumes with ambient seawater contain significant amounts of dissolved H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ as well as mantel-derived /sup 3/He-rich helium. The /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratios of rock samples obtained earlier by J. Lupton and H. Craig from the Mid-Oceanic Ridge, including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the east Pacific Rise, are extremely high at an almost constant value of (1.3 +/- 0.2) x 10/sup -5/, which they defined as the MOR-type helium. However, the deep brines of the Red Sea contain about 1,000 times more methane than normal seawater does, according to Gold and Soter in 1980. Much evidence leads us to believe that large amounts of /sup 3/He-rich helium-bearing natural gas have been gushing out in many places of the Rift Valley of east Africa for a long time. In 1980, Gold and Soter stated that Lake Kivu, which occupies part of the East African rift valley, contains 50 million tons of dissolved methane for which there is no adequate microbial source. The Japanese Islands began to separate from the Asian continent during the early Miocene. The early Miocene was characterized by intensive volcanic activity that produced large amounts of pyroclastics and other volcanic rocks, generally called green tuff in Japan. It has been suggested that oil and gas in green tuff is derived from the upper mantle.

Fukuta, O.

1984-09-01

287

Long-term outcomes of school-based treatment for control of urinary schistosomiasis: a review of experience in Coast Province, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary schistosomiasis remains a significant burden for Africa and the Middle East. The success of population- based control programs will depend on their impact, over many years, on Schistosoma haematobium reinfection and associated disease. In a multi-year (1984-1992) control program in Kenya, we examined risk for S. haematobium reinfection and late disease during and after annual school-based treatment. In this

Charles H King

2006-01-01

288

TeleEducation Initiatives for Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of the African Virtual University in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lags behind the rest of the world in education. Less than 25 percent of qualified high school graduates in this region will make it to the university level, mainly because most countries within the region have less than three universities. Furthermore, alternatives to universities such as two year colleges and training…

Wilkerson, DerKirra; Simmons, Lakisha; Mbarika, Victor; Thomas, Carlos; Mbarika, Irene; Tsuma, Clive; Wade, Tamiara L.

2011-01-01

289

First biologic and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya).  

PubMed

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in chickens from Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya is reported. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of 50 free-range chickens from Congo was 50% based on the modified agglutination test (MAT); antibody titers were 1:5 in 7, 1:10 in 7, 1:20 in 6, 1:40 in 1, and 1:160 or more in 4 chickens. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 11 chickens with titers of 1:20 or more were bioassayed individually in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 9, from the hearts of 9, brains of 3, and muscles of 3 chickens. Tissues of each of the 14 chickens with titers of 1:5 or 1:10 were pooled and bioassayed in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 1 chicken with a titer of 1:10. Tissues from the remaining 25 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 1 T. gondii-free cat. Feces of the cat were examined for oocysts, but none was seen. The results indicate that T. gondii localizes in the hearts more often than in other tissues of naturally infected chickens. Genotyping of these 10 isolates using the SAG2 locus indicated that 8 were isolates were type III, 1 was type II, and 1 was type I. Two isolates (1 type I and 1 type III) were virulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by mouse bioassay from a pool of brains and hearts of 5 of 48 chickens from Mali and 1 of 40 chickens from Burkina Faso; all 6 isolates were avirulent for mice. Genetically, 4 isolates were type III and 2 were type II. Sera were not available from chickens from Mali and Burkina Faso. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (MAT 100 or more) were found in 4 of 30 chickens from Kenya, and T. gondii was isolated from the brain of 1 of 4 seropositive chickens; this strain was avirulent for mice and was type II. This is the first report on isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from any source from these 4 countries in Africa. PMID:15856874

Dubey, J P; Karhemere, S; Dahl, E; Sreekumar, C; Diabaté, A; Dabiré, K R; Vianna, M C B; Kwok, O C H; Lehmann, T

2005-02-01

290

Multiple episodes of rifting in Central and East Africa: A re-evaluation of gravity data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of new and existing gravity data, as well as geophysical and geological data, is used to assess the cumulative effects of multiple rifting episodes on crustal and upper mantle density structures beneath the Uganda-Kenya-Ethiopia-Sudan border region. This compilation includes new gravity and geological data collected in 1990 in south-western Ethiopia. Variations in the trends and amplitudes of Bouguer

C. J. Ebinger; A. Ibrahim

1994-01-01

291

Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) & Paromomycin Combination Compared to SSG for Visceral Leishmaniasis in East Africa: A Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative treatments for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are required in East Africa. Paromomycin sulphate (PM) has been shown to be efficacious for VL treatment in India. Methods A multi-centre randomized-controlled trial (RCT) to compare efficacy and safety of PM (20 mg/kg/day for 21 days) and PM plus sodium stibogluconate (SSG) combination (PM, 15 mg/kg/day and SSG, 20 mg/kg/day for 17 days) with SSG (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days) for treatment of VL in East Africa. Patients aged 4–60 years with parasitologically confirmed VL were enrolled, excluding patients with contraindications. Primary and secondary efficacy outcomes were parasite clearance at 6-months follow-up and end of treatment, respectively. Safety was assessed mainly using adverse event (AE) data. Findings The PM versus SSG comparison enrolled 205 patients per arm with primary efficacy data available for 198 and 200 patients respectively. The SSG & PM versus SSG comparison enrolled 381 and 386 patients per arm respectively, with primary efficacy data available for 359 patients per arm. In Intention-to-Treat complete-case analyses, the efficacy of PM was significantly lower than SSG (84.3% versus 94.1%, difference?=?9.7%, 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.6 to 15.7%, p?=?0.002). The efficacy of SSG & PM was comparable to SSG (91.4% versus 93.9%, difference?=?2.5%, 95% CI: ?1.3 to 6.3%, p?=?0.198). End of treatment efficacy results were very similar. There were no apparent differences in the safety profile of the three treatment regimens. Conclusion The 17 day SSG & PM combination treatment had a good safety profile and was similar in efficacy to the standard 30 day SSG treatment, suggesting suitability for VL treatment in East Africa. Clinical Trials Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00255567

Musa, Ahmed; Khalil, Eltahir; Hailu, Asrat; Olobo, Joseph; Balasegaram, Manica; Omollo, Raymond; Edwards, Tansy; Rashid, Juma; Mbui, Jane; Musa, Brima; Abuzaid, Abuzaid Abdalla; Ahmed, Osama; Fadlalla, Ahmed; El-Hassan, Ahmed; Mueller, Marius; Mucee, Geoffrey; Njoroge, Simon; Manduku, Veronica; Mutuma, Geoffrey; Apadet, Lilian; Lodenyo, Hudson; Mutea, Dedan; Kirigi, George; Yifru, Sisay; Mengistu, Getahun; Hurissa, Zewdu; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Tafes, Hailemariam; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Makonnen, Eyasu; Ndegwa, Serah; Sagaki, Patrick; Kimutai, Robert; Kesusu, Josephine; Owiti, Rhoda; Ellis, Sally; Wasunna, Monique

2012-01-01

292

Phylogeographic reconstruction of African yellow fever virus isolates indicates recent simultaneous dispersal into east and west Africa.  

PubMed

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease. PMID:23516640

Beck, Andrew; Guzman, Hilda; Li, Li; Ellis, Brett; Tesh, Robert B; Barrett, Alan D T

2013-03-14

293

A reappraisal of the geomagnetic polarity time scale to 4 Ma using data from the Turkana Basin, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recalibration of the Pliocene and early Pleistocene geomagnetic time scale using the K-Ar dated fluvial sequence of the Turkana Basin in East Africa agrees with calibrations based on astronomical calculations. Ages estimated here are: Olduvai Subchron, 1.78-1.96 Ma; Reunion Subchrons, 2.11-2.15 Ma and 2.19-2.27 Ma; Matuyama-Gauss boundary, 2.60 Ma; Kaena Subchron 3.02-3.09 Ma; Mammoth Subchron, 3.21-3.29 Ma; Gauss-Gilbert boundary, 3.57 Ma.

McDougall, I.; Brown, F. H.; Cerling, T. E.; Hillhouse, J. W.

1992-12-01

294

Strontium Isotopes as Palaeohydrological Tracers in the White Nile Headwater Lakes, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) provide a powerful method for reconstructing ancient hydrological networks in East Africa where contrasting geological terrains yield surface runoff with distinctly different Sr-isotopic signatures. In particular, waters from catchments dominated by Archaean and Proterozoic basement rich in radiogenic 87Sr are readily distinguished from those derived from Cenozoic volcanic rocks characterised by low 87Sr/86Sr values. In an earlier study, the Sr-isotopic composition of shell carbonate and fish phosphate was used to show that water originating from Lake Victoria was making a major contribution to the flow of the White Nile at Khartoum by 13.5 cal. ka BP, following a prolonged period of low lake levels and reduced river discharge. Overflow of Victoria at that time is, however, still disputed. Lake Albert provides the critical link between Lake Victoria and the White Nile system, as Lake Victoria water must pass through Albert to reach the main Nile. In this study we use Sr-isotopes to resolve the timing of Victoria's overflow into Lake Albert by establishing a Sr-isotope stratigraphy for the latter waterbody. During the LGM, Lake Albert was a closed, possibly desiccated basin and high 87Sr/86Sr values indicate that it was completely isolated from Lakes Victoria and Edward. Refilling of the basin commenced at ca. 15 ka. Within 1000 years of the change to a positive water balance, a major excursion to lower 87Sr/86Sr values is recorded, indicating contact with Lakes Edward and Victoria. This age is consistent with previous evidence for Lake Victoria waters reaching the White Nile during the terminal Pleistocene. During the early Holocene, Lake Albert was strongly influenced by volcanic Sr, due either to high discharge from Lake Edward or local volcanic activity. The Sr-isotope record also confirms the existence of a hiatus in the Albert basin at ca. 4.6 - 5.8 ka, which was probably related to a lowstand. When sedimentation recommenced, the dominant inflow came initially from Lake Edward, suggesting that Lake Victoria may at this time have been closed. This was probably a major reason for the coeval records of low discharge in the middle and lower reaches of the Nile.

Talbot, M. R.; Brendeland, K. I.

2001-12-01

295

Agriculture, Education, and Rural Transformation: With Particular Reference to East Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independence for Africa has not resulted in the expected economic development of industrialization. Mineral-poor states in Africa must rely on limited prosperity coming from an expansion of agricultural commodities. The problem is that despite the prevalence of an agriculture economic base, most African leaders are committed to industrial…

Liebenow, J. Gus

296

Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.  

PubMed

Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate. PMID:23341884

Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

2013-01-14

297

Climate Change or Urbanization? Impacts on a Traditional Coffee Production System in East Africa over the Last 80 Years  

PubMed Central

Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929–2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

2013-01-01

298

A geographic information system on the potential distribution and abundance of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in east Africa based on Food and Agriculture Organization databases.  

PubMed

An adaptation of a previously developed climate forecast computer model and digital agroecologic database resources available from FAO for developing countries were used to develop a geographic information system risk assessment model for fasciolosis in East Africa, a region where both F. hepatica and F. gigantica occur as a cause of major economic losses in livestock. Regional F. hepatica and F. gigantica forecast index maps were created. Results were compared to environmental data parameters, known life cycle micro-environment requirements and to available Fasciola prevalence survey data and distribution patterns reported in the literature for each species (F. hepatica above 1200 m elevation, F. gigantica below 1800 m, both at 1200-1800 m). The greatest risk, for both species, occurred in areas of extended high annual rainfall associated with high soil moisture and surplus water, with risk diminishing in areas of shorter wet season and/or lower temperatures. Arid areas were generally unsuitable (except where irrigation, water bodies or floods occur) due to soil moisture deficit and/or, in the case of F. hepatica, high average annual mean temperature >23 degrees C. Regions in the highlands of Ethiopia and Kenya were identified as unsuitable for F. gigantica due to inadequate thermal regime, below the 600 growing degree days required for completion of the life cycle in a single year. The combined forecast index (F. hepatica+F. gigantica) was significantly correlated to prevalence data available for 260 of the 1220 agroecologic crop production system zones (CPSZ) and to average monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on board the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. For use in Fasciola control programs, results indicate that monthly forecast parameters, developed in a GIS with digital agroecologic zone databases and monthly climate databases, can be used to define the distribution range of the two Fasciola species, regional variations in intensity and seasonal transmission patterns at different sites. Results further indicate that many of the methods used for crop productivity models can also be used to define the potential distribution and abundance of parasites. PMID:9735915

Malone, J B; Gommes, R; Hansen, J; Yilma, J M; Slingenberg, J; Snijders, F; Nachtergaele, F; Ataman, E

1998-07-31

299

Isotopic evidence for neogene hominid paleoenvironments in the Kenya Rift Valley  

SciTech Connect

Bipedality, the definitive characteristic of the earliest hominids, has been regarded as an adaptive response to a transition from forested to more-open habitats in East Africa sometime between 12 million and 5 million years ago. Analyses of the stable carbon isotopic composition ([delta][sup 13]C) of paleosol carbonate and organic matter from the Tugen Hills succession in Kenya indicate that a heterogeneous environment with a mix of C3 and C4 plants has persisted for the last 15.5 million years. Open grasslands at no time dominated this portion of the rift valley. The observed [delta][sup 13]C values offer no evidence for a shift from more-closed C3 environments to C4 grasslands habitats. If hominids evolved in East Africa during the Late Miocene, they did so in an ecologically diverse setting.

Kingston, J.D.; Hill, A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Marino, B.D. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1994-05-13

300

A single lineage in early Pleistocene Homo: size variation continuity in early Pleistocene Homo crania from East Africa and Georgia.  

PubMed

The relationship between Homo habilis and early African Homo erectus has been contentious because H. habilis was hypothesized to be an evolutionary stage between Australopithecus and H. erectus, more than a half-century ago. Recent work re-dating key African early Homo localities and the discovery of new fossils in East Africa and Georgia provide the opportunity for a productive re-evaluation of this topic. Here, we test the hypothesis that the cranial sample from East Africa and Georgia represents a single evolutionary lineage of Homo spanning the approximately 1.9-1.5 Mya time period, consisting of specimens attributed to H. habilis and H. erectus. To address issues of small sample sizes in each time period, and uneven representation of cranial data, we developed a novel nonparametric randomization technique based on the variance in an index of pairwise difference from a broad set of fossil comparisons. We fail to reject the hypothesis of a single lineage this period by identifying a strong, time-dependent pattern of variation throughout the sequence. These results suggest the need for a reappraisal of fossil evidence from other regions within this time period and highlight the critical nature of the Plio-Pleistocene boundary for understanding the early evolution of the genus Homo. PMID:23461332

Van Arsdale, Adam P; Wolpoff, Milford H

2012-12-20

301

Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

Martz, Carlton

2001-01-01

302

Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

303

Designing Short-Rotation Coppice Based BIOenergy Systems for Rural Communities in East Africa: BIOSYRCA Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Access to modern energy services, such as electricity, is crucial in order to achieve development goals of poverty reduction, improved education, and environmental sustainability. Sub-Saharan Africa is dramatically behind other regions of the world in rur...

T. Buchholz T. Volk

2007-01-01

304

Status and ecosystem interactions of the invasive Louisianan red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no indigenous crayfish in continental Africa although there are indigenous crayfish on the island of Madagascar\\u000a (Hobbs 1988). However, various non-indigenous North American and Australian crayfish have been introduced to continental Africa\\u000a since the 1970s, notably the Louisianan red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard). This is a relatively large, prolific, aggressive, burrowing crayfish (Hobbs et al. 1989 quoted

John Foster; David Harper

305

Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Africa is the companion Website to a PBS series being broadcast September 9 - October 28, 2001. The Photoscope section has five photo essays, on AIDS, Conflict, Urban Africa, Environment, and Women. Urban Africa presents views of contrasts, like a man cutting lettuce in a field under a billboard advertising Internet access, an aerial view of shacks in Cape Town's Philippi Township, and a well-dressed woman bargaining for vegetables in a street market in Lagos. Also included are Africa Challenge, a history game; Africa for Kids; Teacher Tools, including lesson plans; and About the Series, with descriptions of episodes, series profiles (what has happened to people featured in the shows), a link to hear the theme music, and more.

2001-01-01

306

Tracing the climate and anthropogenic influence on the central Kenya highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil and sediment samples were collected from Lakes Rutundu (2500m), Sacred (2200m) and Nkunga (1800m) located on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya. The samples were mainly composed of silty clay and clay fractions. A suite of geochemical and mineralogical analyses was carried out in order to reconstruct the climatic and anthropogenic influence on the highland ecosystem using modern and palaeodata. These analyses included total carbon (TC), Total Nitrogen (TN), Stable carbon and Nitrogen isotopes, elemental composition and organic chemistry. Indications are that the central Kenya highland ecotones have distinct responses to definite triggers of wet and dry climatic phases, which are marked alongside wide spread anthropogenic influence on a climate gradient. The changes observed provide insight into the collective influence of the biogeochemical cycle during the late Holocene in the east Africa highland where not much information has been published earlier.

Omuombo, Christine; Olago, Daniel; Williamson, David; Huguet, Arnaud

2013-04-01

307

The Role of Economic Development in Curriculum Development Process in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Call for New Approach to Socioeconomic Development in Africa with a Special Reference to Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main hypothesis here is that the notion of economic and social development has been misconceived by most stakeholders in matters of development. This misconception is the main cause of underdevelopment in Kenya, which leads to all the reasons most authors and commentators have given to explain Kenya's situation. Therefore, it is only possible…

Odiemo, Luke Okunya

2008-01-01

308

Mapping crustal heterogeneity using Lg propagation efficiency throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can give significantly biased results if the Lg phase is reduced or blocked by discontinuous structure or thin crust. Mapping these structures using quantitative techniques for determining Lg amplitude attenuation can break down when the phase is below background noise. In such cases Lg blockage and inefficient propagation zones are often mapped out by hand. With our approach, we attempt to visually simplify this information by imaging crustal structure anomalies that significantly diminish the amplitude of Lg. The visualization of such anomalies is achieved by defining a grid of cells that covers the entire region of interest. We trace Lg rays for each event/ station pair, which is simply the great circle path, and attribute to each cell a value equal to the maximum value of the Lg/P-coda amplitude ratio for all paths traversing that particular cell. The resulting map, from this empirical approach, is easily interpreted in terms of crustal structure and can successfully image small blockage features often missed by analysis of raypaths alone. This map can then be used to screen out events with blocked Lg prior to performing Q tomography, and to avoid using Lg-based methods of event identification for the CTBT in regions where they cannot work. For this study we applied our technique to one of the most tectonically complex regions on the earth. Nearly 9000 earthquake/station raypaths, traversing the vast region comprised of the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa, have been analyzed. We measured the amplitude of Lg relative to the P-coda and mapped the lateral variation of Lg propagation efficiency. With the relatively dense coverage provided by the numerous crossing paths we are able to map out the pattern of crustal heterogeneity that gives rise to the observed character of Lg propagation. We observe that the propagation characteristics of Lg within the region of interest are very complicated but are readily correlated with the different tectonic environments within the region. For example, clear strong Lg arrivals are observed for paths crossing the stable continental interiors of Northern Africa and the Arabian Shield. In contrast, weakened to absent Lg is observed for paths crossing much of the Middle East, and Lg is absent for paths traversing the Mediterranean. Regions that block Lg transmission within the Middle East are very localized and include the Caspian Sea, the Iranian Plateau and the Red Sea. Resolution is variable throughout the region and strongly depends on the distribution of seismicity and recording stations. Lg propagation is best resolved within the Middle East where regions of crustal heterogeneity on the order of 100 km are imaged (e.g., South Caspian Sea and Red Sea). Crustal heterogeneity is resolvable but is poorest in seismically quiescent Northern Africa.

McNamara, D. E.; Walter, W. R.

2001-01-01

309

Mapping Crustal Heterogeneity Using Lg Propagation Efficiency Throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can give significantly biased results if the Lg phase is reduced or blocked by discontinuous structure or thin crust. Mapping these structures using quantitative techniques for determining Lg amplitude attenuation can break down when the phase is below background noise. In such cases Lg blockage and inefficient propagation zones are often mapped out by hand. With our approach, we attempt to visually simplify this information by imaging crustal structure anomalies that significantly diminish the amplitude of Lg. The visualization of such anomalies is achieved by defining a grid of cells that covers the entire region of interest. We trace Lg rays for each event/station pair, which is simply the great circle path, and attribute to each cell a value equal to the maximum value of the Lg/P-coda amplitude ratio for all paths traversing that particular cell. The resulting map, from this empirical approach, is easily interpreted in terms of crustal structure and can successfully image small blockage features often missed by analysis of raypaths alone. This map can then be used to screen out events with blocked Lg prior to performing Q tomography, and to avoid using Lg-based methods of event identification for the CTBT in regions where they cannot work.For this study we applied our technique to one of the most tectonically complex regions on the earth. Nearly 9000 earthquake/station raypaths, traversing the vast region comprised of the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa, have been analyzed. We measured the amplitude of Lg relative to the P-coda and mapped the lateral variation of Lg propagation efficiency. With the relatively dense coverage provided by the numerous crossing paths we are able to map out the pattern of crustal heterogeneity that gives rise to the observed character of Lg propagation. We observe that the propagation characteristics of Lg within the region of interest are very complicated but are readily correlated with the different tectonic environments within the region. For example, clear strong Lg arrivals are observed for paths crossing the stable continental interiors of Northern Africa and the Arabian Shield. In contrast, weakened to absent Lg is observed for paths crossing much of the Middle East, and Lg is absent for paths traversing the Mediterranean. Regions that block Lg transmission within the Middle East are very localized and include the Caspian Sea, the Iranian Plateau and the Red Sea. Resolution is variable throughout the region and strongly depends on the distribution of seismicity and recording stations. Lg propagation is best resolved within the Middle East where regions of crustal heterogeneity on the order of 100km are imaged (e.g., South Caspian Sea and Red Sea). Crustal heterogeneity is resolvable but is poorest in seismically quiescent Northern Africa.

McNamara, D. E.; Walter, W. R.

310

Reconstruction of Madagascar and Africa: Evidence from the Davie Fracture Zone and Western Somali Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New seismic reflection, gravity, and magnetic data from offshore East Africa allow the Davie Fracture Zone to be traced from ˜11°S to its intersection with the Kenyan coast at ˜2°S, constraining the relative motion of Madagascar and Africa. Seasat-derived free air gravity anomalies and slope/rise positive magnetic anomalies observed in shipboard data help to locate the continent-ocean boundaries (COB) off the shore of East Africa and Madagascar. Seismic reflection data further document a diapirprovince off Madagascar, presumably conjugate to that observed off Kenya and Somalia. The Dhow and Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) basement ridges are complex features and do not appear to be simple fracture zones owing their existence entirely to the separation of Madagascar and Africa. From these data we determine a predrift fit of Madagascar and Africa involving a 14.2° rotation of Madagascar to Africa about a pole at 10°N, 150°E. The geometry of the reconstruction adheres to seismic and potential field data indicating the oceanic nature and extent of the Comoros Basin and of the Somali Basin between Kenya and the Seychelles, and it does not conflict with onshore or offshore stratigraphy. Timing of the opening of the Western Somali Basin is constrained by Mesozoic marine magnetic anomalies and extrapolation to the interpreted COB and occurred between approximately 165 and 130 Ma.

Coffin, Millard F.; Rabinowitz, Philip D.

1987-08-01

311

Patterns of genetic structuring in the coral Pocillopora damicornis on reefs in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of population genetic structures provide an indication of direction and magnitude of larval transport and hence are an important component in the assessment of the ability of reefs to recover from severe disturbance. This paper reports data on population genetic structures in the coral Pocillopora damicornis from 26 reefs in Kenya and Tanzania. Results Gene flow among reefs was found to be variable, with a significant overall genetic subdivision (FST = 0.023 ± 0.004 SE; p < 0.001), however, only 34% of all pairwise population comparisons showed significant differentiation. Panmixia could not be rejected between reefs separated by as much as 697 km, while other sites, separated by only a single kilometre, were found to be significantly differentiated. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that population genetic differentiation was significant only at the smaller spatial scale (< 10 km), whereas panmixia could not be rejected between groups of samples separated by over 100 km. Estimates of contemporary gene flow showed similar results, with numbers of first generation migrants within each population ranging from 0 to 4 (~5% of the total number of colonies sampled) and likely dispersal distances ranging between 5 and 500 km. Conclusion This study showed that population differentiation in P. damicornis varied over spatial scales and that this variability occurred at both evolutionary and ecological time scales. This paradox is discussed in light of stochastic recruitment and small scale population structures found in other species of coral. The study also identifies potential source reefs, such as those within Mnemba Conservation area near Zanzibar and genetically isolated reefs such as those within Malindi Marine National Park and Reserve in northern Kenya.

Souter, Petra; Henriksson, Oskar; Olsson, Niklas; Grahn, Mats

2009-01-01

312

A comparison of the vegetation response to rainfall in the Sahel and East Africa, using normalized difference vegetation index from NOAA AVHRR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a study of the relationship between rainfall and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in East Africa and the Sahel. Monthly data for the years 1982 to 1985 have been analyzed. We have evaluated NDVI-rainfall relationships by vegetation type, using the major formations described by White (1983). In the article, a comparison of the differential

Sharon E. Nicholson; Michael L. Davenport; Ada R. Malo

1990-01-01

313

Some Like It Hot: The Influence and Implications of Climate Change on Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and Coffee Production in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its

Juliana Jaramillo; Eric Muchugu; Fernando E. Vega; Aaron Davis; Christian Borgemeister; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Simon Thrush

2011-01-01

314

Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

Shafiq, M. Najeeb

2011-01-01

315

Brotherhood-in-Arms East German Foreign Policy in Africa 'Kalashnikoffs, not Coca Cola Bring Self-Determination to Angola' Volksarme, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the decade of the 1970's, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) became a major Communist bloc actor on the African continent. While neither as visible nor as numerous as Soviet and Cuban personnel, East German activity in Africa has steadily increas...

S. R. Butler

1980-01-01

316

Climatic belt dynamics on a tropical mountain under strong anthropogenic and zoogenic impact: Mt Tsebet (3946 m a.s.l.) in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The links between decreasing size and volume of the glaciers in East Africa's tropical mountains and the position of climatic belts on the one hand and global warming on the other have led to various interpretations on the occurrence of global warming and its magnitude and impacts in this part of the world. Here, we investigate the existence of temperature

Jan Nyssen; Amaury Frankl; Kindeya Gebrehiwot; Gidey Yirga; Etafa Guyassa; Stephanie de Mûelenaere; Jean Poesen; Andreas Hemp; Mitiku Haile

2010-01-01

317

A gravity link between the domally uplifted Cainozoic volcanic centres of North Africa and its similarity to the East African Rift System anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is drawn to the existence of a negative gravity lineament linking the domally uplifted Cainozoic volcanic centres of North and West Africa to the negative Bouguer anomaly associated with the East African Rift System. The gravity lineament is shown to have similar dimensions to the Rift System anomaly and is interpreted as resulting from attenuation of the continental lithosphere.

J. D. Fairhead

1979-01-01

318

A geographic information system on the potential distribution and abundance of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in east Africa based on Food and Agriculture Organization databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptation of a previously developed climate forecast computer model and digital agroecologic database resources available from FAO for developing countries were used to develop a geographic information system risk assessment model for fasciolosis in East Africa, a region where both F. hepatica and F. gigantica occur as a cause of major economic losses in livestock. Regional F. hepatica and

J. B Malone; R Gommes; J Hansen; J. M Yilma; J Slingenberg; F Snijders; F Nachtergaele; E Ataman

1998-01-01

319

Education with Production in East- and Southern Africa: A Bibliography. Bibliography No. 8. Research Programme on Education and Production in Theory and Action (EPTA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography is intended for use as a reference for researchers and practitioners in the field of education with production in East- and Southern Africa. The document lists both published and unpublished literature about the integration of education, training, and productive work. "Education with production" refers to arrangements whereby a…

Haket, Lenneke, Comp.; Hoppers, Wim, Comp.

320

Distribution and movement of scalloped hammerhead Sphryna lewini and smooth hammerhead Sphyrna zygaena sharks along the east coast of southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of population distribution and movement is crucial for the conservation and management of shark species occurring in coastal waters. From 1984 to 2009, 641 scalloped hammerheads Sphyrna lewini, 1 342 smooth hammerheads Sphyrna zygaena and 1 352 unspecified hammerheads Sphyrna spp. were tagged and released along the east coast of South Africa, with recapture rates of 1.9%, 1.5%, and

K M Diemer; B Q Mann; N E Hussey

2011-01-01

321

Human Rights to Water in North Africa and the Middle East: What is New and What is Not; What is Important and What is Not  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the long history and the multiple interpretations of water rights in the Middle East and North Africa, it is difficult to say anything new without being provocative. The danger is that, in the effort to be provocative, it is easy to become frivolous. Fortunately, it is not possible to deal with any aspect of water, and certainly not human

David B. Brooks

2007-01-01

322

The butterfly Danaus chrysippus (L.) in East Africa: polymorphism and morph-ratio clines within a complex, extensive and dynamic hybrid zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of the polymorphic butterflyDanaus chrysippusare analysed from six well separated sites in East Africa. Morph-ratio clines are described for four diallelic genes A, B, C and L, each of which influences the visual phenotype. Each of the four clines has a different orientation, consistent with an hypothesis that the polymorphism originated from hybridization between a number of polytypic demes

DAVID A. S. SMITH; DENIS F. OWEN; IAN J. GORDON; NINIAN K. LOWIS

1997-01-01

323

Nursing and midwifery regulation and HIV scale-up: establishing a baseline in east, central and southern Africa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Shifting HIV treatment tasks from physicians to nurses and midwives is essential to scaling-up HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa. Updating nursing and midwifery regulations to include task shifting and pre-service education reform can help facilitate reaching new HIV targets. Donor-supported initiatives to update nursing and midwifery regulations are increasing. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of current practice and education regulations and a lack of information to target and implement regulation strengthening efforts. We conducted a survey of national nursing and midwifery councils to describe current nursing and midwifery regulations in 13 African countries. Methods A 30-item survey was administered to a convenience sample of 13 national nursing and midwifery regulatory body leaders in attendance at the PEPFAR-supported African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative meeting in Nairobi, Kenya on 28 February, 2011. The survey contained questions on task shifting and regulations such as registration, licensure, scope of practice, pre-service education accreditation, continuing professional development and use of international guidelines. Survey data were analyzed to present country-level, comparative and regional findings. Results Task shifting to nurses and midwives was reported in 11 of the 13 countries. Eight countries updated their scope of practice within the last five years; only one reported their regulations to reflect task shifting. Countries vary with regard to licensure, pre-service accreditation and continuing professional development regulations in place. There was no consistency in terms of what standards were used to design national practice and education regulations. Discussion Many opportunities exist to assist countries to modernise regulations to incorporate important advancements from task shifting and pre-service reform. Appropriate, revised regulations can help sustain successful health workforce strategies and contribute to further scale-up HIV services and other global health priorities. Conclusions This study provides fundamental information from which to articulate goals and to measure the impact of regulation strengthening efforts.

McCarthy, Carey F; Voss, Joachim; Verani, Andre R; Vidot, Peggy; Salmon, Marla E; Riley, Patricia L

2013-01-01

324

Dose-Modified Oral Chemotherapy in the Treatment of AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Purpose Africa is burdened by the AIDS epidemic and attendant increase in HIV/AIDS-related malignancies. Pragmatic approaches to therapeutic intervention could be of great value. Dose-modified oral chemotherapy for AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is one such approach. Patients and Methods The oral regimen consisted of lomustine 50 mg/m2 on day 1 (cycle 1 only), etoposide 100 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3, and cyclophosphamide/procarbazine 50 mg/m2 each on days 22 to 26 at 6-week intervals (one cycle) for two total cycles in HIV-infected patients with biopsy-proven non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results Forty-nine patients (21 in Uganda and 28 in Kenya) were treated. The majority of patients were female (59%) and had a poor performance status (63%); 69% of patients had advanced-stage disease; and 18 patients (37%) had access to antiretroviral therapy. In total, 79.5 cycles of therapy were administered. The regimen was well tolerated, had modest effects (decline) on CD4+ lymphocyte counts (P = .077), and had negligible effects on HIV-1 viral replication. Four febrile neutropenia episodes and three treatment-related deaths (6% mortality rate) occurred. The overall objective response rate was 78% (95% CI, 62% to 88%); median follow-up time was 8.2 months (range, 0.1 to 71 months); median event-free and overall survival times were 7.9 months (95% CI, 3.3 to 13.0 months) and 12.3 months (95% CI, 4.9 to 32.4 months), respectively; and 33% of patients survived 5 years. Conclusion Dose-modified oral chemotherapy is efficacious, has comparable outcome to that in the United States in the pre–highly active antiretroviral therapy setting, has an acceptable safety profile, and is pragmatic in sub-Saharan Africa. The international collaboration has been highly successful, and subsequent projects should focus on strategies to optimize combination antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy and follow-up tissue correlative studies.

Mwanda, Walter O.; Orem, Jackson; Fu, Pingfu; Banura, Cecilia; Kakembo, Joweria; Onyango, Caren Auma; Ness, Anne; Reynolds, Sherrie; Johnson, John L.; Subbiah, Vivek; Bako, Jacob; Wabinga, Henry; Abdallah, Fatuma K.; Meyerson, Howard J.; Whalen, Christopher C.; Lederman, Michael M.; Black, Jodi; Ayers, Leona W.; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Remick, Scot C.

2009-01-01

325

Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.  

PubMed

The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations. PMID:24069769

Kagurusi, Patrick T

2013-09-01

326

Nd and Sr isotope systematics of Shombole volcano, East Africa, and the links between nephelinites, phonolites, and carbonatites  

SciTech Connect

Nd and Sr isotope compositions of nephelinites, carbonatites, and phonolites from Shombole, a Pliocene volcano in East Africa, show that the phonolites cannot be derived by simple fractional crystallization of nephelinite magma. For a given initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio, {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd is lower in most phonolites than in the nephelinites and carbonatites. Interaction between nephelinitic magma and lower-crustal granulites can account for these differences. The similar ranges in isotopic composition of the carbonatites and nephelinites are consistent with repeated melting events involving heterogeneous mantle. The carbonatites could have formed by immiscibility with nephelinite magma or by direct partial melting of the same mantle source(s) as the nephelinites.

Bell, K. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Peterson, T. (Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1991-06-01

327

Women in higher education in agriculture with reference to selected countries in East and Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, the continued under-representation of women in education is particularly severe, especially in tertiary level programs relevant to agricultural development. The underlying premises of this paper are, firstly, that African agricultural development would be better served by an increase in the number of well-trained women leaders in agricultural research, extension, training and policy. Secondly, that there are currently very

D. G. Acker; E. L. McBreen; S. Taylor

1998-01-01

328

A General Survey of Religious Concepts and Art of North, East, South, and West Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, a summary of a multi-carousel slide presentation, reviews literature on the cultures, religions, and art of African people. Before focusing on West Africa, highlights of the lifestyles, religions, and icons of non-maskmaking cultures of North, West and South African people are presented. Clarification of West African religious concepts…

Stewart, Rohn

329

An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm) infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where

Simon Brooker; Narcis B Kabatereine; Jennifer L Smith; Denise Mupfasoni; Mariam T Mwanje; Onésime Ndayishimiye; Nicholas JS Lwambo; Deborah Mbotha; Peris Karanja; Charles Mwandawiro; Eric Muchiri; Archie CA Clements; Donald AP Bundy; Robert W Snow

2009-01-01

330

The African Growth Evidence: Validity, Reliability and Measurement Bias in East Central Africa, 1965-1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best known stylised facts about developm ent in Africa is that the quality of the data is poor. It has even been claimed that due to shortcom ings in basic data collection and insufficient resources in preparing official statistics the grow th data on African economies are little better than random numbers. Elsewhere it has been guessed

Morten Jerven

331

Grid search modeling of receiver functions: Implications for crustal structure in the Middle East and North Africa  

SciTech Connect

A grid search is used to estimate average crustal thickness and shear wave velocity structure beneath 12 three-component broadband seismic stations in the Middle East, North Africa, and nearby regions. The crustal thickness in these regions is found to vary from a minimum of 8.0{plus_minus}1.5&hthinsp;km in East Africa (Afar) region to possibly a maximum of 64{plus_minus}4.8&hthinsp;km in the lesser Caucasus. Stations located within the stable African platform indicate a crustal thickness of about 40 km. Teleseismic three-component waveform data produced by 165 earthquakes are used to create receiver function stacks for each station. Using a grid search, we have solved for the optimal and most simple shear velocity models beneath all 12 stations. Unlike other techniques (linearized least squares or forward modeling), the grid search methodology guarantees that we solve for the global minimum within our defined model parameter space. Using the grid search, we also qualitatively estimate the least number of layers required to model the observed receiver functions{close_quote} major seismic phases (e.g., PS{sub Moho}). A jackknife error estimation method is used to test the stability of our receiver function inversions for all 12 stations in the region that had recorded a sufficient number of high-quality broadband teleseismic waveforms. Five of the 12 estimates of crustal thicknesses are consistent with what is known of crustal structure from prior geophysical work. Furthermore, the remaining seven estimates of crustal structure are in regions for which previously there were few or no data about crustal thickness. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Sandvol, E.; Seber, D.; Calvert, A.; Barazangi, M. [Institute for the Study of the Continents, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States)

1998-11-01

332

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 1999: Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kenya is a republic dominated by a strong presidency. President Daniel Arap Moi, who has led the Kenya Africa National Union (KANU) and served as President since 1978, was reelected most recently in 1997, in the country's second general election since the...

2000-01-01

333

Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure P wave spectral amplitude ratios from deep-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift. One-dimensional profiles of QP adequately explain the systematic variation of P wave attenuation in the sublithospheric upper mantle: QP ?

Anupama Venkataraman; Andrew A. Nyblade; Jeroen Ritsema

2004-01-01

334

Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure P wave spectral amplitude ratios from deep-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift. One-dimensional profiles of QP adequately explain the systematic variation of P wave attenuation in the sublithospheric upper mantle: QP ~

Anupama Venkataraman; Andrew A. Nyblade; Jeroen Ritsema

2004-01-01

335

Mapping and quantification of organic agro-industrial residues in East Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and water ways, but, at the same time they consti...

G. Jungersen A. Kivaisi M. Rubindamayugi

1998-01-01

336

76 FR 55456 - The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...between the United States and countries of the Middle East and North...3) open the door for those countries that adopt high standards of...million, an expanding regional GDP topping $2.4 trillion...investors. Collectively, MENA countries in 2010 ranked as the...

2011-09-07

337

Comparison of DNA Fingerprint Patterns of Isolates of Mycobacterium africanumfrom East and West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium africanum is a pathogen found in tuberculosis patients in certain parts of Africa and is a memberoftheMycobacteriumtuberculosiscomplex.Biochemically,strainsofM.africanumexhibitahighdegree of variability, with some tendency to cluster according to their geographical origin. To investigate whether this phenotypic variability is reflected at the genetic level, we performed DNA fingerprint analysis of strains isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Uganda and Sierra Leone.

WALTER H. HAAS; GISELA BRETZEL; BEATE AMTHOR; KATHRIN SCHILKE; GERO KROMMES; SABINE RUSCH-GERDES; VERONICA STICHT-GROH; ANDHANS J. BREMER

1997-01-01

338

Revisiting a hoary chestnut: the nature of early cattle domestication in North-East Africa  

PubMed Central

Summary It has been almost three decades since the Wendorf & Schild-Andrew Smith debate over the timing and location of domesticated cattle in North Africa reached its climax. The time is now appropriate for a review of the old models in light of subsequent anatomical and genetic data which have come to light. This article summarises the main issues and models, and attempts to provide suggestions for future investigations.

Brass, Michael

2013-01-01

339

Late Quaternary hydrology in North Africa and the Near East (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present-day arid-semiarid belt from North Africa to West Asia has experienced huge hydrological changes together with a long history of human civilisations. This belt straddles the boundary between a temperate domain (winter rains linked to the mid-latitude Westerlies), and a subtropical one (rare monsoonal summer precipitation). What are the timing and direction of major hydrological changes in these two

Françoise Gasse

2010-01-01

340

The Role of Organic Farming Technology Adoption on Household Poverty Eradication: The Case of Small-scale Farmers in East Mau Catchment, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poverty in Kenya and most developing countries has been mainly rural based, where over 70 % of the population live and actively engage in agricultural activities. This has called for intensified efforts within governmental and Non- governmental Organizations (NGOs) circles to design and implement strategies for rural poverty eradication and wealth creation. Sustainable agricultural production technologies such as organic farming

Daniel Kyalo; Rodah Birech; Bernhard Freyer; Eric Bett

341

The VIRCA Project: virus resistant cassava for Africa.  

PubMed

The VIRCA (Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa) project is a collaborative program between the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA the National Crops Resources Research Institute, Uganda and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya. VIRCA is structured to include all aspects of the intellectual property, technology, regulatory, biosafety, quality control, communication and distribution components required for a GM crop development and delivery process. VIRCA's goal is to improve cassava for resistance to the viral diseases cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) using pathogen-derived RNAi technology, and to field test, obtain regulatory approval for and deliver these products to small landholder farmers. During Phase I of the project, proof of concept was achieved by production and testing of virus resistant plants under greenhouse and confined field trials in East Africa. In VIRCA Phase II, two farmer-preferred varieties will be modified for resistance to CBSD and CMD, and lead events identified after molecular and field screening. In addition to delivery of royalty-free improved planting materials for farmers, VIRCA capacity building activities are enhancing indigenous capability for crop biotechnology in East Africa. PMID:22572842

Taylor, Nigel J; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Anderson, Paul; Gichuki, Simon; Miano, Douglas; Bua, Anton; Alicai, Titus; Fauquet, Claude M

2012-04-01

342

Socio-economic environment of technology underdevelopment in the Third World: the case of East Africa  

SciTech Connect

The literature review first reveals a wide range of views regarding what is meant by technology, what approaches lead to technological development, and what accounts for the technological lag of the LTCs. Differences also emerge regarding proper technologies and the proper techno-economic roles of countries. This study represents an attempt to identify the conditions that give rise to technology underdevelopment and to examine the implication of such technological underdevelopment to social and economic prospects in a representative corner of the underdeveloped world, the East African region. The research is guided by the question, What are the major causes of technology underdevelopment in the East African Countries. State more specifically, the question becomes, What relationships exist between (1) a society's structure of economic production and its technological development. and (2) the patterns and compositions of international trade, on the one hand, and technology (under)development, on the other. The research utilizes as its analytical points of departure the theories of Comparative Advantage, Factor Endowments, and the political economy theory of Dependency, with the aim of both surfacing the underlying assumptions and critically analyzing the models that have shaped the current state of the LTCs' technologies.

Felleke, G.

1986-01-01

343

Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat neuropsychiatric conditions in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the comparative costs and effects of interventions to combat five neuropsychiatric conditions (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, epilepsy, and heavy alcohol use). Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on an epidemiological model. Setting Two epidemiologically defined World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE); and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality (SearD). Data sources Published studies, costing databases. Main outcome measures Cost per capita and cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, expressed in international dollars ($Int) for the year 2005. Results Across 44 assessed intervention strategies for the five neuropsychiatric conditions, cost effectiveness values differed by as much as two orders of magnitude (from $Int100–250 to $Int10?000–25?000 for a year of healthy life gained). In both sub-regions, inpatient based treatment of schizophrenia with newer antipsychotic drugs was the most costly and least cost effective strategy. The most cost effective strategies in the African sub-region related to population based alcohol control, while in the South East Asian sub-region the most cost effective intervention was drug treatment of epilepsy in primary care. The cumulative cost per capita of the most cost effective set of interventions covering all five conditions was estimated at $Int4.90–5.70. This package comprises interventions for epilepsy (older first line antiepileptic drugs); depression (generically produced newer antidepressants and psychosocial treatment); bipolar disorder (mood stabiliser drug lithium); schizophrenia (neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs and psychosocial treatment); and heavy alcohol use (increased taxation and its enforcement, reduced access, and, in the African sub-region, advertising bans and brief advice to heavy drinkers in primary care). Conclusions Reallocation of resources to cost effective intervention strategies would increase health gain, save money and help implement much needed expansion of services for neuropsychiatric conditions in low resource settings.

2012-01-01

344

Climate variability and the outbreaks of cholera in Zanzibar, East Africa: a time series analysis.  

PubMed

Global cholera incidence is increasing, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the impact of climate and ocean environmental variability on cholera outbreaks, and developed a forecasting model for outbreaks in Zanzibar. Routine cholera surveillance reports between 1997 and 2006 were correlated with remotely and locally sensed environmental data. A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model determined the impact of climate and environmental variability on cholera. The SARIMA model shows temporal clustering of cholera. A 1°C increase in temperature at 4 months lag resulted in a 2-fold increase of cholera cases, and an increase of 200 mm of rainfall at 2 months lag resulted in a 1.6-fold increase of cholera cases. Temperature and rainfall interaction yielded a significantly positive association (P < 0.04) with cholera at a 1-month lag. These results may be applied to forecast cholera outbreaks, and guide public health resources in controlling cholera in Zanzibar. PMID:21633020

Reyburn, Rita; Kim, Deok Ryun; Emch, Michael; Khatib, Ahmed; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ali, Mohammad

2011-06-01

345

The Potential Link Between El Nino and Water Hyacinth Blooms in Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria, East Africa: Evidence from Satellite Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the link between the occurrence of El Nino events in East Africa and water hyacinth blooms in Winam Gulf\\u000a of Lake Victoria using remote sensing technology. A time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analyzed\\u000a from data acquired by the multispectral Aqua\\/Terra sensors aboard the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)\\u000a satellite are used to monitor areal

Lawrence M. Kiage; Joyce Obuoyo

346

Analysis of genetic variability within Argulus japonicus from representatives of Africa, Middle East, and Asia revealed by sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the genetic variability within fish louse Argulus japonicus (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Africa, Middle East, and Asia by polymerase chain reaction in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)\\u000a regions, namely, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4). Six different sequences from a portion of the cox1 gene (pcox1) and a portion

Hicham Wadeh; Muhamd Alsarakibi; Guoqing Li

2010-01-01

347

An annoted list of the parasites of graminaceous stem borers in East Africa, with a discussion of their potential in biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a survey of the parasites of the lepidopterous stem borers of graminaceous crops throughout East Africa\\u000a and on laboratory studies of the more abundant species. In the survey emphasis was placed on the borers of maize and sorghum,\\u000a but samples of other cultivated Graminae and wild grasses were also taken.\\u000a \\u000a Notes on the distribution and

A. I. Mohyuddin; D. J. Greathead

1970-01-01

348

Shear-zone patterns and eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of northern Malawi, east-central Africa: implications for the assembly of Gondwana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the first occurrence of Pan-African eclogite from the Mozambique belt of northern Malawi, east-central Africa. We describe aspects of (1) the pattern of Pan-African transcurrent and subhorizontal shear zones and how these shear zones relate to eclogite-facies metamorphism and (2) the P–T–t evolution of the eclogite. Finally, we discuss the significance of eclogite-facies metamorphism and shear-zone deformation

Uwe Ring; Alfred Kröner; Robert Buchwaldt; Theofilos Toulkeridis; Paul W. Layer

2002-01-01

349

Alkalimonas amylolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Alkalimonas delamerensis gen. nov., sp. nov., novel alkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes in China and East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two related novel alkaliphilic and slightly halophilic bacteria are described. They are strain N10 from Lake Chahannor in China and strain 1E1 from Lake Elmenteita in East Africa. Both strains are strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, alkaliphilic, mesophilic, and require NaCl for growth. The optimal conditions for growth were at pH 10–10.5 and 2–3% (w\\/v) NaCl. Cells of both strains were Gram-negative,

Yanhe Ma; Yanfen Xue; William D. Grant; Nadine C. Collins; Andrew W. Duckworth; Robert P. van Steenbergen; Brian E. Jones

2004-01-01

350

A comparison of the heart and muscle total lipid and fatty acid profiles of nine large shark species from the east coast of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi\\/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth\\/grey nurse\\/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa.

Bruce Davidson; Jonathan Sidell; Jeffrey Rhodes; Geremy Cliff

2011-01-01

351

Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the costs and health effects of interventions to combat breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers in order to guide resource allocation decisions in developing countries. Two World Health Organization sub-regions of the world: countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality (AfrE); and countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality

G. M. Ginsberg; J. A. Lauer; S. G. Zelle; S. A. Baeten; R. M. P. M. Baltussen

2012-01-01

352

The legacy of the white highlands: Land rights, ethnicity and the post-2007 election violence in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A violent conflict engulfed Kenya after a flawed and disputed presidential election result in December 2007. Before then, Kenya was considered an icon, a bastion of political stability and economic prosperity in Africa. It surprised many that this icon would go up in flames so fast. Analyses of what went wrong with Kenya tend to gloss over the land question

Karuti Kanyinga

2009-01-01

353

Mosquito-borne arbovirus surveillance at selected sites in diverse ecological zones of Kenya; 2007 -- 2012.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Increased frequency of arbovirus outbreaks in East Africa necessitated the determination of distribution of risk by entomologic arbovirus surveillance. A systematic vector surveillance programme spanning 5 years and covering 11 sites representing seven of the eight provinces in Kenya and located in diverse ecological zones was carried out. METHODS: Mosquitoes were sampled bi-annually during the wet seasons and screened for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled by species, collection date and site and screened for arboviruses by isolation in cell culture and/or RT-PCR screening and sequencing. RESULTS: Over 450,000 mosquitoes in 15,890 pools were screened with 83 viruses being detected/isolated that include members of the alphavirus, flavivirus and orthobunyavirus genera many of which are known to be of significant public health importance in the East African region. These include West Nile, Ndumu, Sindbis, Bunyamwera, Pongola and Usutu viruses detected from diverse sites. Ngari virus, which was associated with hemorrhagic fever in northern Kenya in 1997/98 was isolated from a pool of Anopheles funestus sampled from Tana-delta and from Aedes mcintoshi from Garissa. Insect only flaviviruses previously undescribed in Kenya were also isolated in the coastal site of Rabai. A flavivirus most closely related to the Chaoyang virus, a new virus recently identified in China and two isolates closely related to Quang Binh virus previously unreported in Kenya were also detected. CONCLUSION: Active transmission of arboviruses of public health significance continues in various parts of the country with possible undetermined human impact. Arbovirus activity was highest in the pastoralist dominated semi-arid to arid zones sites of the country where 49% of the viruses were isolated suggesting a role of animals as amplifiers and indicating the need for improved arbovirus disease diagnosis among pastoral communities. PMID:23663381

Ochieng, Caroline; Lutomiah, Joel; Makio, Albina; Koka, Hellen; Chepkorir, Edith; Yalwala, Santos; Mutisya, James; Musila, Lillian; Khamadi, Samoel; Richardson, Jason; Bast, Joshua; Schnabel, David; Wurapa, Eyako; Sang, Rosemary

2013-05-10

354

Smoking prevention and cessation in the Africa and Middle East region: a consensus draft guideline for healthcare providers--executive summary.  

PubMed

Despite the abundance of scientific evidence confirming the health consequences of smoking and other forms of tobacco use, the tobacco epidemic remains an important public health problem and by 2030 it is predicted that more than 80% of tobacco deaths will be in developing countries. In Africa and the Middle East, many local factors contribute to the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Although efforts to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with smoking and tobacco dependence are underway, there is a need for guidance on how to utilize appropriate tobacco control policies and psychology- and pharmacology-based therapies to counter tobacco dependence as recommended by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). A group of tobacco cessation experts from public health services and/or academic institutions in Africa and the Middle East participated in a series of four meetings held in Cairo, Cape Town, and Dubai between May 2008 and February 2011 to develop a draft guideline tailored to their region. This article provides the background to the development of this draft smoking cessation guideline and discusses how the recommendations can be implemented and progress monitored to promote both primary prevention and cessation of tobacco use within our countries. The draft guideline for Africa and the Middle East provides an important resource in combating the devastating effects of tobacco use in these regions which can be further localized through engagement with local stakeholders in the countries of the region. PMID:22487605

Ali, Ahmed Yousif M; Safwat, Tarek; Onyemelukwe, Geoffrey; Otaibi, Moh'd Amin Al; Amir, Ashraf A; Nawas, Yousef N; Aouina, Hichem; Afif, Moulay Hicham; Bolliger, Chris T

2012-04-05

355

Safety of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors use for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia: focus on severe infections and tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Multiple studies of patients in Western countries with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have indicated increased risk for active tuberculosis (TB) and other infections among these individuals. It has also been consistently reported that patients receiving tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors for these conditions have higher rates of active TB and other infections than RA or AS patients not receiving these medications. These issues have been studied less extensively in the Asia and Africa-Middle East regions, and information from these regions is important because of higher rates of TB in the general population. This paper reviews studies of RA and AS patients from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East who received TNF inhibitors. A literature search was conducted using http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed to collect and report these data. The years included in the PubMed literature search ranged from January 2000 to October 2011. Additionally, information from the China Hospital Knowledge Database was used to report data from Chinese patients with RA and AS treated with TNF inhibitors. Results from these studies indicate that the risk for active TB and other infections in AS and RA patients from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East are increased in patients receiving TNF inhibitors and that the risk is higher among those treated with monoclonal antibodies versus soluble TNF receptor. PMID:23242389

Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Alarfaj, Abdurhman; Chen, Der-Yuan; Djoudi, Hachemi; Youseif, Ehab; Zhu, Jian

2012-12-15

356

Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure P wave spectral amplitude ratios from deep-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift. One-dimensional profiles of QP adequately explain the systematic variation of P wave attenuation in the sublithospheric upper mantle: QP ~ 175 beneath the cratonic lithosphere, while it is ~ 80 beneath the rifted lithosphere. By combining the QP values and a model of P wave velocity perturbations, we estimate that the temperature beneath the rifted lithosphere (100-400 km depth) is 140-280 K higher than ambient mantle temperatures, consistent with the observation that the 410 km discontinuity in this region is depressed by 30-40 km.

Venkataraman, Anupama; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

2004-08-01

357

A human economy: A "third way" for the future of young people in the Middle East and North Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in this region. There is a consequent lack of participation at all levels, and a large number of youth are showing symptoms of low self-esteem, frustration, anger and unrest. After discussing the outcomes of years of an inhuman economic system on a global level, this article points to a more humane and empowering path. The author argues that, instead of continuing with profit-oriented capitalism or relying on the informal sector, the co-operative way represents a third alternative to existing economic sectors within the dominant contemporary economic system. The article analyses the many benefits of this path for the realisation of a humane economy. In so doing, it touches on issues of equity and social protection. Finally, the article outlines what needs to be done if this is to be a viable solution for a human economy. While giving many examples of successful co-operative enterprises worldwide, the author singles out the MENA region as one which could also benefit from the new trends outlined.

Zaalouk, Malak

2013-09-01

358

Worldwide geophysical activity expanding: First half increase focused in Far East, Africa; now shooting in `Fourth Dimension,` streamer count up  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide seismic vessel activity continued to expand in the first six months of 1995. The vessel count grew from 81 to 84 vessels - a 4% increase. Along with this expansion was a significant shift of activity to the western Pacific, focused in the Far East and Africa. A 56% increase in vessel count is due to strong exploration activity in Southeast Asia. Another era is opening in the oil and gas industry. Four-dimensional (4-D) seismic technology is available to assist in the development of offshore oil and gas reserves only two years after 3-D seismic became the preferred exploration technology. In its simple form, 4-D seismic is the collection of 3-D seismic datasets at regular intervals throughout the life of an oilfield. Costs are minimized because the seismic vessel does not tow long streamers, only the airgun sources. The fixed sensor grid collects spatially identical information that can be compared to earlier surveys. Annual 3-D seismic snapshots permit petroleum companies to track changes in reservoir fluid levels. It also allows the discrete computer modeling of a field and the validation of that model`s predictive value. The benefits of using 4-D seismic result in more efficient operations, better asset allocation, debt planning, and profit projections.

Schmidt, V.A.

1995-08-01

359

An isotopic study of a fluvial-lacustrine sequence: The Plio-Pleistocene koobi fora sequence, East Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotopic analyses of Plio-Pleistocene and modern sediments in the fluvial-lacustrine system occupying the Turkana Basin, East Africa provide constraints on the paleoenvironmental and diagenetic histories of the Pliocene through the Recent sediments in the basin. The ??13C values for carbonates in lacustrine sediments range from -15 to +22??? relative to PDB, depending on the varying proportions of CO2 from the atmospheric reservoir and from various metabolic sources. The ??18O values of carbonates in lacustrine sediments indicate that the isotopic composition of paleolake water varied by over 10??? from the Pliocene to the present. The ??13C values for pedogenic carbonates record paleoccologic variations and suggest that C4 plants did not become well established in the preserved depositional parts of the basin until about 1.8 myr ago. The ??18O values pedogenic carbonates suggest a range of over 10??? for the isotopic composition of soil water during this interval. They also suggest a period of major climatic instability from about 3.4 to 3.1 myr and at about 1.8 myr. Together, the ??13C and ??18O values of pedogenic carbonates indicate that the present conditions are as arid and hot as any that had prevailed during deposition of these Plio-Pleistocene sediments. ?? 1988.

Cerling, T. E.; Bowman, J. R.; O'Neil, J. R.

1988-01-01

360

Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of the model to reproduce AOD (at 550nm) associated to mineral dust 24, 48 and 72h ahead. A suit of discrete statistics as Mean Normalized Bias Error (MNBE), Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) has been used in order to evaluate the model behaviour. Categorical statistics or skill scores, as model accuracy, bias, probability of detection, false alarm rate and critical success index have been implemented to test the capability of the model to simulate AOD exceeding thresholds defined by the quartiles of each AERONET site. A previous aerosol characterization of AERONET data has been performed for our study region in order to discriminate desert dust contributions (Basart et al., 2008). The first results of the comparison reveal that the modelled dust field agrees in general reasonably well with sun photometer data. Since dust long-range transport is mainly driven by smaller dust particles, the results of this new 8-bins version (with increased number of dust size bins) is considerably better, since the small particle size range (<10µm effective radius) is well described. The best scores are found in North Africa and Middle East. In the Sahel region, an important sub-estimation is observed in wintertime, when the Atlantic outflow transport is important. This is partially due to the more complex processes associated to dust generation in this region (Warren et al., 2007), not well parameterized in dust models yet. Other causes, such as the correct simulation of regional winds or the threshold friction velocity are under research. Moreover, the interaction of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols from Savannah fires is at its maximum over the region in this season. In southern Europe, the relative errors are higher than in the rest of our study domain mainly due to the presence of different types of aerosols (such as fine pollution aerosols) which appear well-mixed with desert dust. References: Basart, S., C. Pérez, E. Cuevas and J.M. Baldasano. 2008. "Aerosol retrospective analysis over North Africa, North-eastern Atlant

Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

2009-04-01

361

Tidal loading along a profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision measurements of earth tides along a profile stretching from Europe to Polynesia through East Africa, Asia and Australia are used to characterize ocean tides in different basins and thus provide a check on proposed cotidal maps. Ocean tide information was extracted from tidal gravity profiles made with correctly intercalibrated gravimeters at 91 tidal gravity stations by the subtraction of electric earth tide model vectors from the observed tidal vector. Analysis of possible instrumental errors due to calibration, thermal, barometric and power supply interruption effects indicates the data observed at a level of 0.5 microgal cannot be ascribed to computational or instrumental errors. Calculations of the ocean load and attraction signal obtained from the earth tide measurements are observed to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the cotidal maps of Schwiderski (1979, 1980) for satellite altimetry reductions for the diurnal components of the tides, however, less satisfactory agreement is observed in some large areas for the semi-diurnal components. The maps of Hendershott (1973) and Parke (1979) are also found to provide good results in several large areas, but not everywhere. Regions where a more detailed investigation is required are indicated, including Iran-Pakistan, Malaysia, the South China Sea and the South Pacific.

Melchior, P.; Moens, M.; Ducarme, B.; van Ruymbeke, M.

1981-04-01

362

Latitudinal Variation In Mangrove Height And Biomass in East Africa Using SRTM Elevation Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the foundations of biogeography states that productivity and biomass are highest at the equator and decrease as latitude increases. This relationship was confirmed for mangrove ecosystems by Sanger and Snedaker in 1993, based on a review of mangrove biomass and litterfall studies. Recent advances in remote sensing technology have permitted the estimation of mangrove biomass using landcover maps and data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A test of this paradigm of mangrove ecology, using Mozambique as a case study, did not confirm the relationship between mangrove biomass and latitude. In this study, we produced a height and biomass map of mangrove forests of the whole Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, which spans from Somalia in the North (12N) to South Africa in the S (28S), including Madagascar. Landsat ETM+ data was used to produce landcover maps and SRTM elevation data to produce height and biomass maps for the WIO region. Based on our results, we did not find a significant correlation between latitude and height/biomass in mangrove forests. Our results suggest that that freshwater input and type of geographical setting (lagoons, bays, deltas and open coast) are more important in determining mangrove height and biomass.

Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Simard, M.; Shugart, H. H.

2007-12-01

363

Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa  

SciTech Connect

The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

1998-12-01

364

Deltas of the Lake Malawi rift, east Africa: Seismic expression and exploration implications  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution, air-gun-sourced seismic reflection surveys over the offshore regions of five river deltas in Lake Malawi in the East African rift system reveal considerable variability in acoustic facies and stratigraphic architecture. This variability can largely be attributed to the influences of different structural settings, and to a lesser degree to high-amplitude (100-400 m) and high-frequency (1000 to 100,000 yr) fluctuations in lake level. Deltas on flexural and axial margins in the rift lake show well-developed progradational geometries. In contrast, a delta on a steep, accommodation zone margin distributes coarse sediments over a broad depositional apron, rather than concentrating sediment in discrete progradational lobes as on the other deltas. A large border fault margin river delta displays the most complex tectonic and stratigraphic architecture of all the deltas studied. It contains several delta-associated facies, including prograding clinoform packages, fan deltas stacked against a boundary fault, and extensive subaqueous fans. Flexural margin lowstand deltas may be the most prospective for hydrocarbon exploration due to their large, internally well-organized, progradational lobes and their close proximity to deep-water, high total organic carbon lacustrine source facies.

Scholz, C.A. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

1995-11-01

365

A Predator from East Africa that Chooses Malaria Vectors as Preferred Prey  

PubMed Central

Background All vectors of human malaria, a disease responsible for more than one million deaths per year, are female mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider (Salticidae) that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by selecting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. Methodology/Principal Findings By testing with motionless lures made from mounting dead insects in lifelike posture on cork discs, we show that E. culicivora selects Anopheles mosquitoes in preference to other mosquitoes and that this predator can identify Anopheles by static appearance alone. Tests using active (grooming) virtual mosquitoes rendered in 3-D animation show that Anopheles' characteristic resting posture is an important prey-choice cue for E. culicivora. Expression of the spider's preference for Anopheles varies with the spider's size, varies with its prior feeding condition and is independent of the spider gaining a blood meal. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental study to show that a predator of any type actively chooses Anopheles as preferred prey, suggesting that specialized predators having a role in the biological control of disease vectors is a realistic possibility.

Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R.

2006-01-01

366

Late Quaternary hydrology in North Africa and the Near East (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present-day arid-semiarid belt from North Africa to West Asia has experienced huge hydrological changes together with a long history of human civilisations. This belt straddles the boundary between a temperate domain (winter rains linked to the mid-latitude Westerlies), and a subtropical one (rare monsoonal summer precipitation). What are the timing and direction of major hydrological changes in these two domains ? How does the transitional zone migrate through time, and why ? How did human societies respond to changes in water availability ? These questions are addressed using records illustrating both long and short-term environmental changes. At the glacial-interglacial time scale, hydrological changes broadly follow the orbitally-induced Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, but with different regional expressions. In the winter rain domain, the best-dated records come from southern Levant : stable isotope records from speleothems in Israel (120-230 ka) show a remarkable consistency with those from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea(1,2), but the prominant role of rainfall amount or of moisture source isotopic composition on inland records is still debated (1-4); lake-level reconstructions in the Lisan-Dead Sea basin during the past 70 ka demonstrate higher winter rains during the last glacial period than during the Holocene (4,5). However, a new multi-proxy lacustrine record (230 ka) from northern Levant (Yammoûneh, Lebanon) shows relatively wet environments during interglacial periods(6,7), suggesting temporal changes in the NS climatic gradients over the Levantine region. Extratropical rainfalls apparently remained predominant over northern Sahara, with a major period of aquifer recharge during the Late Pleistocene(8). Conversely, south of about 25-22° N, the subtropical deserts experienced pluvial periods during interglacials, including the remarkable early-Mid Holocene wetting of the Saharan heart(8). Older pluvial periods, precisely dated in speleothems from Arabia(9) and inferred from lake archives and nearshore marine cores for the Sahara coincide with Marine Isotopic Stages 9, 7, 5.5 and 5.3. Stable isotope and vegetation data indicate that there, precipitation is of tropical origin as a result of an intensified monsoon and a northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence zone. These regional patterns are discussed in the light of general climatic models: roles of orbital forcing, extent/decrease of the northern ice sheet and marine ice, atmospheric content in greenhouse gases, large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation and related latitudinal shifts of major climatic belts. At a shorter time-scale, several abrupt changes can also be related to climatic events in high northern latitudes. Pronounced dry spells in the Lisan basin are correlated with Heinrich events(5). The Younger Dryas (YD) and the 8.2 ka events often coincide with arid intervals. During the Holocene, the best-resolved records suggest close relationships between solar activity, northern high-latitude temperature and rainfall intensity. The rapid Mid-Late Holocene aridification leading to modern climates affected both the temperate and subtropical domains. Its mechanisms have been intensively debated. To-date, the best explanations derive from a transient simulation of the North Africa aridification using a general circulation ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial ecosystem model(10); it suggests that the vegetation collapse in southern Sahara is driven by a gradual monsoonal climate response to orbital forcing, increased climate variability and precipitation threshold, rather than a positive vegetation feedback as previously suggested. Long and short-term hydrological changes have obviously induced adjustments or migrations of human societies. For exemple, in the Levant, the YD drought placed the sedentary hunter-gatherers Natufians under severe stress that they circumvented by two strategies : (i) people were forced to switch from a passive dependence on wild grains harvests to the first practices of agriculture; (ii) some populations mi

Gasse, Françoise

2010-05-01

367

Dynamical downscaling of ECMWF Ensemble seasonal forecasts over East Africa with RegCM3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical downscaling of ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis and an ensemble of May-start ECMWF seasonal hindcasts is performed with ICTP's regional climate model (RegCM3) over the horn of Africa for a ten year period. Using ERA-interim `perfect boundary' conditions the regional model reproduced both the spatial and interannual variability of the region's rainfall and improved the global model's reproduction of year to year rainfall variability, capturing the teleconnection between ENSO and the region's precipitation pattern well. The ensembles of ECMWF seasonal hindcasts and the respective downscaled RegCM3 hindcast suite were then validated in terms of the seasonal climate and deterministic and probabilistic skill scores at a one to four month lead time. Both RegCM3 and ECMWF hindcasts reproduce the spatial and temporal rainfall variability well, but overestimate the mean and variability over the Arabian peninsula and misrepresent the teleconnection between ENSO and precipitation over the western Indian Ocean. The positive bias over the Arabian peninsula in RegCM3 and the teleconnection error between ENSO and precipitation anomalies over the western Indian Ocean are due to the propagation of errors from the driving GCMs to the regional model. Nevertheless, the probabilistic assessment (ROCS and RPSS) indicated that both ECMWF and RegCM3 have significant skill suggesting the potential utility of dynamical forecasts over the region. Comparing the skill of ECMWF and RegCM3 probabilistic hindcasts, ECMWF generally performs better on grid point by grid point comparison and at homogeneous zones over Ethiopia but RegCM3 outperforms when aggregated on a country scale and when compared against high resolution rain gauge data set.

Diro, G. T.; Tompkins, A. M.; Bi, X.

2012-08-01

368

Geochemistry and age of the Essimingor volcano, northern Tanzania (East Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essimingor is the oldest of a line of north-south trending pre-rift volcanoes in northern Tanzania associated with the opening of the southern sector of the Gregory Rift, part of the East African Rift system (EAR). Essimingor is centrally located within the present day rift, on the East-West alignment between the large volcanoes of Kilimanjaro and Ngorongoro. Based on K-Ar data of Bagdasaryan et al. (1973), Essimingor is commonly reported to be about 8 Ma, although Evans et al. (1971) reports it to be between 5 to 3 Ma. Geochemically, Essimingor is characterized by alkaline magmatism and it is compositionally similar to adjacent albeit younger volcanoes (e.g. Burko, Tarosero and Monduli). Although the regional trend in magmatic evolution is from basalt to alkaline basalt, and then to more evolved rock types enriched in alkalis (Dawson, 2008), Essimingor appears to be an exception given its age. In fact, this volcano precedes or is, perhaps, contemporaneous with the dominantly basaltic regional magmatism. Essimingor’s age and geochemistry are crucial to providing the earliest record for the tectonomagmatic reconstruction of the EAR in northern Tanzania. To better characterize this pivotal pre-rift volcano we present new 40Ar/39Ar laser-incremental heating and geochemical analyses (major, minor and trace element compositions, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data) on twelve carefully chosen lava samples. Laser-incremental heating of whole rock matrix, bulk whole rock and nepheline, yield 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 5.81±0.01 Ma to 6.20±0.03 Ma. These ages restrict the duration of volcanism of Essimingor to approximately 370 kyr, and its maximum age to about 6.2 Ma, approximately 2 myr earlier than previously considered. Preliminary geochemical data suggest the presence of large variations in radiogenic isotopes: 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.7036 to 0.7056, 143Nd/144Nd from 0.5124 to 0.5126 and 206Pb/204Pb are about 20-21. The isotopic and incompatible trace element variations indicate open system processes and multiple sources, in which one end member is most probably HIMU. The Ce/Pb ratio can be used as a rough evaluation of the crust-magma mixing suggesting the presence of crustal contamination. This contamination is not attributed to simple wall rock assimilation around the magma chamber as there is no correlation between Sr isotopes and Sr concentration. In contrast, major elements are well-behaved with linear compositional variations that reveal magmatic evolution from picrite, to basanite, to nephelinite to tephri-phonolite. The MgO content decreases from 9.40 to 1.12 wt.%, CaO correlates positively with MgO while Al2O3, Na2O and K2O correlate negatively. At about 6 wt.% of MgO, P2O5 and TiO2 no longer behave as incompatible elements but behave as compatible elements. These geochemical trends can be modeled by crystal fractionation during the process of magma evolution in a sub-volcanic chamber. Initially, olivine and pyroxene crystallization drive magmatic evolution, but at MgO values close to 6-5 wt.% a change in slope occurs in several oxide-oxide plots corresponding with the co-precipitation of several other mineral phases (e.g. apatite, Fe-Ti oxides, nepheline).

Mana, S.; Mollel, G. F.; Feigenson, M.; Carr, M. J.; Turrin, B. D.; Furman, T.; Swisher, C. C.

2009-12-01

369

The 36 C1 ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depression in the East African Rift which includes both Lake Magadi and Lake Natron forms a closed basin within which almost all the dissolved chloride originates in precipitation, since there is no important source of very ancient sedimentary chloride. This provides an ideal setting for the evaluation of the 36 Cl methodology as a geochemical and hydrological tracer. The main source of recent water, as represented by the most dilute samples measured, is characterized by a 36 C1/C1 ratio of 2.5 × 10 -14 , in agreement with the calculated value expected in precipitation. Surface evaporation increases the chlorinity of the local freshwater inflow by about a factor of 110 without changing the isotopic ratio, indicating that little chloride enters the system in the form of sediment leachate. A second type of brine found in the basin occurs in a hot deep groundwater reservoir and is characterized by lower 36 C1/C1 ratios (<1.2 × 10 -14 ). By comparing this value with the2.5× 10 -14 in recent recharge, one obtains an approximate salt accumulation age of 760 Ka which is consistent with the time of the first appearance of the lake. These older brines also have lower 18 O and 2 H values which indicate that they were recharged during a climatically different era. The 36 C1/C1 ratios in the inflowing waters and in the accumulated brine, together with the known age of the Lake Magadi basin, may be used to estimate the importance of the hypogene and epigene, as opposed to the meteoric, mode of 36 C1 production. Such a calculation shows that the hypogene and epigene processes together contribute less than 6% of the total 36 C1 present in the lake.

Kaufman, Aaron; Margaritz, Mordeckai; Paul, Michael; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Hollos, George; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Taieb, Maurice

1990-10-01

370

The sup 36 Cl ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, east Africa  

SciTech Connect

The depression in the East African Rift which includes both Lake Magadi and Lake Natron forms a closed basin within which almost all the dissolved chloride originates in precipitation, since there is no important source of very ancient sedimentary chloride. This provides an ideal setting for the evaluation of the {sup 36}Cl methodology as a geochemical and hydrological tracer. The main source of recent water, as represented by the most dilute samples measured, is characterized by a {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratio of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}, in agreement with the calculated value expected in precipitation. Surface evaporation increases the chlorinity of the local freshwater inflow by about a factor of 110 without changing the isotopic ratio, indicating that little chloride enters the system in the form of sediment leachate. A second type of brine found in the basin occurs in a hot deep groundwater reservoir and is characterized by lower {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios (<1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}). By comparing this value with the 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} in recent recharge, one obtains an approximate salt accumulation age of 760 Ka which is consistent with thee time of the first appearance of the lake. These older brines also have lower {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H values which indicate that they were recharged during a climatically different era. The {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in the inflowing waters and in the accumulated brine, together with the known age of the Lake Magadi basin, may be used to estimate the importance of the hypogene and epigene, as opposed to the meteoric, mode of {sup 36}Cl production. Such a calculation shows that the hypogene and epigene processes together contribute less than 6% of the total {sup 36}Cl present in the lake.

Kaufman, A.; Margaritz, M.A.; Hollos, G. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)); Paul, M.; Boaretto, E. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Hillaire-Marcel, C. (Universite du Quebec, Montreal (Canada)); Taieb, M. (Universite-Luminy, Marseille (France))

1990-10-01

371

Reflexivity and Dialogue: Methodological and Socio-Ethical Dilemmas in Research with HIV-Affected Children in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated discussion of methods and ethics by drawing on participatory research with children in Ethiopia and Kenya. It examines the complex social, ethical, practical and methodological dilemmas of research with HIV-affected children, and explores how we confronted some of these dilemmas before, during and after fieldwork. The paper interrogates the role and limitations of ‘global’ ethical

Morten Skovdal; Tatek Abebe

2012-01-01

372

Emergence, spread and strategies for controlling the pandemic of cassava mosaic virus disease in east and central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, an epidemic of an unusually severe form of cassava mosaic virus disease (CMD) has expanded to cover virtually all of Uganda, and substantial areas in the neighbouring countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Losses in the generally sensitive local cassava cultivars have been so great that a common farmer response to the

J. P Legg

1999-01-01

373

Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16 (Supplement), March 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A supplement to the bibliography of materials dealing with Africa in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin, this bibliography on rural development in Africa is divided into three major sections as follows: (1) General (400 entries); (2) Central Africa including a general section (2 entries); Cameroon (26 entries); Central…

Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; Strey, Gerry, Comp.

374

The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.  

PubMed

COPD is a progressive pulmonary disease which may have a profound impact on general health status and quality of life. This article presents data on the burden of COPD obtained from the BREATHE study in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan. This study was a large general population survey of COPD conducted in eleven countries of the region using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom 2,187 fulfilled the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. Data on symptoms, perceived disease severity, impact on work, limitations in activities and psychological distress were collected. 1,392 subjects were analysable of whom 661 (47.5%) reported experiencing an exacerbation of their respiratory condition, 49.4% reported comorbidities and 5.5% reported severe breathlessness as measured with the MRC breathlessness questionnaire. The degree of breathlessness, as well as the perceived severity, was correlated with the overall disease impact as measured with the COPD Assessment Test (p < 0.001). 374 subjects (28.4%) reported that their respiratory condition prevented them from working and this proportion rose to 47.8% in subjects who perceived their respiratory condition as severe. 47.9% of subjects reported difficulties in normal physical exertion, 37.5% in social activities and 31.7% in family activities. Psychological distress was reported by between 42.3% and 53.2% of subjects, depending on the item. In conclusion, the burden of COPD is important, and covers central aspects of daily life. For this reason, physicians should take time to discuss it with their patients, and ensure that the management strategy proposed addresses all their needs. PMID:23290704

Uzaslan, Esra; Mahboub, Bassam; Beji, Majed; Nejjari, Chakib; Tageldin, Mohamed Awad; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Nafti, Salim; Obeidat, Nathir M; Sayiner, Abdullah; Wali, Siraj; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

2012-12-01

375

Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control  

PubMed Central

The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

Hotez, Peter J.; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

2012-01-01

376

Watching The Daily Show in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global distribution of a popular American television programme – Jon Stewart's Daily Show – offers a rare opportunity to examine transnational contingencies of meaning in political satire. Drawing on focus group discussions in Kenya, this analysis shows how some East Africans appropriated and reinterpreted – indeed unexpectedly subverted – The Daily Show's political content, deriving from it insights that Stewart

Angelique Haugerud; Dillon Mahoney; Meghan Ference

2012-01-01

377

Prediction of East African Seasonal Rainfall Using Simplex Canonical Correlation Analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear statistical model, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), was driven by the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization algorithm (called CCA-NMS) to predict the standardized seasonal rainfall totals of East Africa at 3-month lead time using SLP and SST anomaly fields of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans combined together by 24 simplex optimized weights, and then `reduced' by the principal component analysis. Applying the optimized weights to the predictor fields produced better March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasonal rain forecasts than a direct application of the same, unweighted predictor fields to CCA at both calibration and validation stages. Northeastern Tanzania and south-central Kenya had the best SON prediction results with both validation correlation and Hanssen-Kuipers skill scores exceeding +0.3. The MAM season was better predicted in the western parts of East Africa. The CCA correlation maps showed that low SON rainfall in East Africa is associated with cold SSTs off the Somali coast and the Benguela (Angola) coast, and low MAM rainfall is associated with a buildup of low SSTs in the Indian Ocean adjacent to East Africa and the Gulf of Guinea.

Ntale, Henry K.; Yew Gan, Thian; Mwale, Davison

2003-06-01

378

Carbon dioxide measurements in tropical east African biomes  

SciTech Connect

From January 1977 through May 1978 atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured hourly and/or continuously at bimonthly intervals over periods varying from 5 to 8 days at 10 different locations in Kenya, East Africa. During each of these periods, at least two, and in some cases five, vertical profile measurements of CO/sub 2/ concentrations were conducted above different biomes. A large diurnal CO/sub 2/ periodicity was observed over land, with daytime drawdowns to 322 ppm and nighttime buildups to more than 400 ppm observed in savannah regions. In and around tropical rain forests, drawdowns to 310 ppm and buildups to more than 400 ppm were regularly observed. On the higher reaches of Mount Kenya, the diurnal CO/sub 2/ cycle was considerably reduced in amplitude, with variations in the range of 2-6 ppm throughout the 16-month study period. On sunny days, the drawdown of CO/sub 2/ was measurable to heights of at least 4000 m above ground level. Other CO/sub 2/ measurements in air over the Indian Ocean (to distances of up to 450 km upwind of the coast) produced fairly consistent concentrations of about 328.5 ppm which did not fluctuate diurnally. The weekly mean CO/sub 2/ concentrations over Kenya appear to have a bimodal structure, with minima occurring in July and January. On the basis of the data collected during the study it appears likely that regular observations at a high-altitude station on Mount Kenya, either with flask sampling or continuous analyzer measurements, are likely to yield data useful for estimates of CO/sub 2/ concentration backgrounds and trends. Also, there is strong evidence that Mount Kenya would be a good location to measure large-scale interhemispheric CO/sub 2/ exchanges and provide a unique base from which to study the effects of the tropical biome on biogeochemical phenomena. 20 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

Schnell, R.C.; Odh, S.A.; Njau, L.N.

1981-06-20

379

New specimens of a fossil ostrich from the Miocene of Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossilised hind limb bones from the late Middle Miocene (approximately 14 million-year-old [MYA]) Fort Ternan, Kadianga West and Ngorora localities in Western Kenya indicate the presence of a new representative of the ostrich genus Struthio. These new fossils represent some of the oldest known records for Struthio yet described, slightly younger than Struthio coppensi, from the Lower Miocene of Namibia. Because the four sub-species of the modern-day ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus, Struthio camelus australis, Struthio camelus massaicus, and Struthio camelus molybdophanes) inhabit the plains of Africa, and as recently as the 1940s, a fifth sub-species was also present in the Middle East and Saudi Arabia (Struthio camelus syriacus), records of Struthio from Kenya and Namibia testify to the much wider distribution of these cursorial birds in the relatively recent past. This is further supported by the very high frequency of ostrich eggshell fragments found across Africa and Eurasia, which vastly outweighs the amount of skeletal material uncovered over the last century.

Leonard, Leona M.; Dyke, Gareth J.; Walker, Cyril A.

2006-08-01

380

Soil property changes over a 120-yr chronosequence from forest to agriculture in western Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the native forest in the highlands of western Kenya has been converted to agricultural land in order to feed the growing population, and more land is being cleared. In tropical Africa, this land use change results in progressive soil degradation, as the period of cultivation increases. Both rates and variation in infiltration, soil carbon concentration and other soil parameters are influenced by management within agricultural systems, but they have rarely been well documented in East Africa. We constructed a chronosequence for an area of western Kenya, using two native forest sites and six fields that had been converted to agriculture for up to 119 yr. We assessed changes in infiltrability (the steady-state infiltration rate), bulk density, proportion of macro- and microaggregates in soil, soil C and N concentrations, as well as the isotopic signature of soil C (?13C), along the 119-yr chronosequence of conversion from natural forest to agriculture. Infiltration, soil C and N decreased within 40 yr after conversion, while bulk density increased. Median infiltration rates fell to about 15% of the initial values in the forest, and C and N concentrations dropped to around 60%, whilst the bulk density increased by 50%. Despite high spatial variability, these parameters have correlated well with time since conversion and with each other.

Nyberg, G.; Bargués Tobella, A.; Kinyangi, J.; Ilstedt, U.

2012-07-01

381

Conservation farming strategies in East and Southern Africa: Yields and rain water productivity from on-farm action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved agricultural productivity using conservation farming (CF) systems based on non-inversion tillage methods, have predominantly originated from farming systems in sub-humid to humid regions where water is not a key limiting factor for crop growth. This paper presents evidence of increased yields and improved water productivity using conservation farming in semi-arid and dry sub-humid locations in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and

J. Rockström; P. Kaumbutho; J. Mwalley; A. W. Nzabi; M. Temesgen; L. Mawenya; J. Barron; J. Mutua; S. Damgaard-Larsen

2009-01-01

382

Distribution and Food-web Transfer of Mercury in Napoleon and Winam Gulfs, Lake Victoria, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured for the food webs and water of Napoleon Gulf (Uganda) and Winam Gulf (Kenya) in northern Lake Victoria. Water total mercury (THg) concentrations in Lake Victoria range from 1.7 to 5.8 ng\\/L, while methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations range from 0.2 to 1 ng\\/L. Water Hg concentrations in Lake Victoria are higher than in temperate great lakes,

Linda M. Campbell; Robert E. Hecky; Joseph Nyaundi; Rose Muggide; D. George Dixon

2003-01-01

383

Evidence for early Pleistocene Glaciation(s) in tropical Africa: Stratigraphy, Paleomagnetism, Paleosols and Paleoclimate of the Gorges Moraine System, Mount Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moraines marking an Early Pleistocene glaciation on Mt. Kenya are known from several valleys marking the lowermost extent of the Early Pleistocene Gorges Glaciation (2850 m a.s.l.). The lowermost paleosols at these sites formed either in till predating the Gorges Glaciation or in weathered phonolitic bedrock and related lavas, similar to the lithology forming the base of the Mt. Kenya volcanic series of Miocene/Pliocene age. Paleomagnetism and weathering characteristics have been used to refine the age of sediments assigned to the Gorges Glaciation. These deposits are normally magnetized but carry a persistent reversed overprint, suggesting that they were deposited during one of the normal subchrons within the Matuyama Reversed Chron. They are underlain either by a reversely magnetized weathered till (GOR 68), or weathered bedrock (GOR 64 and GOR 69), the latter exhibiting normal magnetization (Gauss?) with reversed overprint (Matuyama?). The sediments are overlain at all three sites by normally magnetized loesses and paleosols of presumable Brunhes age. The normal magnetization and reversed overprint recorded in sediments of the Gorges Glaciation most likely span a considerable portion of the Olduvai subchron (1.78-1.950 Ma.), which persisted for sufficient time to accommodate an extensive montane glaciation and prolonged period of weathering and soil formation. While the somewhat younger Jaramillo subchron cannot be ruled out, the extensive sediment and weathering record is more easily accommodated within the longer-lived Olduvai subchron. The characteristics of the lowermost buried paleosols and weathered bedrock substrate indicate wetter conditions prior to the onset of Pleistocene glaciation, a period that initially may have fostered a higher elevation forest cover of substantial spatial extent. These wetter conditions, punctuated with dry events, depict a progressive transition to alpine grassland at the start of the Quaternary. In light of new paleomagnetic and paleosol evidence, at least two tropical glaciations during the Matuyama Reversed Chron are documented from Mt. Kenya, suggesting this volcanic edifice had attained sufficient relief to form an ice mass and outlet glaciers, despite its equatorial latitude.

Mahaney, W. C.; Barendregt, R. W.; Hamilton, T.; Hancock, R.

2011-12-01

384

Mitochondrial DNA diversity in two ethnic groups in southeastern Kenya: perspectives from the northeastern periphery of the Bantu expansion.  

PubMed

The Bantu languages are widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic research supports linguists and historians who argue that migration played an important role in the spread of this language family, but the genetic data also indicates a more complex process involving substantial gene flow with resident populations. In order to understand the Bantu expansion process in east Africa, mtDNA hypervariable region I variation in 352 individuals from the Taita and Mijikenda ethnic groups was analyzed, and we evaluated the interactions that took place between the Bantu- and non-Bantu-speaking populations in east Africa. The Taita and Mijikenda are Bantu-speaking agropastoralists from southeastern Kenya, at least some of whose ancestors probably migrated into the area as part of Bantu migrations that began around 3,000 BCE. Our analyses indicate that they show some distinctive differences that reflect their unique cultural histories. The Taita are genetically more diverse than the Mijikenda with larger estimates of genetic diversity. The Taita cluster with other east African groups, having high frequencies of haplogroups from that region, while the Mijikenda have high frequencies of central African haplogroups and cluster more closely with central African Bantu-speaking groups. The non-Bantu speakers who lived in southeastern Kenya before Bantu speaking groups arrived were at least partially incorporated into what are now Bantu-speaking Taita groups. In contrast, gene flow from non-Bantu speakers into the Mijikenda was more limited. These results suggest a more complex demographic history where the nature of Bantu and non-Bantu interactions varied throughout the area. PMID:23382080

Batai, Ken; Babrowski, Kara B; Arroyo, Juan Pablo; Kusimba, Chapurukha M; Williams, Sloan R

2013-02-05

385

Complex seismic anisotropy in the Earth's inner core beneath Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic anisotropy in the top of the inner core is important to the understanding of the growth and dynamics of the Earth's inner core. The anisotropic structures beneath Africa in the top 80 km of the inner core were not well constrained, due to limited sampling coverage. Here, we analyze a large data-set of the PKiKP-PKIKP phases sampling the top 80 km of the inner core beneath Africa along various sampling directions. The differential travel times of the PKiKP-PKIKP phases sampling Africa reveal polar-equatorial differences. The differential travel times along polar paths are about 0-1.4 s larger than those along equatorial paths, suggesting the presence of anisotropy in velocity in the top 80 km of the inner core beneath Africa. The PKiKP-PKIKP phases along polar paths exhibit a complex lateral gradient from the East to the Middle Africa and a correlation of large (small) differential travel time with small (large) amplitude ratio. Largest differential travel times and smallest amplitude ratios are observed beneath the East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique), while small differential travel times and large amplitude ratios are observed beneath the Middle Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Gabon, Angola). The polar PKiKP-PKIKP waveforms are grouped based on the geographic sampling regions. We perform waveform modeling and iteratively search for the anisotropic velocity and attenuation models that explain the polar PKiKP-PKIKP waveforms in various groups. Most complexities observed in the PKiKP-PKIKP waveforms can be explained by the presence of uniform anisotropy, but with onset of the anisotropy occurring at various depths. The region beneath the East Africa can be explained by a uniform anisotropy model with a magnitude of about 1.7% and an average Q value of 250 present at the inner core boundary (ICB), while the region beneath the Middle Africa can be explained by a model with an isotropic layer in the top and a uniform anisotropy with a magnitude of about 1.7% and an average Q value of 400 present at a depth of 50 km below the ICB. The region between the East and the Middle Africa can be explained by a model with an isotropic layer in the top and a uniform anisotropy with a magnitude of about 1.7% and Q values of about 150-400 present at depths 10-20 km below the ICB.

Yu, W.; Wen, L.

2006-05-01

386

Purity, Balance and Wellness Among the Swahili of Lamu, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swahili of Lamu Island, Kenya, are part of a larger Swahili nation that extends along the East African coast, from northern Mozambique to southern Somalia, and includes archipelagos (Lamu, Zanzibar, Comoros) in the adjacent Indian Ocean. As the Swahili established themselves into an important economic niche as the middlemen of trade between East Africans and visitors from across the

Munib Abdulrehman; Rebecca Gearhart

2012-01-01

387

Out of Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure with her students…

Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

2009-01-01

388

China's Cooperation in Education and Training with Kenya: A Different Model?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the first detailed study of the character and particularity of China's rapidly growing education and training cooperation with Kenya. Set against the 50-year history of Kenya's engagement with China, it pays special attention to the human resources targets of the Forum for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) from 2000. It argues that the…

King, Kenneth

2010-01-01

389

Kenya and International Security: Enabling Globalisation, Stabilising ‘Stateness’, and Deploying Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the international stage Kenya promotes itself as a regional peacemaker. The country is an important contributor to UN missions, has had an important role in mediating regional conflicts, and is a driving force in the implementation of Africa's peace and security architecture. However, there is another picture of Kenya's engagement in regional conflicts which, at first glance, seems to

Jan Bachmann

2012-01-01

390

Armies of east and southern Africa fighting a guerrilla war with AIDS. Special report: AIDS and the military.  

PubMed

AIDS prevention and care programs administered by the defense forces of Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe embody information, education, and communication, condom promotion, sexually transmitted disease (STD) control, safe blood supply, pre- and post-test counseling, and support for those afflicted. Rules of the UN peacekeeping operations are also observed: training in HIV prevention, testing prior to deployment, and no deployment of troops infected. The militaries' efforts are linked with the endeavors of national AIDS programs run by civilian government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. The various policies towards HIV-infected personnel usually employ discharge provisions only when the soldier is unable to perform his duties. Health education is part of the militaries' programs. In Malawi each unit in military school is educated about HIV/STD transmission and condom use. In Tanzania HIV-positive troops are counseled and those with symptoms are given a sick leave to prepare for retirement. The Ugandan Army operates nine health education centers that offer training and counseling. AIDS widows and orphans are cared for and their property rights are protected. In Zambia the military have trained HIV/AIDS counselors and HIV-positive persons are counseled and treated for up to seven years. In Zimbabwe, HIV-infected but fit servicemen continue service and are treated until death, while their dependents are cared for. Women are also included in the armies of these seven countries, but Malawi and Kenya restrict in-service marriages. Uganda and Zimbabwe have guidelines against sexual harassment and provide better living conditions for married couples. Only the Malawian Army tests all recruits for HIV prior to officer training. Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe have voluntary testing schemes, but reassessment is underway in Zambia where 25% of recruits are infected with HIV. The impact of HIV/AIDS can be reduced if a higher proportion of public health budgets is allocated to combat this epidemic. PMID:12319957

Yeager, R

1995-12-01

391

Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. Conclusion CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

2013-01-01

392

The Second African Federation of Neurological Surgeons Course in the East, Central, and Southern Africa Region Held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, January 2011.  

PubMed

The second International African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course was organized on January 24 to 28, 2011, at the Seacliff Hotel and Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete graced the official opening with high ranking government officials in attendance. The targeted participants were young neurosurgeons in the East, Central, and South African region. More than 80 surgeons, residents, and neurosurgical nurses came from Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The objectives of the course were to teach and train young local surgeons in the essential-relevant for the region-and current techniques and management principles of brain and spinal diseases, acquire new skills through hands-on practical sessions, and share experiences. The course consisted of didactic sessions, practical aspects on spine internal fixation, cadaver dissections, and live microscopic and endoscopic surgery. Experienced faculty from different states of the United States, Spain, Turkey, India, Egypt, and Ethiopia facilitated the course. The objectives of the course were met with a favorable evaluation report. The collaboration and experience gained will be reinvested in organizing similar courses in the region. PMID:22120325

Kahamba, Joseph F; Assey, Anthony B; Dempsey, Robert J; Qureshi, Mahmood M; Härtl, Roger

2011-11-07

393

Detection of avian influenza viruses in wild waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya using fecal sampling.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 has been reported in 11 African countries. Migratory waterbirds have the potential of introducing A/H5N1 into east Africa through the Rift Valley of Kenya. We present the results of a wild bird surveillance system for A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses based on avian fecal sampling in Kenya. We collected 2630 fecal samples in 2008. Viral RNA was extracted from pools of 3-5 fecal samples and analyzed for presence of avian influenza virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. Twelve (2.3%) of the 516 sample pools were positive for avian influenza virus RNA, 2 of which were subtyped as H4N6 viruses. This is the first report of avian influenza virus in wild birds in Kenya. This study demonstrates the success of this approach in detecting avian influenza virus in wild birds and represents an efficient surveillance system for avian influenza virus in regions with limited resources. PMID:23621372

Ofula, Victor O; Franklin, Alan B; Root, J Jeffrey; Sullivan, Heather J; Gichuki, Patrick; Makio, Albina; Bulimo, Wallace; Abong'o, Bernard O; Muchai, Muchane; Schnabel, David

2013-04-26

394

Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the herbert Henry austin expedition of 1900-1901.  

PubMed

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation. PMID:23943302

Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

2013-10-01

395

Family planning needs in the context of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic: Findings from a three-country assessment covering Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key contours of the post-ICPD era is the broadening of family planning programs to encompass reproductive health needs and rights. In sub-Saharan Africa, such an agenda has been blurred by HIV\\/AIDS, the leading cause of death among women and men of reproductive ages. Family planning (FP) programs are key pillars to the reduction of maternal mortality and

Pierre Ngom; Rose Wilcher; Maureen Kuyoh; Hazel Dube; Sonja Martin; Joshua Kimani; Tara Nutley; Ndugga Maggwa

396

Fluxes and distributions of core and intact tetraether membrane lipids in the water column of Lake Challa, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative distributions of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids derived from pelagic Crenarchaeota are used as sea surface temperature proxy TEX86. Similarly, the MBT/CBT proxy for annual mean air temperature (MAT) utilises distributions of branched GDGTs derived from soil bacteria. The ratio between branched and isoprenoid GDGTs (BIT index) is used in aquatic sediments as a proxy for the relative input of soil organic matter. Whereas the TEX86 proxy has been recently calibrated for and applied successfully in some lakes, the lacustrine application of the MBT/CBT proxy is still very much in its infancy. The debate centres on the possible in-situ production of branched GDGTs in lakes, as some studies have found a mismatch between the distributions of these GDGTs in catchment area soils versus those found in lake sediments. In order to investigate the potential of the MBT/CBT palaeotemperature proxy in lakes and to constrain its application, it is necessary to look at modern fluxes of GDGTs in lake systems to resolve the sources and distributions of these compounds. This study concentrates on Lake Challa, a stratified crater lake in equatorial East Africa. Twenty-six months of sediment trap material (Dec ‘07 to Jan ‘10) from 35m depth were analysed. Using a novel separation method, GDGTs are split into intact polar tetraether membrane lipids (IPLs) and core tetraether membrane lipids (CLs). IPLs are commonly believed to degrade rapidly upon cell lysis when the labile polar head group is hydrolysed, thereby converting the ‘living’ IPLs to the more stable ‘fossil’ CLs. This makes it possible, in theory, to use IPLs as a tracer for recently produced GDGTs. High fluxes of sedimenting intact GDGT-0 between September and November are clearly associated with the end of the annual diatom bloom (Jul-Aug). This suggests that methanogens are active even in the oxic waters above 35m depth. Crenarchaeotal lipid fluxes are generally low, leading to a relatively high BIT index for most of the year. However, during the annual bloom (Nov-Feb) both IPL and CL fluxes of crenarchaeol rise dramatically. This means that over this period of study, the BIT index is primarily controlled by Crenarchaeotal productivity rather than precipitation. Remarkably, high fluxes of both intact and core branched tetraethers do not correspond to observed precipitation events. MBT/CBT indices of both IPLs and CLs are similar, indicating that the two forms of tetraether likely share a single source. Notably, a seasonal trend in the MBT/CBT index is present; however, minima and maxima are apparently offset by 5-6 months from MAT. This would argue for at least an in-situ source next to an allochthonous source of sedimenting branched GDGTs in Lake Challa. However, a flux-weighted yearly average of branched GDGT distributions did yield annual MATs within the error margin of the MBT/CBT proxy.

Buckles, L. K.; Weijers, J.; Reichart, G.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

2010-12-01

397

Fluxes and distribution of intact glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipids in the water column of Lake Challa, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids have become an interesting tool in palaeoclimate research. Both the TEX86 sea surface temperature proxy, based on isoprenoid GDGT membrane lipids derived from pelagic Crenarchaeota, and the MBT/CBT annual mean air temperature proxy, based on the distribution of branched GDGTs derived from soil bacteria, receive increasing interest to be also applied in lake sediments. Despite successful studies utilizing the TEX86 to reconstruct past lake surface temperatures in two large African lakes, other studies indicated that TEX86 values derived from lake surface sediments differed from what would be expected based on the lake surface water temperatures. In addition, in two tropical lake systems, the distribution of branched GDGT lipids in lake surface sediments appeared to differ from that in the surrounding soils. Both situations suggest production of GDGTs by additional sources in some lake systems, hampering application of earlier mentioned temperature proxies. In order to constrain the provenance and flux of GDGT lipids in one of these lakes, Lake Challa, a freshwater crater lake in East Africa, we used a novel separation technique to analyze both intact and core GDGT membrane lipids in monthly samples derived from a sediment trap installed at 35m depth in the lake. Intact GDGT lipids still contain a functional polar head group which is thought to be lost quickly after cell lysis. Therefore, the presence of such intact GDGT lipids is thought indicative for extant life, most likely autochthonous in origin. High fluxes of intact GDGT-0 lipids, maybe derived from methanogenic Archaea residing in anoxic micro niches in descending particles, occur in July and August during a diatom bloom. High fluxes of both the intact and core isoprenoid GDGT lipid crenarchaeol in December and January clearly reflect the bloom of Crenarchaeota. TEX86 values of both the intact and core isoprenoid GDGTs are similar, confirming they share a similar source, i.e. aquatic Crenarchaeota. As this distribution is different from that in the lake surface sediments, a contribution of GDGTs from a deep living community of anaerobic methanogenic Archaea is suggested. Branched GDGTs were expected to be present mainly in the form of core lipids, being fossilized material derived from soils surrounding the lake. This is, indeed, the case for July and August. Strikingly, however, high proportions of intact branched GDGTs are observed in December-February, coinciding with the crenarchaeotal bloom. Partly, this flux might reflect soil derived GDGTs that have not yet lost their functional head groups, but a contribution from a branched GDGT synthesizing community living in the water column cannot be fully excluded. Therefore, the MBT/CBT proxy in lakes can only be applied if the provenance of the branched GDGTs is well constrained.

Weijers, J.; Buckles, L.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

2009-12-01

398

Behavioral and Environmental Background to ‘Out-of-Africa I’ and the Arrival of Homo erectus in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Current evidence of hominin fossils and artifacts in China and Indonesia points to the arrival and persistence of the genus\\u000a Homo in East Asia by 1.7 million years ago (Ma). By at least 1.66 Ma, East Asian hominins had spread across a wide range of biotic\\u000a and climatic zones, spanning 7°S–40°N on the basis of well-constrained age data from the

Richard Potts; Robin Teague

399

Simultaneous virus-specific detection of the two cassava brown streak-associated viruses by RT-PCR reveals wide distribution in East Africa, mixed infections, and infections in Manihot glaziovii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) epidemic in East Africa is caused by two ipomoviruses (genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae), namely, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) that was described recently. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic method was developed in this study for simultaneous virus-specific detection of the two viruses. Results

D. R. Mbanzibwa; Y. P. Tian; A. K. Tugume; S. B. Mukasa; F. Tairo; S. Kyamanywa; A. Kullaya; J. P. T. Valkonen

2011-01-01

400

On the relationship between extension and anisotropy: Constraints from shear wave splitting across the East African Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Africa is a tectonically complex region owing to the presence of a rigid craton, paleothrust belts and shear zones, active magmatism and rifting, and possibly even a mantle plume. We present new splitting results of teleseismic shear phases recorded by 21 broadband seismic stations in Tanzania, seven broadband stations in Kenya, and three permanent broadband Global Seismic Network stations in Kenya and Uganda. Inconsistent apparent splitting is observed beneath the craton and along its southern and southeastern flank in Tanzania. Splitting at stations elsewhere in the rifts and orogenic belts is more consistent. We test between different models of anisotropy for stations with inconsistent splitting (single layer with horizontal fast axis, single layer with dipping fast axis, and two layers with horizontal fast axes). However, we show that these more complicated models do not reasonably explain the data. The data are explained better by a laterally (and/or in some places vertically) varying single-layer model with a horizontal fast axis. We arrive at a conceptual model of anisotropy in Tanzania and Kenya that is controlled by (1) active shear along the base of the plate associated with asthenospheric flow beneath and around the moving craton keel, (2) asthenospheric flow from a plume north of central Kenya, (3) fossilized anisotropy in the lithosphere due to past orogenic events, and possibly (4) aligned magma-filled lenses beneath the rifts. Our most robust conclusion is that we can rule out an extension-induced lattice preferred orientation of olivine as a dominant factor, which is surprising given the long history of extension in the region. This indicates that mantle-lithospheric extension in East Africa occurs via dike intrusion and/or ductile thinning within narrow rift zones and is possibly facilitated by a mechanical lithospheric anisotropy imparted by fossilized north/south structural or mineralogical fabrics.

Walker, Kristoffer T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Bokelmann, GöTz H. R.; Owens, Thomas J.

2004-08-01

401

A new Late Miocene great ape from Kenya and its implications for the origins of African great apes and humans  

PubMed Central

Extant African great apes and humans are thought to have diverged from each other in the Late Miocene. However, few hominoid fossils are known from Africa during this period. Here we describe a new genus of great ape (Nakalipithecus nakayamai gen. et sp. nov.) recently discovered from the early Late Miocene of Nakali, Kenya. The new genus resembles Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (9.6–8.7 Ma, Greece) in size and some features but retains less specialized characters, such as less inflated cusps and better-developed cingula on cheek teeth, and it was recovered from a slightly older age (9.9–9.8 Ma). Although the affinity of Ouranopithecus to the extant African apes and humans has often been inferred, the former is known only from southeastern Europe. The discovery of N. nakayamai in East Africa, therefore, provides new evidence on the origins of African great apes and humans. N. nakayamai could be close to the last common ancestor of the extant African apes and humans. In addition, the associated primate fauna from Nakali shows that hominoids and other non-cercopithecoid catarrhines retained higher diversity into the early Late Miocene in East Africa than previously recognized.

Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Masayuki; Hyodo, Hironobu; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Nakaya, Hideo; Saegusa, Haruo; Mazurier, Arnaud; Saneyoshi, Mototaka; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Mbua, Emma

2007-01-01

402

Who Is a Typical Patient with Visceral Leishmaniasis? Characterizing the Demographic and Nutritional Profile of Patients in Brazil, East Africa, and South Asia  

PubMed Central

Drug-dosing recommendations for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment are based on the patients' weight or age. A current lack of demographic and anthropometric data on patients hinders (1) the ability of health providers to properly prepare for patient management, (2) an informed drug procurement for disease control, and (3) the design of clinical trials and development of new drug therapies in the different endemic areas. We present information about the age, gender, weight, and height of 29,570 consecutive VL patients presenting to 20 locations in six geographic endemic regions of Brazil, East Africa, Nepal, and India between 1997 and 2009. Our compilation shows substantial heterogeneity in the types of patients seeking care for VL at the clinics within the different locations. This suggests that drug development, procurement, and perhaps even treatment protocols, such as the use of the potentially teratogenic drug miltefosine, may require distinct strategies in these geographic settings.

Harhay, Michael O.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Vaillant, Michel; Chappuis, Francois; Lima, Maria Angeles; Ritmeijer, Koert; Costa, Carlos Henrique; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Balasegaram, Manica

2011-01-01

403

Genetically distinct strains of Cassava brown streak virus in the Lake Victoria basin and the Indian Ocean coastal area of East Africa.  

PubMed

Six isolates of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV, genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae) from the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda and Tanzania were characterized. Virus particles were 650 nm long. The complete coat protein (CP)-encoding sequences (1,101 nucleotides, nt) were 90.7-99.5 and 93.7-99.5% identical at the nt and amino acid (aa) levels, respectively. The 3' untranslated region was 225, 226 or 227 nt long. These eight isolates were only 75.8-77.5% (nt) and 87.0-89.9% (aa) identical when compared to the partial CP sequences (714 nt) of six CBSV isolates characterized previously from the costal lowlands of Tanzania and Mozambique. Hence, two genetically different and geographically separated populations of CSBV exist in East Africa. PMID:19184340

Mbanzibwa, D R; Tian, Y P; Tugume, A K; Mukasa, S B; Tairo, F; Kyamanywa, S; Kullaya, A; Valkonen, Jari P T

2009-01-30

404

Europe and Central Asia region Middle East and North Africa region population projects : 1992-93 edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population projections for all countries are prepared annually by the Bank's Population and Human Resources Department. They are published first in summary form in the Bank's World Development Report and later in greater detail as technical notes or working papers and, in alternate years, as a book. Separate papers cover the six Bank regions: (1) Africa (sub-Saharan); (2) Latin America

My T. Vu; Eduard Bos; Ann Levin

1992-01-01

405

Suboptimal management of rheumatoid arthritis in the Middle East and Africa: could the EULAR recommendations be the start of a solution?  

PubMed

Although the prevalence of RA in the Middle East and Africa is comparable with that in other parts of the world, evidence indicates that its management in this region is suboptimal for a variety of reasons, including misconceptions and misunderstandings about the disease's prevalence and severity in the region, compounded by the lack of local epidemiological and health-economic data around the disease; the perception that RA is a low priority compared with other more prevalent conditions; delayed diagnosis, referral and treatment; and a lack of a region-specific, evidence-based management approach. In the absence of such an approach, the EULAR treatment recommendations may provide a useful starting point for the creation of guidelines to suit local circumstances. However, although agreement with the EULAR recommendations is high, many barriers prevent their implementation in clinical practise, including lack of timely referral to rheumatologists; suboptimal use of synthetic DMARDs; poor access to biologics; lack of awareness of the burden of RA among healthcare professionals, patients and payers; and lack of appropriate staffing levels.To optimise the management of RA in the Middle East and Africa, will require a multi-pronged approach from a diverse group of stakeholders-including local, national and regional societies, such as the African League of Associations in Rheumatology and International League of Associations for Rheumatology, and service providers-to collect data on the epidemiology and burden of the disease; to increase awareness of RA and its burden among healthcare professionals, payers and patients through various educational programmes; to encourage early referral and optimise use of DMARDs by promoting the EULAR treatment recommendations; to encourage the development of locally applicable guidelines based on the EULAR treatment recommendations; and to facilitate access to drugs and the healthcare professionals who can prescribe and monitor them. PMID:23274756

El Zorkany, Bassel; Alwahshi, Humaid A; Hammoudeh, Mohamed; Al Emadi, Samar; Benitha, Romela; Al Awadhi, Adel; Bouajina, Elyes; Laatar, Ahmed; El Badawy, Samir; Al Badi, Marzooq; Al-Maini, Mustafa; Al Saleh, Jamal; Alswailem, Ramiz; Ally, Mahmood Moosa Tar Mahomed; Batha, Wafaa; Djoudi, Hachemi; El Garf, Ayman; El Hadidi, Khaled; El Marzouqi, Mohamed; Hadidi, Musa; Maharaj, Ajesh Basantharan; Masri, Abdel Fattah; Mofti, Ayman; Nahar, Ibrahim; Pettipher, Clive Allan; Spargo, Catherine Elizabeth; Emery, Paul

2012-12-30

406

Influence of two Wolbachia strains on population structure of East African Drosophila simulans.  

PubMed Central

Drosophila simulans is hypothesized to have originated in continental East Africa or Madagascar. In this study, we investigated evolutionary forces operating on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in populations of D. simulans from Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, and Kenya. Variation in mtDNA may be affected by positive selection, background selection, demographic history, and/or any maternally inherited factor such as the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia. In East Africa, the wRi and wMa Wolbachia strains associate with the siII or siIII mitochondrial haplogroups, respectively. To ask how polymorphism relates to Wolbachia infection status, we sequenced 1776 bp of mitochondrial DNA and 1029 bp of the X-linked per locus from 79 lines. The two southern populations were infected with wRi and exhibited significantly reduced mtDNA variation, while Wolbachia-uninfected siII flies from Tanzania and Kenya showed high levels of mtDNA polymorphism. These are the first known populations of D. simulans that do not exhibit reduced mtDNA variation. We observed no mitochondrial variation in the siIII haplogroup regardless of Wolbachia infection status, suggesting positive or background selection. These populations offer a unique opportunity to monitor evolutionary dynamics in ancestral populations that harbor multiple strains of Wolbachia.

Dean, Matthew D; Ballard, Kirrie J; Glass, Anne; Ballard, J William O

2003-01-01

407

Facing Kenya's energy predicament  

SciTech Connect

Kenya's bleak economic future is not helped by its dependence on foreign oil and lack of fossil-fuel reserves. At a conference on Kenya's energy needs, held in May 1979, options for averting a fuel-food crisis were considered. Recognition of Kenya's resource poverty and the immediate need to establish wood-fuel production products, charcoal conversion, conservation projects, and a research agenda were the main themes of that conference and the bases for a Kenyan energy policy.

O'Keefe, P.; Shakow, D.

1980-06-01

408

Usually deep earthquakes in East Africa: Constraints on the thermo-mechanical structure of a continental rift system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shudofsky [1985] has established that earthquakes associated with the East African rift system have well-constrained focal depths as great as 25-30 km. Using published heat flow measurements as a guide to the local geotherm, we find through simple stress envelope calculations that the deepest earthquakes probably occur in the lower crust in a region where the lithosphere is strong. These

Gordon N. Shudofsky; Sierd Cloetingh; Rinus Wortel; Seth Stein

1987-01-01

409

Existing capacity to manage pharmaceuticals and related commodities in East Africa: an assessment with specific reference to antiretroviral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: East African countries have in the recent past experienced a tremendous increase in the volume of antiretroviral drugs. Capacity to manage these medicines in the region remains limited. Makerere University, with technical assistance from the USAID supported Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) Program of Management Sciences for Health (MSH) established a network of academic institutions to build capacity

Paul J Waako; Richard Odoi-adome; Celestino Obua; Erisa Owino; Winnie Tumwikirize; Jasper Ogwal-okeng; Willy W Anokbonggo; Lloyd Matowe; Onesky Aupont

2009-01-01

410

The national biomass energy policy communication campaigns for community access to sustainable renewable energy in east Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective communication campaigns strategy for biomass energy innovations can create, raise, sustain and develop public awareness, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and behaviour towards early adoption of biomass energy innovations in the east African lake victoria basin. This is an audience survey of a national biomass energy policy communication campaigns in Uganda (Wakiso district), results indicate that some efforts have been made

Wilson Okaka; George A. Migunga; Josephine Wanyama Ngaira; Jacob Mbego

411

A Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of Land Use on Interannual Land-Cover Change in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize the short-term land-cover change processes that were detected in Eastern Africa,\\u000a based on a set of change metrics that allow for the quantification of interannual changes in vegetation productivity, changes\\u000a in vegetation phenology and a combination of both. We tested to what extent land use, fire activity and livestock grazing\\u000a modified the

S. Serneels; M. Linderman; E. F. Lambin

2007-01-01

412

Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas  

PubMed Central

Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission.

Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderon-Arguedas, Olger; Sanchez-Loria, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

2007-01-01

413

Social determinants of health and health inequities in Nakuru (Kenya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dramatic inequalities dominate global health today. The rapid urban growth sustained by Kenya in the last decades has created many difficulties that also led to worsening inequalities in health care. The continuous decline in its Human Development Index since the 1990s highlights the hardship that continues to worsen in the country, against the general trend of Sub-Saharan Africa. This

Esther Muchukuri; Francis R Grenier

2009-01-01

414

Footprints of a Pleistocene hominid in northern Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here that in 1978, while studying Koobi Fora Formation sedimentary environments and fossils in northern Kenya, we discovered single footprints and trails of large vertebrates in a number of different strata. One of these trails is that of a bipedal hominid, the second known record of early hominid tracks in Africa, the other being that reported at Laetoli,

Anna K. Behrensmeyer

1981-01-01

415

Shocking elephants: Fences and crop raiders in Laikipia District, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric fences and other barriers to prevent movement of elephants onto arable land are increasingly important conservation tools in Africa, as elephant populations become isolated by areas of increasing human settlement. In Laikipia District in Kenya, crop raiding by elephants is a serious problem, and many different types of elephant barriers have been built over the last 30 years. In

C. R. Thouless; J. Sakwa

1995-01-01

416

Additional Miocene to Pleistocene rhinoceroses of Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present paper is to place on record data on fossil Rhinocerotidae from Africa not included in earlier papers. Material has turned up in Africa in great quantities over the last decade, much from beautifully calibrated sequences especially in Ethiopia and the Baringo area of Kenya. Dreary descriptions of fossil teeth and bones are simply a prerequisite

D. A. Hooijer

1973-01-01

417

Structural style of the Turkana Rift, Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Multifold seismic reflection and geologic mapping in part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift system of northern Kenya reveal a major rift structure containing at least 3 km of Neogene sediment fill beneath Lake Turkana. This includes a series of half-graben basins, with centrally located quaternary volcanic centers, which are linked end-to-end by structural accommodation zones. Whereas the geometry of rifting is similar to that of the nonvolcanic western branch of the East African Rift system, the Turkana half-grabens are much smaller and may reflect extension of a thinner lithosphere or development of more closely spaced fracture patterns during rift evolution, or both.

Dunkelman, T.J.; Karson, J.A.; Rosendahl, B.R.

1988-03-01

418

Diet of Theropithecus from 4 to 1 Ma in Kenya.  

PubMed

Theropithecus was a common large-bodied primate that co-occurred with hominins in many Plio-Pleistocene deposits in East and South Africa. Stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel from T. brumpti (4.0-2.5 Ma) and T. oswaldi (2.0-1.0 Ma) in Kenya show that the earliest Theropithecus at 4 Ma had a diet dominated by C4 resources. Progressively, this genus increased the proportion of C4-derived resources in its diet and by 1.0 Ma, had a diet that was nearly 100% C4-derived. It is likely that this diet was comprised of grasses or sedges; stable isotopes cannot, by themselves, give an indication of the relative importance of leaves, seeds, or underground storage organs to the diet of this primate. Theropithecus throughout the 4- to 1-Ma time range has a diet that is more C4-based than contemporaneous hominins of the genera Australopithecus, Kenyanthropus, and Homo; however, Theropithecus and Paranthropus have similar proportions of C4-based resources in their respective diets. PMID:23733967

Cerling, Thure E; Chritz, Kendra L; Jablonski, Nina G; Leakey, Meave G; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

2013-06-03

419

Entrepreneurship and Socioeconomic Development in Africa: A Reality or Myth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of entrepreneurship education and training in Kenya as a strategic approach to addressing the unemployment problem among the school and university graduates in Kenya and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a critical review of the literature method to…

Nafukho, Fredrick M.; Muyia, Machuma A. Helen

2010-01-01

420

Entrepreneurship and socioeconomic development in Africa: a reality or myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of entrepreneurship education and training in Kenya as a strategic approach to addressing the unemployment problem among the school and university graduates in Kenya and Africa in general. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study adopted a critical review of the literature method to achieve its purpose and to answer the

Fredrick M. Nafukho; Machuma A. Helen Muyia

2010-01-01

421

Children's Creative Thinking in Kenya.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes performing arts and story-telling programs in Kenya that help to meet the needs for a creative framework and orientation to genuine learning that recovers some of the diminishing traditions of pre-colonial Kenya. Includes descriptions of the Kenya Schools Drama Festival, the resurgence of traditional story telling, and the Kenya Drama…

Gacheru, Margaretta; Smutny, Joan Franklin; Opiyo, Mumma

1999-01-01

422

Treponema pallidum Infection in the Wild Baboons of East Africa: Distribution and Genetic Characterization of the Strains Responsible  

PubMed Central

It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.

Harper, Kristin N.; Fyumagwa, Robert D.; Hoare, Richard; Wambura, Philemon N.; Coppenhaver, Dorian H.; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kilewo, Morris; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Armelagos, George J.; Knauf, Sascha

2012-01-01

423

Cotton in Africa: An Analysis of Differences in Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the early 1970's, cotton production in francophone Africa has been superior to that of anglophone countries. The paper examines differences in the output performance of six countries - francophone Cameroon and Senegal and anglophone Nigeria, Kenya, ...

U. Lele N. Van de Walle M. Gbetibouo

1989-01-01

424

The Ecology of Anopheles Mosquitoes under Climate Change: Case Studies from the Effects of Environmental Changes in East Africa Highlands  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to lead to latitudinal and altitudinal temperature increases. High elevation regions such as the highlands of Africa, and those that have temperate climate are most likely to be affected. The highlands of Africa generally exhibit low ambient temperatures. This restricts the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria, filariasis and O’nyong’nyong fever. The development and survival of larval and adult mosquitoes are temperature dependent, as are mosquito biting frequency and pathogen development rate. Given that various Anopheles species are adapted to different climatic conditions, changes in the climate could lead to changes in species composition in an area which may change the dynamics of mosquito-borne disease transmission. It is important to consider the effect of climate change on rainfall which is critical to the formation and persistence of mosquito breeding sites. In addition, environmental changes such as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the highlands; this could enhance the vectorial capacity of the Anopheles. This experimental data will be invaluable in facilitating the understanding of the impact of climate change on Anopheles.

Afrane, Yaw A.; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun

2013-01-01

425

Adherence to Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: A Substudy Cohort within a Clinical Trial of Serodiscordant Couples in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Randomized clinical trials of oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention have widely divergent efficacy estimates, ranging from 0% to 75%. These discrepancies are likely due to differences in adherence. To our knowledge, no studies to date have examined the impact of improving adherence through monitoring and/or intervention, which may increase PrEP efficacy, or reported on objective behavioral measures of adherence, which can inform PrEP effectiveness and implementation. Methods and Findings Within the Partners PrEP Study (a randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral tenofovir and emtricitabine/tenofovir among HIV-uninfected members of serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda), we collected objective measures of PrEP adherence using unannounced home-based pill counts and electronic pill bottle monitoring. Participants received individual and couples-based adherence counseling at PrEP initiation and throughout the study; counseling was intensified if unannounced pill count adherence fell to <80%. Participants were followed monthly to provide study medication, adherence counseling, and HIV testing. A total of 1,147 HIV-uninfected participants were enrolled: 53% were male, median age was 34 years, and median partnership duration was 8.5 years. Fourteen HIV infections occurred among adherence study participants—all of whom were assigned to placebo (PrEP efficacy?=?100%, 95% confidence interval 83.7%–100%, p<0.001). Median adherence was 99.1% (interquartile range [IQR] 96.9%–100%) by unannounced pill counts and 97.2% (90.6%–100%) by electronic monitoring over 807 person-years. Report of no sex or sex with another person besides the study partner, younger age, and heavy alcohol use were associated with <80% adherence; the first 6 months of PrEP use and polygamous marriage were associated with >80% adherence. Study limitations include potential shortcomings of the adherence measures and use of a convenience sample within the substudy cohort. Conclusions The high PrEP adherence achieved in the setting of active adherence monitoring and counseling support was associated with a high degree of protection from HIV acquisition by the HIV-uninfected partner in heterosexual serodiscordant couples. Low PrEP adherence was associated with sexual behavior, alcohol use, younger age, and length of PrEP use. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Haberer, Jessica E.; Baeten, Jared M.; Campbell, James; Wangisi, Jonathan; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Psaros, Christina; Safren, Steven A.; Ware, Norma C.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Donnell, Deborah; Krows, Meighan; Kidoguchi, Lara; Celum, Connie; Bangsberg, David R.

2013-01-01

426

Climatic belt dynamics on a tropical mountain under strong anthropogenic and zoogenic impact: Mt Tsebet (3946 m a.s.l.) in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The links between decreasing size and volume of the glaciers in East Africa's tropical mountains and the position of climatic belts on the one hand and global warming on the other have led to various interpretations on the occurrence of global warming and its magnitude and impacts in this part of the world. Here, we investigate the existence of temperature changes in East Africa and their impacts in high mountain regions by analyzing the position of climatically determined vegetation belts on Mt. Tsebet (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3946 m a.s.l.) in northern Ethiopia between 1986 and 2010. This 27 km² massif, which was first surveyed and photographed in 1868, was chosen as a study area because, unlike Simien Mountains or Bale Mts. (Ethiopia), the antropogenic and zoogenic impact on the environment has not been reduced through time. By choosing Tsebet, we avoided areas that have become recently protected (such as the above-mentioned national parks); there, trees that newly grow more upslope might be ascribed to the protected status. In protected areas, the position of upper cropland limits may be controlled by regulations that prevent farmers from expanding farmlands upslope, even if climatic and topographic conditions would allow doing so. On Tsebet, where direct human and zoogenic impact exists up to the highest elevations, we will establish the position of two temperature-linked vegetation limits (i.e. Erica arborea and Hordeum vulgare or barley) in 1986, 1994 and 2010, through fieldwork (February 2010) and aerial photo interpretation. Changes in population density in the villages around Mt. Tsebet will be analysed through house counting on aerial photographs. The fieldwork will include a stay in mountain villages, during which interviews will be done on dates and reasons for shifting of the cultivation limit. The results will be analysed through geostatistical methods and will provide a better understanding of the magnitude of air temperature and possibly precipitation changes in this region and of the interaction between climate forcing and direct human intervention in densely populated tropical mountains.

Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Yirga, Gidey; Guyassa, Etafa; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Poesen, Jean; Hemp, Andreas; Haile, Mitiku

2010-05-01

427

Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for HIV infection in women in East, Central and Southern Africa: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This is a critical, systematic review of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection in women in Southern, Central and Eastern Africa. In light of the interest in micro-credit programmes and other HIV prevention interventions structured to empower women through increasing women's access to funds and education, this review examines the epidemiological and public health literature, which ascertains the association between low SES using different measurements of SES and risk of HIV infection in women. Also, given the focus on structural violence and poverty as factors driving the HIV epidemic at a structural/ecological level, as advocated by Paul Farmer and others, this study examines the extent to which differences in SES between individuals in areas with generalized poverty affect risk for SES. Out of 71 studies retrieved, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria including 30 cross-sectional, one case-control and five prospective cohort or nested case-control studies. Thirty-five studies used at least one measurement of female's SES and fourteen also included a measurement of partner's SES. Studies used variables measuring educational level, household income and occupation or employment status at the individual and neighbourhood level to ascertain SES. Of the 36 studies, fifteen found no association between SES and HIV infection, twelve found an association between high SES and HIV infection, eight found an association between low SES and HIV infection and one was mixed. In interpreting these results, this review examines the role of potential confounders and effect modifiers such as history of STDs, number of partners, living in urban or rural areas and time and location of study in sub-Saharan Africa. It is argued that STDs and number of partners are on the causal pathway under investigation between HIV and SES and should not be adjusted as confounders in any analysis. In conclusion, it is argued that in low-income sub-Saharan Africans countries, where poverty is widespread, increasing access to resources for women may initially increase risk of HIV or have no effect on risk-taking behaviours. In some parts of Southern Africa where per capita income is higher and within-country inequalities in wealth are greater, studies suggest that increasing SES may decrease risk. This review concludes that increased SES may have differential effects on married and unmarried women and further studies should use multiple measures of SES. Lastly, it is suggested that the partner's SES (measured by education or income/employment) may be a stronger predictor of female HIV serostatus than measures of female SES. PMID:15688569

Wojcicki, Janet Maia

2005-01-01

428

Al Qaida Recruitment Trends in Kenya and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first glance, Kenya and Tanzania, the scene of some of Al Qaida's most impressive attacks, would appear to be fertile ground for recruiting militants into the global Islamist jihad. Substantial Muslim populations, widespread poverty, poor policing, inadequate border control, and systemic political and economic corruption would seem to make these East African countries potentially rich environments in which to

WILLIAM ROSENAU

2005-01-01

429

Turkana Grits - a Cretaceous braided alluvial system in northern Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rather spotty but excellent exposures of the Cretaceous-age Turkana Grits occur near the western shore of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya. These very coarse to pebbly arkosic sandstones and sandy conglomerates were derived from and rest unconformably upon Precambrian metamorphic basement; they are overlain by late Tertiary basaltic flows that comprise much of the volcanics in the East African Rift Zone.

Handford

1987-01-01

430

Foraging ecology of an endemic shorebird, the African Black Oystercatcher ( Haematopus moquini) on the south-east coast of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated small-medium (1-300 km) scale variation in the foraging ecology of the African Black Oystercatcher during its breeding season, using traditional diet analysis coupled with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2006 and 2007, on rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa at East London, Kenton and Port Elizabeth. Middens of shelled prey left by adults feeding their chicks were collected from five territories and the abundances of the collected prey on the foraging areas were estimated using quadrats. Blood samples from 45 birds (16 females, 10 males and 19 chicks) and tissues from the predominant prey species on the territory of each breeding pair were collected for isotope analysis. The Manly-Chesson selectivity index revealed that adults feed their chicks preferentially with the limpet Scutellastra cochlear and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, if available. A slight enrichment in the 15N stable-carbon isotope signature was observed towards the west in both prey and oystercatchers. Differences in isotope signatures between males and females from the same breeding pair indicate sex-related differences in the diet. Both had signatures indicating a mixed diet, but with males exhibiting a signature closer to that of limpets and females closer to that of mussels. In the single case where mussels were rare on the feeding territory, the two members of a pair showed carbon signatures which were identical and very similar to that of limpets. These results indicate dietary partitioning between genders in breeding pairs.

Kohler, Sophie; Bonnevie, Bo; McQuaid, Christopher; Jaquemet, Sébastien

2009-09-01

431

A study of day to day variability in geomagnetic field variations at the electrojet zone of Addis Ababa, East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic records obtained at low latitude geomagnetic observatory of Addis Ababa in Africa for the sunspot minimum year 1986 are analysed for day-to-day variability of the hourly amplitudes of Solar daily variation Direct measurement of the day to day variability were measured using a proven differential expression The variability was studied under quiet and disturbed conditions Quiet day day-to-day variability has consistent smooth and explicable diurnal and seasonal variation Day to day variability in the elements H and Z have certain degrees of correlation with one another on both quiet and disturbed conditions It is suggested that day to day variability is a reflection of solar daily variation and thus suggesting common cause for the two phenomena

Rabiu, A. B.; Nagarajan, N.; Ariyibi, E. A.; Olayanju, G. M.; Joshua, E. O.; Chukwuma, V. U.

432

Evolution of Rifting in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE recent report by Girdler et al.1 on the rift system of East Africa is of great interest because it presents a crustal model, based on new gravity observations, which suggests an intrusion of low velocity mantle material rising to the base of the sialic crust which underlies the eastern and western rift valleys of East Africa between 3° N

R. B. McConnell

1970-01-01

433

Evidence for anisotropy in north east Africa, from geographical and azimuthal distribution of Rayleigh wave velocities, and average upper mantle structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long period surface waves from WWSSN, GDSN, SRO and GEOSCOPE stations are analysed to obtain the dispersion of surface waves in the North-East of Africa. Lateral variations of Rayleigh wave velocities are retrieved simultaneously with the average azimuthal anisotropy. As a first result, the low velocity anomaly under the Red Sea is apparent at all periods. A second result is a nearly North-South direction of maximum group and phase velocities. This azimuthal anisotropy direction is in agreement with the direction of absolute plate motion in this region. Anisotropy is also evidenced by simultaneous inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion along the path TAM-AGD. In the resulting models, isotropic and anisotropic, very low mantle SV-wave velocities extend up to the Moho. For SH waves, we find a strong discrepancy with SV waves, SH-wave velocities being higher by 5% down to 200 km under the crust. This is characteristic of lithospheric polarization anisotropy. The S-wave anisotropy (polarization and azimuthal) found in this region, including the Red Sea, is compatible with the absolute motion of the African plate: it can be interpreted, considering the low lithospheric S-velocities, as a consequence of plastic flow in the weak lithosphere of an anomalous mantle. This anisotropy, evidenced here on S waves, may be due, as Pn and lithospheric S-wave anisotropy found in other continental areas, to dynamical processes related to plate motion.

Hadiouche, Ouiza; Jobert, Nelly

1988-04-01

434

Recombination and selection pressure in the ipomovirus sweet potato mild mottle virus (Potyviridae) in wild species and cultivated sweetpotato in the centre of evolution in East Africa.  

PubMed

Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) is the type member of the genus Ipomovirus (family Potyviridae). SPMMV occurs in cultivated sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.; Convolvulaceae) in East Africa, but its natural wild hosts are unknown. In this study, SPMMV was detected in 283 (9.8 %) of the 2864 wild plants (family Convolvulaceae) sampled from different agro-ecological zones of Uganda. The infected plants belonged to 21 species that were previously not known to be natural hosts of SPMMV. The size of the SPMMV coat protein (CP) was determined by Western blot analysis, N-terminal protein sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting. Data implicated a proteolytic cleavage site, VYVEPH/A, at the NIb/CP junction, resulting in a CP of approximately 35 kDa. Nearly complete sequences of 13 SPMMV isolates w