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Sample records for keratinocyte growth factor

  1. The Roles of Growth Factors in Keratinocyte Migration

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Paller, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The re-epithelialization of wounded skin requires the rapid and coordinated migration of keratinocytes (KC) into the wound bed. Almost immediately after wounding, cells present at or attracted to the wound site begin to secrete a complex milieu of growth factors. These growth factors exert mitogenic and motogenic effects on KCs, inducing the rapid proliferation and migration of KCs at the wound edge. Recent Advances: New roles for growth factors in KC biology are currently being discovered and investigated. This review will highlight the growth factors, particularly transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF-7), FGF-10, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which have conclusively been shown to be the most motogenic for KCs. Critical Issues: The cellular and molecular heterogeneity of wounded tissue makes establishing direct relationships between specific growth factors and KC migration difficult in situ. The absence of this complexity in simplified in vitro experimental models of migration makes the clinical relevance of the results obtained from these in vitro studies ambiguous. Future Directions: Deciphering the relationship between growth factors and KC migration is critical for understanding the process of wound healing in normal and disease states. Insights into the basic science of the effects of growth factors on KC migration will hopefully lead to the development of new therapies to treat acute and chronic wounds. PMID:25945284

  2. Effects of epidermal growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor on the growth of oropharyngeal keratinocytes in coculture with autologous fibroblasts in a three-dimensional matrix.

    PubMed

    Blaimauer, Karin; Watzinger, Elisabeth; Erovic, Boban M; Martinek, Helga; Jagersberger, Tamara; Thurnher, Dietmar

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering of oropharyngeal mucosa is rendered complex by the fact that oropharyngeal keratinocytes are difficult to culture in the long term and do not grow well after several subcultivations. Three populations of oropharyngeal keratinocytes were isolated by a method based on different levels of beta(1)-integrin expression. In particular, keratinocytes were isolated between cell fractions that adhere rapidly on collagen-IV-coated culture dishes (RAC-IV) and populations that are less adherent (RAC-IV-D). The total fraction of both subpopulations served as a control (RAC-IV-T). The epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were examined with regard to their effects on the growth of the three populations. Growth curves of all three cell fractions grown with or without EGF were generated, and different concentrations of EGF and KGF were tested. EGF did not change any growth characteristics of the cells, with the exception of the speed of growth. Best growth was achieved with a physiologic EGF concentration of 0.15-1.5 ng/ml and a KGF concentration of 15 ng/ml. Finally, we cocultured oropharyngeal keratinocytes and their autologous fibroblasts in a three-dimensional matrix using Matrigeltrade mark. Oropharyngeal keratinocytes grown in coculture formed larger colonies than keratinocytes grown without fibroblasts. In conclusion, we were able to optimize the supplement of EGF and KGF in standard medium for the long-term culture of primary oropharyngeal keratinocytes. The use of Matrigel as a scaffold for three-dimensional cocultures of oropharyngeal keratinocytes and fibroblasts might signify a step forward in the development of a transplantable mucosa construct. PMID:16804300

  3. Effects of UVB irradiation on keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and receptor (KGFR) expression in cultured human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Lee, H S; Kooshesh, F; Fujisawa, H; Sauder, D N; Kondo, S

    1996-06-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and its receptor (KGFR) are thought to play important roles in normal keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Since UVB radiation is known to influence keratinocyte growth, we sought to determine whether UVB would alter the expression of KGF and KGFR. Using a reverse-transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the present study examined the expression of KGF and KGFR mRNA in cultured normal human keratinocytes exposed to UVB irradiation. Total cellular RNA was extracted from cultured keratinocytes at various time points after irradiation, reverse transcribed and used for PCR amplification using primers specific for KGF and KGFR. Constitutive expression of KGFR mRNA, but not KGF mRNA, was detected in normal cultured human keratinocytes. After UVB irradiation at 300 J/m2, the KGF mRNA remained undetectable while the KGFR mRNA level was significantly decreased. The down-regulation of KGFR mRNA expression was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a decreased positive signal of KGFR in human keratinocytes after UVB irradiation. Our results suggest a possible role for the KGF-KGFR signalling pathway in the skin after exposure to UVB, and that UVB-induced growth inhibition of keratinocytes in hyperproliferative skin disorders may be related to downregulation of KGFR. PMID:8840153

  4. Expression and modulation of nerve growth factor in murine keratinocytes (PAM 212)

    SciTech Connect

    Tron, V.A.; Coughlin, M.D.; Jang, D.E.; Stanisz, J.; Sauder, D.N. )

    1990-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a polypeptide that is required for normal development and maintenance of the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems. Skin has been shown to contain relatively high amounts of NGF, which is in keeping with the finding that the quantity of NGF in a tissue is proportional to the extent of sympathetic innervation of that organ. Since the keratinocyte, a major cellular constituent of the skin, is known to produce other growth factors and cytokines, our experiments were designed to determine whether keratinocytes are a source of NGF. Keratinocyte-conditioned media from the keratinocyte cell line PAM 212 contained NGF-like activity, approximately 2-3 ng/ml, as detected by the neurite outgrowth assay. Freshly isolated BALB/c keratinocytes contained approximately 0.1 ng/ml. Using a cDNA probe directed against NGF, we demonstrated the presence of a 1.3-kb NGF mRNA in both PAM 212 and BALB/c keratinocytes. Since ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a potentially important modulating factor for cytokines in skin, we examined the effect of UV on NGF mRNA expression. Although UV initially inhibited the expression of keratinocyte NGF mRNA (4 h), by 24 h an induction of NGF mRNA was seen. The NGF signal could also be induced by phorbol esters. Thus, keratinocytes synthesize and express NGF, and its expression is modulated by UVB and phorbol esters.

  5. Keratinocyte growth factor 1 inhibits wound edge epithelial cell apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Firth, James D; Putnins, Edward E

    2004-01-01

    The ability of keratinocyte growth factor 1 to modulate apoptosis in the absence of proliferation was studied in vitro. A HaCaT scrape wound model was developed in which dense monolayers prior to wounding were cultured to quiescence in defined media with hydroxyurea at concentrations that blocked proliferation without loss of cell viability. Scrape wounding was then found to induce apoptosis, originating at the wound edge, but subsequently radiating away over a 24 h period to encompass areas not originally damaged. Keratinocyte growth factor 1 inhibited this radial progression of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner up to 20 ng per mL with induced migration present at the wound edge. The extent of this rescue was modulated by the concentration of Ca2+ prior to wounding. In control wound cultures apoptotic bodies were found in cells adjacent to the wound interface but were greatly reduced in keratinocyte-growth-factor-1-treated groups. Keratinocyte growth factor 1 receptor expression was significantly induced within two to three cell widths of the scraped wound edge, at levels far exceeding those found at the leading edge of a nonwounded epithelial sheet. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (1-5 ng per mL) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (10-50 ng per mL) exacerbated scrape-induced early apoptosis (1-4 h), but was largely ameliorated by coculture with keratinocyte growth factor 1. Keratinocyte growth factor 1 protection was associated with a reduction in both caspase-3 activation and cytokeratin-19 loss. Protected wound edges were also associated with the maintenance of e-cadherin expression and induction of beta1 integrin and actin stress fiber organization. These results suggest that keratinocyte growth factor 1 may play a role in limiting mechanically induced apoptotic processes at the epithelial wound edge in a manner that is distinct from its proliferative function. PMID:14962112

  6. Hematopoietic growth factors including keratinocyte growth factor in allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Einsele, Hermann

    2007-07-01

    The aim of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to cure patients of malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and immunodeficiency disorders by redirecting the immune system: the often described graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) or graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. Unfortunately, fulfillment of this goal is often hampered by relapse of the underlying disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or severe opportunistic infections, which account for the majority of post-transplantation deaths. Moreover, studies of long-term survivors of transplantation indicate an accelerated immune aging due to the transplantation procedure itself, preceding chemo- or radiotherapy, and acute and chronic GVHD. Significant advances have been made towards overcoming these obstacles by enhancing immune reconstitution with hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or erythropoietin (EPO) or through the application of cytokines. In addition, there are approaches to promote the thymic-dependent development of naive T cells, which are prepared for the interaction with a multitude of pathogens. Examples are the application of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), neuroendocrine hormones such as growth hormone or prolactin, sex hormone ablation, or the invention of a three-dimensional artificial thymus based on a cytomatrix. Might these measures result in a higher rate of healthy and fully recovered patients? Here we review progress in each of these areas. PMID:17631184

  7. Keratinocyte growth factor is a growth factor for type II pneumocytes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ulich, T R; Yi, E S; Longmuir, K; Yin, S; Biltz, R; Morris, C F; Housley, R M; Pierce, G F

    1994-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) administered as a single intratracheal injection causes a prominent dose-dependent proliferation of type II alveolar epithelial cells in the lungs of adult rats. The increase in mitotically active alveolar cells histologically appears as a micropapillary epithelial cell hyperplasia after 2 d and peaks after 3 d in the form of monolayers of cuboidal epithelial cells lining alveolar septae. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry confirmed the profound proliferative response induced by KGF. The hyperplastic alveolar lining cells contain immunoreactive surfactant protein B and are ultrastructurally noted to contain lamellar inclusions characteristic of surfactant-producing type II pneumocytes. Mild focal bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia is noted but is much less striking than the proliferation of type II pneumocytes. Large airways are unaffected by KGF. Daily intravenous injection of KGF is also able to cause pneumocyte proliferation. The normal adult rat lung constitutively expresses both KGF and KGF receptor mRNA, suggesting that endogenous KGF may be implicated in the paracrine regulation of the growth of pneumocytes. In conclusion, KGF rapidly and specifically induces proliferation and differentiation of type II pneumocytes in the normal adult lung. Images PMID:8132770

  8. Keratinocyte response to immobilized growth factors for enhanced dermal wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefonek-Puccinelli, Tracy Jane

    Chronic wounds cost billions of dollars per year to treat and wound care is limited to ineffective and/or expensive options. Chronic wounds are characterized by a failure to reepithelialize, as well as deficiencies in growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), normally present during wound healing. Our system described herein begins to tackle the problems associated with designing bioactive materials for chronic wound healing applications. We show that we can induce accelerated keratinocyte migration with photo-immobilized EGF and further control migration speed through the culture of cells on different types of gradient patterns of EGF. We also successfully immobilized IGF-1 while retaining its bioactivity, and further showed it induces directed keratinocyte migration, although not as potently as immobilized EGF. Potential synergy between co-immobilized IGF-1 and EGF was also investigated, although EGF continued to dominate the cellular response, and no significant increase in cell migration was achieved via the addition of IGF-1 to the system. To further understand cellular response to our immobilized growth factors, we investigated keratinocyte signaling and function in response to changes in EGF presentation. It was found that immobilized and soluble EGF can play different, yet complementary, roles in regulating keratinocyte function. Specifically, keratinocytes responded to immobilized EGF with high EGF receptor (EGFR) activation, accompanied by low proliferation and high migratory activity. In contrast, keratinocytes treated with soluble EGF displayed a highly proliferative, rather than migratory, phenotype. We then transitioned our photo-immobilization techniques to materials that may be more suitable as a wound dressing, such as silk fibroin films. Silk fibroin is a natural fiber with many desirable qualities for a biomaterial including high strength and elasticity, biocompatibility, a beta-keratin structure which closely mimics human keratin, and ease of fabrication and modification. These silk films can also provide topographical cues via simple cast molding of any feature on the micron scale. This system allowed simultaneous presentation of topographic cues, inhibitory and/or synergistic, with our chemotactic cues. Our preliminary data suggest keratinocytes remain viable on silk fibroin films, and that these films can be patterned with immobilized EGF to induce keratinocyte migration.

  9. Altered expression of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor in psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, P. W.; Murphy, F.; Cardinale, I.; Krueger, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the biological characteristics of psoriasis is excessive flaking of the skin. This is directly related to the marked hyperplasia of epidermal keratinocytes and to incomplete epidermal differentiation. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a potent mitogen for human keratinocytes, is expressed by stromal cells. Alterations in the KGF signaling pathway might account for the epidermal hyperplasia associated with psoriasis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the expression of KGF and its receptor (KGFR) in psoriasis tissue. KGF and KGFR mRNA levels were found to be frequently elevated in psoriatic skin specimens as compared with normal skin. Increased KGF transcript expression was localized to the dermal layer of the involved skin specimen using in situ hybridization. In contrast, KGFR transcript and protein expression was localized to the basal layer of keratinocytes in normal skin and to the basal and suprabasal layers of the psoriatic epidermis, coincident with the expanded proliferative keratinocyte pool. To identify molecules that might regulate KGFR expression we investigated the effects of various pharmacological agents and cytokines on KGFR synthesis by keratinocytes. Phorbol ester, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and ultraviolet B (UVB) treatment all led to substantial down-regulation of KGFR expression. The down-regulation of KGFR synthesis by UVB suggests a possible mechanism for the antiproliferative action of this agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Taken together, these results suggest that increased KGFR-mediated signaling in keratinocytes in the lesional epidermis might account in part for the epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9403712

  10. Nerve growth factor modulates keratinocyte proliferation in murine skin organ culture.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Lftl, M; Czarnetzki, B M

    1994-02-01

    Despite the fact that several cell types residing in or travelling through the skin are targets and/or sources of nerve growth factor (NGF), little is known about the role of NGF in skin development, physiology and disease. Employing a previously defined skin organ culture assay for studying the proliferation of murine keratinocytes in their natural tissue environment, we have assessed the effect of murine NGF (7S) on keratinocyte proliferation in intact skin derived from two defined stages of the murine hair cycle. We found that 10-200 ng/ml NGF stimulated epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in organ-cultured C57 BL-6 mouse skin in the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Follicle keratinocyte proliferation was stimulated by 100 ng/ml NGF in telogen skin organ culture, but this concentration of NGF inhibited both epidermal and follicle keratinocyte proliferation in organ culture of anagen skin. The latter inhibitory effect of NGF was abrogated by co-incubation with neutralizing anti-NGF antibodies or with the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine. The proliferation-modulatory effects of NGF were associated with the induction of significant mast cell degranulation, and were inhibited by cromoglycate co-administration. This is the first report of a modulatory, hair cycle-dependent effect of NGF on keratinocyte proliferation in situ, which may require the presence of mast cells. Our study supports the notion of auto- and paracrine functions of NGF in murine skin physiology, which can be further assessed in the physiologically relevant mouse model delineated here. PMID:8123570

  11. Nerve growth factor modulates keratinocyte proliferation in murine skin organ culture.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Paus R; Lftl M; Czarnetzki BM

    1994-02-01

    Despite the fact that several cell types residing in or travelling through the skin are targets and/or sources of nerve growth factor (NGF), little is known about the role of NGF in skin development, physiology and disease. Employing a previously defined skin organ culture assay for studying the proliferation of murine keratinocytes in their natural tissue environment, we have assessed the effect of murine NGF (7S) on keratinocyte proliferation in intact skin derived from two defined stages of the murine hair cycle. We found that 10-200 ng/ml NGF stimulated epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in organ-cultured C57 BL-6 mouse skin in the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Follicle keratinocyte proliferation was stimulated by 100 ng/ml NGF in telogen skin organ culture, but this concentration of NGF inhibited both epidermal and follicle keratinocyte proliferation in organ culture of anagen skin. The latter inhibitory effect of NGF was abrogated by co-incubation with neutralizing anti-NGF antibodies or with the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine. The proliferation-modulatory effects of NGF were associated with the induction of significant mast cell degranulation, and were inhibited by cromoglycate co-administration. This is the first report of a modulatory, hair cycle-dependent effect of NGF on keratinocyte proliferation in situ, which may require the presence of mast cells. Our study supports the notion of auto- and paracrine functions of NGF in murine skin physiology, which can be further assessed in the physiologically relevant mouse model delineated here.

  12. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Chun, Young-Jin; Lee, Ai-Young; Noh, Minsoo

    2015-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. PMID:25617811

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor-Peptide Improves Barrier Function and Proliferation in Human Keratinocytes After Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Kunzhong; Tian Yeping; Yin Liangjie; Zhang Mei; Beck, Lisa A.; Zhang, Bingrong; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang Lurong; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Epidermal keratinocytes, which can be severely damaged after ionizing radiation (IR), are rapid turnover cells that function as a barrier, protecting the host from pathogenic invasion and fluid loss. We tested fibroblast growth factor-peptide (FGF-P), a small peptide derived from the receptor-binding domain of FGF-2, as a potential mitigator of radiation effects via proliferation and the barrier function of keratinocytes. Methods and Materials: Keratinocytes isolated from neonatal foreskin were grown on transwells. After being exposed to 0, 5, or 10 Gy IR, the cells were treated with a vehicle or FGF-P. The permeability of IR cells was assessed by using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and a paracellular tracer flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) with Ussing chambers. The cell proliferation was measured with yellow tetrazolium salt (MTT) and tritiated thymidine ([{sup 3}H]-TdR) assays. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) was measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-like assay, and the proteins related to tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) were examined with Western blotting. We used a mouse model to assess the ability of FGF-P to promote the healing of skin {beta} burns created with a strontium applicator. Results: We found (1) FGF-P reduced the permeability of irradiated keratinocytes, as evidenced by increased TEER and decreased diffusion of FITC-BSA, both associated with the regulation of different proteins and levels of TJ and AJ; and (2) FGF-P enhanced the proliferation of irradiated keratinocytes, as evidenced by increased MTT activity and [{sup 3}H]-TdR incorporation, which was associated with activation of the ERK pathway; and (3) FGF-P promoted the healing of skin {beta} burns. Conclusions: FGF-P enhances the barrier function, including up-regulation of TJ proteins, increases proliferation of human keratinocytes, and accelerates the healing of skin {beta} burns. FGF-P is a promising mitigator that improves the proliferation and barrier function of keratinocytes after IR.

  14. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Chun, Young-Jin; Lee, Ai-Young; Noh, Minsoo

    2015-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced VEGF production in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). • Chemical allergens stimulate NHKs to produce VEGF. • VEGF production is preceded by IL-8 production in NHKs. • IFNγ, DNCB and formaldehyde increase lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription. • VEGF production in NHKs may be a biomarker for the prediction of potential contact allergens.

  15. Transforming growth factor beta1 induces differentiation in human papillomavirus-positive keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ozbun, M A; Meyers, C

    1996-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are implicated in the etiology of anogenital cancers. Expression of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins is believed to contribute to the carcinogenic process. Progressive loss of the ability to differentiate and resistance to the growth-inhibitory effects of endogenous signals also appear important in multistep tumorigenesis. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent growth inhibitor for a variety of cultured cells. There have been conflicting reports on the ability of TGF-beta1 to inhibit the growth of HPV-positive keratinocytes in monolayer cultures. We have employed the organotypic (raft) tissue culture system, which more accurately mimics the in vivo cellular environment and architecture. We have investigated the TGF-beta1 response of HPV-positive keratinocytes derived from neoplastic cervical biopsies. Growth of these cell lines as raft tissues showed that many were altered in the ability to stratify and synthesize differentiation-specific proteins. When the organotypic tissues were treated with TGF-beta1, a more complete differentiation of the keratinocytes was induced. Treatment with 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate gave similar results. TGF-beta1 treatment of HPV-positive raft epithelia led to a dose-dependent increase in E7 RNA expression in contrast to results from previous studies with monolayer cultures. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 interfered with the proliferation of HPV-positive cell lines grown in monolayer cultures. Our results suggest that loss of the ability to express markers of differentiation, a characteristic of malignancy, is a two-step process. The first step is reversible; the second is irreversible. PMID:8764055

  16. 17beta-estradiol enhances heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor production in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Naoko; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2005-04-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) enhances reepithelialization in wounds. Estrogen is known to promote cutaneous wound repair. We examined the in vitro effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on HB-EGF production by human keratinocytes. E2 or membrane-impermeable BSA-conjugated E2 (E2-BSA) increased HB-EGF secretion, mRNA level, and promoter activity in keratinocytes. E2 or E2-BSA enhanced in vitro wound closure in keratinocytes, and the closure was suppressed by anti-HB-EGF antibody. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1) sites on HB-EGF promoter were responsible for the E2- or E2-BSA-induced transactivation. Antisense oligonucleotides against c-Fos, c-Jun, and Sp1 blocked E2- or E2-BSA-induced HB-EGF transactivation. E2 or E2-BSA enhanced DNA binding and transcriptional activity of AP-1 and generated c-Fos/c-Jun heterodimers by inducing c-Fos expression. E2 or E2-BSA enhanced DNA binding and transcriptional activity of Sp1 in parallel with the enhancement of Sp1 phosphorylation. These effects of E2 or E2-BSA were not blocked by the nuclear estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 or anti-estrogen receptor-alpha or -beta antibodies but were blocked by inhibitors of G protein, phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC, PKC-alpha, and MEK1. These results suggest that E2 or E2-BSA may enhance HB-EGF production via activation of AP-1 and Sp1. These effects of E2 or E2-BSA may be dependent on membrane G protein-coupled receptors different from nuclear estrogen receptors and on the receptor-mediated activities of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC, PKC-alpha, and MEK1. E2 may enhance wound reepithelialization by promoting HB-EGF production in keratinocytes. PMID:15761212

  17. Keratinocyte growth factor functions in epithelial induction during seminal vesicle development.

    PubMed Central

    Alarid, E T; Rubin, J S; Young, P; Chedid, M; Ron, D; Aaronson, S A; Cunha, G R

    1994-01-01

    Development of the seminal vesicle (SV) is elicited by androgens and is dependent on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Androgenic signal transmission from the androgen-receptor-positive mesenchyme to the epithelium has been postulated to involve paracrine factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, is produced by stromal/mesenchymal cells and acts specifically on epithelial cells. The KGF transcript was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in newborn mouse SVs and by Northern blot analysis of RNA from cultured neonatal SV mesenchymal cells. Newborn SVs placed in organ culture undergo androgen-dependent growth and differentiation. Addition of a KGF-neutralizing monoclonal antibody to this system caused striking inhibition of both SV growth and branching morphogenesis. This inhibition was due to a decline in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, as the mesenchymal layer was not affected by anti-KGF treatment. When KGF (100 ng/ml) was substituted for testosterone in the culture medium, SV growth was approximately 50% that observed with an optimal dose of testosterone (10(-7) M). All of these findings suggest that KGF is present during a time of active SV morphogenesis and functions as an important mediator of androgen-dependent development. Images PMID:8302834

  18. Keratinocyte growth factor induces proliferation of hepatocytes and epithelial cells throughout the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Housley, R M; Morris, C F; Boyle, W; Ring, B; Biltz, R; Tarpley, J E; Aukerman, S L; Devine, P L; Whitehead, R H; Pierce, G F

    1994-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, was identified as a specific keratinocyte mitogen after isolation from a lung fibroblast line. Recently, recombinant (r)KGF was found to influence proliferation and differentiation patterns of multiple epithelial cell lineages within skin, lung, and the reproductive tract. In the present study, we designed experiments to identify additional target tissues, and focused on the rat gastrointestinal (GI) system, since a putative receptor, K-sam, was originally identified in a gastric carcinoma. Expression of KGF receptor and KGF mRNA was detected within the entire GI tract, suggesting the gut both synthesized and responded to KGF. Therefore, rKGF was administered to adult rats and was found to induce markedly increased proliferation of epithelial cells from the foregut to the colon, and of hepatocytes, one day after systemic treatment. Daily treatment resulted in the marked selective induction of mucin-producing cell lineages throughout the GI tract in a dose-dependent fashion. Other cell lineages were either unaffected (e.g., Paneth cells), or relatively decreased (e.g., parietal cells, enterocytes) in rKGF-treated rats. The direct effect of rKGF was confirmed by demonstrating markedly increased carcinoembryonic antigen production in a human colon carcinoma cell line, LIM1899. Serum levels of albumin were specifically and significantly elevated after daily treatment. These results demonstrate rKGF can induce epithelial cell activation throughout the GI tract and liver. Further, endogenous KGF may be a normal paracrine mediator of growth within the gut. Images PMID:7962522

  19. Emergence of the keratinocyte growth factor multigene family during the great ape radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, M J; Pech, M; Seuanez, H N; Rubin, J S; O'Brien, S J; Aaronson, S A

    1992-01-01

    The structural gene for human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, consists of three coding exons and two introns typical of other fibroblast growth factor loci. A portion of the KGF gene, located on chromosome 15, is amplified to approximately 16 copies in the human genome, and these highly related copies (which consist of exon 2, exon 3, the intron between them, and a 3' noncoding segment of the KGF transcript) are dispersed to multiple human chromosomes. The KGF-like sequences are transcriptionally active, differentially regulated in various tissues, and composed of three distinct classes of coding sequences that are 5% divergent from each other and from the authentic KGF sequence. Multiple copies of KGF-like genes were also discovered in the genomic DNAs of chimpanzee and gorilla but were not found in lesser apes (gibbon), Old World monkeys (African green monkey and macaques), mice, or chickens. The pattern of evolutionary occurrence suggests that a primordial KGF gene was amplified and chromosomally dispersed subsequent to the divergence of orangutan from African apes but before the trichotomous divergence of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla 5-8 million years ago. The appearance of a transcriptionally active and chromosomally dispersed multigene KGF family may have implications in the evolution of the great apes and humans. Images PMID:1409637

  20. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 intratracheal instillation significantly attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Jing; Tong, Lin; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yang, Dong; Bai, Chunxue; Song, Yuanlin; She, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Preservation or restoration of normal alveolar epithelial barrier function is crucial for pulmonary oedema resolution. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), a potent epithelial cell mitogen, may have a role in preventing ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), which occurs frequently in mechanically ventilated patients. The aim of the study was to test the role of KGF-2 in VILI in rats. Forty healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups, where rats in Groups HVZP (high-volume zero positive end-expiratory pressure) and HVZP+KGF-2 were given intratracheally equal PBS and 5 mg/kg KGF-2 72 hrs before 4 hrs HVZP ventilation (20 ml/kg), respectively, while PBS and KGF-2 were administered in the same manner in Groups Control and KGF-2, which underwent tracheotomy only with spontaneous breathing. Inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α, macrophage inflammatory protein 2), neutrophil and total protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and surfactant protein mRNA expression in lung tissue were detected; the number of alveolar type II cells, lung water content and lung morphology were also evaluated. The results indicate that pre-treatment with KGF-2 showed dramatic improvement in lung oedema and inflammation compared with HVZP alone, together with increased surfactant protein mRNA and alveolar type II cells. Our results suggest that KGF-2 might be considered a promising prevention for human VILI or other acute lung injury diseases. PMID:24650242

  1. Keratinocyte growth factor augments immune reconstitution after autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Lor, Karin; Guenaga, F. Javier; Pittaluga, Stefania; Mattapallil, Joseph; Chow, Catherine K.; Koup, Richard A.; Camphausen, Kevin; Nason, Martha C.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Donahue, Robert E.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic infections contribute to morbidity and mortality after peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation and are related to a deficient T-cell compartment. Accelerated T-cell reconstitution may therefore be clinically beneficent. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been shown to protect thymic epithelial cells in mice. Here, we evaluated immune reconstitution after autologous CD34+ PBPC transplantation in rhesus macaques conditioned with myeloablative total body irradiation in the absence or presence of single pretotal body irradiation or repeated peritransplant KGF administration. All KGF-treated animals exhibited a well-preserved thymic architecture 12 months after graft. In contrast, thymic atrophy was observed in the majority of animals in the control group. The KGF-treated animals showed higher frequencies of naive T cells in lymph nodes after transplantation compared with the control animals. The animals given repeated doses of KGF showed the highest levels of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and the lowest frequencies of Ki67+ T cells, which suggest increased thymic-dependent reconstitution in these animals. Of note, the humoral response to a T-celldependent neo-antigen was significantly higher in the KGF-treated animals compared with the control animals. Thus, our findings suggest that KGF may be a useful adjuvant therapy to augment T-cell reconstitution after human PBPC transplantation. PMID:17374737

  2. Keratinocyte growth factor augments immune reconstitution after autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Lor, Karin; Guenaga, F Javier; Pittaluga, Stefania; Mattapallil, Joseph; Chow, Catherine K; Koup, Richard A; Camphausen, Kevin; Nason, Martha C; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Donahue, Robert E; Blazar, Bruce R; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Douek, Daniel C

    2007-07-01

    Opportunistic infections contribute to morbidity and mortality after peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation and are related to a deficient T-cell compartment. Accelerated T-cell reconstitution may therefore be clinically beneficent. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been shown to protect thymic epithelial cells in mice. Here, we evaluated immune reconstitution after autologous CD34(+) PBPC transplantation in rhesus macaques conditioned with myeloablative total body irradiation in the absence or presence of single pretotal body irradiation or repeated peritransplant KGF administration. All KGF-treated animals exhibited a well-preserved thymic architecture 12 months after graft. In contrast, thymic atrophy was observed in the majority of animals in the control group. The KGF-treated animals showed higher frequencies of naive T cells in lymph nodes after transplantation compared with the control animals. The animals given repeated doses of KGF showed the highest levels of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and the lowest frequencies of Ki67(+) T cells, which suggest increased thymic-dependent reconstitution in these animals. Of note, the humoral response to a T-cell-dependent neo-antigen was significantly higher in the KGF-treated animals compared with the control animals. Thus, our findings suggest that KGF may be a useful adjuvant therapy to augment T-cell reconstitution after human PBPC transplantation. PMID:17374737

  3. Strengthening the Skin with Topical Delivery of Keratinocyte Growth Factor-1 Using a Novel DNA Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Chunqing; Lay, Frank; Ansari, Amir Mehdi; Rees, Donald J; Ahmed, Ali Karim; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Matsangos, Aerielle E.; Du, Junkai; Hosseini, Sayed Mohammad; Steenbergen, Charles; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Tabor, Aaron T.; Williams, James A; Liu, Lixin; Marti, Guy P; Harmon, John W

    2014-01-01

    Fragile skin, susceptible to decubitus ulcers and incidental trauma, is a problem particularly for the elderly and for those with spinal cord injury. Here, we present a simple approach to strengthen the skin by the topical delivery of keratinocyte growth factor-1 (KGF-1) DNA. In initial feasibility studies with the novel minimalized, antibiotic-free DNA expression vector, NTC8385-VA1, the reporter genes luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein were delivered. Transfection was documented when luciferase expression significantly increased after transfection. Microscopic imaging of enhanced green fluorescent proteintransfected skin showed green fluorescence in hair follicles, hair shafts, and dermal and superficial epithelial cells. With KGF-1 transfection, KGF-1 mRNA level and protein production were documented with quantitative reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Epithelial thickness of the transfected skin in the KGF group was significantly increased compared with the control vector group (26??2 versus 16??4 m) at 48 hours (P = 0.045). Dermal thickness tended to be increased in the KGF group (255??36 versus 162??16 m) at 120 hours (P = 0.057). Biomechanical assessment showed that the KGF-1treated skin was significantly stronger than control vectortransfected skin. These findings indicate that topically delivered KGF-1 DNA plasmid can increase epithelial thickness and strength, demonstrating the potential of this approach to restore compromised skin. PMID:24434934

  4. Intratracheal instillation of keratinocyte growth factor decreases hyperoxia-induced mortality in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Panos, R J; Bak, P M; Simonet, W S; Rubin, J S; Smith, L J

    1995-01-01

    Alveolar type II cell proliferation occurs after many forms of lung injury and is thought to play a critical role in alveolar epithelial repair. Keratinocyte growth factor/fibroblast growth factor 7 (KGF) has been shown to promote alveolar type II cell growth in primary culture and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in vivo. In this study, we used immunohistochemical analysis to determine the intrapulmonary distribution and cellular localization of recombinant human KGF (rhKGF) instilled into the trachea of rats. 6 h after administration, immunoreactive KGF was observed within the lung parenchyma and along alveolar epithelial cell membranes. By 18-24 h, KGF was detected intracellularly in alveolar epithelial cells and intraalveolar macrophages. Immunoreactive KGF was not demonstrable 48 h after delivery or in lung sections from PBS-treated animals. Intratracheal instillation of 5 mg/kg rhKGF stimulated a marked, time-dependent increase in the alveolar type II cell specific labeling index to a maximum level of 33 +/- 3% 48 h after rhKGF administration compared with 1.3 +/- 0.3% after PBS instillation. In addition, this increase in type II cell proliferation in vivo was documented by flow cytometric analysis of isolated type II cells which revealed a nearly fivefold increase in the proportion of cells traversing through the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. To test the hypothesis that KGFs effects on type II cells in vivo might affect the response to lung injury, rats were treated with rhKGF and exposed to hyperoxia. Animals that received 1 or 5 mg/kg rhKGF exhibited dramatically reduced mortality (P < 0.001, for both doses). Survival for animals treated with 0.1 mg/kg rhKGF was not significantly different from either untreated rats or animals treated with heat-denatured rhKGF. The lungs of rhKGF-treated animals that survived hyperoxia exposure had minimal hemorrhage and no exudate within the intraalveolar space. These experiments established that intratracheal administration of rhKGF stimulated alveolar type II cell proliferation in vivo and reduced hyperoxia-induced lung injury in rats. Directed delivery of KGF to the lungs may provide a therapeutic strategy to preserve or restore the alveolar epithelium during exposure to hyperoxia or other injurious agents. Images PMID:7560096

  5. Efficacy of keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin) for the treatment of caustic esophageal burns

    PubMed Central

    NUMANOĞLU, KEMAL VARIM; TATLI, DUYGU; BEKTAŞ, SIBEL; ER, EBUBEKIR

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment strategies against the development of corrosive esophageal strictures remain unsatisfactory. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of keratinocyte growth factor, in the form of palifermin, for the prevention of stricture development following esophageal caustic injuries in a rat model. A total of 32 female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, which included the control (C), burn (B), steroid (S) and steroid plus palifermin (S/P) groups. An experimental corrosive esophageal burn model was established in the B, S and S/P groups. Weight gain was recorded and histopathological evaluation was performed for each group. Weight gain in the S and B groups was compared with the control group and statistically significant differences were observed. In addition, statistically significant differences in weight gain were observed between the S/P group and the B group. Histopathologically, statistically significant differences were identified with regard to submucosal collagen deposition, muscularis mucosa and tunica muscularis damage when comparing the B group with the C group. In addition, statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the S and S/P groups with the B group. Furthermore, significant submucosal collagen deposition and tunica muscularis damage were observed in the S group when compared with the S/P group. The stenosis indexes in the C and S groups were significantly lower compared with the B group. In addition, the stenosis index in the S/P group was significantly lower compared with the S group. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate the effect of palifermin on corrosive esophageal burns. The addition of palifermin to the corrosive esophageal burn standard treatment regimen was found to reduce the degree of fibrosis and ameliorate histopathological damage in an experimental model of corrosive esophagitis in rats. PMID:25187801

  6. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Induces Gene Expression Signature Associated with Suppression of Malignant Phenotype of Cutaneous Squamous Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toriseva, Mervi; Ala-aho, Risto; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha; Grénman, Reidar; Kähäri, Veli-Matti

    2012-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor-7) is a fibroblast-derived mitogen, which stimulates proliferation of epithelial cells. The expression of KGF by dermal fibroblasts is induced following injury and it promotes wound repair. However, the role of KGF in cutaneous carcinogenesis and cancer progression is not known. We have examined the role of KGF in progression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. The expression of KGF receptor (KGFR) mRNA was lower in cutaneous SCCs (n = 6) than in normal skin samples (n = 6). Expression of KGFR mRNA was detected in 6 out of 8 cutaneous SCC cell lines and the levels were downregulated by 24-h treatment with KGF. KGF did not stimulate SCC cell proliferation, but it reduced invasion of SCC cells through collagen. Gene expression profiling of three cutaneous SCC cell lines treated with KGF for 24 h revealed a specific gene expression signature characterized by upregulation of a set of genes specifically downregulated in SCC cells compared to normal epidermal keratinocytes, including genes with tumor suppressing properties (SPRY4, DUSP4, DUSP6, LRIG1, PHLDA1). KGF also induced downregulation of a set of genes specifically upregulated in SCC cells compared to normal keratinocytes, including genes associated with tumor progression (MMP13, MATN2, CXCL10, and IGFBP3). Downregulation of MMP-13 and KGFR expression in SCC cells and HaCaT cells was mediated via ERK1/2. Activation of ERK1/2 in HaCaT cells and tumorigenic Ha-ras-transformed HaCaT cells resulted in downregulation of MMP-13 and KGFR expression. These results provide evidence, that KGF does not promote progression of cutaneous SCC, but rather suppresses the malignant phenotype of cutaneous SCC cells by regulating the expression of several genes differentially expressed in SCC cells, as compared to normal keratinocytes. PMID:22427941

  7. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) supports adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells through interaction with RGD-binding integrins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueqing; Hu Xiaobo; Tian Ruiyang; Wei Wangui; Hu Wei; Chen Xia; Han Wei; Chen Huayou; Gong Yi . E-mail: ygong@sibs.ac.cn

    2006-08-18

    Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is a newly identified member of angiopoietin-related proteins (ARPs)/angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls). AGF has been considered as a novel growth factor in accelerating cutaneous wound healing, as it is capable of stimulating keratinocytes proliferation as well as angiogenesis. But in our paper, we demonstrate that AGF stimulates keratinocytes proliferation only at high protein concentration, however, it can potently promote adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, we confirm that the adhesion and migration cellular events are mediated by RGD-binding integrins, most possibly the {alpha}{sub v}-containing integrins, by in vitro inhibition assays using synthetic competitive peptides. Our results strongly suggest that AGF is an integrin ligand as well as a mitogenic growth factor and theoretically participates in cutaneous wound healing in a more complex mechanism.

  8. The Effects of Adenoviral Transfection of the Keratinocyte Growth Factor Gene on Epidermal Stem Cells: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinping; Liang, Ling; Zhao, Pin; Uchida, Kenzo; Baba, Hisatoshi; Huang, Hong; Bai, Wenfang; Bai, Liming; Zhang, Mingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are characterized as slow-cycling, multi-potent, and self-renewing cells that not only maintain somatic homeostasis but also participate in tissue regeneration and repair. To examine the feasibility of adenoviral vector-mediated keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) gene transfer into in vitro-expanded ESCs, ESCs were isolated from samples of human skin, cultured in vitro, and then transfected with recombinant adenovirus (Ad) carrying the human KGF gene (AdKGF) or green fluorescent protein gene (AdGFP). The effects of KGF gene transfer on cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, cell surface antigen phenotype, and β-catenin expression were investigated. Compared to ESCs transfected with AdGFP, AdKGF-transfected ESCs grew well, maintained a high proliferative capacity in keratinocyte serum-free medium, and expressed high levels of β-catenin. AdKGF infection increased the number of ESCs in the G0/G1 phase and promoted ESCs entry into the G2/M phase, but had no effect on cell surface antigen phenotype (CD49f+/CD71−). The results suggest that KGF gene transfer can stimulate ESCs to grow and undergo cell division, which can be applied to enhance cutaneous wound healing. PMID:24170090

  9. Human skin model containing melanocytes: essential role of keratinocyte growth factor for constitutive pigmentation-functional response to α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and forskolin.

    PubMed

    Duval, Christine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Pouradier, Florence; Sextius, Peggy; Condom, Elodie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2012-12-01

    To study human skin pigmentation in a physiological in vitro model, we developed a pigmented reconstructed skin reproducing the three-dimensional architecture of the melanocyte environment and the interactions of melanocyte with its cellular partners, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts. Co-seeding melanocytes and keratinocytes onto a fibroblast-populated collagen matrix led to a correct integration of melanocytes within the epidermal basal layer, but melanocytes remained amelanotic even after supplementation with promelanogenic factors. Interestingly, normalization of keratinocyte differentiation using keratinocyte growth factor instead of epidermal growth factor finally allowed an active pigmentary system to develop, as shown by the expression of key melanogenic markers, the production, and transfer of melanosome-containing melanin into keratinocytes. Various degrees of constitutive pigmentation were reproduced using melanocytes from different skin phenotypes. Furthermore, induction of pigmentation was achieved by treatment with known propigmenting molecules, αMSH and forskolin, thus demonstrating the functionality of the pigmentary system. This pigmented full-thickness skin model therefore represents a highly relevant tool to study the role of cell-cell, cell-matrix, and mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the control of skin pigmentation. PMID:22646688

  10. Modulation of keratinocyte motility. Correlation with production of extracellular matrix molecules in response to growth promoting and antiproliferative factors.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, B. J.; Mitra, R. S.; Riser, B. L.; Dixit, V. M.; Varani, J.

    1988-01-01

    Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (KC) grown under conditions that maintain the undifferentiated state are highly motile. Migration of these cells as measured in two different assays (migration out of an agarose drop explant, and into micropore filters in a modified Boyden chamber), is stimulated by fibronectin (FN) and to a lesser extent by thrombospondin (TSP). In contrast, laminin (LN) inhibits KC migration. Cultivation of the cells for 1 day under conditions that induce differentiation (ie, in the presence of 1.4 mM Ca2+) suppresses KC motility. A number of soluble growth modulating polypeptide factors also influence KC migration. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulate KC motility. These factors simultaneously induce KC production of FN and a significant portion of the stimulated motility can be inhibited with antibodies to FN. EGF and somatomedin-C (SM-C), but not TGF-beta, also stimulate TSP production while EGF and SM-C (but not TGF-beta) induce KC proliferation. In contrast to these factors, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) inhibits KC production of both FN and TSP and concomitantly inhibits both motility and proliferation. These data suggest that KC properties essential for normal wound healing (ie, motility and proliferation) are regulated by both extracellular matrix molecules and soluble peptide factors. Finally, these effects of various growth promoting and antiproliferative factors on KCs may, in part, be mediated through alteration in the endogenous production of extracellular matrix molecules by KCs. Images Figure 2 PMID:2458044

  11. Non-coding Double-stranded RNA and Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Induce Growth Factor Expression from Keratinocytes and Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Adase, Christopher A; Borkowski, Andrew W; Zhang, Ling-Juan; Williams, Michael R; Sato, Emi; Sanford, James A; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-05-27

    A critical function for skin is that when damaged it must simultaneously identify the nature of the injury, repair barrier function, and limit the intrusion of pathogenic organisms. These needs are carried out through the detection of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and a response that includes secretion of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In this study, we analyzed how non-coding double-stranded RNA (dsRNAs) act as a DAMP in the skin and how the human cathelicidin AMP LL-37 might influence growth factor production in response to this DAMP. dsRNA alone significantly increased the expression of multiple growth factors in keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Furthermore, RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis found that multiple growth factors increase when cells are exposed to both LL-37 and dsRNA, a condition that mimics normal wounding. Quantitative PCR and/or ELISA validated that growth factors expressed by keratinocytes in these conditions included, but were not limited to, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC), betacellulin (BTC), EGF, epiregulin (EREG), and other members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily. These results identify a novel role for DAMPs and AMPs in the stimulation of repair and highlight the complex interactions involved in the wound environment. PMID:27048655

  12. Ispaghula (Plantago ovata) seed husk polysaccharides promote proliferation of human epithelial cells (skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts) via enhanced growth factor receptors and energy production.

    PubMed

    Deters, A M; Schröder, K R; Smiatek, T; Hensel, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrates, especially oligo- and polysaccharides, participate in the regulation of a broad range of biological activities, e. g., signal transduction, inflammation, fertilisation, cell-cell-adhesion and act as in vivo markers for the determination of cell types. In the present study, water-soluble (WS) and gel-forming polysaccharides (GF) of ispaghula seed husk (Plantago ovata Forsskal, Plantaginaceae) were characterised as neutral and acidic arabinoxylans and tested under in vitro conditions for regulating activities on cell physiology of human keratinocytes and human primary fibroblasts. Only water-soluble polysaccharides exhibited strong and significant effects on cell physiology of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Proliferation of cells of the spontaneously immortalised keratinocyte cell line HaCaT was significantly up-regulated in a dose-independent manner. Analysis of activated signal pathways by RNA analysis proved an effect of the acidic arabinoxylan on the expression of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in HaCaT cells. Differentiation behaviour of normal human keratinocytes (NHK) determined by involucrin was slightly influenced, due to the enhanced cell proliferation, leading to a cell-cell-mediated indirect induction of early differentiation. WS did not influence late differentiation, as determined by keratin K1 and K10 titres. PMID:15678371

  13. Bronchoalveolar sublineage specification of pluripotent stem cells: effect of dexamethasone plus cAMP-elevating agents and keratinocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Katsirntaki, Katherina; Mauritz, Christina; Olmer, Ruth; Schmeckebier, Sabrina; Sgodda, Malte; Puppe, Verena; Eggenschwiler, Reto; Duerr, Julia; Schubert, Susanne C; Schmiedl, Andreas; Ochs, Matthias; Cantz, Tobias; Salwig, Isabelle; Szibor, Marten; Braun, Thomas; Rathert, Christian; Martens, Andreas; Mall, Marcus A; Martin, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory progenitors can be efficiently generated from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, further targeted differentiation into bronchoalveolar sublineages is still in its infancy, and distinct specifying effects of key differentiation factors are not well explored. Focusing on airway epithelial Clara cell generation, we analyzed the effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone plus cAMP-elevating agents (DCI) on the differentiation of murine embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into bronchoalveolar epithelial lineages, and whether keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) might further influence lineage decisions. We demonstrate that DCI strongly induce expression of the Clara cell marker Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP). While KGF synergistically supports the inducing effect of DCI on alveolar markers with increased expression of surfactant protein (SP)-C and SP-B, an inhibitory effect on CCSP expression was shown. In contrast, neither KGF nor DCI seem to have an inducing effect on ciliated cell markers. Furthermore, the use of iPSCs from transgenic mice with CCSP promoter-dependent lacZ expression or a knockin of a YFP reporter cassette in the CCSP locus enabled detection of derivatives with Clara cell typical features. Collectively, DCI was shown to support bronchoalveolar specification of mouse PSCs, in particular Clara-like cells, and KGF to inhibit bronchial epithelial differentiation. The targeted in vitro generation of Clara cells with their important function in airway protection and regeneration will enable the evaluation of innovative cellular therapies in animal models of lung diseases. PMID:25316003

  14. A decisive function of transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling in tissue morphogenesis and differentiation of human HaCaT keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Buschke, Susanne; Stark, Hans-Jürgen; Cerezo, Ana; Prätzel-Wunder, Silke; Boehnke, Karsten; Kollar, Jasmin; Langbein, Lutz; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Boukamp, Petra

    2011-01-01

     The mechanism by which transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) regulates differentiation in human epidermal keratinocytes is still poorly understood. To assess the role of Smad signaling, we engineered human HaCaT keratinocytes either expressing small interfering RNA against Smads2, 3, and 4 or overexpressing Smad7 and verified impaired Smad signaling as decreased Smad phosphorylation, aberrant nuclear translocation, and altered target gene expression. Besides abrogation of TGFβ-dependent growth inhibition in conventional cultures, epidermal morphogenesis and differentiation in organotypic cultures were disturbed, resulting in altered tissue homeostasis with suprabasal proliferation and hyperplasia upon TGFβ treatment. Neutralizing antibodies against TGFβ, similar to blocking the actions of EGF-receptor or keratinocyte growth factor, caused significant growth reduction of Smad7-overexpressing cells, thereby demonstrating that epithelial hyperplasia was attributed to TGFβ-induced “dermis”-derived growth promoting factors. Furthermore impaired Smad signaling not only blocked the epidermal differentiation process or caused epidermal-to-mesenchymal transition but induced a switch to a complex alternative differentiation program, best characterized as mucous/intestinal-type epithelial differentiation. As the same alternative phenotype evolved from both modes of Smad-pathway interference, and reduction of Smad7-overexpression caused reversion to epidermal differentiation, our data suggest that functional TGFβ/Smad signaling, besides regulating epidermal tissue homeostasis, is not only essential for terminal epidermal differentiation but crucial in programming different epithelial differentiation routes. PMID:21289094

  15. Keratinocyte growth factor supports pulmonary innate immune defense through maintenance of alveolar antimicrobial protein levels and macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jason C; Wu, Huixing; Noel, John G; Ramser, Benjamin J; Pitstick, Lori; Saito, Atsushi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos M; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-05-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is an epithelial mitogen that has been reported to protect the lungs from a variety of toxic and infectious insults. In prior studies we found that recombinant human KGF accelerates clearance of bacteria from the murine lung by augmenting the function of alveolar macrophages (AM). In this study we tested the hypothesis that endogenous KGF plays a role in the maintenance of innate pulmonary defense against gram-negative bacterial infections. KGF-deficient mice exhibited delayed clearance of Escherichia coli from the lungs, attenuated phagocytosis by AM, and decreased antimicrobial activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, due in part to reductions in levels of surfactant protein A, surfactant protein D, and lysozyme. These immune deficits were accompanied by lower alveolar type II epithelial cell counts and reduced alveolar type II epithelial cell expression of collectin and lysozyme genes on a per cell basis. No significant between-group differences were detected in selected inflammatory cytokines or BAL inflammatory cell populations at baseline or after bacterial challenge in the wild-type and KGF-deficient mice. A single intranasal dose of recombinant human KGF reversed defects in bacterial clearance, AM function, and BAL fluid antimicrobial activity. We conclude that KGF supports alveolar innate immune defense through maintenance of alveolar antimicrobial protein levels and functions of AM. Together these data demonstrate a role for endogenous KGF in maintenance of normal pulmonary innate immune function. PMID:26919897

  16. A protective role for keratinocyte growth factor in a murine model of chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Luis . E-mail: borgesl@amgen.com; Rex, Karen L.; Chen, Jennifer N.; Wei, Ping; Kaufman, Stephen; Scully, Sheila; Pretorius, James K.; Farrell, Catherine L.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the activity of palifermin (rHuKGF) in a murine model of mucosal damage induced by a radiotherapy/chemotherapy (RT/CT) regimen mimicking treatment protocols used in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A model of mucosal damage induced by RT/CT was established by injecting female BDF1 mice with cisplatin (10 mg/kg) on Day 1; 5-fluorouracil (40 mg/kg/day) on Days 1-4, and irradiation (5 Gy/day) to the head and neck on Days 1-5. Palifermin was administered subcutaneously on Days -2 to 0 (5 mg/kg/day) and on Day 5 (5 mg/kg). Evaluations included body weight, organ weight, keratinocyte growth factor receptor expression, epithelial thickness, and cellular proliferation. Results: Initiation of the radiochemotherapeutic regimen resulted in a reduction in body weight in control animals. Palifermin administration suppressed weight loss and resulted in increased organ weight (salivary glands and small intestine), epithelial thickness (esophagus and tongue), and cellular proliferation (tongue and salivary glands). Conclusions: Administration of palifermin before RT/CT promotes cell proliferation and increases in epithelial thickness in the oral mucosa, salivary glands, and digestive tract. Palifermin administration before and after RT/CT mitigates weight loss and a trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa and salivary glands, suggesting that palifermin use should be investigated further in the RT/CT settings, in which intestinal mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction are predominant side effects of cytotoxic therapy.

  17. Reduction of radiochemotherapy-induced early oral mucositis by recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin): Experimental studies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, Wolfgang . E-mail: doerr@rcs.urz.tu-dresden.de; Baessler, Stefan; Reichel, Sandra; Spekl, Kathrin

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF or palifermin) on oral mucositis induced by radiochemotherapy in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) and/or 5-fluorouracil were given before single dose irradiation, combined with palifermin before or after the treatment, or both. Daily fractionated irradiation for 2 weeks was followed by graded test doses. With additional chemotherapy in Week 1, palifermin was given before radiotherapy and at the end of the first week, or additionally at the end of Week 2. Radiochemotherapy in Week 2 was combined with palifermin at the end of Weeks 1 and 2, Weeks 1, 2, and 3, or additionally before radiotherapy. Ulceration of mouse tongue mucosa was analyzed as the endpoint. Results: The dose associated with ulcer induction in 50% of the mice (ED{sub 50}) for single-dose irradiation was 11.5 {+-} 0.7 Gy. Palifermin increased the ED{sub 50} to about 19 Gy in all protocols tested. Similar values were observed when chemotherapy was added before irradiation. With fractionated irradiation, palifermin increased the ED{sub 50} for test irradiation from 5.7 {+-} 1.5 Gy to 12-15 Gy, depending on the administration protocol. With chemotherapy in Week 1, two palifermin injections had no significant effect, but a third injection increased the ED{sub 50} to 13 Gy. With chemotherapy in Week 2, all palifermin protocols resulted in ED{sub 50} values of 13-14 Gy. Conclusion: A marked increase in oral mucosal radiation tolerance by palifermin was found, which was preserved in combinations with chemotherapy using cisplatin and/or 5-fluorouracil.

  18. Keratinocyte growth factor augments pulmonary innate immunity through epithelium-driven, GM-CSF-dependent paracrine activation of alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huixing; Suzuki, Takuji; Carey, Brenna; Trapnell, Bruce C; McCormack, Francis X

    2011-04-29

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is an epithelial mitogen that has been reported to protect the lungs from a variety of insults. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that KGF augments pulmonary host defense. We found that a single dose of intrapulmonary KGF enhanced the clearance of Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa instilled into the lungs 24 h later. KGF augmented the recruitment, phagocytic activity, and oxidant responses of alveolar macrophages, including lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide release and zymosan-induced superoxide production. Less robust alveolar macrophage recruitment and activation was observed in mice treated with intraperitoneal KGF. KGF treatment was associated with increased levels of MIP1γ, LIX, VCAM, IGFBP-6, and GM-CSF in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Of these, only GM-CSF recapitulated in vitro the macrophage activation phenotype seen in the KGF-treated animals. The KGF-stimulated increase in GM-CSF levels in lung tissue and alveolar lining fluid arose from the epithelium, peaked within 1 h, and was associated with STAT5 phosphorylation in alveolar macrophages, consistent with epithelium-driven paracrine activation of macrophage signaling through the KGF receptor/GM-CSF/GM-CSF receptor/JAK-STAT axis. Enhanced bacterial clearance did not occur in response to KGF administration in GM-CSF(-/-) mice, or in mice treated with a neutralizing antibody to GM-CSF. We conclude that KGF enhances alveolar host defense through GM-CSF-stimulated macrophage activation. KGF administration may constitute a promising therapeutic strategy to augment innate immune defenses in refractory pulmonary infections. PMID:21343299

  19. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-2 in alkali-burned and intact rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianqiu; Dou, Guifang; Zheng, Long; Yang, Ting; Jia, Xuechao; Tang, Lu; Huang, Yadong; Wu, Wencan; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2015-07-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), an effective agent in the development of epithelial tissue and regeneration during corneal wound healing, is a potential therapeutic option to treat the corneal diseases with corneal epithelial defects. However the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of KGF-2 have not been explored yet in eye upon topical application. Using (125)I-labeled recombinant human KGF-2 ((125)I-rhKGF-2), tissue distribution of rhKGF-2 in alkali-burned and control rabbit eyes was studied. Our results revealed that (125)I-rhKGF-2 was distributed to all eye tissues examined. The highest radioactivity level was found in the cornea, followed by iris, sclera, ciliary body, lens, aqueous humor, vitreous body, and serum in a greatest to least order. The levels of (125)I-rhKGF-2 were higher in corneas of alkali-burned eyes than those in control eyes though without statistical significance. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax of rhKGF-2 in the rabbit corneas were 3.4 h, 135.2 ng/ml, and 0.5 h, respectively. In iris, lens, aqueous humor, and tear, t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax values were 6.2, 6.5, 5.2, and 2.5 h; 23.2, 4.5, 24.1, and 29,498.9 ng/ml; and 1.0, 0.5, 0.5, and 1.0 h, respectively. Predominant and rapid accumulation of rhKGF-2 in corneas suggests that therapeutic doses of rhKGF-2 could be delivered by topical application for treatment of corneal diseases. PMID:25987499

  20. trans-3,4'-Dimethyl-3-hydroxyflavanone, a hair growth enhancing active component, decreases active transforming growth factor beta2 (TGF-beta2) through control of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on the surface of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Michiyo; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2008-03-01

    trans-3,4'-Dimethyl-3-hydroxyflavanone (t-flavanone) is a synthetic compound with hair growth enhancing activity that is effective against male pattern alopecia. t-Flavanone was designed as a derivative of astilbin, the active hair growth enhancing component of Hypericum perforatum extracts. This study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of hair growth enhancement by t-flavanone. We investigated the effects of t-flavanone on transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a known catagen-inducing factor induced in hair papilla cells by male hormone. When t-flavanone was added to cocultures of human hair papilla cells and human keratinocytes, there was no change in the total level of TGF-beta2. However, levels of active TGF-beta2 were reduced, suggesting the involvement of t-flavanone in the activation pathway of TGF-beta2. In order to investigate the effects of t-flavanone on TGF-beta2 activation by human keratinocytes, we evaluated the level of active TGF-beta2 converted from the inactive form in t-flavanone-treated human keratinocytes. The amount of active TGF-beta2 was reduced compared with controls suggesting that t-flavanone suppresses the TGF-beta2 activation cascade in human keratinocytes. We then examined the activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), the rate-limiting enzyme in the TGF-beta2 activation cascade, in t-flavanone-treated human keratinocytes. We found that t-flavanone reduces uPA activity on the keratinocyte surface. t-Flavanone is a hair growth enhancing component that has a novel mechanism of action which suppresses TGF-beta2 activation, and thereby is expected to have therapeutic effects on other types of alopecia in addition to male pattern alopecia. PMID:18310908

  1. The protective effect of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor on radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liguang; Brizel, David M.; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Samulski, Thaddeus V.; Farrell, Catherine L.; Larrier, Nicole; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko . E-mail: vujas@radonc.duke.edu

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced lung toxicity is a significant dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy for thoracic tumors. Recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) has been shown to be a mitogen for type II pneumocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rHuKGF prevents or ameliorates the severity of late lung damage from fractionated irradiation in a rat model. Methods and materials: Female Fisher 344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a dose of 40 Gy/5 fractions/5 days. rHuKGF at dose of 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg was given via a single intravenous injection 10 min after the last fraction of irradiation. Animals were followed for 6 months after irradiation. Results: The breathing rate increased beginning at 6 weeks and reached a peak at 14 weeks after irradiation. The average breathing frequencies in the irradiated groups with rHuKGF (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg) treatment were significantly lower than that in the group receiving radiation without rHuKGF (116.5 {+-} 1.0 and 115.2 {+-} 0.8 vs 123.5 {+-} 1.2 breaths/min, p < 0.01). The severity of lung fibrosis and the level of immunoreactivity of integrin {alpha}v{beta}6, TGF{beta}1, type II TGF{beta} receptor, Smad3, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 were significantly decreased only in the group receiving irradiation plus high-dose rHuKGF treatment compared with irradiation plus vehicle group, suggesting a dose response for the effect of rHuKGF. Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate that rHuKGF treatment immediately after irradiation protects against late radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity. These results suggest that restoration of the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium via rHuKGF stimulation may downregulate the TGF-{beta}-mediated fibrosis pathway. These data also support the use of rHuKGF in a clinical trial designed to prevent radiation-induced lung injury.

  2. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  3. A Novel Signaling Pathway of Tissue Kallikrein in Promoting Keratinocyte Migration: Activation of Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), and by PAR1 inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK-antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR1-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation. PMID:19879874

  4. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  5. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 maintains the assembly of keratin into desmosomes in keratinocytes by regulating protease-activated receptor 2-dependent p38 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kanemaru, Ai; Sawaguchi, Akira; Yamamoto, Koji; Baba, Takashi; Lin, Chen-Yong; Johnson, Michael D; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1; official symbol SPINT1) is a membrane-associated serine proteinase inhibitor abundantly expressed in epithelial tissues. Genetically engineered mouse models demonstrated that HAI-1 is critical for epidermal function, possibly through direct and indirect regulation of cell surface proteases, such as matriptase and prostasin. To obtain a better understanding of the role of HAI-1 in maintaining epidermal integrity, we performed ultrastructural analysis of Spint1-deleted mouse epidermis and organotypic culture of an HAI-1 knockdown (KD) human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. We found that the aggregation of tonofilaments to desmosomes was significantly reduced in HAI-1-deficient mouse epidermis with decreased desmosome number. Similar findings were observed in HAI-1 KD HaCaT organotypic cultures. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was activated in response to HAI-1 insufficiency. Treatment of HAI-1 KD HaCaT cells with a p38 inhibitor abrogated the above-observed ultrastructural abnormalities. The activation of p38 induced by the loss of HAI-1 likely resulted from enhanced signaling of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), because its silencing abrogated the enhanced activation of p38. Consequently, treatment of HAI-1 KD HaCaT cells with a serine protease inhibitor, aprotinin, or PAR-2 antagonist alleviated the abnormal ultrastructural phenotype in organotypic culture. These results suggest that HAI-1 may have a critical role in maintaining normal keratinocyte morphology through regulation of PAR-2-dependent p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. PMID:25842366

  6. Storage stability of keratinocyte growth factor-2 in lyophilized formulations: effects of formulation physical properties and protein fraction at the solid-air interface.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Dilip; Gonschorek, Christoph; Cicerone, Marcus T; Xu, Yemin; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2014-10-01

    Lyophilized formulations of keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) were prepared with a range of disaccharide (sucrose or trehalose) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mass ratios. Protein degradation was assessed as a function of time of storage of the dried formulations at 40, 50 and 60°C. Lyophilized and stored samples were rehydrated, and protein degradation was quantified by measuring loss of monomeric protein with size exclusion chromatography and by determining chemical degradation in the soluble fraction with reverse-phase chromatography. The secondary structure of the protein in the lyophilized formulations was studied with infrared spectroscopy. The magnitudes of degradation were compared the key physical properties of the formulations including retention of protein native secondary structure, glass transition temperature (Tg), inverse mean square displacements 〈u(2)〉(-1) for hydrogen atoms (fast β relaxation), and the relaxation time τ(β), which correlates with relaxation due to fast Johari-Goldstein motions in the glass (Xu et al., 2013) [1]. In addition, specific surface areas of the lyophilized formulations were determined by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of krypton adsorption isotherms and used to estimate the fraction of the KGF-2 molecules residing at the solid-air interface. KGF-2 degradation rates were highest in formulations wherein the protein's structure was most perturbed, and wherein β relaxations were fastest, but the dominant factor governing KGF-2 degradation in freeze-dried formulations was the fraction of the protein found at the glass solid-air interface. PMID:24859390

  7. Storage Stability of Keratinocyte Growth Factor-2 in Lyophilized Formulations: Effects of Formulation Physical Properties and Protein Fraction at the Solid-Air Interface

    PubMed Central

    Devineni, Dilip; Gonschorek, Christoph; Cicerone, Marcus T; Xu, Yemin; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    Lyophilized formulations of keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) were prepared with a range of disaccharide (sucrose or trehalose) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mass ratios. Protein degradation was assessed as a function of time of storage of the dried formulations at 40, 50 and 60 °C. Lyophilized and stored samples were rehydrated, and protein degradation was quantified by measuring loss of monomeric protein with size exclusion chromatography and by determining chemical degradation in the soluble fraction with reverse-phase chromatography. The secondary structure of the protein in the lyophilized formulations was studied with infrared spectroscopy. The magnitudes of degradation were compared the key physical properties of the formulations including retention of protein native secondary structure, glass transition temperature (Tg), inverse mean square displacements −1 for hydrogen atoms (fast β relaxation), and the relaxation time τβ, which correlates with relaxation due to fast Johari-Goldstein motions in the glass[1]. In addition, specific surface areas of the lyophilized formulations were determined by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of krypton adsorption isotherms and used to estimate the fraction of the KGF-2 molecules residing at the solid-air interface. KGF-2 degradation rates were highest in formulations wherein the protein’s structure was most perturbed, and wherein β relaxations were fastest, but the dominant factor governing KGF-2 degradation in freeze-dried formulations was the fraction of the protein found at the glass solid-air interface. PMID:24859390

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of a mutant of keratinocyte growth factor-2 on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat model of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Chen, Huihua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cai, Xin; Zou, Minji; Xu, Tao; Wang, Min; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Donggang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) has been testified to be a multifunctional growth factor, which can stimulate the regeneration and reconstruction of epidermis, corium and mucosa. Its effect on Crohn’s disease has hitherto not been evaluated. Here, we investigated the preventive and therapeutic actions of STEA, a mutant of human KGF-2 with high activity, on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of Crohn’s disease. Methods: Rats with TNBS-induced colitis were treated with STEA and clinical scores were evaluated. Body weight, mortality, macroscopic and microscopic damage of the colonic tissue were examined. The levels of inflammatory cytokines in serum were detected by ELISA, the T cell subpopulations and the cell cycle of intestinal epithelial cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Both preventive and therapeutic administration of STEA significantly ameliorated body weight loss, diarrhea, and intestinal inflammation, reduced the high mortality and histopathologic damage of rats with TNBS-induced colitis. The serum level of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-6 were markedly decreased in colitis rats treated with STEA. The CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were reduced with STEA administration at early stage of colitis. In addition, STEA treatment could promote the growth of intestinal epithelial cells by increasing the cell proportion in S phase of cell cycle and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Both preventive and therapeutic administration of STEA could ameliorate the colonic damages in rats with TNBS-induced colitis. STEA might be a promising option for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. PMID:27158345

  9. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Gene Electroporation into Skeletal Muscle as a Novel Gene Therapeutic Approach for Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tobinaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Furukawa, Katsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Miyazaki, Takuro; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a progressive disease with airspace destruction and an effective therapy is needed. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes pulmonary epithelial proliferation and has the potential to induce lung regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using KGF gene therapy for treatment of a mouse emphysema model induced by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Eight-week-old BALB/c male mice treated with intra-tracheal PPE administration were transfected with 80 μg of a recombinant human KGF (rhKGF)-expressing FLAG-CMV14 plasmid (pKGF-FLAG gene), or with the pFLAG gene expressing plasmid as a control, into the quadriceps muscle by electroporation. In the lung, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was augmented, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) and KGF receptor (KGFR) were co-expressed in PCNA-positive cells. Moreover, endogenous KGF and KGFR gene expression increased significantly by pKGF-FLAG gene transfection. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed that the PaO2 level was not significantly reduced on day 14 after PPE instillation with pKGF-FLAG gene transfection compared to that of normal mice. These results indicated that KGF gene therapy with electroporation stimulated lung epithelial proliferation and protected depression of pulmonary function in a mouse emphysema model, suggesting a possible method of treating pulmonary emphysema. PMID:26160987

  10. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Gene Electroporation into Skeletal Muscle as a Novel Gene Therapeutic Approach for Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tobinaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Furukawa, Katsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Miyazaki, Takuro; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-06-29

    Pulmonary emphysema is a progressive disease with airspace destruction and an effective therapy is needed. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes pulmonary epithelial proliferation and has the potential to induce lung regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using KGF gene therapy for treatment of a mouse emphysema model induced by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Eight-week-old BALB/c male mice treated with intra-tracheal PPE administration were transfected with 80 ?g of a recombinant human KGF (rhKGF)-expressing FLAG-CMV14 plasmid (pKGF-FLAG gene), or with the pFLAG gene expressing plasmid as a control, into the quadriceps muscle by electroporation. In the lung, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was augmented, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) and KGF receptor (KGFR) were co-expressed in PCNA-positive cells. Moreover, endogenous KGF and KGFR gene expression increased significantly by pKGF-FLAG gene transfection. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed that the PaO2 level was not significantly reduced on day 14 after PPE instillation with pKGF-FLAG gene transfection compared to that of normal mice. These results indicated that KGF gene therapy with electroporation stimulated lung epithelial proliferation and protected depression of pulmonary function in a mouse emphysema model, suggesting a possible method of treating pulmonary emphysema. PMID:26160987

  11. The Inflammasome and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Are Involved in the Staphylococcus aureus-Mediated Induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Lena; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is an important pathogen causing various infections including those of the skin. Keratinocytes are able to sense invading S. aureus and to initiate a fast defense reaction by the rapid release of innate defense mediators such as antimicrobial peptides and cytokines. There is increasing evidence that the cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, which both signal through the IL-1 receptor, play an important role in cutaneous defense against S. aureus. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the underlying mechanisms leading to the S. aureus-induced IL-1alpha and IL-1beta expression in keratinocytes. Infection of human primary keratinocytes with S. aureus led to the induction of gene expression and protein secretion of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. Full S. aureus-induced IL-1 protein release required the inflammasome components caspase-1 and ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) whereas gene induction of IL-1alpha and IL-beta by S. aureus was not dependent on caspase-1 and ASC. Since patients receiving anti-cancer therapy by inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) often suffer from skin infections caused by S. aureus we additionally evaluated whether the EGFR pathway may be involved in the IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induction by S. aureus. Inactivation of the EGFR with a blocking antibody decreased the S. aureus-mediated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induction in primary keratinocytes. Moreover, the use of siRNA experiments revealed that ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and A Metalloprotease 17), a metalloproteinase known to mediate the shedding and release of EGFR ligands, was required for full induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in keratinocytes infected with S. aureus. A failure of keratinocytes to adequately upregulate IL-1alpha and IL-1beta may promote S. aureus skin infections. PMID:26808616

  12. Purification and growth of melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r)-defective primary murine melanocytes is dependent on stem cell factor from keratinocyte-conditioned media

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Timothy L.; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D’Orazio, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a transmembrane Gs-coupled surface protein found on melanocytes that binds melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and mediates activation of adenylyl cyclase and generation of the second messenger cAMP. MC1R regulates growth and differentiation of melanocytes and protects against carcinogenesis. Persons with loss-of-function polymorphisms of MC1R tend to be UV-sensitive (fair-skinned and with a poor tanning response) and are at high risk for melanoma. Mechanistic studies of the role of MC1R in melanocytic UV responses, however, have been hindered in part because Mc1r-defective primary murine melanocytes have been difficult to culture in vitro. Until now, effective growth of murine melanocytes has depended on cAMP stimulation with adenylyl cyclase activating or phosphodiesterase inhibiting agents. However, rescuing cAMP in the setting of defective MC1R signaling would be expected to confound experiments directly testing MC1R function on melanocytic UV responses. Here we report a novel method of culturing primary murine melanocytes in the absence of pharmacologic cAMP stimulation by incorporating conditioned supernatants containing stem cell factor (SCF) derived from primary keratinocytes. Importantly, this method seems to permit similar pigment expression by cultured melanocytes as that found in the skin of their parental murine strains. This novel approach will allow mechanistic investigation into MC1R’s role in protection against UV-mediated carcinogenesis and determination of the role of melanin pigment subtypes on UV-mediated melanocyte responses. PMID:19633898

  13. AMPK regulation of the growth of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Asish K. . E-mail: aksaha@bu.edu; Persons, Kelly; Safer, Joshua D.; Luo Zhijun; Holick, Michael F.; Ruderman, Neil B.

    2006-10-20

    AMP kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensing enzyme that responds to cellular energy depletion by increasing processes that generate ATP and inhibiting others that require ATP but are not acutely necessary for survival. In the present study, we examined the relationship between AMPK activation and the growth (proliferation) of cultured human keratinocytes and assessed whether the inhibition of keratinocyte growth by vitamin D involves AMPK activation. In addition, we explored whether the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation as they approach confluence could be AMPK-related. Keratinocytes were incubated for 12 h with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-{beta}-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). At concentrations of 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} M, AICAR inhibited keratinocyte growth by 50% and 95%, respectively, based on measurements of thymidine incorporation into DNA. It also increased AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (P-AMPK and P-ACC) and decreased the concentration of malonyl CoA confirming that AMPK activation had occurred. Incubation with the thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (10{sup -6} M) caused similar alterations in P-AMPK, P-ACC, and cell growth. In contrast, the well known inhibition of keratinocyte growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (10{sup -7} and 10{sup -6} M) was not associated with changes in P-AMPK or P-ACC. Like most cells, the growth of keratinocytes diminished as they approached confluence. Thus, it was of note that we found a progressive increase in P-AMPK (1.5- to 2-fold, p < 0.05) as keratinocytes grown in control medium went from 25% to 100% confluence. In conclusion, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of AMPK acts as a signal to diminish the proliferation of cultured keratinocytes as they approach confluence. They also suggest that AMPK activators, such as AICAR and troglitazone, inhibit keratinocyte growth and that the inhibition of cell growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} is AMPK-independent.

  14. Identification of Keratinocyte Growth Factor as a Target of microRNA-155 in Lung Fibroblasts: Implication in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Benoit; Puisségur, Marie-Pierre; Lebrigand, Kevin; Robbe-Sermesant, Karine; Bertero, Thomas; Lino Cardenas, Christian L.; Courcot, Elisabeth; Rios, Géraldine; Fourre, Sandra; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Marcet, Brice; Cardinaud, Bruno; Barbry, Pascal; Mari, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are critical in regulating many aspects of vertebrate embryo development, and for the maintenance of homeostatic equilibrium in adult tissues. The interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme are believed to be mediated by paracrine signals such as cytokines and extracellular matrix components secreted from fibroblasts that affect adjacent epithelia. In this study, we sought to identify the repertoire of microRNAs (miRNAs) in normal lung human fibroblasts and their potential regulation by the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-β. Methodology/Principal Findings MiR-155 was significantly induced by inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β while it was down-regulated by TGF-β. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in human fibroblasts induced modulation of a large set of genes related to “cell to cell signalling”, “cell morphology” and “cellular movement”. This was consistent with an induction of caspase-3 activity and with an increase in cell migration in fibroblasts tranfected with miR-155. Using different miRNA bioinformatic target prediction tools, we found a specific enrichment for miR-155 predicted targets among the population of down-regulated transcripts. Among fibroblast-selective targets, one interesting hit was keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, FGF-7), a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, which owns two potential binding sites for miR-155 in its 3′-UTR. Luciferase assays experimentally validated that miR-155 can efficiently target KGF 3′-UTR. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that only one out of the 2 potential sites was truly functional. Functional in vitro assays experimentally validated that miR-155 can efficiently target KGF 3′-UTR. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using a mouse model of lung fibrosis showed that miR-155 expression level was correlated with the degree of lung fibrosis. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly suggest a physiological function of miR-155 in lung fibroblasts. Altogether, this study implicates this miRNA in the regulation by mesenchymal cells of surrounding lung epithelium, making it a potential key player during tissue injury. PMID:19701459

  15. [Keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions: I. Production by the keratinocytes of soluble factors stimulating the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Delaporte, E; Croute, F; Vincent, C; Bonnefoy, J Y; Robert, J; Thivolet, J; Nicolas, J F

    1989-10-01

    Epidermal cells produce IL-1 and contra IL-1 which respectively stimulate and decrease fibroblast proliferation. In order to get better insight into the nature of keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions, we have analyzed the effect of soluble factors produced by unstimulated normal human keratinocytes and keratinocyte cell lines on the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts. The results were compared to these obtained with human recombinant IL-1 and IL-2. We observed that: 1) normal keratinocytes (monolayers or stratified) released in the culture medium a factor stimulating fibroblast proliferation by 45 to 160%; 2) supernatants of unstimulated PAM 212 keratinocyte cell line also contained the stimulatory activity; 3) addition of IL-1 beta to the culture medium at concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1.000 U/ml induced a dose-dependent increase in fibroblast proliferation, whereas IL-2 was ineffective; 4) gel filtration analysis (ACA 54) of serum-free supernatant showed that the activity could be eluted from 3 peaks (Mw ranging from 10 to 20 kD). The present data show that unstimulated normal human keratinocytes produce soluble factor(s) (maybe related to IL-1) which stimulate human dermal fibroblast proliferation and which could be of major importance in the modulation of fibroblast metabolism, in vivo. PMID:2616203

  16. Induction of ΔNp63 by the Newly Identified Keratinocyte-Specific Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Pathway with Smad2 and IκB Kinase α in Squamous Cell Carcinoma12

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Nahoko; Katoh, Iyoko; Tomimori, Yoshiya; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; Nakao, Atsuhito; Ikawa, Yoji; Kurata, Shun-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The expression of p63 (TP63/p51) occurs in the basal cells of stratified epithelia and is strongly enhanced at the early stages of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck, skin, cervix, and others. We analyzed a promoter/enhancer region (2kΔN) that drives the predominant expression of ΔNp63 for sensitivity to Smad signaling pathways. Reporter assays in HepG2 cells showed a moderate activation of 2kΔN by Smad2 and IκB kinase α (IKKα), partners of the newly identified keratinocyte-specific transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, but not by other Smad molecules. In A431 cells, 2kΔN was activated by Smad2 and IKKα, for which a Smad binding element (SMD2) at -204 was essential. Binding of Smad2 to the chromosomal SMD2 site was detectable. The association of Smad2 with IKKα was evident in the nucleus of A431, accounting for the enhancement of ΔNp63 expression by TGF-β. Moreover, both ΔNp63 and IKKα were necessary to maintain the noninvasive phenotype of this cell line. FaDu, an invasive, Smad4-deficient SCC, also allowed 2kΔN transactivation by transfected Smad2 in the presence of endogenous IKKα. Reflecting the lack of chromosomal SMD2-Smad2 association and the absence of nuclear IKKα, however, endogenous ΔNp63 was not controlled by TGF-β or IKKα in FaDu. SCC tissue arrays showed nuclear accumulation of IKKα and p63 intensification in well-differentiated noninvasive lesions. This study indicates that p63 is a target gene of the proposed keratinocyte-specific TGF-β signal pathway for suppression of the malignant conversion of SCC. PMID:21170261

  17. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  18. Keratinocyte growth factor and androgen blockade work in concert to protect against conditioning regimen-induced thymic epithelial damage and enhance T-cell reconstitution after murine bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ryan M.; Highfill, Steven L.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Taylor, Patricia A.; Boyd, Richard L.; Holländer, Georg A.

    2008-01-01

    Myeloablative conditioning results in thymic epithelial cell (TEC) injury, slow T-cell reconstitution, and a high risk of opportunistic infections. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) stimulates TEC proliferation and, when given preconditioning, reduces TEC injury. Thymocytes and TECs express androgen receptors, and exposure to androgen inhibits thymopoiesis. In this study, we have investigated whether TEC stimulation via preconditioning treatment with KGF and leuprolide acetate (Lupron), 2 clinically approved agents, given only before conditioning would circumvent the profound TEC and associated T-cell deficiency seen in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Only combined treatment with KGF plus leuprolide acetate normalized TEC subset numbers and thymic architecture. Thymopoiesis and thymic output were supranormal, leading to the accelerated peripheral reconstitution of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells with a broad Vβ repertoire and decreased homeostatic T-cell proliferation. Combined therapy facilitated T:B cooperativity and enabled a B-cell humoral response to a CD4 T cell–dependent neoantigen challenge soon after BMT. In vivo antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses and clearance of a live pathogen was superior with combined versus individual agent therapy. Thus, KGF combined with androgen blockade represents a novel approach to restore thymic function and facilitates the rapid recovery of peripheral T-cell function after allogeneic BMT. PMID:18334670

  19. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate inflammatory cytokine-induced impairment of AT-II cells through a keratinocyte growth factor-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIWEI; HUANG, SHA; ZHANG, JUNHUA; FENG, CHANGJIANG; GAO, DONGYUN; YAO, BIN; WU, XU; FU, XIAOBING

    2016-01-01

    Lung epithelium restoration subsequent to injury is of concern in association with the outcomes of diverse inflammatory lung diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may promote epithelial repair subsequent to inflammatory injury, however the mechanism that mediates this effect remains unclear. The current study examined the role of MSCs in alveolar type II epithelial cell (AT-II cell) restoration subsequent to an inflammatory insult. AT-II cells were firstly exposed to inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, then were co-cultured with MSCs in Transwell for 72 h. Cell proliferation, expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A) and expression of the α1 subunit were evaluated respectively by the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, western blotting and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) small interfering RNA (siRNA) was applied to knockdown the main cytoprotective factors in the MSCs. Subsequent to an inflammatory insult, AT-II cells were observed to be impaired, exhibiting the characteristics of injured cell morphology, reduced cell proliferation and reduced expression of SP-A and the α1 subunit. Co-culture with MSCs significantly ameliorated these cell impairments, while these benefits were weakened by the application of KGF siRNA. Simultaneously, expression levels of phosphorylated (p-) protein kinase B (AKT) and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in AT-II cells were upregulated by MSCs, suggesting activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. These data demonstrate that administration of MSCs to the inflammation-insulted AT-II cells may ameliorate the impairments through a KGF-dependent PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27035760

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate inflammatory cytokine-induced impairment of AT-II cells through a keratinocyte growth factor-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiwei; Huang, Sha; Zhang, Junhua; Feng, Changjiang; Gao, Dongyun; Yao, Bin; Wu, Xu; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-05-01

    Lung epithelium restoration subsequent to injury is of concern in association with the outcomes of diverse inflammatory lung diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may promote epithelial repair subsequent to inflammatory injury, however the mechanism that mediates this effect remains unclear. The current study examined the role of MSCs in alveolar type II epithelial cell (AT‑II cell) restoration subsequent to an inflammatory insult. AT‑II cells were firstly exposed to inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β, then were co‑cultured with MSCs in Transwell for 72 h. Cell proliferation, expression of surfactant protein A (SP‑A) and expression of the α1 subunit were evaluated respectively by the Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, western blotting and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) small interfering RNA (siRNA) was applied to knockdown the main cytoprotective factors in the MSCs. Subsequent to an inflammatory insult, AT‑II cells were observed to be impaired, exhibiting the characteristics of injured cell morphology, reduced cell proliferation and reduced expression of SP‑A and the α1 subunit. Co‑culture with MSCs significantly ameliorated these cell impairments, while these benefits were weakened by the application of KGF siRNA. Simultaneously, expression levels of phosphorylated (p‑) protein kinase B (AKT) and p‑mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in AT‑II cells were upregulated by MSCs, suggesting activation of the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) pathway. These data demonstrate that administration of MSCs to the inflammation-insulted AT-II cells may ameliorate the impairments through a KGF-dependent PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27035760

  2. Expression of paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c (PITX2c) in epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ge; Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747; Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Guangxi, Nanning, 530023 ; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Choi, Tae-Young; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Sin; Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 ; Ou, Bai-sheng; Kim, Sooil; Lee, Young Ho; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-702 ; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 ; Kim, Chang Deok

    2010-11-15

    Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) has been implicated as one of the genes responsible for Rieger syndrome. It has been also shown to play a central role during development. In this study, we investigated the functional role of PITX2 in keratinocyte differentiation. RT-PCR analysis showed that PITX2c isoform was predominantly expressed in a differentiation-dependent manner. Consistent with, immunohistochemical staining showed that PITX2 expression was increased in the upper layer of epidermis. When PITX2c was overexpressed in cultured keratinocytes by a recombinant adenovirus, the differentiation markers such as involucrin and loricrin were significantly increased at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, PITX2c overexpression led to the decrease of cell growth, concomitantly with the upregulation of cell cycle-related genes p21. To investigate the effect of PITX2c in vivo, we microinjected PITX2c expression vector into zebrafish embryo. Interestingly, overexpression of PITX2c in zebrafish embryo led to the formation of horn-like structure and thickening of epidermis, together with the increase of keratin 8 (K8) expression. These results suggest that PITX2c has a role in proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Palifermin (Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor) for the Treatment of Inadequate CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Recovery in Patients with HIV-1 Infection on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Hongying; Bordi, Rebeka; Zheng, Lu; Gross, Barry H.; Landay, Alan L.; Spritzler, John; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Benson, Constance; Aberg, Judith; Tebas, Pablo; Haas, David W.; Tiu, Jennifer; Coughlin, Kristine; Purdue, Lynette; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor CD4 lymphocyte recovery on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with reduced function of the thymus. Palifermin (keratinocyte growth factor), by providing support to the thymic epithelium, promotes lymphopoiesis in animal models of bone marrow transplantation and graft-versus-host disease. Methods In AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5212, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 99 HIV-infected patients on ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels ≤200 copies/mL for ≥6 months and CD4 lymphocyte counts <200 cells/mm3 were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive once daily intravenous administrations of placebo or 20, 40, or 60 µg/kg of palifermin on 3 consecutive days. Results The median change in CD4+ T-cell count from baseline to week 12 was not significantly different between the placebo arm [15 (-16, 23) cells/mm3] and the 20-μg/kg dose [11 (2, 32) cells/mm3], the 40-μg/kg dose [12 (−2, 25) cells/mm3], or the 60-μg/kg dose arm [8 (−13, 35) cells/mm3] of palifermin. No significant changes were observed in thymus size or in the number of naïve T cells or recent thymic emigrants. Conclusions Palifermin in the doses studied was not effective in improving thymic function and did not raise CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts despite virologically effective ART. PMID:24815851

  4. Kinetics of growth and differentiation of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the interrelationship between replication and differentiation in cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. Measures of both parameters were made using newly developed methods to quantify the rate at which keratinocytes replicate and the rate at which they withdraw from the cell cycle. Keratinocyte replication was measured by determining the cell doubling time, labeling index, and cell cycle duration. Cell cycle length was measured using a double label assay that determines the length of time between two successive phases of DNA synthesis. The first DNA synthesis phase was marked by labeling keratinocytes with /sup 14/C-thymidine. At the next round of DNA synthesis, cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a heavy analog of thymidine. The cell cycle length is given by the time required for the /sup 14/C-labeled DNA to become double labeled. To measure keratinocyte differentiation, the rate at which cells withdraw from the cell cycle was determined. To measure withdrawal, the percentage of cells labeled by a pulse of /sup 14/C-thymidine that failed to undergo a second cycle of DNA synthesis, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was determined. Cells which failed to undergo a second cycle of synthesis were considered to have differentiated and withdrawn from the cell cycle.

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids selectively inhibit growth in neoplastic oral keratinocytes by differentially activating ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Eric Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs)—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and its metabolite docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—inhibit cancer formation in vivo, but their mechanism of action is unclear. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation and inhibition have both been associated with the induction of tumour cell apoptosis by n-3 PUFAs. We show here that low doses of EPA, in particular, inhibited the growth of premalignant and malignant keratinocytes more than the growth of normal counterparts by a combination of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The growth inhibition of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lines, but not normal keratinocytes, by both n-3 PUFAs was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) autophosphorylation, a sustained phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and its downstream target p90RSK but not with phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase target Akt. Inhibition of EGFR with either the EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 or an EGFR-blocking antibody inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the blocking antibody partially antagonized growth inhibition by EPA but not by DHA. DHA generated more reactive oxygen species and activated more c-jun N-terminal kinase than EPA, potentially explaining its increased toxicity to normal keratinocytes. Our results show that, in part, EPA specifically inhibits SCC growth and development by creating a sustained signalling imbalance to amplify the EGFR/ERK/p90RSK pathway in neoplastic keratinocytes to a supraoptimal level, supporting the chemopreventive potential of EPA, whose toxicity to normal cells might be reduced further by blocking its metabolism to DHA. Furthermore, ERK1/2 phosphorylation may have potential as a biomarker of n-3 PUFA function in vivo. PMID:23892603

  6. Amphiregulin carboxy-terminal domain is required for autocrine keratinocyte growth.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Stefan W; Johnson, Jessica L; Li, Yong; Rittié, Laure; Elder, James T

    2010-08-01

    The EGFR ligand amphiregulin (AREG) has been implicated as an important autocrine growth factor in several epithelial malignancies and in psoriasis, a hyperproliferative skin disorder. To characterize the mechanisms by which AREG regulates autocrine epithelial cell growth, we transduced human keratinocytes (KCs) with lentiviral constructs expressing tetracycline (TET)-inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA). TET-induced expression of AREG shRNA markedly reduced autocrine extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, strongly inhibited autocrine KC growth with an efficiency similar to metalloproteinase and EGFR inhibitors, and induced several markers of KC differentiation, including keratins 1 and 10. Addition of various concentrations of exogenous EGFR ligands to KC cultures reversed the growth inhibition in response to AREG-blocking antibodies but not to shRNA-mediated AREG knockdown. Lentivirus-mediated expression of the full-length AREG transmembrane (TM) precursor, but not of the AREG extracellular domain, markedly reversed the shRNA-mediated growth inhibition and morphological changes, and strongly reduced the induction of multiple markers of KC differentiation. Taken together, our data show that autocrine human KC growth is highly dependent on the AREG TM precursor protein and strongly suggest a previously unreported function of the metalloproteinase-processed carboxy (C)-terminal domain of AREG. PMID:20428186

  7. UV-induced degradation of collagen I is mediated by soluble factors released from keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, Daniel; Dong, Kelly; Smiles, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Photoaging is a complex condition but its hallmark is the destruction of dermal collagen. This has been attributed to the direct activation of fibroblast matrix metalloproteinases by solar UV. However, we report here that unirradiated fibroblasts increase metalloproteinase production and digest collagen when exposed to cell culture media from irradiated keratinocytes. Enhanced DNA repair in the keratinocytes ameliorates this response. This suggests that soluble factors induced by DNA damage in UV-exposed epidermal keratinocytes signal collagen degradation by fibroblasts in the dermis. This motif of DNA damage in keratinocytes producing effects on other cell types mediated by soluble factors was first identified by Kripke and colleagues in studying UV-induced immune suppression. PMID:18173703

  8. Influence of different buffers (HEPES/MOPS) on keratinocyte cell viability and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Dias, Kássia de Carvalho; Barbugli, Paula Aboud; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of the buffers 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) and 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) on keratinocyte cell viability and microbial growth. It was observed that RPMI buffered with HEPES, supplemented with l-glutamine and sodium bicarbonate, can be used as a more suitable medium to promote co-culture. PMID:27060444

  9. Growth of herpes simplex virus in epidermal keratinocytes determines cutaneous pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Li, ZhiHong; Kurokawa, Masahiko; Kawana, Takashi; Imakita, Masami; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2005-03-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV)-1 and -2 isolated from genital lesions were examined for cutaneous pathogenicity and its correlation with cellular tropism. HSV-1 caused vesiculation, erosion/ulcer, and zosteriform lesions successively, but skin lesions of HSV-2 developed without vesiculation in some mice, and with statistically significantly less frequent vesiculation than HSV-1. Thus, the virological type of HSV was correlated with its cutaneous pathogenicity. The growth characteristics of HSV-1 and -2 were compared in cultured human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts, human lung cancer A549 cells, human neonatal epidermal keratinocytes, human neonatal dermal fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and Vero cells. HSV-2 produced plaques that were 72% times the size of HSV-1 plaques in epidermal keratinocytes but 230%-500% the size in the other cells. The difference between HSV-1 and -2 in the ratio of plaque size to virus yield in epidermal keratinocytes was much larger (502 times) than the ratio of the other cells (5.57-28.8 times). Keratinocytes are the major constituent of the epidermal layer of the skin and the cells in which vesiculation and erosion/ulceration occur histologically. Therefore, the smaller spread of HSV-2 in keratinocytes of the epidermal layer and the greater spread in other cells of the dermal layer might reflect its lesser invasiveness in the epidermal layer despite larger invasiveness in the dermal layer, which is reflected in the low incidence of erosion/ulcer of the skin compared to HSV-1. Thus, the growth of HSV in epidermal keratinocytes appeared to correlate with the cutaneous pathogenicity causing vesiculation in the skin. PMID:15648069

  10. PKCalpha mediates TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes via phosphorylation of S100C/A11.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Sonegawa, Hiroyuki; Kashiwagi, Mariko; Ohba, Motoi; Kuroki, Toshio; Namba, Masayoshi; Huh, Nam-Ho

    2004-03-29

    Growth regulation of epithelial cells is of major concern because most human cancers arise from them. We demonstrated previously a novel signal pathway involving S100C/A11 for high Ca2+-induced growth inhibition of normal human keratinocytes (Sakaguchi, M., M. Miyazaki, M. Takaishi, Y. Sakaguchi, E. Makino, N. Kataoka, H. Yamada, M. Namba, and N.H. Huh. 2003. J. Cell Biol. 163:825-835). This paper addresses a question whether transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) shares the pathway with high Ca2+. On exposure of the cells to TGFbeta1, S100C/A11 was phosphorylated, bound to nucleolin, and transferred to the nucleus, resulting in induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p15INK4B through activation of Sp1. Protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) was shown to phosphorylate 10Thr of S100C/A11, which is a critical event for the signal transduction. The TGFbeta1-induced growth inhibition was almost completely mitigated when PKCalpha activity was blocked or when S100C/A11 was functionally sequestered. These results indicate that, in addition to the well-characterized Smad-mediated pathway, the PKCalpha-S100C/A11-mediated pathway is involved in and essential for the growth inhibition of normal human keratinocytes cells by TGFbeta1. PMID:15051732

  11. Loss of serum response factor in keratinocytes results in hyperproliferative skin disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, Heidi; von Tobel, Lukas; Schäfer, Matthias; Alberti, Siegfried; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mauch, Cornelia; Hohl, Daniel; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Bloch, Wilhelm; Nordheim, Alfred; Werner, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) plays a crucial role in the development of several organs. However, its role in the skin has not been explored. Here, we show that keratinocytes in normal human and mouse skin expressed high levels of SRF but that SRF expression was strongly downregulated in the hyperproliferative epidermis of wounded and psoriatic skin. Keratinocyte-specific deletion within the mouse SRF locus during embryonic development caused edema and skin blistering, and all animals died in utero. Postnatal loss of mouse SRF in keratinocytes resulted in the development of psoriasis-like skin lesions. These lesions were characterized by inflammation, hyperproliferation, and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes as well as by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Ultrastructural analysis revealed markedly reduced cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts and loss of cell compaction in all epidermal layers. siRNA-mediated knockdown of SRF in primary human keratinocytes revealed that the cytoskeletal abnormalities and adhesion defects were a direct consequence of the loss of SRF. In contrast, the hyperproliferation observed in vivo was an indirect effect that was most likely a consequence of the inflammation. These results reveal that loss of SRF disrupts epidermal homeostasis and strongly suggest its involvement in the pathogenesis of hyperproliferative skin diseases, including psoriasis. PMID:19307725

  12. Hair-growth-promoting effect of conditioned medium of high integrin α6 and low CD 71 (α6bri/CD71dim) positive keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Chong Hyun; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Kang, Sangjin; Koo, Tae-Sung; Park, So-Hyun; Park, Ki-Young; Sung, Young-Kwan; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells (KSCs) reside in the bulge region of the hair follicles and may be involved in hair growth. Hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) of KSCs. Moreover, the effects of KSC-CM on hair growth were examined ex vivo and in vivo. A human growth factor chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify enriched proteins in KSC-CM as compared with CM from keratinocytes. KSC-CM significantly increased the proliferation of HFDPCs and ORS cells, and increased the S-phase of the cell cycle in HFDPCs. KSC-CM led to the phosphorylation of ATK and ERK1/2 in both cell types. After subcutaneous injection of KSC-CM in C3H/HeN mice, a significant increase in hair growth and increased proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes ex vivo was observed. We identified six proteins enriched in KSC-CM (amphiregulin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, Platelet-derived growth factor-AA, and vascular endothelial growth factor). A growth-factor cocktail that contains these six recombinant growth factors significantly increased the proliferation of HFDPCs and ORS cells and enhanced the hair growth of mouse models. These results collectively indicate that KSC-CM has the potential to increase hair growth via the proliferative capacity of HFDPCs and ORS cells. PMID:25706512

  13. The effect of different biologic and biosynthetic wound covers on keratinocyte growth, stratification and differentiation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mestak, Ondrej

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare, by means of in vitro cultivation technique, five marketed brands of wound covers used in the treatment of burns and other skin defects (Biobrane®, Suprathel®, Veloderm®, Xe-Derma®, and Xenoderm®) for their ability to stimulate the keratinocyte growth, stratification, and differentiation. In three independent experiments, human keratinocytes were grown on the tested covers in organotypic cultures by the 3T3 feeder layer technique. Vertical paraffin sections of the wound covers with keratinocytes were processed using hematoxylin–eosin staining and immunostaining for involucrin. Keratinocyte populations on the dressings were assessed for (1) number of keratinocyte strata (primary variable), (2) quantitative growth, (3) thickness of the keratinocyte layer, and (4) cell differentiation. The Xe-Derma wound cover provided the best support to keratinocyte proliferation and stratification, with the number of keratinocyte strata significantly (p < 0.05) higher in comparison to all products studied, except Xenoderm. However, in contrast to Xe-Derma, Xenoderm did not significantly differ from the other dressings. The results of this in vitro study show that the brands based on porcine dermal matrix possess the strongest effect on keratinocyte proliferation and stratification. The distinctive position of Xe-Derma may be related to its composition, where natural dermal fibers form a smooth surface, similar to the basement membrane. Furthermore, the results indicate that in vitro evaluation of effects on epithelial growth may accelerate the development of new bio-engineering-based wound covers. PMID:25383177

  14. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces an autophagy-related process and sensitizes normal human keratinocytes to cell death in response to growth factor deprivation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaobo; Muenger, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Expression of oncogenes, such as the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein, promotes aberrant cell proliferation. In the absence of concurrent mitogenic stimuli, this triggers a cell-intrinsic defense mechanism, the 'trophic sentinel response', which eliminates such aberrant cells. The molecular pathways that elicit this response, however, remain obscure. We set up an experimental system to investigate the trophic sentinel pathway triggered by HPV16 E7 expression in normal human keratinocytes, the natural host cells of HPVs. Keratinocytes expressing HPV16 E7 cultured in E-medium undergo cell death and show increased sub-G1 DNA content when grown to confluence or under conditions of serum deprivation. Moreover, HPV16 E7 expressing human keratinocytes express higher levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, which can be abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that even under normal culture conditions, HPV16 E7 expression triggers metabolic stress that may result in autophagy, a pathway implicated in carcinogenesis.

  15. CCN1, a Pro-Inflammatory Factor, Aggravates Psoriasis Skin Lesions by Promoting Keratinocyte Activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Zhou; Wu, Pinru; Huo, Rongfen; Wang, Beiqing; Shen, Zhengyu; Li, Huidan; Zhai, Tianhang; Shen, Baihua; Chen, Xiangdong; Li, Ningli

    2015-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is multifactorial and is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that CCN1 (also called Cyr61, which is short for cysteine-rich 61), an extracellular matrix protein that is also considered a pro-inflammatory factor, is highly expressed in the lesional skin of psoriasis patients, as well as in that of imiquimod (IMQ)- and IL-23-treated psoriasis-like mice. Then we show that blocking CCN1 function in vivo attenuates epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation in psoriasis-like mice. Further, in primary cultured normal human keratinocytes and HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line) cells, CCN1 promotes keratinocyte activation, including the proliferation and expression of immune-related molecules. Finally, we observe that integrin ?6?1 is the receptor of CCN1 in keratinocytes, and CCN1 stimulation activates the downstream phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings reveal that CCN1 has a critical role in psoriasis pathogenesis. Moreover, as CCN1 is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, our study also provides evidence that ECM, which is involved in psoriatic pathogenesis, could be a potent target for psoriasis treatment. PMID:26099024

  16. Role of keratinocytes in the development of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ai-Young

    2012-05-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder of the skin that results from the loss of functioning epidermal melanocytes. Most studies on vitiligo have concentrated on the abnormality of melanocytes rather than the abnormality of keratinocytes; however, epidermal melanocytes form a functional and structural unit with neighboring keratinocytes. In fact, direct cell-to cell contact stimulates in vitro proliferation of melanocytes, and growth factors produced by adjacent keratinocytes regulate the proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes. The potential role of keratinocyte-derived cytokines has also been presented. We focused on the structural changes in vitiliginous keratinocytes, which may result in loss of melanocytes, to examine the pathomechanism of vitiligo. The results of a comparison between depigmented and normally pigmented epidermis in patients with vitiligo showed that the keratinocytes in the depigmented epidermis were more vulnerable to apoptosis. Impaired Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt) activation followed by reduced nuclear factor-κB activation under increased tumor necrosis factor-α levels was demonstrated as a mechanism for keratinocyte apoptosis. The role of aquaporin 3 in keratinocyte apoptosis was addressed based on the relationship between the PI3K/AKT pathway and the E-cadherin-catenin complex. Apoptotic keratinocytes induced a lower expression of keratinocyte-derived factors, including stem cell factor, in depigmented epidermis, resulting in passive melanocyte death. PMID:22577260

  17. Constitutive expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α in keratinocytes during the repair of skin wounds in horses.

    PubMed

    Deschene, Karine; Céleste, Christophe; Boerboom, Derek; Theoret, Christine L

    2011-01-01

    As a transient hypoxic state exists within skin wounds in horses and may be important for the healing process, this study sought to identify a molecular hypoxia response occurring in horse limb and body wounds healing by second intention. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) protein expression was studied throughout repair by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Paradoxically, HIF1α was strongly expressed in intact skin and its expression decreased dramatically following wounding (p<0.01), despite the expected hypoxic state within the wounded tissue. HIF1α levels reincreased in parallel with the epithelialization process, and more rapidly in body wounds than in limb wounds (p<0.01). HIF1α localized predominantly to the keratinocyte layer, in which it was constitutively expressed throughout healing. The HIF1α target gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) showed a pattern of expression similar to HIF1α throughout the healing process and also localized to the keratinocyte layer, suggesting that HIF1α may regulate its constitutive expression. The HIF1α target genes vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1 (SLC2A1) however did not have a pattern of expression similar to HIF1α, at the mRNA level. We conclude that HIF1α is expressed in a continuous and hypoxia-independent manner in equine keratinocytes in both intact and wounded skin, and may regulate the expression of CDKN1A in this cell type. PMID:21362093

  18. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC.

  19. Targeted delivery of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to keratinocytes with a pemphigus monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Kouno, Michiyoshi; Lin, Chenyan; Schechter, Norman; Siegel, Don; Yang, Xiaoping; Seykora, John T.; Stanley, John R

    2013-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of using an anti-desmoglein (Dsg) monoclonal antibody, Px44, to deliver a biologically active protein to keratinocytes. Recombinantly produced Px44-green fluorescent protein (GFP) injected into mice and skin organ culture delivered GFP to the cell surface of keratinocytes. We replaced GFP with tumor necrosis factor -related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to produce Px44TRAIL. We chose TRAIL as a biologic model because it inhibits activated lymphocytes and causes apoptosis of hyperproliferative keratinocytes, features of various skin diseases. Px44TRAIL formed a trimer, the biologically active form of TRAIL. Standard assays of TRAIL activity showed that Px44TRAIL caused apoptosis of Jurkat cells and inhibited interferon-γ production by activated CD4+ T cells. Enzyme-linked immunoassay with Px44TRAIL showed delivery of TRAIL to Dsg. Immunofluorescence with Px44TRAIL incubated on skin sections and cultured keratinocytes or injected into mouse skin, human organ culture or human xenografts detected TRAIL on keratinocytes. Px44TRAIL caused apoptosis of hyperproliferative, but not differentiating, cultured keratinocytes through binding to Dsg3. Foldon, a small trimerization domain, cloned into Px44TRAIL maintained its stability and biological activity at 37° for at least 48 hr. These data suggest that such targeted therapy is feasible and may be useful for hyperproliferative and inflamed skin diseases. PMID:23439393

  20. The Papillomavirus E2 Protein Binds to and Synergizes with C/EBP Factors Involved in Keratinocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hadaschik, Dirk; Hinterkeuser, Korinna; Oldak, Monika; Pfister, Herbert J.; Smola-Hess, Sigrun

    2003-01-01

    The papillomavirus life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation program of the host keratinocyte. Thus, late gene expression and viral maturation are restricted to terminally differentiated keratinocytes. A variety of cellular transcription factors including those of the C/EBP family are involved in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. In this study we show that the papillomavirus transcription factor E2 cooperates with C/EBP? and -? in transcriptional activation. This synergism was independent of an E2 binding site. E2 and C/EBP factors synergistically transactivated a synthetic promoter construct containing classical C/EBP? sites and the C/EBP?-responsive proximal promoter of the involucrin gene, which is naturally expressed in differentiating keratinocytes. C/EBP? or -? coprecipitated with E2 proteins derived from human papillomavirus type 8 (HPV8), HPV16, HPV18, and bovine papillomavirus type 1 in vitro and in vivo, indicating complex formation by the cellular and viral factors. The interaction domains could be mapped to the C terminus of E2 and amino acids 261 to 302 located within the bZIP motif of C/EBP?. Our data suggest that E2, via its interaction with C/EBP factors, may contribute to enhancing keratinocyte differentiation, which is suppressed by the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 in HPV-induced lesions. PMID:12692227

  1. A murine monoclonal antibody (VM-1) against human basal cells inhibits the growth of human keratinocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Oseroff, A R; Pfendt, E A; DiCicco, L; Morhenn, V B

    1985-04-01

    Using epidermal cells from psoriatic plaques as the immunogen, an IgG1 murine monoclonal antibody, VM-1, has been produced which stains basal keratinocytes on frozen sections of skin obtained from normal individuals and from psoriatic plaques. In some areas of both normal and psoriatic epidermis, the cell layer immediately above the basal cells is also stained. Cells in the external root sheath of the hair follicles also bind VM-1. The antibody binding site is trypsin-resistant, and is not blocked by bullous pemphigoid serum. If dispersed epidermal cells are preincubated with VM-1 for 1 h or more before plating, the majority of the cells do not attach and spread out on a collagen-coated Petri dish surface or on a fibroblast feeder layer. When added to attached, preconfluent cultures of keratinocytes, VM-1 inhibits growth and alters cell morphology. The growth inhibition is specific for keratinocytes, and viability studies show that it is not due to an immediate toxic effect of the antibody. The VM-1-induced inhibition of keratinocyte growth is not reversed by soy bean or lima bean trypsin inhibitors added at the time of cell plating or at the time of addition of antibody. PMID:3981036

  2. The topography of electrospun nanofibers and its impact on the growth and mobility of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pelipenko, J; Kocbek, P; Govedarica, B; Rošic, R; Baumgartner, S; Kristl, J

    2013-06-01

    Despite a lot of intensive research in the field of polymer nanofibers as wound-healing and tissue-regeneration materials, the behavior of cells in contact with nanofibers in vitro as well as in vivo is still not well understood. However, this knowledge is crucial for the design of nanofibrillar materials that are suitable for biomedical applications. Therefore, in this study, we present the preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers from a physico-chemically characterized polymer solution by electrospinning together with a stabilization method to preserve the morphology of the nanofibers in aqueous conditions. An investigation of the effects of a nanofibrillar scaffold on the growth of human keratinocytes showed that randomly oriented PVA nanofibers delay the keratinocytes' adhesion but improve their strength, greatly alter their morphology, increase their metabolic activity, and limit their mobility. We have shown that due to the small interfiber pores, the whole cells are unable to penetrate into nanofibrillar network efficiently. However, flexible cell parts can penetrate into the nanofibrillar network, whereas the cell nuclei stay on the surface of electrospun scaffold. Additional reason for poor cell mobility is random orientation of nanofibers, which does not provide continuous routes for successful cell infiltration. Therefore, nanofibrillar support with nanosized interfiber pores could potentially be used to enable an efficient cell proliferation and accelerate surface-wound healing, but not for three-dimensional tissue regeneration. Finally, we showed that aligned nanofibers can successfully direct the migration and proliferation of cells, which is a crucial property of nanomaterials for the successful regeneration of tissues with a highly organized structure. PMID:23085581

  3. Bifurcated converging pathways for high Ca2+- and TGFβ-induced inhibition of growth of normal human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Sonegawa, Hiroyuki; Nukui, Takamasa; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Namba, Masayoshi; Huh, Nam-ho

    2005-01-01

    Growth suppression of normal human keratinocytes by high Ca2+ or TGFβ was shown to be mediated by p21WAF1/CIP1 and Sp1 [Pardali, K., et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 29244–29256; Santini, M. P., Talora, C., Seki, T., Bolgan, L. & Dotto, G. P. (2001) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 9575–9580; Al-Daraji, W. I., Grant, K. R., Ryan, K., Saxton, A., & Reynolds, N. J. (2002) J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 779–788]. We previously demonstrated that S100C/A11 is a key mediator for growth inhibition of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHK) triggered by high Ca2+ or TGFβ [Sakaguchi, M., et al. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 163, 825–835; Sakaguchi, M., et al. (2004) 164, 979–984]. On exposure of NHK cells to either agent, S100C/A11 is transferred to nuclei, where it induces p21WAF1/CIP1 through activation of Sp1/Sp3. In the present study, we found that high Ca2+ activated NFAT1 through calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation. In growing NHK cells, Krueppel-like factor (KLF)16, a member of the Sp/KLF family, bound to the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter and, thereby, inhibited the transcription of p21WAF1/CIP1. Sp1 complexed with NFAT1 in high Ca2+-treated cells or with Smad3 in TGFβ1-treated cells, but not Sp1 alone, replaced KLF16 from the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter and transcriptionally activated the p21WAF1/CIP1 gene. Thus, high Ca2+ and TGFβ1 have a common S100C/A11-mediated pathway in addition to a unique pathway (NFAT1-mediated pathway for high Ca2+ and Smad-mediated pathway for TGFβ1) for exhibiting a growth inhibitory effect on NHK cells, and both pathways were shown to be indispensable for growth inhibition. PMID:16172401

  4. Cultured allogenic keratinocyte grafts in the management of wound healing: prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, T J; Gilchrest, B A

    1989-11-01

    Cultured allografts derived from neonatal foreskin provide a potent stimulus to wound healing in a wide variety of wounds. Their application is a simple outpatient procedure involving no discomfort for the patient. In contrast to autografting, no biopsy is necessary, and growth of newborn keratinocytes in cultures is more rapid than that of adult cells. Use of cultured allogeneic cells offers immediate graft availability and the possibility of stockpiling and preserving the graft for future use. Cultured epidermal allografts may be valuable in accelerating healing by second intention in surgical wounds, as well as being a helpful addition to chronic ulcer management. In venous disease, the outcome is at least comparable to other forms of skin grafting. Ulcers due to connective tissue disorders fared less well and deep chronic ulcers (down to fascia or tendon) were not significantly improved by cultured allograft application. Surprisingly, patient age did not influence outcome. PMID:2808887

  5. Kyolic and Pycnogenol increase human growth hormone secretion in genetically-engineered keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Buz'Zard, Amber R; Peng, Qiaoling; Lau, Benjamin H S

    2002-02-01

    The amount of human growth hormone (HGH) decreases significantly after the age of 30. This decrease has been implicated as one of the major causes in the signs of aging, such as thinning of the skin and bones, a decrease in lean muscle mass and an increase in adipose tissue. Supplementing the body's dwindling supply with recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH) has been shown to reverse the signs and symptoms of aging. However, drawbacks in rHGH replacement therapy include prohibitively high cost, the need for repeated injection and side effects such as carpel tunnel syndrome, gynecomastia and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to establish an in vitro model using genetically-engineered keratinocytes to screen natural compounds for the ability to stimulate HGH secretion. We now report that a combination of equal amounts of L-arginine and L-lysine, aged garlic extract (Kyolic), S-allyl cysteine and Pycnogenol significantly increased secretion of HGH in this in vitro model. The data indicate that this in vitro model may be used to screen for other secretagogues. PMID:12127300

  6. Structure-function relationship of new anthralin derivatives assayed for growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Tanzer, H; Seidel, M; Geisel, J; Merk, H F; Mahrle, G; Wiegrebe, W

    1991-11-01

    HaCaT keratinocyte cultures were exposed to twelve hydrophilic anthralin derivatives 1 to 12 with substituents at C-1 and C-8 of the anthrone skeleton, of one H at C-10 and of both H's at C-10 by lacton rings. After 3 microM treatment growth was determined by cellular protein content, 3H-thymidine- and 14C-amino-acid-uptake and cytotoxicity by the release of cytoplasmic LDH into the culture medium. In comparison to acetone control (100%) anthralin suppressed mean protein content, as well as DNA- and protein-synthesis to 33, 28, and 21%, respectively, and the drug revealed an enzyme release of 660%. In relation to the parent drug we found similar cell growth inhibitory effects of compounds 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12. Deriv. 4, 8, and 10 were, however, to some extent less cytotoxic than anthralin, whereas deriv. 6, 9, and 12 were in the same range. An extreme suppression of growth parameters which differed from the anthralin effect by a factor 0.5-0.8 was caused by deriv. 11, showing the same cytotoxicity. Deriv. 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 did not demonstrate any cytotoxicity. Concerning growth parameters, deriv. 2 induced a slight stimulation, deriv. 3 and 7 were completely ineffective, deriv. 1 and 5 induced slightly to moderately inhibited proliferation but both being much less effective than anthralin. These data indicate that the "minimum structure" concept by Krebs and Schaltegger--claiming 1-hydroxy-9-anthrone as a precondition for clinical antipsoriatic potency--is not valid at least in cell-biological tests and point toward possible usefulness of some experimental model compounds as alternative antipsoriatics. PMID:1804068

  7. Krüppel-like factor 9 is a circadian transcription factor in human epidermis that controls proliferation of keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Spörl, Florian; Korge, Sandra; Jürchott, Karsten; Wunderskirchner, Minetta; Schellenberg, Katja; Heins, Sven; Specht, Aljona; Stoll, Claudia; Klemz, Roman; Maier, Bert; Wenck, Horst; Schrader, Annika; Kunz, Dieter; Blatt, Thomas; Kramer, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Circadian clocks govern a wide range of cellular and physiological functions in various organisms. Recent evidence suggests distinct functions of local clocks in peripheral mammalian tissues such as immune responses and cell cycle control. However, studying circadian action in peripheral tissues has been limited so far to mouse models, leaving the implication for human systems widely elusive. In particular, circadian rhythms in human skin, which is naturally exposed to strong daytime-dependent changes in the environment, have not been investigated to date on a molecular level. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of circadian gene expression in human epidermis. Whole-genome microarray analysis of suction-blister epidermis obtained throughout the day revealed a functional circadian clock in epidermal keratinocytes with hundreds of transcripts regulated in a daytime-dependent manner. Among those, we identified a circadian transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 9 (Klf9), that is substantially up-regulated in a cortisol and differentiation-state-dependent manner. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed strong antiproliferative effects of Klf9. Putative Klf9 target genes include proliferation/differentiation markers that also show circadian expression in vivo, suggesting that Klf9 affects keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation by controlling the expression of target genes in a daytime-dependent manner. PMID:22711835

  8. Opposing growth regulatory roles of protein kinase D isoforms in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ryvkin, Vladislav; Rashel, Mohammad; Gaddapara, Trivikram; Ghazizadeh, Soosan

    2015-04-24

    PKD is a family of three serine/threonine kinases (PKD-1, -2, and -3) involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes including proliferation, migration, secretion, and cell survival. We have previously shown that despite expression of all three isoforms in mouse epidermis, PKD1 plays a unique and critical role in wound healing, phorbol ester-induced hyperplasia, and tumor development. In translating our findings to the human, we discovered that PKD1 is not expressed in human keratinocytes (KCs) and there is a divergence in the expression and function of other PKD isoforms. Contrary to mouse KCs, treatment of cultured human KCs with pharmacological inhibitors of PKDs resulted in growth arrest. We found that PKD2 and PKD3 are expressed differentially in proliferating and differentiating human KCs, with the former uniformly present in both compartments whereas the latter is predominantly expressed in the proliferating compartment. Knockdown of individual PKD isoforms in human KCs revealed contrasting growth regulatory roles for PKD2 and PKD3. Loss of PKD2 enhanced KC proliferative potential while loss of PKD3 resulted in a progressive proliferation defect, loss of clonogenicity and diminished tissue regenerative ability. This proliferation defect was correlated with up-regulation of CDK4/6 inhibitor p15(INK4B) and induction of a p53-independent G1 cell cycle arrest. Simultaneous silencing of PKD isoforms resulted in a more pronounced proliferation defect consistent with a predominant role for PKD3 in proliferating KCs. These data underline the importance and complexity of PKD signaling in human epidermis and suggest a central role for PKD3 signaling in maintaining human epidermal homeostasis. PMID:25802335

  9. S100C/A11 is a key mediator of Ca(2+)-induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Takaishi, Mikiro; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Makino, Eiichi; Kataoka, Noriyuki; Yamada, Hidenori; Namba, Masayoshi; Huh, Nam-ho

    2003-11-24

    An increase in extracellular Ca2+ induces growth arrest and differentiation of human keratinocytes in culture. We examined possible involvement of S100C/A11 in this growth regulation. On exposure of the cells to high Ca2+, S100C/A11 was specifically phosphorylated at 10Thr and 94Ser. Phosphorylation facilitated the binding of S100C/A11 to nucleolin, resulting in nuclear translocation of S100C/A11. In nuclei, S100C/A11 liberated Sp1/3 from nucleolin. The resulting free Sp1/3 transcriptionally activated p21CIP1/WAF1, a representative negative regulator of cell growth. Introduction of anti-S100C/A11 antibody into the cells largely abolished the growth inhibition induced by Ca2+ and the induction of p21CIP1/WAF1. In the human epidermis, S100C/A11 was detected in nuclei of differentiating cells in the suprabasal layers, but not in nuclei of proliferating cells in the basal layer. These results indicate that S100C/A11 is a key mediator of the Ca(2+)-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes in culture, and that it may be possibly involved in the growth regulation in vivo as well. PMID:14623863

  10. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulates the expression of nucleotide excision repair proteins in keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Hamid Reza; Mahfouf, Walid; Ali, Nsrein; Chemin, Cecile; Ged, Cecile; Kim, Arianna L.; de Verneuil, Hubert; Taïeb, Alain; Bickers, David R.; Mazurier, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of DNA repair enzymes is crucial for cancer prevention, initiation, and therapy. We have studied the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the expression of the two nucleotide excision repair factors (XPC and XPD) in human keratinocytes. We show that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in the regulation of XPC and XPD. Early UVB-induced downregulation of HIF-1α increased XPC mRNA expression due to competition between HIF-1α and Sp1 for their overlapping binding sites. Late UVB-induced enhanced phosphorylation of HIF-1α protein upregulated XPC mRNA expression by direct binding to a separate hypoxia response element (HRE) in the XPC promoter region. HIF-1α also regulated XPD expression by binding to a region of seven overlapping HREs in its promoter. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed putative HREs in the genes encoding other DNA repair proteins (XPB, XPG, CSA and CSB), suggesting that HIF-1α is a key regulator of the DNA repair machinery. Analysis of the repair kinetics of 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers also revealed that HIF-1α downregulation led to an increased rate of immediate removal of both photolesions but attenuated their late removal following UVB irradiation, indicating the functional effects of HIF-1α in the repair of UVB-induced DNA damage. PMID:19934262

  12. Growth factors for nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1999-12-01

    Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting factors were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth factors. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.

  13. Tanshinone IIA Inhibits Growth of Keratinocytes through Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis: Underlying Treatment Mechanism of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fu-Lun; Xu, Rong; Zeng, Qing-chun; Li, Xin; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yi-Fei; Fan, Bin; Geng, Lin; Li, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate the cellular mechanisms whereby Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro in keratinocytes, the target cells in psoriasis. Tan IIA inhibited proliferation of mouse keratinocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis, resulting in S phase arrest accompanied by down-regulation of pCdk2 and cyclin A protein expression. Furthermore, Tan IIA-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential changes were also further demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE), and flow cytometry methods. Apoptosis was partially blocked by the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO. Mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis further downstream was investigated, showing changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and enhanced activation of cleaved caspase-3 and Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). There was also no translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the nucleus in apoptotic keratinocytes, indicating Tan IIA-induced apoptosis occurs mainly through the caspase pathway. Our findings provide the molecular mechanisms by which Tan IIA can be used to treat psoriasis and support the traditional use of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bungee (Labiatae) for psoriasis and related skin diseases. PMID:22203883

  14. CORONETTE KERATINOCYTE COLONY FORMATION IS SUPPORTED BY EPIDERMAL-DERMAL CELL INTERACTIONS IN THE BOVINE CLAW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delineating factors that orchestrate keratinocyte growth and differentiation in the claw is pivotal to understanding the quality of hoof horn production in health and disease. The specific objectives of this investigation were to establish an in vitro culture system for bovine coronette keratinocyt...

  15. Peptide growth factors, part A

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains information on the following topics: Epidermal Growth Factor;Transforming Growth Factors;Bone and Cartilage Growth Factors;Somatomedin/Insulin-Like Growth Factors;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Assays, Phosphorylation, and Surface Membrane Effects.

  16. Xyloglucan from Tropaeolum majus Seeds Induces Cellular Differentiation of Human Keratinocytes by Inhibition of EGFR Phosphorylation and Decreased Activity of Transcription Factor CREB.

    PubMed

    Zacharski, Dominika M; Brandt, Simone; Esch, Stefan; König, Simone; Mormann, Michael; Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-07-13

    Xyloglucan XG (molecular weight 462 kDa, 1,4-/1,4,6-(pGlc) linked backbone, side chains of 1-pXyl, 1,2-pXyl, 1-p-Gal) was isolated from the seeds of Tropaeolum majus. XG (100 μg/mL) induced terminal cellular differentiation of human keratinocytes, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot using cytokeratin 10 and involucrin as marker proteins. Differentiation was also induced by XG-derived oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization 7-9). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed the induction of gene expression of typical differentiation markers (cytokeratin, filaggrin, involucrin, loricrin, transglutaminase) in a time-dependent manner. Whole human genome microarray indicated that most of upregulated genes were related to differentiation processes. Microarray findings on selected genes were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. For identification of the molecular target of xyloglucan PAGE of keratinocyte membrane preparations was performed, followed by blotting with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled XG. XG interacting proteins were characterized by MS. Peptide fragments of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin β4 were identified. Subsequent phospho-kinase array indicated that phosphorylation of EGFR and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was decreased in the XG-treated cells. Thus, the XG-induced differentiation of keratinocytes is proposed to be mediated by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of EGFR, leading to a dimished CREB activation, which is essential for the activation of cellular differentiation. PMID:26068019

  17. New microbial growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  18. Peptide growth factors, part B

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor;Nerve and Glial Growth Factors;PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Genetic Approaches and Biological Effects.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution in burn wounds. Implications for growth factor-mediated repair.

    PubMed Central

    Wenczak, B A; Lynch, J B; Nanney, L B

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) along with several related peptide growth factors has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to accelerate events associated with epidermal wound repair. EGF and transforming growth factor alpha act by binding to a common EGF receptor tyrosine kinase thereby initiating a series of events which ultimately regulate cell proliferation. This study examined the immunohistochemical localization of EGF receptor (EGF-R) in burn wound margins, adjacent proliferating epithelium, and closely associated sweat ducts, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Tissue specimens removed during surgical debridement were obtained from full and partial thickness burn wounds in 32 patients with total body surface area burns ranging from 2 to 88%. In the early postburn period (days 2-4), prominent staining for EGF-R was found in undifferentiated, marginal keratinocytes, adjacent proliferating, hypertrophic epithelium, and both marginal and nonmarginal hair follicles, sweat ducts, and sebaceous glands. During the late postburn period (days 5-16), EGF-R was depleted along leading epithelial margins; however, immunoreactive EGF-R remained intensely positive in the hypertrophic epithelium and all skin appendages. Increased detection of immunoreactive EGF-R and the presence of [125I]EGF binding in the hypertrophic epithelium correlated positively with proliferating cell nuclear antigen distributions. Thus, the presence of EGF-R in the appropriate keratinocyte populations suggests a functional role for this receptor during wound repair. Dynamic modulation in EGF receptor distribution during the temporal sequence of repair provides further evidence that an EGF/transforming growth factor alpha/EGF-R-mediated pathway is activated during human wound repair. Images PMID:1361495

  20. Factors affecting ultraviolet-A photon emission from β-irradiated human keratinocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, M.; Mothersill, C. E.; Seymour, C. B.; Ahmad, S. B.; Armstrong, A.; Rainbow, A. J.; McNeill, F. E.

    2015-08-01

    The luminescence intensity of 340+/- 5 nm photons emitted from HaCaT (human keratinocyte) cells was investigated using a single-photon-counting system during cellular exposure to 90Y β-particles. Multiple factors were assessed to determine their influence upon the quantity and pattern of photon emission from β-irradiated cells. Exposure of 1× {{10}4} cells/5 mL to 703 μCi resulted in maximum UVA photoemission at 44.8× {{10}3}+/- 2.5× {{10}3} counts per second (cps) from live HaCaT cells (background: 1-5 cps); a 16-fold increase above cell-free controls. Significant biophoton emission was achieved only upon stimulation and was also dependent upon presence of cells. UVA luminescence was measured for 90Y activities 14 to 703 μCi where a positive relationship between photoemission and 90Y activity was observed. Irradiation of live HaCaT cells plated at various densities produced a distinct pattern of emission whereby luminescence increased up to a maximum at 1× {{10}4} cells/5 mL and thereafter decreased. However, this result was not observed in the dead cell population. Both live and dead HaCaT cells were irradiated and were found to demonstrate different rates of photon emission at low β activities (⩽400 μCi). Dead cells exhibited greater photon emission rates than live cells which may be attributable to metabolic processes taking place to modulate the photoemissive effect. The results indicate that photon emission from HaCaT cells is perturbed by external stimulation, is dependent upon the activity of radiation delivered, the density of irradiated cells, and cell viability. It is postulated that biophoton emission may be modulated by a biological or metabolic process.

  1. Loss of nuclear receptor RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes promotes the formation of Cdk4-activated invasive melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hyter, Stephen; Bajaj, Gaurav; Liang, Xiaobo; Barbacid, Mariano; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Keratinocytes contribute to melanocyte transformation by affecting their microenvironment, in part through the secretion of paracrine factors. Here we report a loss of expression of nuclear receptor RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes during human melanoma progression. In the absence of keratinocytic RXRα, in combination with mutant Cdk4, cutaneous melanoma was generated that metastasized to lymph nodes in a bigenic mouse model. Expression of several keratinocyte-derived mitogenic growth factors (Et-1, Hgf, Scf, α-MSH and Fgf 2 ) was elevated in skin of bigenic mice, whereas Fas, E-cadherin and Pten, implicated in apoptosis, cellular invasion and melanomagenesis, respectively, were downregulated within the microdissected melanocytic tumors. We demonstrated that RXRα is recruited on the proximal promoter of both Et-1 and Hgf, possibly directly regulating their transcription in keratinocytes. These studies demonstrate the contribution of keratinocytic paracrine signaling during the cellular transformation and malignant conversion of melanocytes. PMID:20629968

  2. Effect of Wnt3a on Keratinocytes Utilizing in Vitro and Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ju-Suk; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Her, Young; Bae, Kee-Jeong; Sharma, Garima; Doss, George Priya; Lee, Sang-Soo; Hong, Myung-Sun; Song, Dong-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling proteins participate in various cell developmental processes. A suppressive role of Wnt5a on keratinocyte growth has already been observed. However, the role of other Wnt proteins in proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of the Wnt ligand, Wnt3a, on proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Keratinocytes from normal human skin were cultured and treated with recombinant Wnt3a alone or in combination with the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Furthermore, using bioinformatics, we analyzed the biochemical parameters, molecular evolution, and protein–protein interaction network for the Wnt family. Application of recombinant Wnt3a showed an anti-proliferative effect on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. After treatment with TNFα, Wnt3a still demonstrated an anti-proliferative effect on human keratinocytes. Exogenous treatment of Wnt3a was unable to alter mRNA expression of differentiation markers of keratinocytes, whereas an altered expression was observed in TNFα-stimulated keratinocytes. In silico phylogenetic, biochemical, and protein–protein interaction analysis showed several close relationships among the family members of the Wnt family. Moreover, a close phylogenetic and biochemical similarity was observed between Wnt3a and Wnt5a. Finally, we proposed a hypothetical mechanism to illustrate how the Wnt3a protein may inhibit the process of proliferation in keratinocytes, which would be useful for future researchers. PMID:24686518

  3. Effects of medium flow on axon growth with or without nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-11

    Axon growth is a crucial process in regeneration of damaged nerves. On the other hand, elongation of nerve fibers in the epidermis has been observed in skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Thus, regulation of nerve fiber extension might be an effective strategy to accelerate nerve regeneration and/or to reduce itching in pruritus dermatosis. We previously demonstrated that neurons and epidermal keratinocytes similarly contain multiple receptors that are activated by various environmental factors, and in particular, keratinocytes are influenced by shear stress. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of micro-flow of the medium on axon growth in the presence or absence of nerve growth factor (NGF), using cultured dorsal-root-ganglion (DRG) cells. The apparatus, AXIS, consists of two chambers connected by a set of microgrooves, through which signaling molecules and axons, but not living cells, can pass. When DRG cells were present in chamber 1, NGF was present in chamber 2, and micro-flow was directed from chamber 1 to chamber 2, axon growth was significantly increased compared with other conditions. Acceleration of axon growth in the direction of the micro-flow was also observed in the absence of NGF. These results suggest that local micro-flow might significantly influence axon growth. PMID:26212442

  4. Plant polyphenols differentially modulate inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes by interfering with activation of transcription factors NF{kappa}B and AhR and EGFR-ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Potapovich, Alla I.; Lulli, Daniela; Fidanza, Paolo; Kostyuk, Vladimir A.; De Luca, Chiara; Pastore, Saveria; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2011-09-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory responses in primary human keratinocytes by plant polyphenols (PPs), namely the glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside, the stilbenoid resveratrol and its glycoside polydatin, and the flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin were evaluated. As non-lethal stimuli, the prototypic ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interferon (IFNgamma) (T/I), UVA + UVB irradiation, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used. We demonstrated differential modulation of inflammatory responses in keratinocytes at signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein synthesis levels as a function of PP chemical structure, the pro-inflammatory trigger used, and PP interaction with intracellular detoxifying systems. The PPs remarkably inhibited constitutive, LPS- and T/I-induced but not TGFalpha-induced ERK phosphorylation. They also suppressed NFkappaB activation by LPS and T/I. Verbascoside and quercetin invariably impaired EGFR phosphorylation and UV-associated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling, while rutin, polydatin and resveratrol did not affect EGFR phosphorylation and further activated AhR machinery in UV-exposed keratinocytes. In general, PPs down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/enzymes, except significant up-regulation of IL-8 observed under stimulation with TGFalpha. Both spontaneous and T/I-induced release of IL-8 and IP-10 was suppressed, although 50 {mu}M resveratrol and polydatin up-regulated IL-8. At this concentration, resveratrol activated both gene expression and de novo synthesis of IL-8 and AhR-mediated mechanisms were involved. We conclude that PPs differentially modulate the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes through distinct signal transduction pathways, including AhR and EGFR. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Effects of plant polyphenols on inflammatory responses in human keratinocytes. > Inflammatory stimuli used: TGFalpha, TNFalpha+IFNgamma, UVA+UVB, and LPS. > Inflammatory pathways connected with NFB, ERK1/2, EGFR, and AhR were investigated. > Plant polyphenols, flavonoids, stilbenoids, and phenylpropanoids, were studied. > Modulation of inflammation depends on phenolic core structure and glycosylation.

  5. Id1 and NF-κB promote the generation of CD133+ and BMI-1+ keratinocytes and the growth of xenograft tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    LAI, JINHUO; CAI, QIAN; BIEL, MERRILL A.; WANG, CHUAN; HU, XIAOHUA; WANG, SHAOYUAN; LIN, JIZHEN

    2014-01-01

    Id1 and NF-κB are highly expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Whether they have a synergistic role in the carcinogenesis of OSCC is unclear. The current study was designed to demonstrate the synergy of both Id1 and NF-κB in the underlying disease mechanisms of OSCC using in vitro and in vivo animal models. Id1 and NF-κB strengthened the expression of both CD133 and BMI-1 in OSCC cell cultures. CD133+ and BMI-1+ keratinocytes from OSCC tissues and cell cultures initiated the growth of xenograft tumors in SCID/Beige mice. Id1 and NF-κB regulate the expression of CD133 and BMI-1 in an additive or synergistic manner in OSCC, which is associated with the generation of naïve and self-renewable keratinocytes and initiate the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo. PMID:24572994

  6. Functional Characterization of Cultured Keratinocytes after Acute Cutaneous Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Zedler, Siegfried; v. Spiegel, Felix; Fuhr, Jasmin; v. Donnersmarck, Guido Henkel; Faist, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to forming the epithelial barrier against the outside environment keratinocytes are immunologically active cells. In the treatment of severely burned skin, cryoconserved keratinocyte allografts gain in importance. It has been proposed that these allografts accelerate wound healing also due to the expression of a favourable - keratinocyte-derived - cytokine and growth factor milieu. Methods In this study the morphology and cytokine expression profile of keratinocytes from skin after acute burn injury was compared to non-burned skin. Skin samples were obtained from patients after severe burn injury and healthy controls. Cells were cultured and secretion of selected inflammatory mediators was quantified using Bioplex Immunoassays. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyse further functional and morphologic parameters. Results Histology revealed increased terminal differentiation of keratinocytes (CK10, CK11) in allografts from non-burned skin compared to a higher portion of proliferative cells (CK5, vimentin) in acute burn injury. Increased levels of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNFα could be detected in culture media of burn injury skin cultures. Both culture groups contained large amounts of IL-1RA. IL-6 and GM-CSF were increased during the first 15 days of culture of burned skin compared to control skin. Levels of VEGF, FGF-basic, TGF-ß und G-CSF were high in both but not significantly different. Cryoconservation led to a diminished mediator synthesis except for higher levels of intracellular IL-1α and IL-1ß. Conclusion Skin allografts from non-burned skin show a different secretion pattern of keratinocyte-derived cytokines and inflammatory mediators compared to keratinocytes after burn injury. As these secreted molecules exert auto- and paracrine effects and subsequently contribute to healing and barrier restoration after acute burn injury therapies affecting this specific cytokine/growth factor micromilieu could be beneficial in burned patients. PMID:22359539

  7. Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphangiogenic Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Hartiala, Pauliina; Saarikko, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a progressive disease caused by damage to the lymphatic network. Recent development in the fields of preclinical growth factor research and lymphedema microsurgery promise new hope for lymphedema patients. In this article, we review the latest results on basic research and highlight the role of specific growth factors in normal lymphatic development and several disease states. Lymph node transfer, a new promising method in reconstructive lymphatic microsurgery, is also dependent on the lymphatic vascular regrowth and lymphangiogenic growth factors. We discuss the scientific basis of lymph node transfer and therapeutic potential of lymphangiogenic growth factors in the treatment of lymphedema. PMID:25665098

  8. Primary structure of keratinocyte transglutaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.A.; Stewart, B.E.; Qin, Q.; Rice, R.H. ); Chakravarty, R. ); Floyd, E.E.; Jetten, A.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the coding regions of human and rat keratinocyte transglutaminases (protein-glutamine: amine {gamma}-glutamyltransferase; EC 2.3.2.13) have been determined. These yield proteins of {approximately}90 kDa that are 92% identical, indicative of the conservation of important structural features. Alignments of amino acid sequences show substantial similarity among the keratinocyte transglutaminase, human clotting factor XIII catalytic subunit, guinea pig liver tissue transglutaminase, and the human erythrocyte band-4.2 protein. The keratinocyte enzyme is most similar to factor XIII, whereas the band-4.2 protein is most similar to the tissue transglutaminase. A salient feature of the keratinocyte transglutaminase is its 105-residue extension beyond the N terminus of the tissue transglutaminase. This extension and the unreltaed activation peptide of factor XIII (a 37-residue extension) appear to be added for specialized functions after divergence of the tissue transglutaminase from their common lineage.

  9. Oncogenes, genes, and growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Guroff, G.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene; Structure and Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Gene; The Erythropoietin Gene; The Interleukin-2 Gene; The Transferrin Gene; and The Transferrin Receptor Gene.

  10. Growth factors and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Bednarek, Nathalie; Gressens, Pierre

    2007-08-01

    Neuroprotective strategies can prevent lesions from getting worse but agents that have neurotrophic properties can also affect repair in a developing brain. Although prevention and treatment in the early stages of brain lesions are desirable, delayed cell death or improved post-lesion plasticity are the only realistic targets in many cases. Several trophic factors can limit delayed cell death in animal models of perinatal brain damage. In addition, melatonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor have been shown to promote post-lesion plasticity following neonatal excitotoxic white-matter damage in newborn mice. Despite these promising results, additional preclinical data are required for most of the trophic factors that have been tested, although some candidate drugs, e.g. melatonin or erythropoietin, might reach clinical trials in the near future. PMID:17336172

  11. The Growth of Malignant Keratinocytes Depends on Signaling Through the PGE2 Receptor EP11

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Eric J; Gupta, Ashok; Vielhauer, George A; Regan, John W; Bowden, G Tim

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Recent discoveries shed light on the importance of prostaglandin (PG) production in the development of skin cancer. Work by Fischer et al. demonstrates that skin tumor promotion caused by ultraviolet B radiation can be decreased by up to 89% by blocking cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with the drug Celecoxib. A similar study showed that Celecoxib can decrease new tumor formation by 44% in mice that already have tumors. These studies demonstrate the importance of COX-2 and PGs in the development of squamous cell carcinoma. We have explored growth signaling in a model of skin tumor progression. Because changes in PG production have been implicated in skin carcinogenesis, we examined this pathway. We found that malignant cell lines secrete more prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than the parental cells. We observed increased expression of COX-1 and -2. We also found that these cells express the PGE2 receptors EP1 and EP4. When the cells are grown in the presence of indomethacin, the growth rate of the malignant cells is decreased. This effect can be reversed by addition of PGE2 or an EP1 agonist to the medium. Thus, we have shown that skin tumor cells depend in part on PGE2 signaling through the EP1 prostanoid receptor for their in vitro growth. PMID:11687951

  12. Akt mediates an angiogenic switch in transformed keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Segrelles, Carmen; Ruiz, Sergio; Santos, Mirentxu; Martínez-Palacio, Jesús; Lara, M Fernanda; Paramio, Jesús M

    2004-07-01

    Akt signaling is involved in tumorigenesis via a number of different mechanisms that result in increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Previous data have demonstrated that Akt-mediated signaling is functionally involved in keratinocyte transformation. This work investigates the involvement of angiogenesis as a mediator of tumorigenesis in Akt-transformed keratinocytes. Tumors produced by subcutaneous injection of the latter showed increased angiogenic profiles associated with increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels. However, in contrast to v-ras(Ha)-transformed keratinocytes, VEGF mRNA levels were not increased. The induction of VEGF protein by Akt is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus activation of p70S6K and eIF4E-binding protein 1, leading to increased VEGF translation. In addition, we observed increased metaloproteinases 2 and 9 expression, but not thrombospondin 1, in tumors derived from Akt-transformed keratinocytes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Akt is an important mediator of angiogenesis in malignant keratinocytes through a post-transcriptional mechanism. PMID:15001536

  13. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase.

    PubMed

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl(2)) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5-50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5-5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro. PMID:22022425

  14. Galectin-7 Regulates Keratinocyte Proliferation and Differentiation through JNK-miR-203-p63 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Lin; Chiang, Po-Cheng; Lo, Chia-Hui; Lo, Yuan-Hsin; Hsu, Daniel K; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-7, a member of the β-galactoside-binding protein family, is primarily expressed in stratified epithelial cells, including keratinocytes. There is information in the literature suggesting a role for this protein in regulation of keratinocyte survival and growth, but the underlying mechanism remains relatively unknown. Moreover, its expression pattern in the epidermis suggests that it is also involved in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that galectin-7 knockdown results in reduced differentiation and increased proliferation of keratinocytes. Using microarray and deep-sequencing analyses, we found that galectin-7 positively and negatively regulates microRNA (miR)-203 and miR-146a expression, respectively. We show that galectin-7 regulates keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation through miR-203 but not miR-146a. A knockdown of either galectin-7 or miR-203 in keratinocytes increases expression of p63, an essential transcription factor involved in skin development. Rescue of miR-203 expression in a galectin-7 knockdown model reduces p63 expression to baseline. Increased galectin-7 expression upregulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein levels, which is required for miR-203 expression. Finally, we establish that galectin-7 can be associated with JNK1 and protect it from ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, our data suggest an intracellular function of galectin-7: regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation through the JNK1-miR-203-p63 pathway. PMID:26763438

  15. MicroRNA-31 Promotes Skin Wound Healing by Enhancing Keratinocyte Proliferation and Migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongqing; Li, Xi; Wang, Aoxue; Meisgen, Florian; Pivarcsi, Andor; Sonkoly, Enik; Sthle, Mona; Landn, Ning Xu

    2015-06-01

    Wound healing is a basic biological process restoring the integrity of the skin. The role of microRNAs during this process remains largely unexplored. By using an in vivo human skin wound healing model, we show here that the expression of miR-31 is gradually upregulated in wound edge keratinocytes in the inflammatory (1 day after injury) through the proliferative phase (7 days after injury) in comparison with intact skin. In human primary keratinocytes, overexpression of miR-31 promoted cell proliferation and migration, whereas inhibition of miR-31 had the opposite effects. Moreover, we identified epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP-1) as a direct target of miR-31 in keratinocytes. The expression of EMP-1 in the skin was negatively correlated with the level of miR-31 during wound healing. Silencing of EMP-1 mimicked the effects of overexpression of miR-31 on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, indicating that EMP-1 is a critical target mediating the functions of miR-31 in keratinocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that transforming growth factor-?2, which is highly expressed in skin wounds, upregulated miR-31 expression in keratinocytes. Collectively, we identify miR-31 as a key regulator for promoting keratinocyte proliferation and migration during wound healing. PMID:25685928

  16. Growth factors in synaptic function

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Vivian Y.; Choi, Sojoong; Park, Mikyoung

    2013-01-01

    Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons. PMID:24065916

  17. Growth factors in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranconi, S; Locatelli, F; Corti, S; Candelise, L; Comi, G P; Baron, P L; Strazzer, S; Bresolin, N; Bersano, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Data from pre-clinical and clinical studies provide evidence that colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and other growth factors (GFs) can improve stroke outcome by reducing stroke damage through their anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and by promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis. This review provides a critical and up-to-date literature review on CSF use in stroke. We searched for experimental and clinical studies on haemopoietic GFs such as granulocyte CSF, erythropoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor (SCF), vascular endothelial GF, stromal cell-derived factor-1α and SCF in ischemic stroke. We also considered studies on insulin-like growth factor-1 and neurotrophins. Despite promising results from animal models, the lack of data in human beings hampers efficacy assessments of GFs on stroke outcome. We provide a comprehensive and critical view of the present knowledge about GFs and stroke, and an overview of ongoing and future prospects. PMID:20015202

  18. Inhibitory mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng on GM-CSF expression in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ira; Lee, Jieun; Park, Young Sun; Lim, Yeji; Chang, Do Hyeon; Park, Jongil; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Background UV-irradiated keratinocytes secrete various proinflammatory cytokines. UV-induced skin damage is mediated by growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In a previous study, we found that the saponin of Korean Red Ginseng (SKRG) decreased the expression of GM-CSF in UVB-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes. In this study, we attempted to find the inhibitory mechanism of SKRG on UVB-induced GM-CSF expression in SP-1 keratinocytes. Methods We investigated the inhibitory mechanism of SKRG and ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on UVB-induced GM-CSF expression in SP-1 keratinocytes. Results Treatment with SKRG decreased the expression of GM-CSF mRNA and protein induced by irradiation of UVB in SP-1 keratinocytes. The phosphorylation of ERK was induced by UVB at 10min, and decreased with SKRG treatment in SP-1 keratinocytes. In addition, treatment with SKRG inhibited the UVB-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is known to be an upstream signal of ERK. From these results, we found that the inhibition of GM-CSF expression by SKRG was derived from the decreased phosphorylation of EGFR. To identify the specific compound composing SKRG, we tested fifteen kinds of ginsenosides. Among these compounds, ginsenoside-Rh3 decreased the expression of GM-CSF protein and mRNA in SP-1 keratinocytes. Conclusion Taken together, we found that treatment with SKRG decreased the phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK in UVB-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes and subsequently inhibited the expression of GM-CSF. Furthermore, we identified ginsenoside-Rh3 as the active saponin in Korean Red Ginseng. PMID:26869824

  19. Proteomic Profiling of Human Keratinocytes Undergoing UVB-Induced Alternative Differentiation Reveals TRIpartite Motif Protein 29 as a Survival Factor

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand-Vallery, Véronique; Belot, Nathalie; Dieu, Marc; Delaive, Edouard; Ninane, Noëlle; Demazy, Catherine; Raes, Martine; Salmon, Michel; Poumay, Yves; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Toussaint, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Background Repeated exposures to UVB of human keratinocytes lacking functional p16INK-4a and able to differentiate induce an alternative state of differentiation rather than stress-induced premature senescence. Methodology/Principal Findings A 2D-DIGE proteomic profiling of this alternative state of differentiation was performed herein at various times after the exposures to UVB. Sixty-nine differentially abundant protein species were identified by mass spectrometry, many of which are involved in keratinocyte differentiation and survival. Among these protein species was TRIpartite Motif Protein 29 (TRIM29). Increased abundance of TRIM29 following UVB exposures was validated by Western blot using specific antibody and was also further analysed by immunochemistry and by RT-PCR. TRIM29 was found very abundant in keratinocytes and reconstructed epidermis. Knocking down the expression of TRIM29 by short-hairpin RNA interference decreased the viability of keratinocytes after UVB exposure. The abundance of involucrin mRNA, a marker of late differentiation, increased concomitantly. In TRIM29-knocked down reconstructed epidermis, the presence of picnotic cells revealed cell injury. Increased abundance of TRIM29 was also observed upon exposure to DNA damaging agents and PKC activation. The UVB-induced increase of TRIM29 abundance was dependent on a PKC signaling pathway, likely PKCδ. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that TRIM29 allows keratinocytes to enter a protective alternative differentiation process rather than die massively after stress. PMID:20454669

  20. FGF receptors 1 and 2 are key regulators of keratinocyte migration in vitro and in wounded skin

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael; Müller, Anna-Katharina; Yang, Jingxuan; Moik, Daniel; Ponzio, Gilles; Ornitz, David M.; Grose, Richard; Werner, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Summary Efficient wound repair is essential for the maintenance of the integrity of the skin. The repair process is controlled by a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and their abnormal expression or activity can cause healing disorders. Here, we show that wound repair is severely delayed in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 in keratinocytes. As the underlying mechanism, we identified impaired wound contraction and a delay in re-epithelialization that resulted from impaired keratinocyte migration at the wound edge. Scratch wounding and transwell assays demonstrated that FGFR1/2-deficient keratinocytes had a reduced migration velocity and impaired directional persistence owing to inefficient formation and turnover of focal adhesions. Underlying this defect, we identified a significant reduction in the expression of major focal adhesion components in the absence of FGFR signaling, resulting in a general migratory deficiency. These results identify FGFs as key regulators of keratinocyte migration in wounded skin. PMID:22992463

  1. The mitogenic effect of KGF and the expression of its cell surface receptor on cultured normal and malignant human oral keratinocytes and on contiguous fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Drugan, C S; Stone, A; Game, S M; Prime, S S

    1997-08-01

    This study examined the mitogenic response to keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) of normal and tumour-derived human oral keratinocytes in which the degree of cellular differentiation was known and in contiguous fibroblast cultures derived from the malignant epithelial cultures. Keratinocytes, but not fibroblasts, were stimulated by KGF, thereby demonstrating epithelial target cell specificity of the ligand. KGF-induced stimulation of the tumour-derived keratinocytes cultured in the absence of the 3T3 fibroblast support broadly correlated with the degree of cellular differentiation; well-differentiated keratinocytes were stimulated more by KGF than their less differentiated counterparts. Malignant oral keratinocytes expressed KGF cell surface receptors (KD 451-709 pM; receptors/cell 2306-13645), but KGF receptor mRNA did not correlate with either KGF-induced mitogenesis or the degree of epithelial cell differentiation. When the tumour-derived keratinocytes were cultured in the presence of 3T3 fibroblasts, the mitogenic response to KGF was comparable to normal epithelial cells. The results suggest that KGF-mediated growth stimulation may not be significant in providing a selective advantage for the growth of malignant keratinocytes. PMID:9250933

  2. Dermal fibroblast expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) promotes epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in normal and diseased skin.

    PubMed

    Quan, Chunji; Cho, Moon Kyun; Shao, Yuan; Mianecki, Laurel E; Liao, Eric; Perry, Daniel; Quan, Taihao

    2015-12-01

    Stromal cells provide a crucial microenvironment for overlying epithelium. Here we investigated the expression and function of a stromal cell-specific protein, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), in normal human skin and in the tissues of diseased skin. Immunohistology and laser capture microdissection (LCM)-coupled quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that SDF-1 is constitutively and predominantly expressed in dermal stromal cells in normal human skin in vivo. To our surprise, an extremely high level of SDF-1 transcription was observed in the dermis of normal human skin in vivo, evidenced by much higher mRNA expression level than type I collagen, the most abundant and highly expressed protein in human skin. SDF-1 was also upregulated in the tissues of many human skin disorders including psoriasis, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Double immunostaining for SDF-1 and HSP47 (heat shock protein 47), a marker of fibroblasts, revealed that fibroblasts were the major source of stroma-cell-derived SDF-1 in both normal and diseased skin. Functionally, SDF-1 activates the ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinases) pathway and functions as a mitogen to stimulate epidermal keratinocyte proliferation. Both overexpression of SDF-1 in dermal fibroblasts and treatment with rhSDF-1 to the skin equivalent cultures significantly increased the number of keratinocyte layers and epidermal thickness. Conversely, the stimulative function of SDF-1 on keratinocyte proliferation was nearly completely eliminated by interfering with CXCR4, a specific receptor of SDF-1, or by knock-down of SDF-1 in fibroblasts. Our data reveal that extremely high levels of SDF-1 provide a crucial microenvironment for epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in both physiologic and pathologic skin conditions. PMID:26296527

  3. Overexpression of CRABPI in suprabasal keratinocytes enhances the proliferation of epidermal basal keratinocytes in mouse skin topically treated with all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Vivero, Marina; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether ectopic expression of CRABPI, a cellular retinoic acid binding protein, influenced the actions of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in transgenic (TG) mice. We targeted CRABPI to the basal vs. suprabasal layers of mouse epidermis by using the keratin 14 (K14) and keratin 10 (K10) promoters, respectively. Greater CRABPI protein levels were detected in the epidermis of adult transgenic(+) mice than in transgenic(-) mice for both transgenes. In adult mouse skin CRABPI overexpression in the basal or suprabasal keratinocytes did not cause morphological abnormalities, but did result in decreased CRABPII mRNA levels. Ectopically overexpressed CRABPI in suprabasal keratinocytes, but not in basal keratinocytes, enhanced the thickening of the epidermis induced by topical ATRA treatments (10 microM, 400 microl for 4 days) by 1.59+/-0.2-fold (p<0.05). ATRA treatment (10 microM) resulted in a 59.9+/-9.8% increase (p<0.05) in the BrdU labeling index in K10/FLAG-CRABPI TG(+) mice vs. TG(-) mice. Retinoid topical treatments reduced p27 and CYP26A1 mRNA levels in TG(+) and TG(-) mouse skin in K14 and K10/FLAG-CRABPI transgenic mice. As epidermal basal keratinocyte proliferation is stimulated by paracrine growth factors secreted by ATRA activated suprabasal keratinocytes, our results indicate that CRABPI overexpression in suprabasal keratinocytes enhances the physiological functions of ATRA. PMID:17727842

  4. Overexpression of CRABPI in suprabasal keratinocytes enhances the proliferation of epidermal basal keratinocytes in mouse skin topically treated with all-trans retinoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X.-H.; Vivero, Marina; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether ectopic expression of CRABPI, a cellular retinoic acid binding protein, influenced the actions of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in transgenic (TG) mice. We targeted CRABPI to the basal vs. suprabasal layers of mouse epidermis by using the keratin 14 (K14) and keratin 10 (K10) promoters, respectively. Greater CRABPI protein levels were detected in the epidermis of adult transgenic(+) mice than in transgenic(-) mice for both transgenes. In adult mouse skin CRABPI overexpression in the basal or suprabasal keratinocytes did not cause morphological abnormalities, but did result in decreased CRABPII mRNA levels. Ectopically overexpressed CRABPI in suprabasal keratinocytes, but not in basal keratinocytes, enhanced the thickening of the epidermis induced by topical ATRA treatments (10 {mu}M, 400 {mu}l for 4 days) by 1.59 {+-} 0.2-fold (p < 0.05). ATRA treatment (10 {mu}M) resulted in a 59.9 {+-} 9.8% increase (p < 0.05) in the BrdU labeling index in K10/FLAG-CRABPI TG(+) mice vs. TG(-) mice. Retinoid topical treatments reduced p27 and CYP26A1 mRNA levels in TG(+) and TG(-) mouse skin in K14 and K10/FLAG-CRABPI transgenic mice. As epidermal basal keratinocyte proliferation is stimulated by paracrine growth factors secreted by ATRA activated suprabasal keratinocytes, our results indicate that CRABPI overexpression in suprabasal keratinocytes enhances the physiological functions of ATRA.

  5. Ethanol Extract of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense Kitamura Exhibits the Activation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2-dependent Antioxidant Response Element and Protects Human Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells Against Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ok-Kyung; Choi, Bu Young; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Byoung-Kwon; Joo, Chul Gue; Heo, Hyo-Jung; Keum, Young-Sam

    2016-01-01

    Keratinocytes are constantly exposed to extracellular insults, such as ultraviolet B, toxic chemicals and mechanical stress, all of which can facilitate the aging of keratinocytes via the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in protecting keratinocytes against oxidants and xenobiotics by binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE), a cis-acting element existing in the promoter of most phase II cytoprotective genes. In the present study, we have attempted to find novel ethanol extract(s) of indigenous plants of Jeju island, Korea that can activate the Nrf2/ARE-dependent gene expression in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. As a result, we identified that ethanol extract of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense Kitamura (ECJUK) elicited strong stimulatory effect on the ARE-dependent gene expression. Supporting this observation, we found that ECJUK induced the expression of Nrf2, hemoxygenase-1, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and this event was correlated with Akt1 phosphorylation. We also found that ECJUK increased the intracellular reduced glutathione level and suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate-induced 8-hydroxyguanosine formation without affecting the overall viability. Collectively, our results provide evidence that ECJUK can protect against oxidative stress-mediated damages through the activation of Nrf2/ARE-dependent phase II cytoprotective gene expression. PMID:27051652

  6. Topical treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor promotes wound healing and barrier recovery induced by skin abrasion.

    PubMed

    Nakamizo, S; Egawa, G; Doi, H; Natsuaki, Y; Miyachi, Y; Kabashima, K

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes the healing of skin ulceration by inducing fibroblast proliferation, yet the role of bFGF on epidermal barrier function, especially from the perspective of scratch-induced skin abrasion, remains unknown. To this end, we initially developed an epidermal abrasion mouse model induced by scratching with a stainless-steel wire brush, and examined the effects of bFGF on the wound healing induced by skin abrasion. This procedure induced a significant elevation of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in a scratch-count-dependent manner. This elevated TEWL was significantly decreased following topical application of bFGF to the skin. In addition, bFGF increased the expression of Ki67 in keratinocytes following mechanical scratching. These results suggest that bFGF enhances keratinocyte proliferation, which, in turn, repairs the skin barrier disruption and wounds caused by scratching in mice. Consistently, bFGF stimulated proliferation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). Intriguingly, the effect of bFGF and other growth factors on NHEK proliferation was additive. However, high cell density diminished the effect of bFGF on NHEK proliferation. This particular result can be explained by our observation that FGF receptor mRNA expression in NHEK was low under conditions of high cell density. Our findings suggest that bFGF stimulates keratinocyte proliferation, especially in a lower cell density environment, to repair skin wound in accord with skin barrier recovery. PMID:23108135

  7. Growth factors in orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zaharia, C; Despa, N; Simionescu, M; Jinga, V; Fleseriu, I

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions. PMID:20302195

  8. Growth factors in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z M; Wilmore, D W; Liu, W; Liu, Y W

    2000-12-01

    Growth factors enhance protein synthesis and thus reduce the catabolic response to injury. As a result of bioengineering and new manufacturing techniques several anabolic agents have become available for clinical use and have been evaluated in surgical patients with catabolic illness. Data support the anabolic effects of growth home in such patients, but its expense and possible deleterious effects during the acute phase of illness limit its use to selected patient groups. Insulin-like growth factor-1 has also been studied, but specific indications for its use have not been identified in catabolic patients. Testosterone and derivatives of this hormone exert anabolic effects, but few randomized trials include catabolic surgical patients, and higher doses of some derivative compounds are associated with hepatic dysfunction. Nonetheless, as we move into the future, studies will determine the specific doses for administration of these and other anabolic factors in specific patient groups. Anabolic therapy will shorten the length of therapy and improve the outcome in the future. PMID:11193716

  9. Leveraging growth factor induced macropinocytosis for targeted treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Raul; Koria, Piyush

    2015-12-01

    Targeted therapy focused on highly expressed growth factor receptors is increasingly becoming popular for the treatment of lung cancer. Cancer cells exhibit higher levels of macropinocytosis than the normally quiescent non-cancerous cells, which can further be enhanced by growth factors. Here, we show the targeted enhancement of macropinocytosis in lung cancer cells for the delivery of the mitochondriotoxic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 using keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). We report the formation of a nanoparticle (NP) comprising of two chimeric fusion proteins, both fused to elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), (KLAKLAK)2-ELP and KGF-ELP. We show that (KLAKLAK)2-ELP nanoparticles are internalized via macropinocytosis and its internalization is facilitated by the interaction of the ELP domain with cell surface heparin sulfate proteoglycans. This internalization leads to mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent cell death. Also, we demonstrate that KGF-ELP selectively enhances macropinocytosis in cancer cells expressing high levels of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR). Finally, the heterogeneous NPs consisting of (KLAKLAK)2-ELP and KGF-ELP selectively kill KGFR-expressing lung cancer cells. Hence, this multipronged approach of targeting highly active processes and receptors in cancer cells will be tremendously selective in the treatment of both early-stage and advanced-stage lung cancers, thereby improving patient's prognosis and survival rate. PMID:26519258

  10. Cyclic stretch induces upregulation of endothelin-1 with keratinocytes in vitro: Possible role in mechanical stress-induced hyperpigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, Masakazu; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Fujino, Takashi; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of cyclic stretch on melanogenetic paracrine cytokines was investigated. {yields} Keratinocyte-derived endothelin-1 was upregulated with cyclic stretch. {yields} Degree of upregulation increases dose-dependently. {yields} This upregulation possibly plays a role in the pathogenesis of pigmented disorders. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pathological relation between mechanical stress and hyperpigmentation. We did this by investigating the influence of cyclic stretch on the expression of keratinocyte- and fibroblast-derived melanogenetic paracrine cytokines in vitro. Using primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, alterations of mRNA expression of melanogenetic paracrine cytokines due to cyclic stretch were investigated using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cytokines included basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1{alpha}, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) for keratinocytes and bFGF, SCF, and hepatocyte growth factor for fibroblasts. The dose dependence of keratinocyte-derived ET-1 upregulation was further investigated using real-time PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also investigated the effects of cyclic stretch on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Among the melanogenetic paracrine cytokines investigated, keratinocyte-derived ET-1 was consistently upregulated in all four cell lines. The degree of upregulation increased with the degree of the length and frequency of the stretch; in contrast, cell number and differentiation markers showed no obvious alterations with cyclic stretch. Keratinocyte-derived ET-1 upregulation possibly plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of pigmented disorders, such as friction melanosis, caused by mechanical stress.

  11. Portulaca oleracea L. aids calcipotriol in reversing keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier dysfunction in psoriasis through inhibition of the nuclear factor ?B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, HENGGUANG; LI, SHUANG; LUO, FULING; TAN, QIAN; LI, HUI; ZHOU, WEIKANG

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis affects 24% of the population worldwide and its treatment is currently far from satisfactory. Calcipotriol and Portulaca oleracea have been reported to exhibit the capacity to inhibit inflammation in psoriatic patients and improve their clinical condition. However, the efficacy of a combination regimen of these two components remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy of P. oleracea extract combined with calcipotriol on plaque psoriasis and its potential mechanism. Eleven patients with plaque psoriasis were treated with humectant containing the active ingredients of P. oleracea extract, with or without 0.005% calcipotriol ointment in a right-left bilateral lesion self-control study. Differences were evaluated by investigation of the clinical efficacy, adverse effects, skin barrier function, histological structure, expression and proliferation of keratinocytes, differentiation markers (cytokeratin 10, filaggrin and loricrin), inflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-8], as well as the status of the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathway. The combination of P. oleracea and calcipotriol was revealed to decrease adverse effects, reduce transepidermal water loss, potently reverse keratinocyte differentiation dysfunction, and inhibit the expression of TNF-? and IL-8 and the phosphorylation of the NF-?B inhibitor I?B?. This treatment is therefore anticipated to be suitable for use as a novel adjuvant therapy for psoriatic patients. PMID:25574190

  12. Epidermal growth factor and growth in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a dose-dependent thickening of the epidermis in suckling mice. The cellular mechanisms underlying this thickening were analyzed by measuring the effect of EGF on the cell-cycle. Neonatal mice were given daily injections of either 2ug EGF/g body weight/day or an equivalent volume of saline, and on the seventh day received a single injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine. At various times the mice were perfused with fixative; 1um sections of skin were stained with a modification of Harris' hematoxylin and were autoradiographed. The sections were analyzed using three methods based on the dependence on time after injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine of: frequency of labelled mitoses, labelling index, and reciprocal grains/nucleus. It was found that EGF caused a two-fold increase in the cell production rate. The effect of exogenous EGF on the morphology of gastric mucosa and incisors of suckling mice was also studied. The gastric mucosa appeared thicker in EGF-treated animals, but the effect was not statistically significant. In contrast to its effect on epidermis and gastric mucosa, EGF caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the size of the incisors. Because the mouse submandibular salivary gland is the major source of EGF the effect of sialoadenectomy on female reproductive functions was examined. Ablation of the submandibular gland had no effect on: length of estrus cycle, ability of the female to produce litters, length of the gestation period, litter size, and weight of the litter at birth. There was also no effect on survival of the offspring or on age at which the eyelids separated.

  13. Oral fibroblasts produce more HGF and KGF than skin fibroblasts in response to co-culture with keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Grøn, Birgitte; Stoltze, Kaj; Andersson, Anders; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-12-01

    The production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in subepithelial fibroblasts from buccal mucosa, periodontal ligament, and skin was determined after co-culture with keratinocytes. The purpose was to detect differences between the fibroblast subpopulations that could explain regional variation in epithelial growth and wound healing. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured on polystyrene or maintained in collagen matrix and stimulated with keratinocytes cultured on membranes. The amount of HGF and KGF protein in the culture medium was determined every 24 h for 5 days by ELISA. When cultured on polystyrene, the constitutive level of KGF and HGF in periodontal fibroblasts was higher than the level in buccal and skin fibroblasts. In the presence of keratinocytes, all three types of fibroblasts in general increased their HGF and KGF production 2-3 times. When cells were maintained in collagen, the level of HGF and KGF was decreased mainly in skin cultures. However, in oral fibroblasts, induction after stimulation was at a similar level in collagen compared to on polystyrene. Skin fibroblasts maintained in collagen produced almost no HGF whether with or without stimulation. The results demonstrate that the secretion of KGF and HGF in both unstimulated fibroblasts and in fibroblasts co-cultured with keratinocytes is dependent on the type of fibroblasts. In general, the periodontal fibroblasts had the highest level of cytokine production. This high level of growth factor production may influence the proliferation and the migration of junctional epithelium and thereby influence the development of periodontal disease. PMID:12645668

  14. 3D co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes and cytoprotective effects on keratinocytes against reactive oxygen species by insect virus-derived protein microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Junji; Yamaoka, Ayako; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Kotani, Eiji; Hirano, Tomoko; Nakajima, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Goichi; Mori, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    Stable protein microcrystals called polyhedra are produced by certain insect viruses. Cytokines, such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), can be immobilized within polyhedra. Here, we investigated three-dimensional (3D) co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes on collagen gel containing FGF-2 and FGF-7 polyhedra. Melanocytes were observed to reside at the base of the 3D cell culture and melanin was also typically observed in the lower layer. The 3D cell culture model with FGF-2 and FGF-7 polyhedra was a useful in vitro model of the epidermis due to effective melanogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. FGF-7 polyhedra showed a potent cytoprotective effect when keratinocytes were treated with menadione, which is a generator of reactive oxygen species. The cytoprotective effect was activated by the inositol triphosphate kinase-Akt pathway leading to upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin 6. PMID:25063093

  15. Keratinocytes from APP/APLP2-deficient mice are impaired in proliferation, adhesion and migration in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Siemes, Christina; Quast, Thomas; Kummer, Christiane; Wehner, Sven; Kirfel, Gregor; Mueller, Ulrike; Herzog, Volker . E-mail: Herzog@uni-bonn.de

    2006-07-01

    Growing evidence shows that the soluble N-terminal form (sAPP{alpha}) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) represents an epidermal growth factor fostering keratinocyte proliferation, migration and adhesion. APP is a member of a protein family including the two mammalian amyloid precursor-like proteins APLP1 and APLP2. In the mammalian epidermis, only APP and APLP2 are expressed. APP and APLP2-deficient mice die shortly after birth but do not display a specific epidermal phenotype. In this report, we investigated the epidermis of APP and/or APLP2 knockout mice. Basal keratinocytes showed reduced proliferation in vivo by about 40%. Likewise, isolated keratinocytes exhibited reduced proliferation rates in vitro, which could be completely rescued by either exogenously added recombinant sAPP{alpha}, or by co-culture with dermal fibroblasts derived from APP knockout mice. Moreover, APP-knockout keratinocytes revealed reduced migration velocity resulting from severely compromised cell substrate adhesion. Keratinocytes from double knockout mice died within the first week of culture, indicating essential functions of APP-family members for survival in vitro. Our data indicate that sAPP{alpha} has to be considered as an essential epidermal growth factor which, however, in vivo can be functionally compensated to a certain extent by other growth factors, e.g., factors released from dermal fibroblasts.

  16. Nonviral transfer of genes to pig primary keratinocytes. Induction of angiogenesis by composite grafts of modified keratinocytes overexpressing VEGF driven by a keratin promoter.

    PubMed

    Rio, M D; Larcher, F; Meana, A; Segovia, J; Alvarez, A; Jorcano, J

    1999-10-01

    Cultured epithelial grafts have proven to be life-saving in the treatment of large skin losses. It has become apparent that one of the main difficulties of this technology is the overall poor take of the grafts as a consequence of severely damaged dermal beds. Skin substitutes providing both cultured keratinocytes, as an epidermal layer, and a dermal analogous offer a more suitable material for skin repair. Ex vivo transfer of stroma regeneration-promoting genes to keratinocytes appears to be an attractive strategy for improving the therapeutic action of these grafts. The use of epidermal-specific promoters as expression drivers of exogenous genes results in both high expression levels and stratum specificity, as shown in transgenic mice studies. Most current gene transfer protocols to primary keratinocytes involve transduction of epidermal cells with retroviral vectors. However, transfer of gene constructs harboring these long DNA fragment promoters cannot be achieved through viral transduction. In this paper, we describe a protocol consisting of lipid-mediated transfection, G418 selection and an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-based enrichment step for obtaining high levels of transgene-expressing primary keratinocytes. Using this protocol, the cDNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent endothelial cell mitogen driven by the 5.2 kb bovine keratin K5 promoter, was stably transfected into pig primary keratinocytes. Genetically modified keratinocytes, expanded on live fibroblast-containing fibrin gels and transplanted to nude mice as a composite material, elicited a strong angiogenic response in the host stroma as determined by fresh tissue examination and CD31 immunostaining. Since the formation of a well-vascularized wound bed is a crucial step for permanent wound closure, the use of an 'angiogenic' composite material may improve wound bed preparation and coverage with cultured keratinocyte grafts. PMID:10516723

  17. Human papillomavirus causes an angiogenic switch in keratinocytes which is sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Li, F.; Mead, L.; White, H.; Walker, J.; Ingram, D.A.; Roman, A.

    2007-10-10

    One of the requirements for tumor growth is the ability to recruit a blood supply, a process known as angiogenesis. Angiogenesis begins early in the progression of cervical disease from mild to severe dysplasia and on to invasive cancer. We have previously reported that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 (HPV16 E6E7) proteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) decreases expression of two inhibitors and increases expression of two angiogenic inducers [Toussaint-Smith, E., Donner, D.B., Roman, A., 2004. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes is sufficient to alter the expression of angiogenic factors. Oncogene 23, 2988-2995]. Here we report that HPV-induced early changes in the keratinocyte phenotype are sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media from HPV16 E6E7 expressing HFKs as well as from human cervical keratinocytes containing the intact HPV16 were able to stimulate proliferation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, introduction of the conditioned media into immunocompetent mice using a Matrigel plug model resulted in a clear angiogenic response. These novel data support the hypothesis that HPV proteins contribute not only to the uncontrolled keratinocyte growth seen following HPV infection but also to the angiogenic response needed for tumor formation.

  18. Expression profiling of human epidermal keratinocyte response following 1-minute JP-8 exposure.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chi-Chung; Yang, Jen-Hung; Chen, San-Duo; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Li, Han-Ni; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA microarray analysis of 9600 expressed sequence tags was performed to examine the gene expression changes in human epidermal keratinocytes after 1-minute JP-8 exposure; 151 genes were identified as JP-8 responsive and classified into 8 clusters by self organization map. Genes involved in basal transcription and translations were up-regulated, whereas genes related to DNA repair, metabolism, and keratin were mostly down-regulated. Genes encoded for growth factors, apoptosis, signal transduction, and adhesion were also altered. These results indicated that human keratinocyte responds to a single dose of JP-8 insult and revealed several cellular processes previously not associated with jet fuel exposure. PMID:16835149

  19. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  20. Arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth of HaCaT cells through placental growth factor.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Naito, Hisao; Shekhar, Hossain U; Omata, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    Various cancers including skin cancer are increasing in 45 million people exposed to arsenic above the World Health Organization's guideline value of 10??g?l(-1). However, there is limited information on key molecules regulating arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis. Our fieldwork in Bangladesh demonstrated that levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) in urine samples from residents of cancer-prone areas with arsenic-polluted drinking water were higher than those in urine samples from residents of an area that was not polluted with arsenic. Our experimental study in human nontumorigenic HaCaT skin keratinocytes showed that arsenite promoted anchorage-independent growth with increased expression and secretion of PlGF, a ligand of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1 (VEGFR1), and increased VEGFR1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities. The arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth was strongly inhibited by PlGF depletion with decreased activities of the PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, arsenite proteasome-dependently degrades metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) protein, resulting in a decreased amount of MTF-1 protein binding to the PlGF promoter. MTF-1 negatively controlled PlGF transcription in HaCaT cells, resulting in increased PlGF transcription. These results suggest that arsenite-mediated MTF-1 degradation enhances the activity of PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK signaling, resulting in promotion of the malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Thus, this study proposed a molecular mechanism for arsenite-mediated development of skin cancer. PMID:25493652

  1. Human Alveolar Macrophage Growth Factor for Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bitterman, Peter B.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    1982-01-01

    The number of fibroblasts composing the alveolar structures in controlled within narrow limits by a strictly modulated rate of fibroblast replication. One possible source of growth-modulating signals for alveolar fibroblasts is the alveolar macrophage, a member of the mononuclear phagocyte family of cells, which collectively are known to be important sources of growth factors for a variety of target cells. To evaluate the role of alveolar macrophages in the control of alveolar fibroblast replication, macrophages from normal individuals obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were maintained in suspension culture with and without added stimuli, and supernates were evaluated for fibroblast growth-promoting effect. Supernates from unstimulated macrophages contained no growth factor activity. In marked contrast, supernates from macrophages stimulated with particulates and immune complexes contained a growth factor that caused a significant increase in fibroblast replication rate. Maximum growth factor activity was observed 3-4 h after macrophage stimulation, at a concentration of 1-2 106 macrophages/ml. The alveolar macrophagederived growth factor eluted from DEAE-cellulose at 0.27 M NaCl at neutral pH had an apparent molecular weight of 18,000, and appeared to be distinct from other characterized growth factors. The alveolar macrophage-derived growth factor stimulated lung fibroblast DNA synthesis within 12 h, with cell division apparent within 48 h. In serum-free culture, the alveolar macrophage-derived growth factor by itself did not promote fibroblast replication, but rather acted as a progression factor causing a synergistic increase in fibroblast replication rate in the presence of competence factors such as fibroblast growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor. These studies suggest that when stimulated, human alveolar macrophages may modulate, in part, the replication rate of alveolar fibroblasts by releasing a growth factor within the alveolar microenvironment. PMID:7119116

  2. Experience gained during the long term cultivation of keratinocytes for treatment of burns patients.

    PubMed

    Dragúňová, Jana; Kabát, Peter; Koller, Ján; Jarabinská, Valéria

    2012-08-01

    Both allogenic and autologous cultured skin cells have been used clinically on burn patients. In vitro cultivation of human keratinocytes has been routinely provided by the Central Tissue Bank in Bratislava since 1996, with an average annual production of around 7,000 cm(2). Keratinocytes have been cultivated using a version of the original by Rheinwald and Green (Cell 6:317-330, 1975) methodology which has been modified over time in our laboratory as we gained more experience with this serial passage system. We have observed that the growth of cultured keratinocytes depends on several important factors, including the timing of skin sample procurement, the method of skin sample procurement, the general condition of the patient, the quality and composition of the culture media and, to a lesser extent, the age of the patient. We aim to share our experience with other cell cultivation facilities. PMID:21847560

  3. RIP2: A novel player in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and cutaneous wound repair?

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Stephanie; Valchanova, Ralitsa S.; Munz, Barbara

    2010-03-10

    We could recently demonstrate an important role of receptor interacting protein 4 (RIP4) in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. Now, we analyzed a potential role of the RIP4 homolog RIP2 in keratinocytes. Specifically, we demonstrate here that rip2 expression is induced by scratch-wounding and after the induction of differentiation in these cells. Furthermore, serum growth factors and cytokines can induce rip2, with TNF-{alpha}-dependent induction being dependent on p38 MAPK. In addition, we demonstrate that scratch-induced upregulation of rip2 expression is completely blocked by the steroid dexamethasone. Since we also show that RIP2 is an important player in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation, these data suggest that inhibition of rip2 upregulation after wounding might contribute to the reduced and delayed wound re-epithelialization phenotype seen in glucocorticoid-treated patients.

  4. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  5. Antithrombin Regulates Matriptase Activity Involved in Plasmin Generation, Syndecan Shedding, and HGF Activation in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Xu, Zhenghong; Baksh, Adrienne N. H.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Swanson, Richard; Olson, Steve T.; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Johnson, Michael D.; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Matriptase, a membrane-associated serine protease, plays an essential role in epidermal barrier function through activation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin. The matriptase-prostasin proteolytic cascade is tightly regulated by hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 such that matriptase autoactivation and prostasin activation occur simultaneously and are followed immediately by the inhibition of both enzymes by HAI-1. However, the mechanisms whereby matriptase acts on extracellular substrates remain elusive. Here we report that some active matriptase can escape HAI-1 inhibition by being rapidly shed from the cell surface. In the pericellular environment, shed active matriptase is able to activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), accelerate plasminogen activation, and shed syndecan 1. The amount of active matriptase shed is inversely correlated with the amount of antithrombin (AT) bound to the surface of the keratinocytes. Binding of AT to the surface of keratinocytes is dependent on a functional heparin binding site, Lys-125, and that the N-glycosylation site Asn-135 be unglycosylated. This suggests that β-AT, and not α-AT, is responsible for regulation of pericellular matriptase activity in keratinocytes. Keratinocytes appear to rely on AT to regulate the level of pericellular active matriptase much more than breast and prostate epithelial cells in which AT regulation of matriptase activity occurs at much lower levels than keratinocytes. These results suggest that keratinocytes employ two distinct serine protease inhibitors to control the activation and processing of two different sets of matriptase substrates leading to different biological events: 1) HAI-1 for prostasin activation/inhibition, and 2) AT for the pericellular proteolysis involved in HGF activation, accelerating plasminogen activation, and shedding of syndecans. PMID:23675430

  6. Stimulation of In Vivo Angiogenesis by In Situ Crosslinked, Dual Growth Factor-loaded, Glycosaminoglycan Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Roberto; Fuegy, Peter W.; VanDelden, Aaron; Firpo, Matthew A.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Peattie, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study of elicited angiogenesis, hyaluronan (HA)-based hydrogels crosslinked by polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) were loaded with combinations of the cytokine growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). GF release in vivo was controlled by covalent incorporation of thiol-modified heparin into thiolated HA hydrogels, which were injected into the ear pinnae of mice and allowed to crosslink in situ. GF release in vivo was controlled by covalent incorporation of thiol-modified heparin in the gels. The ears were harvested at 7 or 14 days post implantation, and vascularization evaluated via a Neovascularization Index (NI). The study demonstrates that in situ gelling implants produced no gross inflammation, redness or swelling, and an improved tolerance compared to HA-based dry film implants. All treatments showed significantly more vascularization than either contralateral ears or ears receiving a sham surgery. The maximum response was observed after 14 days in the ears receiving 0.3% Hp, gelatin-containing gels loaded with VEGF+KGF (NI = 3.91). The study revealed injected growth factor-loaded HA-based hydrogels can successfully produce localized controllable vascularization, while minimizing tissue necrosis, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inflammation. The ability to target and controllably release growth factors can prove a useful tool in specific diseased tissue/organ angiogenesis. PMID:20227760

  7. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria Del R; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:24371457

  8. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria del R.; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:24371457

  9. Staphylococcus aureus keratinocyte invasion is mediated by integrin-linked kinase and Rac1.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Xu, Stacey X; Rudkouskaya, Alena; McGavin, Martin J; McCormick, John K; Dagnino, Lina

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major component of the skin microbiota and causes a large number of serious infections. S. aureus first interacts with epidermal keratinocytes to breach the epidermal barrier through mechanisms not fully understood. By use of primary keratinocytes from mice with epidermis-restricted Ilk gene inactivation and control integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-expressing littermates, we investigated the role of ILK in epidermal S. aureus invasion. Heat-killed, but not live, bacteria were internalized to Rab5- and Rab7-positive phagosomes, and incubation with keratinocyte growth factor increased their uptake 2.5-fold. ILK-deficient mouse keratinocytes internalized bacteria 2- to 4-fold less efficiently than normal cells. The reduced invasion by live S. aureus of ILK-deficient cells was restored in the presence of exogenous, constitutively active Rac1. Thus, Rac1 functions downstream from ILK during invasion. Further, invasion by S. aureus of Rac1-deficient cells was 2.5-fold lower than in normal cells. Paradoxically, staphylococcal cutaneous penetration of mouse skin explants with ILK-deficient epidermis was 35-fold higher than that of normal skin, indicating defects in epidermal barrier function in the absence of ILK. Thus, we identified an ILK-Rac1 pathway essential for bacterial invasion of keratinocytes, and established ILK as a key contributor to prevent invasive staphylococcal cutaneous infection. PMID:25416549

  10. Potential prognostic and diagnostic application of a novel monoclonal antibody against keratinocyte growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Simona; Bei, Roberto; Vescarelli, Enrica; D'Amici, Sirio; di Gioia, Cira; Modesti, Andrea; Romano, Ferdinando; Redler, Adriano; Marchese, Cinzia; Angeloni, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    KGFR is involved in the pathogenesis of several human cancers. In this study, we generated and characterized a monoclonal antibody specific to KGFR (SC-101mAb) and evaluated its potential use in basic research and as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. The specificity and biological activity of the SC-101mAb were evaluated by Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation analyses on various cell lines. KGFR expression in breast, pancreatic, and thyroid carcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with SC-101mAb. KGFR expression levels revealed by SC-101mAb resulted to increase proportionally with tumor grade in breast and pancreatic cancer. In addition, SC-101mAb was able to detect KGFR down-modulation in thyroid cancer. SC-101mAb might represent a useful tool for basic research applications, and it could also contribute to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis of epithelial tumors. PMID:24899248

  11. Gene network dynamics controlling keratinocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Hauke; Camacho-Trullio, David; Rogon, Zbigniew; Breuhahn, Kai; Angel, Peter; Eils, Roland; Szabowski, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Translation of large-scale data into a coherent model that allows one to simulate, predict and control cellular behavior is far from being resolved. Assuming that long-term cellular behavior is reflected in the gene expression kinetics, we infer a dynamic gene regulatory network from time-series measurements of DNA microarray data of hepatocyte growth factor-induced migration of primary human keratinocytes. Transferring the obtained interactions to the level of signaling pathways, we predict in silico and verify in vitro the necessary and sufficient time-ordered events that control migration. We show that pulse-like activation of the proto-oncogene receptor Met triggers a responsive state, whereas time sequential activation of EGF-R is required to initiate and maintain migration. Context information for enhancing, delaying or stopping migration is provided by the activity of the protein kinase A signaling pathway. Our study reveals the complex orchestration of multiple pathways controlling cell migration. PMID:18594517

  12. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

  13. Effects of fiber density and plasma modification of nanofibrous membranes on the adhesion and growth of HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bacakova, Marketa; Lopot, Frantisek; Hadraba, Daniel; Varga, Marian; Zaloudkova, Margit; Stranska, Denisa; Suchy, Tomas; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    It may be possible to regulate the cell colonization of biodegradable polymer nanofibrous membranes by plasma treatment and by the density of the fibers. To test this hypothesis, nanofibrous membranes of different fiber densities were treated by oxygen plasma with a range of plasma power and exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests showed significant modification of nanofibers after plasma treatment. The intensity of the fiber modification increased with plasma power and exposure time. The exposure time seemed to have a stronger effect on modifying the fiber. The mechanical behavior of the membranes was influenced by the plasma treatment, the fiber density, and their dry or wet state. Plasma treatment increased the membrane stiffness; however, the membranes became more brittle. Wet membranes displayed significantly lower stiffness than dry membranes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a slight increase in oxygen-containing groups on the membrane surface after plasma treatment. Plasma treatment enhanced the adhesion and growth of HaCaT keratinocytes on nanofibrous membranes. The cells adhered and grew preferentially on membranes of lower fiber densities, probably due to the larger area of void spaces between the fibers. PMID:25085812

  14. Skin Barrier Defects Caused by Keratinocyte-Specific Deletion of ADAM17 or EGFR Are Based on Highly Similar Proteome and Degradome Alterations.

    PubMed

    Tholen, Stefan; Wolf, Cristina; Mayer, Bettina; Knopf, Julia D; Löffek, Stefanie; Qian, Yawen; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Biniossek, Martin L; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Schilling, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Keratinocyte-specific deletion of ADAM17 in mice impairs terminal differentiation of keratinocytes leading to severe epidermal barrier defects. Mice deficient for ADAM17 in keratinocytes phenocopy mice with a keratinocyte-specific deletion of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which highlights the role of ADAM17 as a "ligand sheddase" of EGFR ligands. In this study, we aim for the first proteomic/degradomic approach to characterize the disruption of the ADAM17-EGFR signaling axis and its consequences for epidermal barrier formation. Proteomic profiling of the epidermal proteome of mice deficient for either ADAM17 or EGFR in keratinocytes at postnatal days 3 and 10 revealed highly similar protein alterations for ADAM17 and EGFR deficiency. These include massive proteome alterations of structural and regulatory components important for barrier formation such as transglutaminases, involucrin, filaggrin, and filaggrin-2. Cleavage site analysis using terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates revealed increased proteolytic processing of S100 fused-type proteins including filaggrin-2. Alterations in proteolytic processing are supported by altered abundance of numerous proteases upon keratinocyte-specific Adam17 or Egfr deletion, among them kallikreins, cathepsins, and their inhibitors. This study highlights the essential role of proteolytic processing for maintenance of a functional epidermal barrier. Furthermore, it suggests that most defects in formation of the postnatal epidermal barrier upon keratinocyte-specific ADAM17 deletion are mediated via EGFR. PMID:27089454

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor in reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Lebovic, D I; Mueller, M D; Taylor, R N

    1999-06-01

    The critical role of angiogenesis in embryology and tumor biology has been recognized for more than 20 years. However, the fact that neovascularization is essential to processes in mammalian female reproduction has only recently been appreciated widely. In this review we focus on a single angiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor. As scientists have discovered in many aspects of cell biology, multiple and redundant signaling pathways have evolved in nature, presumably to protect essential biological functions from inactivating diseases or mutations. Despite this redundancy, some factors are of hierarchical importance. Vascular endothelial growth factor appears to be such a factor in the regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:10369200

  16. Differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kidwai, Fahad K; Cao, Tong; Lu, Kai

    2014-01-01

    For many years, cell therapies have been hampered by limited availability and inter-batch variability of primary cells. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) can give rise to specialized cells like keratinocytes and recently emerged as a virtually unlimited source of potential therapeutic cells. However, xenogeneic components in differentiation cocktails have been limiting the clinical potential of hESC-derived keratinocytes (hESCs-Kert). Here, we demonstrated efficient differentiation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (H9-hESCs) into keratinocytes (H9-Kert(ACC)) in an autogenic co-culture system. We used activin as the main factor to induce keratinocyte differentiation. H9-Kert(ACC) expressed keratinocyte markers at mRNA and protein levels. Establishment of such animal-free microenvironment for keratinocyte differentiation will accelerate potential clinical application of hESCs. PMID:24281868

  17. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  18. The importance of both fibroblasts and keratinocytes in a bilayered living cellular construct used in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Abigail M; Oliveira, Steve; Carlson, Mark W; Zawadzka, Agatha; Rousseau, Cecile F; Baksh, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Cross talk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes, which maintains skin homeostasis, is disrupted in chronic wounds. For venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers, a bilayered living cellular construct (BLCC), containing both fibroblasts and keratinocytes that participate in cross talk, is a safe and effective product in healing chronic wounds. To show the importance of both cell types in BLCC, constructs were generated containing only fibroblasts or only keratinocytes and compared directly to BLCC via histology, mechanical testing, gene/protein analysis, and angiogenesis assays. BLCC contained a fully differentiated epithelium and showed greater tensile strength compared with one-cell-type constructs, most likely due to formation of intact basement membrane and well-established stratum corneum in BLCC. Furthermore, expression of important wound healing genes, cytokines, and growth factors was modulated by the cells in BLCC compared with constructs containing only one cell type. Finally, conditioned medium from BLCC promoted greater endothelial network formation compared with media from one-cell-type constructs. Overall, this study characterized a commercially available wound healing product and showed that the presence of both fibroblasts and keratinocytes in BLCC contributed to epithelial stratification, greater tensile strength, modulation of cytokine and growth factor expression, and increased angiogenic properties compared with constructs containing fibroblasts or keratinocytes alone. PMID:24635175

  19. The importance of both fibroblasts and keratinocytes in a bilayered living cellular construct used in wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Wojtowicz, Abigail M; Oliveira, Steve; Carlson, Mark W; Zawadzka, Agatha; Rousseau, Cecile F; Baksh, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Cross talk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes, which maintains skin homeostasis, is disrupted in chronic wounds. For venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers, a bilayered living cellular construct (BLCC), containing both fibroblasts and keratinocytes that participate in cross talk, is a safe and effective product in healing chronic wounds. To show the importance of both cell types in BLCC, constructs were generated containing only fibroblasts or only keratinocytes and compared directly to BLCC via histology, mechanical testing, gene/protein analysis, and angiogenesis assays. BLCC contained a fully differentiated epithelium and showed greater tensile strength compared with one-cell-type constructs, most likely due to formation of intact basement membrane and well-established stratum corneum in BLCC. Furthermore, expression of important wound healing genes, cytokines, and growth factors was modulated by the cells in BLCC compared with constructs containing only one cell type. Finally, conditioned medium from BLCC promoted greater endothelial network formation compared with media from one-cell-type constructs. Overall, this study characterized a commercially available wound healing product and showed that the presence of both fibroblasts and keratinocytes in BLCC contributed to epithelial stratification, greater tensile strength, modulation of cytokine and growth factor expression, and increased angiogenic properties compared with constructs containing fibroblasts or keratinocytes alone. PMID:24635175

  20. The epidermal growth factor receptor decreases Stathmin 1 and triggers catagen entry in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Hammiller, Brianna; Trempus, Carol S; Li, Yanhua; Hansen, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is necessary for normal involution of hair follicles after the growth phase of anagen, although the mechanisms through which it acts are not well understood. In this report, we used transcriptional profiling of microdissected hair follicles from mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr to investigate how EGFR activation triggers catagen. Immunofluorescence for phospho-EGFR in mouse skin revealed increased activation of EGFR in follicular keratinocytes at catagen onset. Consistent with other models of EGFR deficiency, mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr (Krt14-Cre(+) /Egfr(fl/fl) ) exhibited a delayed and asynchronous catagen entry. Transcriptional profiling at the time of normal catagen onset at post-natal day (P) 17 revealed increased expression of the mitotic regulator Rcc2 in hair follicles lacking EGFR. Rcc2 protein was strongly immunopositive in the nuclei of control follicular keratinocytes at P16 then rapidly decreased until it was undetectable between P18 and 21. In contrast, Rcc2 expression continued in Egfr mutant follicles throughout this period. Proliferation, measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was also significantly increased in Egfr mutant follicular keratinocytes compared to controls at P18-21. Similarly, Rcc2-regulated mitotic regulator Stathmin 1 was strikingly reduced in control but not Egfr mutant follicles between P17 and P19. Deletion of Stmn1, in turn, accelerated catagen entry associated with premature cessation of proliferation in the hair follicles. These data reveal EGFR suppression of mitotic regulators including Rcc2 and Stathmin 1 as a mechanism for catagen induction in mouse skin. PMID:26661905

  1. Interleukin-22 Promotes Wound Repair in Diabetes by Improving Keratinocyte Pro-Healing Functions.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Simona; Odorisio, Teresa; Madonna, Stefania; Eyerich, Stefanie; Guerra, Liliana; Eyerich, Kilian; Zambruno, Giovanna; Cavani, Andrea; Cianfarani, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    Impaired re-epithelialization, imbalanced expression of cytokines and growth factors, and vascular disease contribute to healing impairment in diabetes. IL-22, a pro-inflammatory cytokine mediating a cross-talk between immune system and epithelial cells, has been shown to have a role in repair processes. In this study we aimed to investigate IL-22 regenerative potential in the poor healing context of diabetic wounds. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we demonstrated that IL-22 wound treatment significantly accelerated the healing process, by promoting re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and vascularization. Improved re-epithelialization was associated with increased keratinocyte proliferation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. We showed that endogenous IL-22 content was reduced at both mRNA and protein level during the inflammatory phase of diabetic wounds, with fewer IL-22-positive cells infiltrating the granulation tissue. We demonstrated that IL-22 treatment promoted proliferation and injury repair of hyperglycemic keratinocytes and induced activation of STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase transduction pathways in keratinocytes grown in hyperglycemic condition or isolated from diabetic patients. Finally, we demonstrated that IL-22 treatment was able to inhibit diabetic keratinocyte differentiation while promoting vascular endothelial growth factor release. Our data indicate a pro-healing role of IL-22 in diabetic wounds, suggesting a therapeutic potential for this cytokine in diabetic ulcer management. PMID:26168231

  2. Effect of chemical modification of keratinocytes and collagen in keratinocyte-collagen interactions.

    PubMed

    Karasek, M A

    1980-01-01

    Neonatal and adult keratinocytes isolated from thin sections of split-thickness skin by trypsin-release show a preferential and strong attachment to collagen when compared to plastic, fibronectin-coated plastic, glass, or agar gels. We have investigated the reactive groups of keratinocytes and collagen required for this interaction and have determined the kinetics of attachment. At 37 degrees C both neonatal and adult keratinocytes show a rapid and irreversible attachment to collagen, reaching a plateau phase at 30-60 minutes. The cells cannot be replaced from the gel by extensive washing or by conditions normally expected to break ionic bonds. Chilling to 0 degree C before plating completely inhibits attachment, and heating at 37 degrees C reverses the inhibition. One cycle of freezing and thawing of cells inhibits the interaction. Removal of sialic residues from keratinocytes before plating with neuraminidase, or oxidation of sugars with periodate, does not inhibit attachment or growth, indicating that cell carbohydrates are not required for interaction with collagen. Neither denaturation of collagen with 8 M urea nor oxidation of sugar side chains on the gel with periodic acid affects attachment or growth. However, reaction of free-SH groups with iodoacetic acid or -NH2 groups with dinitrofluorobenzene of the gel completely inhibits growth. Blocking the guanidyl residues of collagen arginine with cyclohexanedione markedly alters all aspects of attachment, growth, and morphology, producing new and completely unique growth patterns. These studies indicate that specific chemical groups on collagen affect keratinocyte-matrix interactions and that the availability of specific residues in collagen directly influences growth and maturation. Most vertebrate cells remain closely associated with extracellular collagenous substances throughout their lifespan. The collagen may be present in both collagen fibers and in reticular fibers as well as in basement membranes. The way cells interact with and are anchored to these various substrata influences a number of important cellular functions including growth and maturation and the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. Skin epithelial cells display a particularly striking and strong dependence on collagen for growth. When plated on a collagen gel, the plating efficiency and growth is increased several-fold compared to other substrates such as glass, plastic, or agar. More recently, the initial observations on the selective attachment of keratinocytes to collagen gels have been extended by Murray et al., who demonstrated that guinea pig keratinocytes show increased plating efficiencies on Type IV collagen gels. In these studies, we have examined the mechanisms for keratinocyte-collagen interaction, and described the kinetics of attachment, the reactive sites on the cell and collagen, and the effects of chemical modification of collagen on the expression of the keratinocytes phenotype. PMID:7238089

  3. Development and bioevaluation of nanofibers with blood-derived growth factors for dermal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bertoncelj, Valentina; Pelipenko, Jan; Kristl, Julijana; Jeras, Matja; Cukjati, Marko; Kocbek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our work was to produce a modern nanomaterial with incorporated blood-derived growth factors, produced by electrospinning, applicable in treatment of chronic wounds. Platelet-rich plasma was chosen as a natural source of growth factors. Results showed that platelet-rich plasma stimulates keratinocyte and fibroblast cell growth in vitro. Its optimal concentration in growth medium was 2% (v/v) for both types of skin cells, while higher concentrations caused alterations in cell morphology, with reduced cell mobility and proliferation. In the next step hydrophilic nanofibers loaded with platelet-rich plasma were produced from chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide), using electrospinning. The morphology of nanofibers was stable in aqueous conditions for 72 h. It was shown that electrospinning does not adversely affect the biological activity of platelet-rich plasma. The effects of nanofibers with incorporated platelet-rich plasma on cell proliferation, survival, morphology and mobility were examined. Nanofibers limited cell mobility, changed morphology and stimulated cell proliferation. Despite of the small amount of blood-derived growth factors introduced in cell culture via platelet-rich plasma-loaded nanofibers, such nanofibrillar support significantly induced cell proliferation, indicating synergistic effect of nanotopography and incorporated growth factors. The overall results confirm favorable in vitro properties of produced nanofibers, indicating their high potential as a nanomaterial suitable for delivery of platelet-rich plasma in wound healing applications. PMID:24931341

  4. Growth factors from genes to clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, V.R. ); Hall, K.; Low, H. )

    1990-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion in the identification of growth factors and their receptors. This has been greatly facilitated by recombinant DNA technology, which has provided the tools not only to identify these proteins at the gene level but also to produce recombinant proteins for evaluating their biological activities. With the help of such techniques, we are moving toward an understanding of the biosynthesis of growth factors and their receptors, structure-function relationships, as well as mechanisms for intracellular signal transmission. The possibility of modifying these factors has opened new fields of clinical application. In this paper, four major areas of growth factor research are presented: the characterization of growth factor genes and their protein products, growth factor receptors and signal transduction by the receptors to mediate biological action, the biological actions of the various growth factors, and the role of growth factors in health and disease and their possible clinical application. Some of the topics covered include: structure of the IGFs and their variants; isoforms of PDGF receptor types; tyrosine kinase activation; structure of G-proteins in biological membranes; possible therapeutic application of NGF in the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases; PDGF's possible role in the development of several fibroproliferative diseases and its therapeutic application in wound healing; and the possible use of angiogenic inhibitors in tumor treatment.

  5. Proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives is enhanced by fibroblast nemosis

    SciTech Connect

    Raesaenen, Kati; Vaheri, Antti

    2010-06-10

    The role of paracrine tumor-stroma regulation in the progression of cancer is under intense investigation. Activated fibroblasts are key components of the tumor microenvironment providing the soluble factors mediating the regulation. Nemosis is an experimental model to study these parameters: formation of a multicellular spheroid activates fibroblasts and leads to increased production of soluble factors involved in the promotion of growth and motility. Role of nemosis was investigated in the tumorigenesis of HaCaT derivatives representing skin carcinoma progression. Conditioned medium from fibroblast spheroids increased proliferation rate of HaCaT derivatives. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 increased significantly in benign A5 and low-grade malignant II-4 cells, but did not further increase in the metastatic RT3 cells. Expression of p63, keratinocyte stem cell marker linked to cancer progression, was augmented by medium from nemotic fibroblasts; this increase was also seen in RT3 cells. Scratch-wound healing of the keratinocytes was enhanced in response to fibroblast nemosis. Neutralizing antibodies against growth factors inhibited wound healing to some extent; the response varied between benign and malignant keratinocytes. Migration and invasion were enhanced by conditioned medium from nemotic fibroblasts in benign and low-grade malignant cells. RT3 keratinocyte migration was further augmented, but invasion was not, indicating their intrinsic capacity to invade. Our data demonstrate that fibroblast nemosis increases proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives, and thus nemosis can be used as a model to study the role of soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts in tumor progression.

  6. Vascular growth factors in neuropsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Samuel S.; Fournier, Neil M.; Duman, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular basis of psychiatric illnesses have shed light on the important role played by trophic factors in modulating functional parameters associated with disease causality and drug action. Disease mechanisms are now thought to involve multiple cell types, including neurons and endothelial cells. These functionally distinct but interactively coupled cell types engage in cellular cross talk via shared and common signaling molecules. Dysregulation in their cellular signaling pathways influences brain function and alters behavioral performance. Multifunctional trophic factors such as VEGF and EPO that possess both neurotrophic and angiogenic actions are of particular interest due to their ability to rescue structural and plasticity deficits in neurons and vasculature. Obtaining insight into the behavioral, cellular and molecular actions of multi-functional trophic factors has the potential to open new and transformative therapeutic approaches. PMID:23475069

  7. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  8. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    Muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow skeletal myofibers which differentiate into more adult-like myofibers. Mechanical simulation studies of these muscle cells in a newly developed mechanical cell simulator can now be performed to study growth processes in skeletal muscle. Conditions in the mechanical cell simulator were defined where mechanical activity can either prevent muscle wasting or stimulate muscle growth. The role of endogenous and exogenous growth factors in tension-induced muscle growth is being investigated under the defined conditions of tissue culture.

  9. Specific changes of Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a GAP-associated p62 protein during calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Filvaroff, E; Calautti, E; McCormick, F; Dotto, G P

    1992-01-01

    Induction of tyrosine phosphorylation occurs as an early and specific event in keratinocyte differentiation. A set of tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates which transduce mitogenic signals by tyrosine kinases has previously been identified. We show here that of these substrates, the Ras GTPase-activating protein, GAP, is specifically affected during calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation. As early as 10 min after calcium addition to cultured primary mouse keratinocytes, GAP associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and translocates to the membrane. In addition, a GAP-associated protein of approximately 62 kDa (p62) becomes rapidly and heavily tyrosine phosphorylated in both membrane and cytosolic fractions. This protein corresponds to the major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that is induced in differentiating keratinocytes as early as 5 min after calcium addition. p62 phosphorylation was not observed after exposure of these cells to epidermal growth factor, phorbol ester, or transforming growth factor beta. In contrast, PLC gamma and P13K were tyrosine phosphorylated after epidermal growth factor, but not calcium, stimulation. Thus, changes of Ras GAP and an associated p62 protein occur as early and specific events in keratinocyte differentiation and appear to involve a calcium-induced tyrosine kinase. Images PMID:1448067

  10. New Clue Found to Growth Factor Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the discovery which may help to explain epidermal growth factor effects on the cell skeleton. The role of a protein called profilin in the regulation of the microfilament system is described. (CW)

  11. [Hepatocyte growth factor and male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; He, Qing-hu

    2015-08-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor ( HGF) is a multifunctional growth factor, which produces multiple biological effects by binding to the c-Met acceptor. This article reviews the biological properties of HGF, particularly those correlated with male reproduction, including its abilities to promote testis embryonic development, spermatogenesis, and testosterone synthesis of Leydig cells. HGF may provide a new insight into the treatment of male hypogonadism and infertility. PMID:26442306

  12. EFFECT OF ARSENICALS ON ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION-INDUCED GROWTH ARREST AND RELATED SIGNALING EVENTS IN HUMAN KERATINOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The molecular mechanisms mediating arsenic-induced carcinogenesis are not well understood. The role of confounding factors such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), add another level of complexity to the study of arsenic carcinogenesis and the cancer risk assessment to humans. We hypot...

  13. Akt1 controls insulin-driven VEGF biosynthesis from keratinocytes: implications for normal and diabetes-impaired skin repair in mice.

    PubMed

    Goren, Itamar; Müller, Elke; Schiefelbein, Dana; Gutwein, Paul; Seitz, Oliver; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Frank, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Here we investigated the potential role of protein kinase B (Akt) in normal or diabetes-impaired wound healing in mice. Interestingly, Akt1 was predominant in skin, wound tissue, and human keratinocytes cell line. Acute skin repair was characterized by an increase of Akt1 phosphorylation in wound margin keratinocytes. By contrast, phosphorylated Akt1 was nearly completely absent and paralleled by a poor phosphorylation of the eucaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in chronic wounds of diabetic ob/ob mice. Inhibition of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway by wortmannin and specific abrogation of Akt1 protein using small-interfering RNA revealed a regulatory function of Akt1 in insulin-mediated VEGF biosynthesis in keratinocytes. Insulin-induced VEGF protein biosynthesis in keratinocytes was mediated by Akt1 from a constitutive VEGF-encoding mRNA pool at the posttranscriptional level through a downstream phosphorylation 4E-BP1. Moreover, transfection experiments introducing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 into keratinocytes revealed the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase as a downstream mediator of Akt1-linked 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and translational control. Our data suggest that the endocrine hormone insulin contributes to VEGF release in skin wounds through an Akt1-mediated posttranscriptional mechanism in keratinocytes. PMID:18668138

  14. Determination of ligand-binding specificity by alternative splicing: Two distinct growth factor receptors encoded by a single gene

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, T.; Bottaro, D.P.; Fleming, T.P.; Smith, C.L.; Chan, A.M.L.; Aaronson, S.A. ); Burgess, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Expression cDNA cloning and structural analysis of the human keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) revealed identity with one of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors encoded by the bek gene (FGFR-2), except for a divergent stretch of 49 amino acids in their extracellular domains. Binding assays demonstrated that the KGFR was a high-affinity receptor for both KGF and acidic FGF, while FGFR-2 showed high affinity for basic and acidic FGF but no detectable binding by KGF. Genomic analysis of the bek gene revealed two alternative exons responsible for the region of divergence between the two receptors. The KGFR transcript was specific to epithelial cells, and it appeared to be differentially regulated with respect to the alternative FGFR-2 transcript. Thus, two growth factor receptors with different ligand-binding specificities and expression patterns are encoded by alternative transcripts of the same gene.

  15. Effects of retinoids on differentiation, lipid metabolism, epidermal growth factor, and low-density lipoprotein binding in squamous carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ponec, M.; Weerheim, A. ); Havekes, L. ); Boonstra, J. )

    1987-08-01

    The relationship among keratinocyte differentiation capacity, lipid synthesis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, plasma membrane composition, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding has been studied in SCC-12F2 cells. The differentiation capacity of the cells, i.e., ionophore-induced cornified envelope formation, was inhibited by various retinoids and stimulated by hydrocortisone. Retinoids that caused a significant reduction of cornified envelope formation, i.e., retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid, caused only minor changes in lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Arotinoid ethylsulfone, having a minor effect on cornified envelope formation, caused a drastic inhibition of cholesterol synthesis resulting in changes in the plasma membrane composition. Hydrocortisone stimulated cornified envelope formation but had only minor effects on lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Of all retinoids tested, only arotinoid ethylsulfone caused a drastic increase in EGF binding, while hydrocortisone had no effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the plasma membrane composition is not related to keratinocyte differentiation capacity, but most likely does determine EGF binding. Furthermore, EGF binding does not determine keratinocyte differentiation capacity.

  16. Pluronic/chitosan hydrogels containing epidermal growth factor with wound-adhesive and photo-crosslinkable properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2010-11-01

    Wound-adhesive and thermo-responsive hydrogels were prepared in an aim to develop a wound-care device for diabetic ulcers. A mixture of glycidyl methacrylated chitooligosaccharide (COS), di-acrylated Pluronic, and a recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) formed a physical hydrogel. Photo-irradiation was subsequently applied to chemically crosslink the hydrogel. Release profiles of encapsulated rhEGF from the hydrogel showed that release rates were dependent on degradation rates of hydrogels. Human primary keratinocytes were cultivated with the released fraction from the hydrogel to measure effects of released rhEGF on in vitro differentiation of keratinocytes. Muco-adhesive property of the hydrogel was investigated in animal skins and significant amounts of quantum dot-labeled rhEGF were retained at wound sites along with chitosan. The hydrogel was administered to dorsal burn wounds in wound healing impaired animals and photo-irradiated. COS and rhEGF in the hydrogels significantly enhanced epidermal differentiation during the wound healing process. Thus, the rhEGF-encapsulated hydrogel was expected to be a potential wound care product by increasing local concentration of rhEGF at wound sites with maintaining keratinocytic differentiation. PMID:20725966

  17. Signaling mechanism underlying the promotion of keratinocyte migration by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Matsuura, Kenji; Tanaka, Yoshie; Honda, Takeshi; Nishida, Teruo; Inui, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Re-epithelialization begins early during skin wound healing and is regulated by various growth factors and cytokines. Angiotensin II promotes the migration of keratinocytes and thereby contributes to wound healing. We investigated the mechanism by which angiotensin II stimulates human keratinocyte migration. Angiotensin II-induced keratinocyte migration was inhibited by an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist (candesartan) or an angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) antagonist (PD123319) as well as by depletion of AT1R or AT2R. A biased agonist for AT1R, [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]angiotensin II, induced cell migration, whereas depletion of ?-arrestin2 inhibited angiotensin II-induced migration. Angiotensin II-induced migration was blocked by neutralizing antibodies to transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) as well as by the TGF-? receptor inhibitor SB431542. The amount of TGF-?1 was increased in the culture medium of angiotensin II-treated cells, and this effect was inhibited by candesartan or PD123319. Both angiotensin II- and TGF-?-induced cell migration were inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor but not by those to EGF receptor ligands. Angiotensin II-induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor, and this effect was inhibited by candesartan, PD123319, SB431542, or depletion of ?-arrestin2, but not by neutralizing antibodies to heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. Our results indicate that ?-arrestin-dependent signaling downstream of AT1R as well as AT2R signaling are necessary for angiotensin II-induced keratinocyte migration, and that such signaling promotes generation of the active form of TGF-?, consequent activation of the TGF-? receptor, and transactivation of the EGF receptor by the TGF-? receptor. PMID:25473119

  18. Addition of Epidermal Growth Factor Improves the Rate of Sulfur Mustard Wound Healing in an In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Henemyre-Harris, Claudia L.; Adkins, Angela L.; Chuang, Augustine H.; Graham, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM) causes blisters on the human skin. These blisters delay healing of the skin and make the victims more susceptible to infection. In vitro models have been used for protection studies against SM injury, but study on wound healing after SM exposure has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to test whether the addition of exogenous growth factors could improve the rate of SM wound healing. Methods: The model consisted of normal human epidermal keratinocytes seeded into 6-well plates, exposed to SM, and wounded (disruption of the cell monolayer) with a sterile wounding instrument. Cells were then stained and images were captured to measure percentage wound fill. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were tested in this model. Results: EGF (1 ng/mL) significantly increased wound fill on all of the days tested (days 6, 9, and 12). KGF did not significantly improve wound healing. Conclusions: EGF showed promise as a potential therapy for SM-induced wounds. This in vitro model was a valuable tool for screening therapeutics before animal testing. These results will be used to develop a dressing that can slowly release EGF on to a debrided wound bed to help speed the healing process. PMID:18438446

  19. Factor-binding element in the human c-myc promoter involved in transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor. beta. 1 and by the retinoblastoma gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Pietenpol, J.A.; Stein, R.W.; Moses, H.L. ); Muenger, K.; Howley, P.M. )

    1991-11-15

    Previous studies have shown that transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation involves suppression of c-myc transcription, and indirect evidence has suggested that the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) may be involved in this process. In this study, transient expression of pRB in skin keratinocytes was shown to repress transcription of the human c-myc promoter region was required for regulation by both TGF-{beta}1 and pRB. These sequences, termed the TGF-{beta} control element (TCE), lie between positions {minus}86 and {minus}63 relative to the P1 transcription start site. Oligonucleotides containing the TCE bound to several nuclear factors in mobility-shift assays using extracts from cells with or without normal pRB. Binding of some factors was inhibited by TGF-{beta}1 treatment of TGF-{beta}-sensitive but not TGF-{beta}-insensitive cells. These data indicate that pRB can suppress c-myc transcription and growth inhibition.

  20. Co-culture of melanocytes with adipose-derived stem cells as a potential substitute for co-culture with keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Park, Chan Do; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Do, Byung-Rok; Lee, Ai Young

    2012-01-01

    Cell-to-cell interactions between melanocytes and keratinocytes increase the proliferation and migration of melanocytes. In fact, mixed keratinocyte and melanocyte cultures have been used for autologous cell transplantation for treatment of vitiligo. However, this may require taking an amount of skin tissue large enough to leave scars. In this study, the in vitro effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on proliferation, differentiation and migration of melanocytes was compared with that of keratinocytes using immunohistochemistry and a Boyden chamber migration assay. The proliferation and migration of melanocytes was significantly stimulated by co-culture with ADSCs compared with melanocyte monocultures, al-though the effect of ADSCs was less powerful than that of keratinocytes. This may be related to increases in stem cell factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, growth factors for melanocytes, produced by the ADSCs. The ratios of melanocytes stained with antibodies against Trp-2, E-cadherin and N-cadherin were significantly increased by co-culturing with ADSCs compared with co-culturing with keratinocytes as well as melanocyte monocultures. The proportion of less-pigmented melanocytes was also increased and sustained for a longer duration in the presence of ADSCs. Our data show that co-culturing with ADSCs results in increased melanocyte proliferation and migration while reducing differentiation, and could provide a means to treat disorders such as vitiligo. PMID:21879248

  1. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  2. Histone H3K27 Demethylase JMJD3 in Cooperation with NF-κB Regulates Keratinocyte Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Na, Jungtae; Lee, Kwanghyun; Na, Wonho; Shin, Jee-Yoon; Lee, Min-Jung; Yune, Tae Young; Lee, Hae Kwang; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Won Sun; Ju, Bong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    Histone H3K27me3 demethylase JMJD3 has been shown to be involved in keratinocyte differentiation and wound healing. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying JMJD3-mediated keratinocyte wound healing has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we report on the biological function of JMJD3 in keratinocyte wound healing using in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Our results indicate that JMJD3 up-regulation and NF-κB activation occur in the region of the wound edge during keratinocyte wound healing. We also found that JMJD3 interacts with NF-κB, resulting in increased expression of the inflammatory, matrix metalloproteinase, and growth factor genes via demethylation of H3K27me3 at the gene promoters. Consistently, inactivation of JMJD3 or NF-κB resulted in aberrant keratinocyte wound healing. Our study suggests that regulation of JMJD3 may provide a new therapeutic intervention for treating the chronic skin wound. PMID:26802933

  3. Genetically modified human keratinocytes overexpressing PDGF-A enhance the performance of a composite skin graft.

    PubMed

    Eming, S A; Medalie, D A; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L; Morgan, J R

    1998-03-01

    Skin loss due to burns and ulcers is a major medical problem. Bioengineered skin substitutes that use cultured keratinocytes as an epidermal layer with or without analogues of the dermis are one strategy for skin repair. However, none can achieve definitive wound closure, function, or cosmesis comparable to split-thickness autografts. Moreover, autograft donor sites, which require time to heal, may be limited or have attendant problems such as infection or functional/cosmetic deficiencies. To determine if the performance of composite skin grafts of keratinocytes on a dermal analogue could be enhanced, human keratinocytes were genetically modified to overexpress platelet-derived growth factor A chain (PDGF-A). Composite grafts of modified keratinocytes seeded onto acellular dermis, prepared from cryopreserved cadaver skin, secreted PDGF-AA protein in vitro [90 ng/graft (1.5 x 1.5 cm)/24 hr]. To test their performance in a wound healing model, composite grafts were transplanted to full-thickness excisional wounds on the back of athymic mice. PDGF-A grafts formed a stratified differentiated epidermis similar to control grafts. The acellular dermis was repopulated with host fibrovascular cells and by day 7, the PDGF-A grafts had significantly more cells in the dermis and increased staining for murine collagen types I and IV. At this early time point, wound contraction was also significantly inhibited in PDGF-A grafts versus control grafts. Thus, PDGF-A overexpression improves graft performance during the first critical week after transplantation. PMID:9525314

  4. Keratinocyte Microvesicles Regulate the Expression of Multiple Genes in Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Bi, Jiarui; Owen, Gethin R; Chen, Weimin; Rokka, Anne; Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari; Larjava, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles released from cells regulate many normal and pathological conditions. Little is known about the role of epidermal keratinocyte microvesicles (KC-MVs) in epithelial-stromal interaction that is essential for wound healing. We investigated, therefore, whether MV-like structures are present in human wounds and whether they affect wound healing-associated gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. In human wounds, MV-like vesicles were observed during active epithelial migration and early granulation tissue formation. When KC-MVs derived from keratinocyte-like cells (HaCaT) were added to fibroblast cultures, expression of 21 genes was significantly regulated (P<0.05) out of 80 genes investigated, including matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3, interleukin-6 and -8, and genes associated with transforming growth factor-β signaling. Similar changes were observed at the protein level. MVs from normal epidermal keratinocytes showed similar response to HaCaT cells. KC-MVs activated ERK1/2, JNK, Smad, and p38 signaling pathways in fibroblasts with ERK1/2 signaling having the most prominent role in the MV-induced gene expression changes. KC-MVs stimulated fibroblast migration and induced fibroblast-mediated endothelial tube formation but did not affect collagen gel contraction by fibroblasts. The results demonstrate that keratinocyte microvesicles have a strong and a specific regulatory effect on fibroblasts that may modulate several aspects of wound healing. PMID:26288358

  5. Nerve growth factor partially recovers inflamed skin from stress-induced worsening in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva M J; Liezmann, Christiane; Spatz, Katharina; Daniltchenko, Maria; Joachim, Ricarda; Gimenez-Rivera, Andrey; Hendrix, Sven; Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Brandner, Johanna M; Klapp, Burghard F

    2011-03-01

    Neuroimmune dysregulation characterizes atopic disease, but its nature and clinical impact remain ill-defined. Induced by stress, the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) may worsen cutaneous inflammation. We therefore studied the role of NGF in the cutaneous stress response in a mouse model for atopic dermatitis-like allergic dermatitis (AlD). Combining several methods, we found that stress increased cutaneous but not serum or hypothalamic NGF in telogen mice. Microarray analysis showed increased mRNAs of inflammatory and growth factors associated with NGF in the skin. In stress-worsened AlD, NGF-neutralizing antibodies markedly reduced epidermal thickening together with NGF, neurotrophin receptor (tyrosine kinase A and p75 neurotrophin receptor), and transforming growth factor-β expression by keratinocytes but did not alter transepidermal water loss. Moreover, NGF expression by mast cells was reduced; this corresponded to reduced cutaneous tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA levels but not to changes in mast cell degranulation or in the T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine balance. Also, eosinophils expressed TNF receptor type 2, and we observed reduced eosinophil infiltration after treatment with NGF-neutralizing antibodies. We thus conclude that NGF acts as a local stress mediator in perceived stress and allergy and that increased NGF message contributes to worsening of cutaneous inflammation mainly by enhancing epidermal hyperplasia, pro-allergic cytokine induction, and allergy-characteristic cellular infiltration. PMID:21085186

  6. The role of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated nuclear factor kappa B signalling in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Scott R; Sloss, Callum M; Cameron, Pamela; Kanke, Toru; McKenzie, Roderick C; Plevin, Robin

    2005-06-01

    1 In this study, we examined the role of Ca2+ in linking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) to the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) pathway in a skin epithelial cell line NCTC2544 stably expressing PAR2 (clone G). 2 In clone G, PAR2-mediated NFkappaB luciferase reporter activity and NFkappaB DNA-binding activity was reduced by preincubation with BAPTA-AM but not BAPTA. Trypsin stimulation of inhibitory kappa B kinases, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, was also inhibited following pretreatment with BAPTA-AM. 3 BAPTA/AM also prevented PAR2-mediated IKKalpha activation in cultured primary human keratinocytes. 4 The effect of BAPTA-AM was also selective for the IKK/NFkappaB signalling axis; PAR2 coupling to ERK, or p38 MAP kinase was unaffected. 5 Pharmacological inhibition of the Ca2+-dependent regulatory protein calcineurin did not inhibit trypsin-stimulated IKK activity or NFkappaB-DNA binding; however, inhibition of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C isoforms or InsP3 formation using GF109203X or the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, respectively, reduced both IKK activity and NFkappaB-DNA binding. 6 Mutation of PAR2 within the C-terminal to produce a mutant receptor, which does not couple to Ca2+ signalling, but is able to activate ERK, abrogated NFkappaB-DNA binding and IKK activity stimulated by trypsin. 7 These results suggest a predominant role for the InsP3/Ca2+ axis in the regulation of IKK signalling and NFkappaB transcriptional activation. PMID:15821758

  7. The role of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated nuclear factor kappa B signalling in keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Scott R; Sloss, Callum M; Cameron, Pamela; Kanke, Toru; McKenzie, Roderick C; Plevin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of Ca2+ in linking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) to the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway in a skin epithelial cell line NCTC2544 stably expressing PAR2 (clone G).In clone G, PAR2-mediated NFκB luciferase reporter activity and NFκB DNA-binding activity was reduced by preincubation with BAPTA-AM but not BAPTA. Trypsin stimulation of inhibitory kappa B kinases, IKKα and IKKβ, was also inhibited following pretreatment with BAPTA-AM.BAPTA/AM also prevented PAR2-mediated IKKα activation in cultured primary human keratinocytes.The effect of BAPTA-AM was also selective for the IKK/NFκB signalling axis; PAR2 coupling to ERK, or p38 MAP kinase was unaffected.Pharmacological inhibition of the Ca2+-dependent regulatory protein calcineurin did not inhibit trypsin-stimulated IKK activity or NFκB-DNA binding; however, inhibition of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C isoforms or InsP3 formation using GF109203X or the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, respectively, reduced both IKK activity and NFκB-DNA binding.Mutation of PAR2 within the C-terminal to produce a mutant receptor, which does not couple to Ca2+ signalling, but is able to activate ERK, abrogated NFκB-DNA binding and IKK activity stimulated by trypsin.These results suggest a predominant role for the InsP3/Ca2+ axis in the regulation of IKK signalling and NFκB transcriptional activation. PMID:15821758

  8. Growth factors and growth factor receptors in the hippocampus. Role in plasticity and response to injury.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Sampedro, M; Bovolenta, P

    1990-01-01

    Various growth factors are present in the hippocampal formation and appear responsible for the prominent plasticity of this brain area. Although hormone-like growth-promoting polypeptides are the best known, recent studies emphasize the importance in the growth response of molecules such as laminin proteoglycans, neurotransmitters and growth inhibitors. The progress and problems in the study of these substances are reviewed. PMID:2168060

  9. Fracture induces keratinocyte activation, proliferation, and expression of pronociceptive inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Wu; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Li, Xiang-qi; Kingery, Wade S.; Clark, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Tibia fracture in rats results in chronic vascular and nociceptive changes in the injured limb resembling complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and up-regulates expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin IL-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and nerve growth factor-β(NGF-β) in the hindpaw skin. When fracture rats are treated with cytokine or NGF inhibitors nociceptive sensitization is blocked. Because there is no leukocyte infiltration in the hindpaw skin we postulated that resident skin cells produce the inflammatory mediators causing nociceptive sensitization after fracture. To test this hypothesis rats underwent distal tibia fracture and hindlimb casting for 4 weeks, then the hindpaw skin was harvested and immunostained for keratin, cytokines and NGF. BrdU staining was used to evaluate cell proliferation. Hindpaw nociceptive thresholds, edema, and temperature were tested before and up to 96 hours after intraplantar injections of IL-6 and TNF-β. Tibia fracture caused keratinocyte activation, proliferation, and up-regulated IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and NGF-β protein expression in the hindpaw keratinocytes. Local injections of IL-6 and TNF-α induced hindpaw mechanical allodynia lasting for several days and modest increases in temperature and edema. These data indicate that activated keratinocytes proliferate and express IL-1β, , IL-6, TNF-α, and NGF-β after fracture and that excess amounts of inflammatory mediators in the skin cause sustained nociceptive sensitization. This is the first study demonstrating in vivo keratinocyte expression of IL-6, TNF-α and NGF-β in a CRPS model and we postulate that the keratinocyte is the primary cellular source for the inflammatory signals mediating cutaneous nociceptive sensitization in early CRPS. PMID:20934254

  10. Expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors in normal and tumorous human thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, B F; Freeman, J L; Asa, S L

    1995-02-01

    A number of growth factors have been implicated as stimuli of thyroid cell proliferation; overexpression of these growth factors and/or their receptors may play a role in the growth of thyroid tumors. To determine if immunohistochemical detection of growth factors and/or their receptors correlates with morphological alterations in proliferative lesions of thyroid, we examined the localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and their common receptor, EGF-receptor (EGF-R), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1-receptor (IGF-R) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)-1, -2, -3, and -4, nerve growth factor (NGF), and its receptor NGF-receptor (NGF-R), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), in normal thyroid tissue and various thyroid tumors. We applied the streptavidin-biotin technique to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. We studied 8-16 different cases of each of the following: normal human thyroid, multinodular hyperplasia, follicular adenoma, papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. EGF, TGF-alpha, and their receptor EGF-R were widely expressed in normal thyroid and in all the thyroid lesions examined. IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 were diffusely present in all different thyroid tissues as well. There was no difference in staining intensity or distribution that correlated with the pathological process. IGFBP-4 seemed to have a variable expression. IGFBP-2 and -3 were detected only in medullary carcinomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7787437

  11. Distinct Effects of Different Phosphatidylglycerol Species on Mouse Keratinocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ding; Seremwe, Mutsa; Edwards, John G.; Podolsky, Robert; Bollag, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that liposomes composed of egg-derived phosphatidylglycerol (PG), with a mixed fatty acid composition (comprising mainly palmitate and oleate), inhibit the proliferation and promote the differentiation of rapidly dividing keratinocytes, and stimulate the growth of slowly proliferating epidermal cells. To determine the species of PG most effective at modulating keratinocyte proliferation, primary mouse keratinocytes were treated with different PG species, and proliferation was measured. PG species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids were effective at inhibiting rapidly proliferating keratinocytes, whereas PG species with monounsaturated fatty acids were effective at promoting proliferation in slowly dividing cells. Thus, palmitoyl-arachidonyl-PG (16∶0/20∶4), palmitoyl-linoleoyl-PG (16∶0/18∶2), dilinoleoyl-PG (18∶2/18∶2) and soy PG (a PG mixture with a large percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids) were particularly effective at inhibiting proliferation in rapidly dividing keratinocytes. Conversely, palmitoyl-oleoyl-PG (16∶0/18∶1) and dioleoyl-PG (18∶1/18∶1) were especially effective proproliferative PG species. This result represents the first demonstration of opposite effects of different species of a single class of phospholipid and suggests that these different PG species may signal to diverse effector enzymes to differentially affect keratinocyte proliferation and normalize keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, different PG species may be useful for treating skin diseases characterized by excessive or insufficient proliferation. PMID:25233484

  12. Effect of laser phototherapy on the release of fibroblast growth factors by human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Damante, Carla Andreotti; De Micheli, Giorgio; Miyagi, Sueli Patrícia Harumi; Feist, Ilíria Salomão; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2009-11-01

    The effects of laser phototherapy on the release of growth factors by human gingival fibroblasts were studied in vitro. Cells from a primary culture were irradiated twice (6 h interval), with continuous diode laser [gallium-aluminum-arsenium (GaAlAs), 780 nm, or indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide (InGaAlP),_660 nm] in punctual and contact mode, 40 mW, spot size 0.042 cm(2), 3 J/cm(2) and 5 J/cm(2) (3 s and 5 s, respectively). Positive [10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)] and negative (1%FBS) controls were not irradiated. Production of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data were statistically compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test (P

  13. Calcineurin inhibitors reduce nuclear localization of transcription factor NFAT in UV-irradiated keratinocytes and reduce DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Canning, Matthew T; Nay, Stephanie L; Peña, Arely V; Yarosh, Daniel B

    2006-09-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors are drugs used to suppress the immune system by blocking the nuclear localization of the NFAT transcription factor. Systemic use of these drugs is essential to organ transplantation, but comes at the cost of elevated rates of skin cancer. They have been used topically in atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases on the assumption that they avoid the cancer risk by localized use. The results here show that in skin cells and artificial models of human skin, calcineurin inhibitors block UV-induced nuclear localization of NFAT, and significantly reduce repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced in DNA. In addition they inhibit apoptosis of UV-irradiated cells. The effect of blocking nuclear localization of NFAT and inhibiting DNA repair should be considered in judging the risk of topical use of calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:16927198

  14. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we have performed experiments to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured avian muscle cells alters their response to anabolic steroids or glucocorticoids. In static cultures, testosterone had no effect on muscle cell growth, but 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the synthetic steroid stanozolol increased cell growth by up to 18% and 30%, respectively, after a three day exposure. We completed development of a new IBM-based mechanical cell stimulator system to provide greater flexibility in operating and monitoring our experiments. Our previous long term studies on myofiber growth were designed around a perfusion system of our own design. We have recently changed to performing these studies using a modified CELLCO cartridge bioreactor system Z since it has been certified as the ground-based model for the Shuttle's Space Tissue Loss (STL) F= Cell Culture Module. The current goals of this aspect of the project are three fold: 1) to design a Z cell culture system for studying avian skeletal myofiber atrophy on the Shuttle and Space Station; 0 2) to expand the use of bioreactors to cells which do not grow in either suspension or attached to the hollow fibers; and 3) to combine the bioreactor system with our computerized mechanical cell stimulator to have a better in vitro model to study tension/gravity/stretch regulation of skeletal muscle size. Preliminary studies also reported on involved : (1) how release of tension can induce rapid atrophy of tissues cultured avian skeletal muscle cells, and (2) a mechanism to transfer and maintain avian skeletal muscle organoids in modified cartridges in the Space Tissue Loss Module.

  15. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by keratinocyte growth conditions is overcome by E6 and E7 from HPV16, but not HPV8 and HPV38: Characterization of global transcription profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Borgogna, Cinzia; Mondini, Michele; Gugliesi, Francesca; De Andrea, Marco; Chiorino, Giovanna; Scatolini, Maria; Ghimenti, Chiara; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2009-06-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth properties of primary human keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7 proteins, which are from either the beta- or alpha-genotypes, under different culture conditions. We demonstrated that keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7, from both HPV8 and 38, irreversibly underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) when grown on plastic with FAD medium (F12/DMEM/5%FBS). Expression of E6/E7 from HPV16 was capable of fully overcoming the FAD-induced EMT. Immortalization was only observed in HPV16-transduced cell lines, while the more proliferating phenotype of both KerHPV8 and 38 was mainly related to FAD-induced EMT. Microarray analysis of exponentially growing cells identified 146 cellular genes that were differentially regulated in HPV16 compared to HPV8- and 38-transduced cells. A large accumulation of transcripts associated with epidermal development and differentiation was observed in HPV16-transduced cells, whereas transcripts of genes involved in the extracellular matrix, multicellular organismal processes, and inflammatory response were affected in HPV8 and 38-transduced cells.

  16. Transforming growth factor-? and smooth muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xia; Chen, Shi-You

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members are multifunctional cytokines regulating diverse cellular functions such as growth, adhesion, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. TGF-?s elicit their effects via specific type?I?and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. Knockout mouse models for the different components of the TGF-? signaling pathway have revealed their critical roles in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. Genetic studies in humans have linked mutations in these signaling components to specific cardiovascular disorders such as aorta aneurysm and congenital heart diseases due to SMC defects. In this review, the current understanding of TGF-? function in SMC differentiation is highlighted, and the role of TGF-? signaling in SMC-related diseases is discussed. PMID:22451850

  17. Reprogramming human adipose tissue stem cells using epidermal keratinocyte extracts

    PubMed Central

    XIE, FENG; TANG, XINJIE; ZHANG, QUN; DENG, CHENLIANG

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) can differentiate into various types of cell in response to lineage-specific induction factors. Reprogramming cells using nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts derived from another type of somatic cell is an effective method of producing specific types of differentiated cell. In the present study, the ability of reprogrammed ATSCs to acquire epidermal keratinocyte properties following transient exposure to epidermal keratinocyte extracts was demonstrated. Reversibly permeabilized ATSCs were incubated for 1 h in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from epidermal keratinocytes, resealed with CaCl2 and cultured. ATSC reprogramming is demonstrated by nuclear uptake of epidermal keratinocyte extracts. After one week of exposure to extracts, ATSCs underwent changes in cell morphology, cell-specific genes were activated, and epidermal keratinocyte markers including K19 and K1/K10 (markers of stem cells and terminally differentiated keratinocytes, respectively) were expressed. This study indicates that the reprogramming of ATSCs using nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from epidermal keratinocytes is a viable option for the production of specific types of cell. PMID:25333210

  18. Activated keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed Central

    Machesney, M.; Tidman, N.; Waseem, A.; Kirby, L.; Leigh, I.

    1998-01-01

    The etiology of hypertrophic scarring, a pathological end point of wound healing, is unknown. The scars most commonly occur when epithelialization has been delayed during, for example, the healing of deep dermal burn wounds. Hypertrophic scars are conventionally described as a dermal pathology in which the epidermis has only a passive role. In this study, the expression of keratin intermediate filament proteins and filaggrin has been investigated in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars and site-matched controls from the same patients. Hypertrophic scar epidermis was found to express the hyperproliferative keratins K6 and K16 in interfollicular epidermis in association with K17 and precocious expression of filaggrin. K16 mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization using a highly specific cRNA probe. In contrast to the immunohistochemical location of K16 protein, the K16 mRNA was found to be expressed in the basal cell layer of normal skin. In hypertrophic scars the mRNA distribution corroborated the abnormal K16 protein distribution. These results suggest the keratinocytes in hypertrophic scar epidermis have entered an alternative differentiation pathway and are expressing an activated phenotype. Activated keratinocytes are a feature of the early stages of wound healing producing growth factors that influence fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and the inflammatory response. We propose that cellular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scarring are more complex than isolated dermal phenomena. The persistence of activated keratinocytes in hypertrophic scar epidermis implicates abnormal epidermal-mesenchymal interactions. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9588880

  19. Growth Factors and Astrocytes Metabolism: Possible Roles for Platelet Derived Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Ricardo; Avila-Rodriguez, Marco; Vega-Vela, Nelson E; Echeverria, Valentina; González, Janneth; Hidalgo, Oscar A; Santos, Altair B; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Barreto, George E

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes exert multiple functions in the brain such as the development of blood-brain barrier characteristics, the promotion of neurovascular coupling, attraction of cells through the release of chemokines, clearance of toxic substances and generation of antioxidant molecules and growth factors. In this aspect, astrocytes secrete several growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, and others) that are fundamental for cell viability, oxidant protection, genetic expression and modulation of metabolic functions. The platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), which is expressed by many SNC cells, including astrocytes, is an important molecule that has shown neuroprotective potential, improvement of wound healing, regulation of calcium metabolism and mitochondrial function. Here we explore some of these astrocyte-driven functions of growth factors and their possible therapeutic uses in the context of neurodegeneration. PMID:26477707

  20. Signalling via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 is sufficient for lymphangiogenesis in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Veikkola, Tanja; Jussila, Lotta; Makinen, Taija; Karpanen, Terhi; Jeltsch, Michael; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Kubo, Hajime; Thurston, Gavin; McDonald, Donald M.; Achen, Marc G.; Stacker, Steven A.; Alitalo, Kari

    2001-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) has an essential role in the development of embryonic blood vessels; however, after midgestation its expression becomes restricted mainly to the developing lymphatic vessels. The VEGFR-3 ligand VEGF-C stimulates lymphangiogenesis in transgenic mice and in chick chorioallantoic membrane. As VEGF-C also binds VEGFR-2, which is expressed in lymphatic endothelia, it is not clear which receptors are responsible for the lymphangiogenic effects of VEGF-C. VEGF-D, which binds to the same receptors, has been reported to induce angiogenesis, but its lymphangiogenic potential is not known. In order to define the lymphangiogenic signalling pathway we have created transgenic mice overexpressing a VEGFR-3-specific mutant of VEGF-C (VEGF-C156S) or VEGF-D in epidermal keratinocytes under the keratin 14 promoter. Both transgenes induced the growth of lymphatic vessels in the skin, whereas the blood vessel architecture was not affected. Evidence was also obtained that these growth factors act in a paracrine manner in vivo. These results demonstrate that stimulation of the VEGFR-3 signal transduction pathway is sufficient to induce specifically lymphangiogenesis in vivo. PMID:11250889

  1. Altered (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normal epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that (/sup 125/I)EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers.

  2. Beta Adrenergic Receptors in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivamani, Raja K.; Lam, Susanne T.; Isseroff, R. Rivkah

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Beta2 adrenergic receptors were identified in keratinocytes more than 30 years ago, but their function in the epidermis continues to be elucidated. Abnormalities in their expression, signaling pathway, or in the generation of endogenous catecholamine agonists by keratinocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases such as atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and psoriasis. New studies also indicate that the beta2AR also modulates keratinocyte migration, and thus can function to regulate wound re-epithelialization. This review focuses on the function of these receptors in keratinocytes and their contribution to cutaneous physiology and disease. PMID:17903623

  3. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced intracellular signalling

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Katherine A; Riordan, Stephen M; Lidder, Sukhwinderjit; Crostella, Luca; Williams, Roger; Skouteris, George G

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) identical to scatter factor (SF) is a glycoprotein involved in the development of a number of cellular phenotypes, including proliferation, mitogenesis, formation of branching tubules and, in the case of tumour cells, invasion and metastasis. This fascinating cytokine transduces its activities via its receptor encoded by the c-met oncogene, coupled to a number of transducers integrating the HGF/SF signal to the cytosol and the nucleus. The downstream transducers coupled to HGF/MET, most of which participate in overlapping pathways, determine the development of the cell's phenotype, which in most cell types is dual. PMID:10718861

  4. Ocular Angiogenesis: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Other Factors.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Roman G; Adamis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Systematic study of the mechanisms underlying pathological ocular neovascularization has yielded a wealth of knowledge about pro- and anti-angiogenic factors that modulate diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in particular has led to the development of a number of approved anti-VEGF therapies. Additional proangiogenic targets that have emerged as potential mediators of ocular neovascularization include hypoxia-inducible factor-1, angiopoietin-2, platelet-derived growth factor-B and components of the alternative complement pathway. As for VEGF, knowledge of these factors has led to a product pipeline of many more novel agents that are in various stages of clinical development in the setting of ocular neovascularization. These agents are represented by a range of drug classes and, in addition to novel small- and large-molecule VEGF inhibitors, include gene therapies, small interfering RNA agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In addition, combination therapy is beginning to emerge as a strategy to improve the efficacy of individual therapies. Thus, a variety of agents, whether administered alone or as adjunctive therapy with agents targeting VEGF, offer the promise of expanding the range of treatments for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:26502333

  5. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Maiko; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Melanocytes showed low ST8SIA1 and high B3GALT4 levels in contrast with melanomas. • Direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes did not induce ganglioside synthase genes. • Culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. • TNFα and IL-6 secreted from keratinocytes enhanced ST8SIA1 expression in melanocytes. • Inflammatory cytokines induced melanoma-related ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. - Abstract: Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes.

  6. Transcriptional profiling of ectoderm specification to keratinocyte fate in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tadeu, Ana Mafalda Baptista; Lin, Samantha; Hou, Lin; Chung, Lisa; Zhong, Mei; Zhao, Hongyu; Horsley, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shed light into the processes that regulate epidermal specification and homeostasis. We previously showed that a broad-spectrum ?-secretase inhibitor DAPT promoted early keratinocyte specification in human embryonic stem cells triggered to undergo ectoderm specification. Here, we show that DAPT accelerates human embryonic stem cell differentiation and induces expression of the ectoderm protein AP2. Furthermore, we utilize RNA sequencing to identify several candidate regulators of ectoderm specification including those involved in epithelial and epidermal development in human embryonic stem cells. Genes associated with transcriptional regulation and growth factor activity are significantly enriched upon DAPT treatment during specification of human embryonic stem cells to the ectoderm lineage. The human ectoderm cell signature identified in this study contains several genes expressed in ectodermal and epithelial tissues. Importantly, these genes are also associated with skin disorders and ectodermal defects, providing a platform for understanding the biology of human epidermal keratinocyte development under diseased and homeostatic conditions. PMID:25849374

  7. Transcriptional Profiling of Ectoderm Specification to Keratinocyte Fate in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tadeu, Ana Mafalda Baptista; Lin, Samantha; Hou, Lin; Chung, Lisa; Zhong, Mei; Zhao, Hongyu; Horsley, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shed light into the processes that regulate epidermal specification and homeostasis. We previously showed that a broad-spectrum ?secretase inhibitor DAPT promoted early keratinocyte specification in human embryonic stem cells triggered to undergo ectoderm specification. Here, we show that DAPT accelerates human embryonic stem cell differentiation and induces expression of the ectoderm protein AP2. Furthermore, we utilize RNA sequencing to identify several candidate regulators of ectoderm specification including those involved in epithelial and epidermal development in human embryonic stem cells. Genes associated with transcriptional regulation and growth factor activity are significantly enriched upon DAPT treatment during specification of human embryonic stem cells to the ectoderm lineage. The human ectoderm cell signature identified in this study contains several genes expressed in ectodermal and epithelial tissues. Importantly, these genes are also associated with skin disorders and ectodermal defects, providing a platform for understanding the biology of human epidermal keratinocyte development under diseased and homeostatic conditions. PMID:25849374

  8. Vigilant keratinocytes trigger pathogen-associated molecular pattern signaling in response to streptococcal M1 protein.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sandra T; Wilk, Laura; Mörgelin, Matthias; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The human skin exerts many functions in order to maintain its barrier integrity and protect the host from invading microorganisms. One such pathogen is Streptococcus pyogenes, which can cause a variety of superficial skin wounds that may eventually progress into invasive deep soft tissue infections. Here we show that keratinocytes recognize soluble M1 protein, a streptococcal virulence factor, as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern to release alarming inflammatory responses. We found that this interaction initiates an inflammatory intracellular signaling cascade involving the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase and the subsequent induction and mobilization of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. We also determined the imprint of the inflammatory mediators released, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), growth-related oncogene alpha, migration inhibitory factor, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, IL-1α, IL-1 receptor a, and ST2, in response to streptococcal M1 protein. The expression of IL-8 is dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 activity and subsequent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and p38. Notably, this signaling seems to be distinct for IL-8 release, and it is not shared with the other inflammatory mediators. We conclude that keratinocytes participate in a proinflammatory manner in streptococcal pattern recognition and that expression of the chemoattractant IL-8 by keratinocytes constitutes an important protective mechanism against streptococcal M1 protein. PMID:26416902

  9. Insulin-like growth factor 1: common mediator of multiple enterotrophic hormones and growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Bortvedt, Sarah F.; Lund, P. Kay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent evidence that IGF1 mediates growth effects of multiple trophic factors and discuss clinical relevance. Recent findings Recent reviews and original reports indicate benefits of growth hormone (GH) and long-acting glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) analogues in short bowel syndrome and Crohn’s disease. This review highlights evidence that biomarkers of sustained small intestinal growth or mucosal healing and evaluation of intestinal epithelial stem cell biomarkers may improve clinical measures of intestinal growth or response to trophic hormones. Compelling evidence that IGF1 mediates growth effects of GH and GLP2 on intestine or linear growth in preclinical models of resection or Crohn’s disease is presented, along with a concept that these hormones or IGF1 may enhance sustained growth if given early after bowel resection. Evidence that SOCS protein induction by GH or GLP2 in normal or inflamed intestine, may limit IGF1-induced growth, but protect against risk of dysplasia or fibrosis is reviewed. Whether IGF1 receptor mediates IGF1 action and potential roles of insulin receptors are addressed. Summary IGF1 has a central role in mediating trophic hormone action in small intestine. Better understanding of benefits and risks of IGF1, receptors that mediate IGF1 action, and factors that limit undesirable growth are needed. PMID:22241077

  10. Future Prospects for Periodontal Bioengineering Using Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Giannobile, William V.; Hollister, Scott J.; Ma, Peter X.

    2015-01-01

    Polypeptide growth factors have demonstrated strong potential to repair defects associated with teeth and dental implants. Over the past two decades, intense research efforts have led to the clinical development of several growth factors or biologic agents, including bone morphogenetic proteins, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, and enamel matrix proteins. Several of these growth factors are now being used clinically for a variety of applications, such as the promotion of periodontal regeneration, sinus floor augmentation, and root coverage procedures. Although clinical results have been promising and growth factors add another dimension to clinical care, optimization of growth factor targeting approaches to periodontal wounds remains a challenge. Enhancement of growth factor local application to improve bioavailability, bioactivity, and allowance of three-dimensional reconstruction of complex anatomic defects is a goal. This article will highlight developments for growth factor delivery to better stimulate the wound healing response for periodontal and bone regeneration in the maxillofacial region. PMID:26500808

  11. Human skin keratinocytes modified by a Friend-derived retroviral vector: a functional approach.

    PubMed

    Arango, M; Chamorro, C; Cohen-Haguenauer, O; Rojas, M; Restrepo, L M

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the efficiency and possible functional effects of a Friend Leukemia derived retrovirus vector (FOCH29-NeoR) on cultured human keratinocytes, obtained from skin biopsy samples. The keratinocytes were grown and infected with filtered Friend vector supernatant. After one or two doses of infection, one duplicate of the culture was submitted to selection with G418; the other one was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR modification detection. Transduction efficiency was 46.66 percent and 47.22 percent for one and two doses of infection respectively (range 100 to 15 %). Colony Forming Efficiency (CFE) assays were done with Rodhamine-B staining in nonselected modified cultures and negative controls. There was no difference in CFE (% CFE= 10.74+/-6.53 negative control vs % CFE= 9.22+/-5.45 with one dose, and % CFE= 10.03+/-5.74 with two doses of infection). Nevertheless, the cell-cycle analysis done by Propidium Iodade (PI) incorporation and colchicine-arrest assays in nonselected transduced and nontransduced cells show that transduced keratinocytes have a longer time to enter G2. As far as we know, this is the first report of retroviral transduction-induced changes in the cell cycle done on human keratinocytes. This observation is very important because retroviral vectors of genes, such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are expected to facilitate the implementation of these modified cultures for tissue grafting and skin substitute development and potentiate the effectiveness of the grafts. PMID:16150210

  12. Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Yeon; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Kyeongmee

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the expression of growth factors and the clinicopathological variables of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to evaluate the amplification and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, VEGFR-3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in a tissue microarray of 292 colorectal adenocarcinomas. The expression of EGFR, VEGF, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 was detected in 5.1%, 10.0%, 6.8%, 5.2%, and 57.2%. EGFR expression was associated with angioinvasion (p < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.005). VEGFR-3 expression was higher in the rectum than in the colon (p < 0.05). VEGF expression correlated with VEGF-D (p < 0.05) and VEGFR-3 (p < 0.005) expression, while VEGF-D expression showed no significant association with VEGFR-2 or VEGFR-3. EGFR amplification was present in 10.6% and was not associated with EGFR protein expression. VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression levels were related to poor patient survival. Stage, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors based on a Cox analysis. VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression are markers of a poor prognosis in patients with surgically resected colorectal adenocarcinoma, whereas EGFR has a minor influence. PMID:21635552

  13. Human keratinocyte culture from the peritonsillar mucosa.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, P; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Michel, O; Mahrle, G; Krieg, T; Stennert, E

    1996-01-01

    Tonsillectomy tissue can be used as a routine source for cultures of oropharyngeal keratinocytes. In so doing, a peritonsillar strip of unaltered mucosa was dissected in the upper submucosa. Subsequent trypsinization yielded 7.0 +/- 3.4 x 10(6) keratinocytes per bilateral tonsillectomy. Keratinocyte attachment and growth in primary culture were promoted by sublethally irradiated 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Three subcultures could be performed without a feeder layer and were characterized by a population doubling time of 4.5 days during log growth phase. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis of the third subculture revealed a strong expression of keratin pairs 5/14 and 6/16 as well as keratins 7 and 19, whereas keratins 8/18 were expressed less intensely. The lowest intensity, was found for keratin 13, which is known to be indicative of the differentiated mucosa. The culture technique thus provides an easily available in vitro model for morphological and functional studies on the epithelial compartment of human oropharyngeal mucosa. PMID:8737778

  14. Modelling the interaction of keratinocytes and fibroblasts during normal and abnormal wound healing processes

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Shakti N.; Flegg, Jennifer A.; McCue, Scott W.; Schugart, Richard C.; Dawson, Rebecca A.; McElwain, D. L. Sean

    2012-01-01

    The crosstalk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes is a vital component of the wound healing process, and involves the activity of a number of growth factors and cytokines. In this work, we develop a mathematical model of this crosstalk in order to elucidate the effects of these interactions on the regeneration of collagen in a wound that heals by second intention. We consider the role of four components that strongly affect this process: transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor, interleukin-1 and keratinocyte growth factor. The impact of this network of interactions on the degradation of an initial fibrin clot, as well as its subsequent replacement by a matrix that is mainly composed of collagen, is described through an eight-component system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Numerical results, obtained in a two-dimensional domain, highlight key aspects of this multifarious process, such as re-epithelialization. The model is shown to reproduce many of the important features of normal wound healing. In addition, we use the model to simulate the treatment of two pathological cases: chronic hypoxia, which can lead to chronic wounds; and prolonged inflammation, which has been shown to lead to hypertrophic scarring. We find that our model predictions are qualitatively in agreement with previously reported observations and provide an alternative pathway for gaining insight into this complex biological process. PMID:22628464

  15. Modelling the interaction of keratinocytes and fibroblasts during normal and abnormal wound healing processes.

    PubMed

    Menon, Shakti N; Flegg, Jennifer A; McCue, Scott W; Schugart, Richard C; Dawson, Rebecca A; McElwain, D L Sean

    2012-08-22

    The crosstalk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes is a vital component of the wound healing process, and involves the activity of a number of growth factors and cytokines. In this work, we develop a mathematical model of this crosstalk in order to elucidate the effects of these interactions on the regeneration of collagen in a wound that heals by second intention. We consider the role of four components that strongly affect this process: transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor, interleukin-1 and keratinocyte growth factor. The impact of this network of interactions on the degradation of an initial fibrin clot, as well as its subsequent replacement by a matrix that is mainly composed of collagen, is described through an eight-component system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Numerical results, obtained in a two-dimensional domain, highlight key aspects of this multifarious process, such as re-epithelialization. The model is shown to reproduce many of the important features of normal wound healing. In addition, we use the model to simulate the treatment of two pathological cases: chronic hypoxia, which can lead to chronic wounds; and prolonged inflammation, which has been shown to lead to hypertrophic scarring. We find that our model predictions are qualitatively in agreement with previously reported observations and provide an alternative pathway for gaining insight into this complex biological process. PMID:22628464

  16. The effectiveness of basic fibroblast growth factor in fibrin-based cultured skin substitute in vivo.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeaki; Kijima, Hiroshi; Kidokoro, Masako; Tanaka, Makiko; Suzuki, Yosuke; Motojuku, Megumi; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2009-01-01

    Cultured skin substitute (CSS), comprised keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a biopolymer matrix, is useful for adjunctive burn therapy. However, the vascularization of CSS is much slower than split-thickness autografts, because it lacks a vascular plexus. This study evaluated the influence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on fibrin-based CSS grafting in vivo. Fibrin-based CSS treated with 0, 0.26, 1.3, 6.5, 13, or 130 microg/cm bFGF was transplanted into athymic mice, and macroscopic and histologic examinations of the graft were performed on day 21 posttransplantation. Engrafted CSS of the 0.26 to 6.5 microg/cm bFGF treatment groups were similar to the untreated control. However, the engrafted area was significantly suppressed in the 13 microg/cm bFGF treatment group, and the 130 microg/cm bFGF treatment group was not engrafted. Neovascularization of CSS was significantly increased in the 1.3 microg/cm bFGF treatment group compared with the control (P < .05). The number of human fibroblastic cells in CSS that were positive for vimentin increased significantly in the 0.26 and 1.3 microg/cm bFGF treatment groups (P < .01). CSS treated with 0.26 to 6.5 microg/cm bFGF showed normal epidermis with keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium, whereas the thickness of the epidermis and proliferation of keratinocytes in the basal layer was decreased. These results demonstrated that bFGF treatment (1.3 microg/cm) in fibrin-based CSS may enhance angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation after transplantation. PMID:19349876

  17. Estradiol induces proliferation of keratinocytes via a receptor mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Verdier-Sevrain, S; Yaar, M; Cantatore, J; Traish, A; Gilchrest, B A

    2004-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of estradiol on the proliferation of neonatal keratinocytes, the expression of estrogen receptor isoforms, and the signaling mechanisms by which estradiol mediates cell growth. We demonstrate that estradiol binds neonatal keratinocytes with high affinity (Kd=5.2nM) and limited capacity (Bmax of 14.2fmol/mg of protein), confirming the presence of estrogen binding sites. Using specific antibodies, we demonstrate that keratinocytes express both estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta. At physiological concentrations, estradiol up-regulates the level of ER-alpha receptors in keratinocytes and induces keratinocyte proliferation. The proliferative effect of estradiol requires the availability of functional estrogen receptors, as it is abrogated by anti-estrogen administration. Estradiol effect on keratinocyte proliferation is most likely mediated in part by activation of a nongenomic, membrane-associated, signaling pathway involving activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 and in part by the genomic signaling pathway through activation of nuclear receptors. PMID:15208259

  18. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor skin toxicity: a matter of topical hydration.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Daris; Codecà, Carla; Bocci, Barbara; Crepaldi, Francesca; Violati, Martina; Viale, Giulia; Careri, Carmela; Caldiera, Sarah; Bordin, Veronica; Luciani, Andrea; Zonato, Sabrina; Cassinelli, Gabriela; Foa, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Skin toxicity is a frequent complication of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy, which can be an obstacle in maintaining the dose intensity and may negatively impact on the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Skin lesions depend on the disruption of the keratinocyte development pathways and no treatment is clearly effective in resolving the cutaneous alterations frequently found during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Among systemic treatments, oral tetracycline proved to be useful in preventing skin manifestations. We describe the case of a patient affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, for whom a combination of chemotherapy and cetuximab was used as second-line treatment. The patient developed a symptomatic papulopustular skin rash that disappeared completely after a twice-daily application of a hydrating and moisturizing cream, mainly consisting of a mixture of paraffin, silicone compounds, and macrogol. The marked cutaneous amelioration allowed the patient to continue cetuximab without any further symptoms and was associated with a partial radiological response. PMID:26469836

  19. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.

  20. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or “decorating” collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  1. Upregulation of miR-203 and miR-210 affect growth and differentiation of keratinocytes after exposure to sulfur mustard in normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Janina; Steinritz, Dirk; Santovito, Donato; Egea, Virginia; Schmidt, Annette; Weber, Christian; Ries, Christian

    2016-02-26

    Exposure of the skin to sulfur mustard (SM) results in long-term complications such as impaired tissue regeneration. Previous own studies in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) treated with SM demonstrated reduced proliferation, premature differentiation and a restricted functionality of hypoxia-mediated signaling in the cells. Here, we investigated the involvement of microRNAs, miR-203 and miR-210, in these mechanisms. SM significantly upregulated the expression of miR-203 in NHEK when cultivated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. SM had no effect on miR-210 under normoxia. However, miR-210 levels were greatly increased in NHEK when grown in hypoxia and further elevated upon exposure of the cells to SM. In normoxia and hypoxia, inhibition of miR-203 by transfection of NHEK with complementary oligonucleotides, anti-miR-203, attenuated the SM-induced impairment of metabolic activity and proliferation, and counteracted SM-promoted keratin-1 expression in these cells. Consistent ameliorating effects on dysregulated metabolic activity, proliferation and keratin-1 expression in SM-treated NHEK were obtained upon inhibition of miR-210 in these cells grown in hypoxia. Our findings provide evidence that miR-203 and miR-210 are key regulators in normal and SM-impaired keratinocyte functionality, and suggest potential usefulness of inhibitors against miR-203 and miR-210 for target-directed therapeutical intervention to improve re-epithelialization of SM-injured skin. PMID:26383628

  2. Basic fibroblast growth factor in Dupuytren's contracture.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, A. M.; Buscaglia, M.; Fox, R.; Isacchi, A.; Sarmientos, P.; Farris, J.; Ong, M.; Martineau, D.; Lappi, D. A.; Baird, A.

    1992-01-01

    Lesions excised from nine patients undergoing surgery for Dupuytren's contracture (DC) and three normal fascia were examined for the presence of the angiogenic protein basic fibroblast growth factor (basic FGF). Endothelial cell proliferation assays established basic FGF-like activity in extracts of DC. Western blotting confirmed the presence of an 18,000-dalton protein which was localized in the lesions by immunohistochemical staining. All of the cells implicated in the progression of the disease (endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts) contain the growth factor. Endothelial cells within the narrowed or occluded vessels, as well as fibroblasts surrounding these vessels, stained intensely positive. In situ hybridization using an antisense probe for human basic FGF and its receptor's (FGFR-1) mRNA established the major difference between normal and DC tissues: their levels are significantly higher than in the normal tissues. Thus the cells in DC also express both basic FGF and FGFR-1, suggesting a potential autocrine/paracrine role for basic FGF in the pathogenesis of DC. This finding is thus the first description of a nontumoral proliferative disease that can be directly associated with increased basic FGF mRNA. The possibility that therapies can be developed on the basis that basic FGF and its receptor are expressed in DC is discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1325742

  3. Sequential Delivery of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor for Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tengood, Jillian E.; Ridenour, Ryan; Brodsky, Ross; Russell, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    An externally regulated delivery model that permits temporal separation of multiple angiogenic factors was used for the delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). While bFGF plays a significant role in the sprouting of new capillaries, PDGF plays a role in the recruitment of mural cells, which stabilize neovessels. However, these two factors have been shown to inhibit each other, when presented together. Using the externally regulated model, sequential delivery of bFGF and PDGF led to not only increased endothelial cell migration, but also endothelial cell and vascular pericyte colocalization. More importantly, this delivery strategy was able to induce red blood cell-filled neovessels, suggesting integration of angiogenesis with the existing vasculature. PMID:21142700

  4. Palmitic acid induces production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α via a NF-κB-dependent mechanism in HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing-rong; Zhang, Jia-an; Zhang, Qian; Permatasari, Felicia; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Yin, Zhi-qiang; Luo, Dan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether palmitic acid can be responsible for the induction of inflammatory processes, HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with palmitic acid at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations. Secretion levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β), NF- κ B nuclear translocation, NF- κ B activation, Stat3 phosphorylation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) mRNA and protein levels, as well as the cell proliferation ability were measured at the end of the treatment and after 24 hours of recovery. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a selective chemical inhibitor of NF- κ B) and goat anti-human IL-6 polyclonal neutralizing antibody were used to inhibit NF- κ B activation and IL-6 production, respectively. Our results showed that palmitic acid induced an upregulation of IL-6, TNF- α , IL-1 β secretions, accompanied by NF- κ B nuclear translocation and activation. Moreover, the effect of palmitic acid was accompanied by PPAR α activation and Stat3 phosphorylation. Palmitic acid-induced IL-6, TNF- α , IL-1 β productions were attenuated by NF- κ B inhibitor PDTC. Palmitic acid was administered in amounts able to elicit significant hyperproliferation and can be attenuated by IL-6 blockage. These data demonstrate for the first time that palmitic acid can stimulate IL-6, TNF- α , IL-1 β productions in HaCaT keratinocytes and cell proliferation, thereby potentially contributing to acne inflammation and pilosebaceous duct hyperkeratinization. PMID:24078775

  5. Biological roles of carboxymethyl-chitin associated for the growth factor production.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Hiroyuki; Kiyohara, Ai; Masuda, Shingo; Yoshihara, Yusuke; Ueno, Masaru; Hashimoto, Masahito; Suda, Yasuo

    2007-10-01

    Many techniques to restore cartilage defection have been tried. However, the development is still under way because of problems, including loosening of artificial joint, degenerative change of compensated tissue, risk of viral transmission via allograft/autograft, and cost of therapeutic materials for repair. In the previous research, we found that complementing cartilage defective part with carboxymethyl-chitin (CM-chitin)/beta-tricalcium phosphate composite induced regeneration of cartilage in rabbits in vivo, and it is presumable that CM-chitin plays a key role in chondrogenesis causing the regeneration of cartilage. However, the induction mechanism of chondrogenesis with CM-chitin is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the cell responses to CM-chitin by using peritoneal exudate cell (PEC) in mice and found that CM-chitin induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, both of which are both considered to correlate with chondrogenesis. After intraperitoneal injection CM-chitin showed enhanced expressions of mRNA of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), keratinocyte-derived chemokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in PEC as observed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Productions of TGF-beta1 protein were confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. It was also shown that mononuclear cells in PEC were responsible for the TGF-beta1 production. These results suggest that CM-chitin is an inductor of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors and may contribute to regeneration of cartilage. PMID:17377966

  6. The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I axis: studies in man during growth.

    PubMed

    Merimee, T J; Quinn, S; Russell, B; Riley, W

    1991-01-01

    Several major differences are noted between males and females in their patterns of growth at puberty. Accelerated pubertal growth in both males and females depends upon the integrity of the GH-receptor system. In males, acceleration of growth results primarily from enhanced sensitivity of the GH-receptor-IGF I system to GH brought about by testosterone. Whether testosterone itself is responsible for this observation is still unclear. Perhaps the initial GH, IGF I peak present in males and absent in females occurs at the time when sleep-related rises of gonadotropins and testosterone begin just prior to puberty. Though the pygmy data certainly supports a relationship between testosterone and the GH-receptor-IGF I axis, the undisputed tall stature of eunuchs remains a puzzle. It is possible that the maturing male gonad secretes another growth factor and/or growth inhibitor in conjunction with testosterone and that it is this unidentified factor which modulates growth. At any rate, acceleration of growth in males results from sensitization or the GH-receptor-IGF I system while growth acceleration in females results almost solely from increased secretion of GH and not sensitization of the system. PMID:1767744

  7. Self-assembling elastin-like peptides growth factor chimeric nanoparticles for the treatment of chronic wounds

    PubMed Central

    Koria, Piyush; Yagi, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Megeed, Zaki; Nahmias, Yaakov; Sheridan, Robert; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wounds are associated with poor epidermal and dermal remodeling. Previous work has shown the efficacy of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in reepithelialization and elastin in dermal wound healing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a fusion protein comprising of elastin-like peptides and KGF. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of KGF and elastin as evidenced by its enhancement of keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. It also preserved the characteristic elastin-like peptides inverse phase transitioning allowing the recombinant protein to be expressed in bacterial hosts (such as Escherichia coli) and purified rapidly and easily using inverse temperature cycling. The fusion protein self-assembled into nanoparticles at physiological temperatures. When applied to full thickness, wounds in Leprdb diabetic mice these particles enhanced reepithelialization and granulation, by 2- and 3-fold respectively, when compared to the controls. The data strongly suggests that these self-assembled nanoparticles may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic wounds resulting from diabetes or other underlying circulatory conditions. PMID:21193639

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition delays wound healing and blocks latent transforming growth factor-β1 promoted myofibroblast formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schnabel, Reinhild; Claes, Juliane; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ågren, Magnus S.; Haaksma, Carol; Tomasek, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regulate wound contraction is critical for wound healing as well as for pathological contractures. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been demonstrated to be obligatory for normal wound healing. This study examined the effect the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor BB-94 has when applied topically to full-thickness skin excisional wounds in rats and its ability to inhibit the promotion of myofibroblast formation and function by latent transforming-growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). BB-94 delayed wound contraction, as well as all other associated aspects of wound healing examined, including myofibroblast formation, stromal cell proliferation, blood vessel formation, and epithelial wound coverage. Interestingly, BB-94 dramatically increased the level of latent and active MMP-9. The increased levels of active MMP-9 may eventually overcome the ability of BB-94 to inhibit this MMP and may explain why wound contraction and other associated events of wound healing were only delayed and not completely inhibited. BB-94 was also found to inhibit the ability of latent TGF-β1 to promote the formation and function of myofibroblasts. These results suggest that BB-94 could delay wound closure through a two-fold mechanism; by blocking keratinocyte migration and thereby blocking necessary keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions needed for myofibroblast formation and by inhibiting the activation of latent TGF-β1. PMID:20409148

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-Chen; Yuan, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in bone. The critical role of FGF23 in mineral ion homeostasis was first identified in human genetic and acquired rachitic diseases and has been further characterised in animal models. Recent studies have revealed that the levels of FGF23 increase significantly at the very early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may play a critical role in mineral ion disorders and bone metabolism in these patients. Our recent publications have also shown that FGF23 and its cofactor, Klotho, may play an independent role in directly regulating bone mineralisation instead of producing a systematic effect. In this review, we will discuss the new role of FGF23 in bone mineralisation and the pathophysiology of CKD-related bone disorders. PMID:25655009

  10. Systems Biology of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2009-01-01

    Several cytokine families have roles in development, maintenance and remodeling of the microcirculation. Of these, the VEGF family is one of the best studied and one of the most complex. Five VEGF ligand genes and five cell surface receptor genes are known in the human, and each of these may be transcribed as multiple splice isoforms to generate an extensive family of proteins, many of which are subject to further proteolytic processing. Using the VEGF family as an example, we describe the current knowledge of growth factor expression, processing and transport in vivo. Experimental studies and computational simulations are being used to measure and predict the activity of these molecules, and we describe avenues of research that seek to fill the remaining gaps in our understanding of VEGF family behavior. PMID:18608994

  11. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25772309

  12. Neuropeptides as lung cancer growth factors.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Moreno, Paola; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript is written in honor of the Festschrift for Abba Kastin. I met Abba at a Society for Neuroscience meeting and learned that he was Editor-in-Chief of the Journal Peptides. I submitted manuscripts to the journal on "Neuropeptides as Growth Factors in Cancer" and subsequently was named to the Editorial Advisory Board. Over the past 30 years I have published dozens of manuscripts in Peptides and reviewed hundreds of submitted manuscripts. It was always rewarding to interact with Abba, a consummate professional. When I attended meetings in New Orleans I would sometimes go out to dinner with him at the restaurant "Commanders Palace". When I chaired the Summer Neuropeptide Conference we were honored to have him receive the Fleur Strand Award one year in Israel. I think that his biggest editorial contribution has been the "Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides." I served as a Section Editor on "Cancer/Anticancer Peptides" and again found that it was a pleasure working with him. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which bombesin-like peptides, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide regulate the growth of lung cancer. PMID:25836991

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cell Growth: Focus on Endocrine Resistant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Voudouri, Kallirroi; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Tzardi, Maria; Tzanakakis, George N.; Nikitovic, Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer for women worldwide with a lifetime risk amounting to a staggering total of 10%. It is well established that the endogenous synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) polypeptide growth factors are closely correlated to malignant transformation and all the steps of the breast cancer metastatic cascade. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both estrogens and growth factors stimulate the proliferation of steroid-dependent tumor cells, and that the interaction between these signaling pathways occurs at several levels. Importantly, the majority of breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor- (ER-) positive which have a more favorable prognosis and pattern of recurrence with endocrine therapy being the backbone of treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of patients progress to endocrine therapy resistant disease (acquired resistance) whereas a proportion of patients may fail to respond to initial therapy (de novo resistance). The IGF-I and EGF downstream signaling pathways are closely involved in the process of progression to therapy resistant disease. Modifications in the bioavailability of these growth factors contribute critically to disease progression. In the present review therefore, we will discuss in depth how IGF and EGF signaling participate in breast cancer pathogenesis and progression to endocrine resistant disease. PMID:26258011

  14. Design of Growth Factor Sequestering Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Belair, David G.; Le, Ngoc Nhi; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factors (GFs) are major regulatory proteins that can govern cell fate, migration, and organization. Numerous aspects of the cell milieu can modulate cell responses to GFs, and GF regulation is often achieved by the native extracellular matrix (ECM). For example, the ECM can sequester GFs and thereby control GF bioavailability. In addition, GFs can exert distinct effects depending on whether they are sequestered in solution, at two-dimensional interfaces, or within three-dimensional matrices. Understanding how the context of GF sequestering impacts cell function in the native ECM can instruct the design of soluble or insoluble GF sequestering moieties, which can then be used in a variety of bioengineering applications. This Feature Article provides an overview of the natural mechanisms of GF sequestering in the cell milieu, and reviews the recent bioengineering approaches that have sequestered GFs to modulate cell function. Results to date demonstrate that the cell response to GF sequestering depends on the affinity of the sequestering interaction, the spatial proximity of sequestering in relation to cells, the source of the GF (supplemented or endogenous), and the phase of the sequestering moiety (soluble or insoluble). We highlight the importance of context for the future design of biomaterials that can leverage endogenous molecules in the cell milieu and mitigate the need for supplemented factors. PMID:25182455

  15. Priming of mononuclear cells with a combination of growth factors enhances wound healing via high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Enze; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that a specific combination of growth factors enhances the survival, adhesion and angiogenic potential of mononuclear cells (MNCs). In this study, we sought to investigate the changes of the angiogenic potential of MNCs after short-time priming with a specific combination of growth factors. MNCs were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and incubated with a priming cocktail containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3L, Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2 and thrombopoietin (TPO) (all 400 ng/ml) for 15, 30 and 60 min. Wounds in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficiency (NOD-SCID) mice were created by skin excision followed by cell transplantation. We performed a qRT-PCR analysis on the growth factor–primed cells. The angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, FGF-2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the anti-apoptotic factors IGF-1 and transforming growth factor-β1 were significantly elevated in the MNCs primed for 30 min. (T30) compared with the non-primed MNCs (T0). The scratch wound assay revealed that T30- conditioned media (CM) significantly increased the rate of fibroblast-mediated wound closure compared with the rates from T0-CM and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-CM at 20 hrs. In vivo wound healing results revealed that the T30-treated wounds demonstrated accelerated wound healing at days 7 and 14 compared with those treated with T0. The histological analyses demonstrated that the number of engrafted cells and transdifferentiated keratinocytes in the wounds were significantly higher in the T30-transplanted group than in the T0-transplanted group. In conclusion, this study suggests that short-term priming of MNCs with growth factors might be alternative therapeutic option for cell-based therapies. PMID:24118840

  16. UVC modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor number in HeLa S3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ley, K D; Ellem, K A

    1992-02-01

    Induction of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in human cell lines by 254 nm ultraviolet radiation (UVC) suggests that TGF alpha may have an autocrine role in UV-induced tumorigenesis. Binding of TGF alpha to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important initial step in transducing the signal for cell division. Experiments reported herein were designed to determine whether, in addition to inducing TGF alpha, UVC might also induce changes in the levels of EGFR on HeLa S3 cells [125I]EGF binding to HeLa S3 cells was inhibited 8 h after exposure to 7 J/m2 UVC radiation followed by increased [125I]EGF binding 16-32 h after irradiation. Scatchard analysis of EGF binding at 28 h indicated that irradiated cells had 60% more receptors with no differences in apparent binding affinities (56,300 +/- 5494 receptors versus 34,900 +/- 1899 receptors in sham-irradiated cells). Cell cycle analysis at 8 h post-UVC indicated that cells had slowed traverse of S-phase, but by 24 and 48 h, times at which increases in [125I]EGF were evident, cell cycle distributions were essentially back to normal. These results indicate that UVC modulates EGFR numbers in HeLa S3 cells and suggest that solar radiation may modulate EGFR numbers in keratinocytes or other cells in the skin. The presence of UV-induced growth factors such as TGF alpha and increased levels of EGFR may result in sustained cell proliferation by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. These populations of cycling cells would then be at risk for subsequent mutational events that result in transformation to a tumorigenic state. PMID:1740007

  17. Autologous keratinocyte suspension in platelet concentrate accelerates and enhances wound healing – a prospective randomized clinical trial on skin graft donor sites: platelet concentrate and keratinocytes on donor sites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wound healing involves complex mechanisms, which, if properly chaperoned, can enhance patient recovery. The abilities of platelets and keratinocytes may be harnessed in order to stimulate wound healing through the formation of platelet clots, the release of several growth factors and cytokines, and cell proliferation. The aim of the study was to test whether autologous keratinocyte suspensions in platelet concentrate would improve wound healing. The study was conducted at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland in 45 patients, randomized to three different topical treatment groups: standard treatment serving as control, autologous platelet concentrate (PC) and keratinocytes suspended in autologous platelet concentrate (PC + K). Split thickness skin graft donor sites were chosen on the anterolateral thighs of patients undergoing plastic surgery for a variety of defects. Wound healing was assessed by the duration and quality of the healing process. Pain intensity was evaluated at day five. Results Healing time was reduced from 13.9 ± 0.5 days (mean ± SEM) in the control group to 7.2 ± 0.2 days in the PC group (P < 0.01). An addition of keratinocytes in suspension further reduced the healing time to 5.7 ± 0.2 days. Pain was reduced in both the PC and PC + K groups. Data showed a statistically detectable advantage of using PC + K over PC alone (P < 0.01). Conclusion The results demonstrate the positive contribution of autologous platelets combined with keratinocytes in stimulating wound healing and reducing pain. This strikingly simple approach could have a significant impact on patient care, especially critically burned victims for whom time is of the essence. Clinical trial registry information Protocol Record Identification Number: 132/03 Registry URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23570605

  18. Endorsement of Growth Factors in Experiential Training Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiweewa, John; Gilbride, Dennis; Luke, Melissa; Seward, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify student growth factors during a semester long Master's level group counseling class. Results indicated that 12 growth factors accounted for 86% of the total number of critical incidents that participants reported as influencing their personal growth and awareness during the group experience. Two other…

  19. Gene Expression of Growth Factors and Growth Factor Receptors for Potential Targeted Therapy of Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    IIDA, Gentoku; ASANO, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; SAKAI, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; ISHIGAKI, Kumiko; KAGAWA, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; WATARI, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transforming growth factor-α, epidermal growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were found to be differentially expressed in HCC compared with NH and the surrounding non-cancerous and healthy control liver tissues. PDGF-B is suggested to have the potential to become a valuable ancillary target for the treatment of canine HCC. PMID:24189579

  20. Modeling keratinocyte wound healing dynamics: Cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained collective migration.

    PubMed

    Nardini, John T; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong; Bortz, David M

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro migration of keratinocyte cell sheets displays behavioral and biochemical similarities to the in vivo wound healing response of keratinocytes in animal model systems. In both cases, ligand-dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation is sufficient to elicit collective cell migration into the wound. Previous mathematical modeling studies of in vitro wound healing assays assume that physical connections between cells have a hindering effect on cell migration, but biological literature suggests a more complicated story. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental observations of collectively migrating sheets of keratinocytes, we investigate the role of cell-cell adhesion during in vitro keratinocyte wound healing assays. We develop and compare two nonlinear diffusion models of the wound healing process in which cell-cell adhesion either hinders or promotes migration. Both models can accurately fit the leading edge propagation of cell sheets during wound healing when using a time-dependent rate of cell-cell adhesion strength. The model that assumes a positive role of cell-cell adhesion on migration, however, is robust to changes in the leading edge definition and yields a qualitatively accurate density profile. Using RNAi for the critical adherens junction protein, α-catenin, we demonstrate that cell sheets with wild type cell-cell adhesion expression maintain migration into the wound longer than cell sheets with decreased cell-cell adhesion expression, which fails to exhibit collective migration. Our modeling and experimental data thus suggest that cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained migration as cells pull neighboring cells into the wound during wound healing. PMID:27105673

  1. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman W.

    1987-01-01

    New muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow embryonic skeletal myofibers which are able to differentiate into more adultlike myofibers. Studies on mechanical simulation of cultured muscle cell growth will now be more directly applicable to mechanically-induced growth in adult muscle, and lead to better models for understanding muscle tissue atrophy caused by disuse in the microgravity of space.

  2. The role of the tetraspanin CD151 in primary keratinocyte and fibroblast functions: Implications for wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, Sean M.; Cowin, Allison J.; Copeland, Ben; Baleato, Rosa M.; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Ashman, Leonie K.

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies showed that CD151-null mice have a skin wound healing deficit. To gain an understanding of the role of CD151 in re-epithelialisation and dermal contraction, keratinocyte and fibroblast functions were assayed. Primary CD151-null keratinocytes displayed defective migration on Matrigel (a basement membrane equivalent) and laminin-332, the primary adhesion component of basement membranes, but not on collagen-I. Adhesion, spreading and proliferation were also deficient on laminin-332, but not collagen-I. The data suggest that loss of CD151 impairs the function of its primary interaction partners, integrin {alpha}3{beta}1- and/or {alpha}6{beta}4 which bind to laminin-332. Skin fibroblasts also produce CD151 mRNA. CD151-null fibroblasts migrated significantly faster on collagen I than wild type fibroblasts, confirming that they possess functional collagen receptors. However, no significant decrease in the ability of CD151-null fibroblasts to cause contraction in floating collagen gel assays in response to transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-{beta}1) or platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) was observed, nor was there an effect on fibroblast adhesion or proliferation on collagen-I. The data implicate CD151 as a facilitator of laminin-332-mediated keratinocyte functions that impact on the re-epithelialisation process intrinsic to wound healing and further suggest a potential novel role for CD151 in fibroblast migration.

  3. Transforming growth factor beta1 and aldosterone

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Kota; Hathaway, Catherine K.; Chang, Albert S.; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review It is well established that blocking renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system (RAAS) is effective for the treatment of cardiovascular and renal complications in hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Although the induction of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) by components of RAAS mediates the hypertrophic and fibrogenic changes in cardiovascular-renal complications, it is still controversial as to whether TGFbeta1 can be a target to prevent such complications. Here we review recent findings on the role of TGFbeta1 in fluid homeostasis, focusing on the relationship with aldosterone. Recent findings TGFbeta1 suppresses adrenal production of aldosterone and renal tubular sodium reabsorption. We have generated mice with TGFbeta1 mRNA expression graded in five steps from 10% to 300% normal, and found that blood pressure and plasma volume are negatively regulated by TGFbeta1. Notably, the 10 % hypomorph exhibits primary aldosteronism and sodium and water retention due to markedly impaired urinary excretion of water and electrolytes. Summary These results identify TGFbeta signaling as an important counterregulatory system against aldosterone. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for the suppressive effects of TGFbeta1 on adrenocortical and renal function may further our understanding of primary aldosteronism as well as assist in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for hypertension. PMID:25587902

  4. Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors. PMID:23259759

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Penn, J.S.; Madan, A.; Caldwell, R.B.; Bartoli, M.; Caldwell, R.W.; Hartnett, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Collectively, angiogenic ocular conditions represent the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. In the U.S., for example, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the principal causes of blindness in the infant, working age and elderly populations, respectively. Evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a 40 kDa dimeric glycoprotein, promotes angiogenesis in each of these conditions, making it a highly significant therapeutic target. However, VEGF is pleiotropic, affecting a broad spectrum of endothelial, neuronal and glial behaviors, and confounding the validity of anti-VEGF strategies, particularly under chronic disease conditions. In fact, among other functions VEGF can influence cell proliferation, cell migration, proteolysis, cell survival and vessel permeability in a wide variety of biological contexts. This article will describe the roles played by VEGF in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The potential disadvantages of inhibiting VEGF will be discussed, as will the rationales for targeting other VEGF-related modulators of angiogenesis. PMID:18653375

  6. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. PMID:25433777

  7. Nuclear Targeting by the Growth Factor Midkine

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yoshihisa; Muramatsu, Takashi; Hirai, Makoto; Inui, Tatsuya; Kimura, Terutoshi; Saito, Hidehiko; McCormick, Lynn M.; Bu, Guojun; Kadomatsu, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    Ligand-receptor internalization has been traditionally regarded as part of the cellular desensitization system. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a large endocytosis receptor with a diverse array of ligands. We recently showed that LRP binds heparin-binding growth factor midkine. Here we demonstrate that LRP mediates nuclear targeting by midkine and that the nuclear targeting is biologically important. Exogenous midkine reached the nucleus, where intact midkine was detected, within 20 min. Midkine was not internalized in LRP-deficient cells, whereas transfection of an LRP expression vector restored midkine internalization and subsequent nuclear translocation. Internalized midkine in the cytoplasm bound to nucleolin, a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein. The midkine-binding sites were mapped to acidic stretches in the N-terminal domain of nucleolin. When the nuclear localization signal located next to the acidic stretches was deleted, we found that the mutant nucleolin not only accumulated in the cytoplasm but also suppressed the nuclear translocation of midkine. By using cells that overexpressed the mutant nucleolin, we further demonstrated that the nuclear targeting was necessary for the full activity of midkine in the promotion of cell survival. This study therefore reveals a novel role of LRP in intracellular signaling by its ligand and the importance of nucleolin in this process. PMID:12215536

  8. Nuclear targeting by the growth factor midkine.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yoshihisa; Muramatsu, Takashi; Hirai, Makoto; Inui, Tatsuya; Kimura, Terutoshi; Saito, Hidehiko; McCormick, Lynn M; Bu, Guojun; Kadomatsu, Kenji

    2002-10-01

    Ligand-receptor internalization has been traditionally regarded as part of the cellular desensitization system. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a large endocytosis receptor with a diverse array of ligands. We recently showed that LRP binds heparin-binding growth factor midkine. Here we demonstrate that LRP mediates nuclear targeting by midkine and that the nuclear targeting is biologically important. Exogenous midkine reached the nucleus, where intact midkine was detected, within 20 min. Midkine was not internalized in LRP-deficient cells, whereas transfection of an LRP expression vector restored midkine internalization and subsequent nuclear translocation. Internalized midkine in the cytoplasm bound to nucleolin, a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein. The midkine-binding sites were mapped to acidic stretches in the N-terminal domain of nucleolin. When the nuclear localization signal located next to the acidic stretches was deleted, we found that the mutant nucleolin not only accumulated in the cytoplasm but also suppressed the nuclear translocation of midkine. By using cells that overexpressed the mutant nucleolin, we further demonstrated that the nuclear targeting was necessary for the full activity of midkine in the promotion of cell survival. This study therefore reveals a novel role of LRP in intracellular signaling by its ligand and the importance of nucleolin in this process. PMID:12215536

  9. The role of vascular endothelial growth factors and fibroblast growth factors in angiogenesis during otitis media.

    PubMed

    Husseman, Jacob; Palacios, Sean D; Rivkin, Alexander Z; Oehl, Heinz; Ryan, Allen F

    2012-01-01

    The middle ear response to otitis media includes transformation and hyperplasia of the mucosal epithelium and subepithelial connective tissue. Significant neovascularization is also noted, which occurs both to support the hypertrophied mucosa and to mediate the increased trafficking of leukocytes. We investigated the role of two known potent angiogenic growth factor families, the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), in middle ear mucosal angiogenesis. DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the expression of FGFs and VEGFs, as well as their receptors and unique signaling proteins, in the middle ears of mice undergoing a complete course of acute bacterial otitis media. In addition, a member of each family was introduced to the middle ear submucosal compartment of the normal middle ears of guinea pigs, by a continuous-release osmotic minipump system over 1 week. During the course of bacterial otitis media, a significant regulation of a number of genes important for angiogenesis was identified. Histologic evaluation of middle ear mucosa following micropump infusion of both FGF1 and VEGF-A showed significant angiogenesis at the site of infusion in comparison to control saline infusion. These results support a role for FGFs and VEGFs in the neovascularization of the middle ear mucosa during otitis media, and offer a potential avenue for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22104377

  10. Direct binding of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to CD44v6.

    PubMed

    Volz, Yvonne; Koschut, David; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Dietz, Marina S; Karathanasis, Christos; Richert, Ludovic; Wagner, Moritz G; Mély, Yves; Heilemann, Mike; Niemann, Hartmut H; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CD44v6, a member of the CD44 family of transmembrane glycoproteins is a co-receptor for two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Met and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2). CD44v6 is not only required for the activation of these RTKs but also for signalling. In order to understand the role of CD44v6 in Met and VEGFR-2 activation and signalling we tested whether CD44v6 binds to their ligands, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), respectively. FACS analysis and cellular ELISA showed binding of HGF and VEGF only to cells expressing CD44v6. Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays and the binding affinities were determined using MicroScale Thermophoresis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy. The binding affinity of CD44v6 to HGF is in the micromolar range in contrast with the high-affinity binding measured in the case of VEGF and CD44v6, which is in the nanomolar range. These data reveal a heparan sulfate-independent direct binding of CD44v6 to the ligands of Met and VEGFR-2 and suggest different roles of CD44v6 for these RTKs. PMID:26181364

  11. Direct binding of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to CD44v6

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Yvonne; Koschut, David; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Dietz, Marina S.; Karathanasis, Christos; Richert, Ludovic; Wagner, Moritz G.; Mély, Yves; Heilemann, Mike; Niemann, Hartmut H.; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CD44v6, a member of the CD44 family of transmembrane glycoproteins is a co-receptor for two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Met and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2). CD44v6 is not only required for the activation of these RTKs but also for signalling. In order to understand the role of CD44v6 in Met and VEGFR-2 activation and signalling we tested whether CD44v6 binds to their ligands, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), respectively. FACS analysis and cellular ELISA showed binding of HGF and VEGF only to cells expressing CD44v6. Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays and the binding affinities were determined using MicroScale Thermophoresis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy. The binding affinity of CD44v6 to HGF is in the micromolar range in contrast with the high-affinity binding measured in the case of VEGF and CD44v6, which is in the nanomolar range. These data reveal a heparan sulfate-independent direct binding of CD44v6 to the ligands of Met and VEGFR-2 and suggest different roles of CD44v6 for these RTKs. PMID:26181364

  12. Effect of Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor (rHuKGF, Palifermin) on Radiation-Induced Mouse Urinary Bladder Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Jaal, Jana Doerr, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of Palifermin (rHuKGF) on acute and late radiation effects in mouse urinary bladder. Methods and Materials: Graded radiation doses were applied on day 0. Single subcutaneous injections of Palifermin (15 mg/kg) were given on day -2 or day +2. Changes in bladder function (i.e., a reduction in bladder volume by {>=}50% of the individual preirradiation value) were assessed by cystometry. Results: Early changes in mouse bladder after irradiation occur in two phases. In the first early phase, a single injection of Palifermin on day -2 increased the ED{sub 50} (dose associated with a positive bladder response in 50% of the mice) from 20.0 {+-} 3.3 Gy to 27.1 {+-} 6.9 Gy (p < .0051). Palifermin given on day +2 was not beneficial. No significant effects of Palifermin were seen in the second early phase. However, Palifermin administration before, but not after, irradiation, also modified late radiation effects, with an ED{sub 50} of 22.2 {+-} 4.8 Gy compared with 16.2 {+-} 4.9 Gy in control animals (p < .0187). Conclusions: Initial early functional changes in the mouse urinary bladder after irradiation as well as late effects can be significantly reduced by a single administration of Palifermin before irradiation.

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factors and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Promote Cardiac Reprogramming under Defined Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hiroyuki; Muraoka, Naoto; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Sadahiro, Taketaro; Isomi, Mari; Haginiwa, Sho; Kojima, Hidenori; Umei, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Mizuha; Kuishi, Yuki; Kurokawa, Junko; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Fukuda, Keiichi; Ieda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) by overexpression of cardiac transcription factors, including Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5; however, this process is inefficient under serum-based culture conditions, in which conversion of partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed functional iCMs has been a major hurdle. Here, we report that a combination of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2, FGF10, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), termed FFV, promoted cardiac reprogramming under defined serum-free conditions, increasing spontaneously beating iCMs by 100-fold compared with those under conventional serum-based conditions. Mechanistically, FFV activated multiple cardiac transcriptional regulators and converted partially reprogrammed cells into functional iCMs through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathways. Moreover, FFV enabled cardiac reprogramming with only Mef2c and Tbx5 through the induction of cardiac reprogramming factors, including Gata4. Thus, defined culture conditions promoted the quality of cardiac reprogramming, and this finding provides new insight into the mechanism of cardiac reprogramming. PMID:26626177

  14. Myostatin-null mice exhibit delayed skin wound healing through the blockade of transforming growth factor-β signaling by decorin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Tan, Chek Kun; McFarlane, Craig; Sharma, Mridula; Tan, Nguan Soon; Kambadur, Ravi

    2012-04-15

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth and differentiation factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Mstn has been well characterized as a regulator of myogenesis and has been shown to play a critical role in postnatal muscle regeneration. Herein, we report for the first time that Mstn is expressed in both epidermis and dermis of murine and human skin and that Mstn-null mice exhibited delayed skin wound healing attributable to a combination of effects resulting from delayed epidermal reepithelialization and dermal contraction. In epidermis, reduced keratinocyte migration and protracted keratinocyte proliferation were observed, which subsequently led to delayed recovery of epidermal thickness and slower reepithelialization. Furthermore, primary keratinocytes derived from Mstn-null mice displayed reduced migration capacity and increased proliferation rate as assessed through in vitro migration and adhesion assays, as well as bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and Western blot analysis. Moreover, in dermis, both fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transformation and collagen deposition were concomitantly reduced, resulting in a delayed dermal wound contraction. These decreases are due to the inhibition of TGF-β signaling. In agreement, the expression of decorin, a naturally occurring TGF-β suppressor, was elevated in Mstn-null mice; moreover, topical treatment with TGF-β1 protein rescued the impaired skin wound healing observed in Mstn-null mice. These observations highlight the interplay between TGF-β and Mstn signaling pathways, specifically through Mstn regulation of decorin levels during the skin wound healing process. Thus we propose that Mstn agonists might be beneficial for skin wound repair. PMID:22277753

  15. Factors affecting filamentous growth of Sphaerotilus natans.

    PubMed

    GAUDY, E; WOLFE, R S

    1961-11-01

    Filamentous growth in cultures of Sphaerotilus natans can be measured and compared with total growth by a standardized procedure of winding filaments around an inoculating needle. Filaments and residual growth are then separately washed on Millipore filters, dried, and weighed. This method has been used to study changes in the growth habit of S. natans elicited by changes in the concentration of nutrients in the medium. The concentration of peptone, in a medium containing a sugar, phosphate buffer, and inorganic salts, has a much greater effect on the proportion of filamentous growth than does the nature or concentration of the carbon source or the concentration of phosphate buffer. Filament formation is significantly inhibited by concentrations of peptone greater than 0.25%; further increases in peptone concentration stimulate the production of large amounts of capsular material. Increasing the concentration of phosphate buffer to 0.05 M almost completely inhibits growth of S. natans. PMID:13897283

  16. Cholinergic Transactivation of the EGFR in HaCaT Keratinocytes Stimulates a Flotillin-1 Dependent MAPK-Mediated Transcriptional Response

    PubMed Central

    Khne, Sina; Ockenga, Wymke; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine and its receptors regulate numerous cellular processes in keratinocytes and other non-neuronal cells. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are capable of transactivating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and, downstream thereof, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which in turn regulates transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation and migration. We here show that cholinergic stimulation of human HaCaT keratinocytes results in increased transcription of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-3 as well as several ligands of the epidermal growth factor family. Since both metalloproteinases and the said ligands are involved in the transactivation of the EGFR, this transcriptional upregulation may provide a positive feed-forward loop for EGFR/MAPK activation. We here also show that the cholinergic EGFR and MAPK activation and the upregulation of MMP-3 and EGF-like ligands are dependent on the expression of flotillin-1 which we have previously shown to be a regulator of MAPK signaling. PMID:25803106

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Vera J. M.; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T.; Atkins, Annette R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Jonker, Johan W.; Downes, Michael Robert

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions. PMID:26834701

  18. Growth factor array fabrication using a color ink jet printer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a novel method for growth factor analysis using a commercial color ink jet printer to fabricate substrata patterned with growth factors. We prepared substrata with insulin printed in a simple pattern or containing multiple areas of varying quantities of printed insulin. When we cultured the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, on the insulin-patterned substrata, the cells were grown in the same pattern with the insulin-printed pattern. Cell culture with the latter substrata demonstrated that quantity control of insulin deposition by a color ink jet printer is possible. For further applications, we developed substrata with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) spotted in 16 different areas in varying combinations and concentrations (growth factor array). With this growth factor array, C2C12 cells were cultured, and the onset of muscle cell differentiation was monitored for the expression of the myogenic regulator myogenin. The ratio of cells expressing myogenin varied with the doses of IGF-I and bFGF in the sections, demonstrating a feasibility of growth factor array fabrication by a color ink jet printer. Since a printer manipulates several colors, this method can be easily applied to multivariate analyses of growth factors and attachment factors affecting cell growth and differentiation. This method may provide a powerful tool for cell biology and tissue engineering, especially for stem cell research in investigating unknown conditions for differentiation. PMID:12719645

  19. Human melanocytes mitigate keratinocyte-dependent contraction in an in vitro collagen contraction assay.

    PubMed

    Rakar, Jonathan; Krammer, Markus P; Kratz, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    Scarring is an extensive problem in burn care, and treatment can be especially complicated in cases of hypertrophic scarring. Contraction is an important factor in scarring but the contribution of different cell types remains unclear. We have investigated the contractile behavior of keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts by using an in vitro collagen gel assay aimed at identifying a modulating role of melanocytes in keratinocyte-mediated contraction. Cells were seeded on a collagen type I gel substrate and the change in gel dimensions were measured over time. Hematoxylin & Eosin-staining and immunohistochemistry against pan-cytokeratin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor showed that melanocytes integrated between keratinocytes and remained there throughout the experiments. Keratinocyte- and fibroblast-seeded gels contracted significantly over time, whereas melanocyte-seeded gels did not. Co-culture assays showed that melanocytes mitigate the keratinocyte-dependent contraction (significantly slower and 18-32% less). Fibroblasts augmented the contraction in most assays (approximately 6% more). Non-contact co-cultures showed some influence on the keratinocyte-dependent contraction. Results show that mechanisms attributable to melanocytes, but not fibroblasts, can mitigate keratinocyte contractile behavior. Contact-dependent mechanisms are stronger modulators than non-contact dependent mechanisms, but both modes carry significance to the contraction modulation of keratinocytes. Further investigations are required to determine the mechanisms involved and to determine the utility of melanocytes beyond hypopigmentation in improved clinical regimes of burn wounds and wound healing. PMID:25466959

  20. Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on keratinocytes proliferation: A preliminary prospective controlled study in severe burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Bargues, Laurent; Bever, Hervé Le; Vest, Philippe; Cavalier, Etienne; Ledoux, Didier; Piérard, Gérald E.; Damas, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypermetabolism and hyposomatotropism related to severe burns lead to impaired wound healing. Growth hormone (GH) boosts wound healing notably following stimulation of the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), a mitogen factor for keratinocytes. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) stimulates endogenous GH secretion. Aim: To assess effects of GHB sedation on keratinocytes proliferation (based on immunohistochemical techniques). Design: Monocentric, prospective, controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients (aging 18-65 years, burn surface area >30%, expected to be sedated for at least one month) were alternately allocated, at the 5th day following injury, in three groups according to the intravenous GHB dose administered for 21 days: Evening bolus of 50 mg/kg (Group B), continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h (Group C), or absence of GHB (Group P). They all received local standard cares. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67/MIB-1, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and Mac 387 antibodies) was performed at D21 on adjacent unburned skin sample for assessing any keratinocyte activation. Serum IGF1 levels were measured at initiation and completion of the protocol. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were compared with Chi-square test. Comparisons of medians were made using Kruskal-Wallis test. Post hoc analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 14 patients completed the study (Group B: n = 5, Group C: n = 5, Group P: n = 4). Continuous administration of GHB was associated with a significant higher Ki67 immunolabeling at D21 (P = 0.049) and with a significant higher increase in the IGF1 concentrations at D21 (P = 0.024). No adverse effects were disclosed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data support a positive effect of GHB on keratinocyte proliferation and are encouraging enough to warrant large prospective studies. PMID:25024938

  1. Presence of growth factors in palmar and plantar fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Zamora, R L; Heights, R; Kraemer, B A; Erlich, H P; Groner, J P

    1994-05-01

    Palmar and plantar fibromatoses are disease processes in which the presence of certain growth factors has not been defined. Monoclonal antibodies against transforming growth factor-beta, epidermal growth factor, procollagen type 1, fibronectin, phosphotyrosine residues, and CD41 platelet antigen were used in standard immunoperoxidase staining to study 36 nodules and 24 cords obtained from patients with fibromatoses. The specimens were studied via light microscopy, and staining intensity was quantitated using a computer-enhanced video system. Transforming growth factor-beta staining paralleled procollagen I, fibronectin, and phosphotyrosine staining within the nodule (early stages) but not the cord (late stages) tissue. These factors showed significant increased staining in the early stage of fibromatosis when compared to the late stage. This study is a preliminary demonstration of the presence of transforming growth factor-beta in palmar and plantar fibromatoses. PMID:7520050

  2. Clinical Application of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of non-healing wounds (e.g. pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted a nonline search of Medline and Pub Medical and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies and future research possibilities. In this review we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. PMID:24942811

  3. Clinical application of growth factors and cytokines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of nonhealing wounds (e.g., pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted an online search of Medline/PubMed and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies, and future research possibilities. In this review, we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. PMID:24942811

  4. MMP-13 Plays a Role in Keratinocyte Migration, Angiogenesis, and Contraction in Mouse Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Noriko; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Kishi, Kazuo; Nakajima, Tatsuo; Takaishi, Hironari; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Okada, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in wound healing. To analyze the roles of MMP-9 and MMP-13 in wound healing, we generated full-thickness cutaneous wounds in MMP-9 knockout (KO), MMP-13 KO, MMP-9/13 double KO, and wild-type mice. Macroscopic wound closure was delayed in all of the KO mice, as compared with wild-type mice. The rate of re-epithelialization was significantly delayed in MMP-9 KO and MMP-13 KO mice and remarkably delayed in MMP-9/13 double KO mice, as compared with wild-type mice. Both MMP-9 and MMP-13 were expressed by the leading edges of epidermal cells in wild-type mice, and the migration of keratinocytes was suppressed by treatment with an MMP inhibitor or transfection of small interfering RNAs for MMP-9 or MMP-13, as compared with controls. The vascular density in wound granulation was significantly lower in both MMP-13 KO and MMP-9/13 double KO mice than in wild-type mice. Degradation of connective tissue growth factor in wound tissue was transiently prevented in MMP-13 KO mice. Morphometric analyses demonstrated a reduction in both wound contraction and myofibroblast formation in both MMP-13 KO and MMP-9/13 double KO mice. Proliferation and transforming growth factor-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts from MMP-13 KO mice were decreased, as compared with wild-type dermal fibroblasts. These data suggest that MMP-13 plays a role in keratinocyte migration, angiogenesis, and contraction in wound healing, while MMP-9 functions in keratinocyte migration. PMID:19590036

  5. Directed random walks and constraint programming reveal active pathways in hepatocyte growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kittas, Aristotelis; Delobelle, Aurélien; Schmitt, Sabrina; Breuhahn, Kai; Guziolowski, Carito; Grabe, Niels

    2016-01-01

    An effective means to analyze mRNA expression data is to take advantage of established knowledge from pathway databases, using methods such as pathway-enrichment analyses. However, pathway databases are not case-specific and expression data could be used to infer gene-regulation patterns in the context of specific pathways. In addition, canonical pathways may not always describe the signaling mechanisms properly, because interactions can frequently occur between genes in different pathways. Relatively few methods have been proposed to date for generating and analyzing such networks, preserving the causality between gene interactions and reasoning over the qualitative logic of regulatory effects. We present an algorithm (MCWalk) integrated with a logic programming approach, to discover subgraphs in large-scale signaling networks by random walks in a fully automated pipeline. As an exemplary application, we uncover the signal transduction mechanisms in a gene interaction network describing hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated cell migration and proliferation from gene-expression measured with microarray and RT-qPCR using in-house perturbation experiments in a keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. The resulting subgraphs illustrate possible associations of hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met nodes, differentially expressed genes and cellular states. Using perturbation experiments and Answer Set programming, we are able to select those which are more consistent with the experimental data. We discover key regulator nodes by measuring the frequency with which they are traversed when connecting signaling between receptors and significantly regulated genes and predict their expression-shift consistently with the measured data. The Java implementation of MCWalk is publicly available under the MIT license at: https://bitbucket.org/akittas/biosubg. PMID:26518250

  6. Dynamic Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cavazza, Alessia; Miccio, Annarita; Romano, Oriana; Petiti, Luca; Malagoli Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Rizzi, Ermanno; De Bellis, Gianluca; Bicciato, Silvio; Mavilio, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Human skin is maintained by the differentiation and maturation of interfollicular stem and progenitors cells. We used DeepCAGE, genome-wide profiling of histone modifications and retroviral integration analysis, to map transcripts, promoters, enhancers, and super-enhancers (SEs) in prospectively isolated keratinocytes and transit-amplifying progenitors, and retrospectively defined keratinocyte stem cells. We show that >95% of the active promoters are in common and differentially regulated in progenitors and differentiated keratinocytes, while approximately half of the enhancers and SEs are stage specific and account for most of the epigenetic changes occurring during differentiation. Transcription factor (TF) motif identification and correlation with TF binding site maps allowed the identification of TF circuitries acting on enhancers and SEs during differentiation. Overall, our study provides a broad, genome-wide description of chromatin dynamics and differential enhancer and promoter usage during epithelial differentiation, and describes a novel approach to identify active regulatory elements in rare stem cell populations. PMID:27050947

  7. Dimethyl sulfoxide and oxidative stress on cultures of human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Duarte, Ivone; Gragnani, Alfredo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the protective action of the antioxidant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) against the oxidative stress on keratinocyte cultures caused by glucose deprivation and hypoxia, using the concentration of malonyl dialdehyde existing in the cell culture as an indicator of the oxidative stress level. METHODS: Eighty flasks with cultured human keratinocytes in a confluent layer were divided into eight groups, including the following: culture medium with and without glucose, culture medium with and without the addition of DMSO, culture medium subjected and not subjected to hypoxia, and culture medium with a combination of these factors. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The statistical analysis of the results showed that DMSO proved to be an effective agent against the oxidative stress on cultures of keratinocytes under the experimental conditions studied. PMID:24115865

  8. Dynamic Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Alessia; Miccio, Annarita; Romano, Oriana; Petiti, Luca; Malagoli Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Rizzi, Ermanno; De Bellis, Gianluca; Bicciato, Silvio; Mavilio, Fulvio

    2016-04-12

    Human skin is maintained by the differentiation and maturation of interfollicular stem and progenitors cells. We used DeepCAGE, genome-wide profiling of histone modifications and retroviral integration analysis, to map transcripts, promoters, enhancers, and super-enhancers (SEs) in prospectively isolated keratinocytes and transit-amplifying progenitors, and retrospectively defined keratinocyte stem cells. We show that >95% of the active promoters are in common and differentially regulated in progenitors and differentiated keratinocytes, while approximately half of the enhancers and SEs are stage specific and account for most of the epigenetic changes occurring during differentiation. Transcription factor (TF) motif identification and correlation with TF binding site maps allowed the identification of TF circuitries acting on enhancers and SEs during differentiation. Overall, our study provides a broad, genome-wide description of chromatin dynamics and differential enhancer and promoter usage during epithelial differentiation, and describes a novel approach to identify active regulatory elements in rare stem cell populations. PMID:27050947

  9. Control of Growth Factor Networks by Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Chu, Chia Lin; Fannon, Michael; Buczek-Thomas, Jo Ann; Nugent, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor binding to transmembrane protein receptors is generally understood to initiate cell signaling. Receptor binding of heparin-binding growth factors (HB-GFs), such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), is regulated by interactions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans. While there is some specificity for binding to heparan sulfate, overlap in sites for different growth factors may allow for cross regulation. Here we demonstrate, using experiments and computer simulations, that the HB-GFs FGF-2 and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can cross regulate receptor binding of the other despite having unique receptors. The ability of HSPG to stabilize HB-GF receptor binding is critical for competing growth factors to modulate receptor binding with both enhanced and reduced binding possible depending on this stabilization process. HSPG density and affinity for HB-GF are also critical factors for HB-GF cross regulation. Simulations further reveal that HB-GF can regulate receptor binding of non-HB-GFs such as EGF even when the two proteins share no binding sites when other HB-GF are present within the network. Proliferation studies demonstrate potentiation of HB-EGF-induced growth by FGF-2 indicating that competition networks can alter biological response. Exogenous manipulation of cellular responses to growth factors in complex living systems will require understanding the HSPG-controlled network. PMID:18839312

  10. Staphylococcus aureus activation of caspase 1/calpain signaling mediates invasion through human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Soong, Grace; Chun, Jarin; Parker, Dane; Prince, Alice

    2012-05-15

    The USA300 strains of Staphylococcus aureus are the major cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the United States. Invasive USA300 infection has been attributed to several virulence factors, including protein A and the ?-hemolysin (Hla), which cause pathology by activating host signaling cascades. Here we show that S. aureus exploits the proinflammatory bias of human keratinocytes to activate pyroptosis, a caspase 1-dependent form of inflammatory cell death, which was required for staphylococci to penetrate across a keratinocyte barrier. Keratinocyte necrosis was mediated by calpains, Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases whose endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, is targeted by Hla-induced caspase 1. Neither Panton-Valentine leukocidin nor protein A expression was essential, but inhibition of either calpain or caspase 1 activity was sufficient to prevent staphylococcal invasion across the keratinocytes. These studies suggest that pharmacological interruption of specific keratinocyte signaling cascades as well as targeting the Hla might prevent invasive skin infection by staphylococci. PMID:22457275

  11. Extracellular matrix and growth factors in branching morphogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    The unifying hypothesis of the NSCORT in gravitational biology postulates that the ECM and growth factors are key interrelated components of a macromolecular regulatory system. The ECM is known to be important in growth and branching morphogenesis of embryonic organs. Growth factors have been detected in the developing embryo, and often the pattern of localization is associated with areas undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Causal relationships between these components may be of fundamental importance in control of branching morphogenesis.

  12. Growth factor-eluting technologies for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Ethan; Holmes, Christina; Witham, Timothy; Grayson, Warren L

    2016-04-01

    Growth factors are essential orchestrators of the normal bone fracture healing response. For non-union defects, delivery of exogenous growth factors to the injured site significantly improves healing outcomes. However, current clinical methods for scaffold-based growth factor delivery are fairly rudimentary, and there is a need for greater spatial and temporal regulation to increase their in vivo efficacy. Various approaches used to provide spatiotemporal control of growth factor delivery from bone tissue engineering scaffolds include physical entrapment, chemical binding, surface modifications, biomineralization, micro- and nanoparticle encapsulation, and genetically engineered cells. Here, we provide a brief review of these technologies, describing the fundamental mechanisms used to regulate release kinetics. Examples of their use in pre-clinical studies are discussed, and their capacities to provide tunable, growth factor delivery are compared. These advanced scaffold systems have the potential to provide safer, more effective therapies for bone regeneration than the systems currently employed in the clinic. PMID:25967594

  13. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Secreted Angiogenic Mitogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, David W.; Cachianes, George; Kuang, Wun-Jing; Goeddel, David V.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    1989-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was purified from media conditioned by bovine pituitary folliculostellate cells (FC). VEGF is a heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. Complementary DNA clones for bovine and human VEGF were isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from FC and HL60 leukemia cells, respectively. These cDNAs encode hydrophilic proteins with sequences related to those of the A and B chains of platelet-derived growth factor. DNA sequencing suggests the existence of several molecular species of VEGF. VEGFs are secreted proteins, in contrast to other endothelial cell mitogens such as acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. Human 293 cells transfected with an expression vector containing a bovine or human VEGF cDNA insert secrete an endothelial cell mitogen that behaves like native VEGF.

  14. Abnormal growth factor and cytokine expression in Dupuytren's contracture.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, K S; Crossan, J F; Ralston, S H

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To analyse patterns of gene expression for peptide regulatory factors in patients with Dupuytren's contracture. METHODS--Tissue samples (palmer fascia) from 12 patients with Dupuytren's contracture and 12 controls were studied using the reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) technique. RESULTS--Tissue from patients with Dupuytren's contracture expressed a higher percentage of peptide regulatory factors than that of controls: interleukin-1 alpha (83% v 16%; p < 0.01); interleukin-1 beta (66% v 8%; p < 0.01); transforming growth factor beta (75% v 25%; p < 0.02); and basic fibroblast growth factor (66% v 25%; p < 0.05). Platelet derived growth factors alpha and beta were also expressed more commonly (66% v 33% and 25% v 16%, respectively), but these differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS--The increased prevalence of expression for the above mRNAs in Dupuytren's tissue is relevant as interleukin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta stimulate the growth of fibroblasts and transforming growth factor beta also enhances production of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins. Excessive local release of these peptide regulatory factors may have an important role in the pathogenesis of Dupuytren's contracture. Images PMID:8320323

  15. UV-A1 cytotoxicity and antioxidant defence in keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leccia, M T; Richard, M J; Joanny-Crisci, F; Beani, J C

    1998-01-01

    The levels of antioxidant molecules and lipid peroxidation, under basal conditions, were measured in normal, human cutaneous keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutases are significantly higher in normal keratinocytes compared to normal fibroblasts (respectively +248%, +193% and +155%). Under the same conditions, lipid peroxidation is significantly lower in basal keratinocytes compared to fibroblasts. UV-A1 cytotoxicity was investigated in both cutaneous cell types showing that diploid keratinocytes are more resistant to UV-A1 oxidative stress than fibroblasts (by a factor of around 8). We studied the same parameters in two keratinocyte cell lines, NCTC2544 and HaCaT cells, and in MRC5 fibroblasts. Antioxidant content and lipid peroxidation under basal conditions are quite different in these cell lines compared to those of the normal corresponding cells. Furthermore, NCTC2544 keratinocytes are more sensitive to UV-A1 radiation than normal keratinocytes whereas HaCaT keratinocytes are more resistant, and MRC5 fibroblasts are more resistant than normal cutaneous fibroblasts. These findings suggest that (i) cultured epidermal and dermal cells have different sensitivities to UV-A1 radiation that may be linked to different antioxidant capacities and (ii) cell line response to UV-A1 radiation may differ from that of normal cells. PMID:9854158

  16. Factors contributing to posttraumatic growth: a proposed structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Cadell, Susan; Regehr, Cheryl; Hemsworth, David

    2003-07-01

    With the current shift to include positive outcomes of trauma, this research was designed to explore factors that allow growth to occur. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model for understanding posttraumatic growth. A sample (N = 174) of bereaved HIV/AIDS caregivers completed questionnaires. Spirituality, social support, and stressors were found to have a positive relationship with growth. Facilitation of posttraumatic growth is crucial to all helping professions. PMID:12921208

  17. Material factors influencing metallic whisker growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodekohr, Chad L.

    Whiskering refers to the formation of slender, long, metallic filaments, much thinner than a human hair, that grow on a metallic thin film surface. They are readily observed for pure and alloyed zinc (Zn), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), indium (In), and tin (Sn) surfaces. The longest reported whisker length is 4.5 mm long but most high-aspect ratio whiskers range from 1-500 mum. The focus of this research is upon Sn whiskers. Sn whiskers pose serious reliability problems for the electronics industry and are known to be the source of failure in a wide range of electronic devices, such as nuclear power facilities, heart pacemakers, commercial satellites, aviation radar, telecommunication equipment, and desktop computers. The problem with whiskering has been recently exacerbated by the worldwide shift to lead (Pb) free electronics and the continuing reduction in electrical contact pitches. A thorough understanding of the growth mechanism of Sn whiskers is urgently needed. Currently, there is no universally accepted model that explains the broad range of observations on whiskering. The goals of this research are: (1) to develop a more detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms leading to the initiation and growth of Sn whiskers and (2) to outline reasonable mitigation strategies that could be followed to reduce or eliminate the problem of Sn whiskers. The major contributions of this work are: (1) A reliable method for growing Sn whiskers with predictable incubation times has been developed and tested. (2) A surface oxide is not necessary for whisker growth. (3) Intermetallic compounds (IMC) are not necessary for whisker growth. (4) Smoother, not rougher, substrate surfaces promote whisker growth. (5) Whiskers grow under both compressive and tensile thin film stress states. (6) Whisker growth increases with externally applied compression and tension forces. (7) Sn whiskers are composed of pure Sn except for the expected thin, native Sn oxide on their surface. (8) For Sn on brass, the atom feedstock for whiskers lies within the film exclusively; the brass substrate does not contribute to whisker production. (9) The volume of film consumed by a metallic whisker is a simple volumetric calculation. (10) There are likely to be multiple mechanisms of whisker growth depending on the substrate - thin film system. (11) In general, the thickness of a metallic film does not have an effect on whisker growth qualities.

  18. Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor stimulate clusterin gene expression in PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gutacker, C; Klock, G; Diel, P; Koch-Brandt, C

    1999-01-01

    Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is an extracellular glycoprotein that might exert functions in development, cell death and lipid transport. Clusterin gene expression is elevated at sites of tissue remodelling, such as differentiation and apoptosis; however, the signals responsible for this regulation have not been identified. We use here the clusterin gene as a model system to examine expression in PC12 cells under the control of differentiation and proliferation signals produced by nerve growth factor (NGF) and by epidermal growth factor (EGF) respectively. NGF induced clusterin mRNA, which preceded neurite outgrowth typical of neuronal differentiation. EGF also activated the clusterin mRNA, demonstrating that both proliferation and differentiation signals regulate the gene. To localize NGF- and EGF-responsive elements we isolated the clusterin promoter and tested it in PC12 cell transfections. A 2.5 kb promoter fragment and two 1.5 and 0.3 kb deletion mutants were inducible by NGF and EGF. The contribution to this response of a conserved activator protein 1 (AP-1) motif located in the 0.3 kb fragment was analysed by mutagenesis. The mutant promoter was not inducible by NGF or EGF, which identifies the AP-1 motif as an element responding to both factors. Binding studies with PC12 nuclear extracts showed that AP-1 binds to this sequence in the clusterin promoter. These findings suggest that NGF and EGF, which give differential gene regulation in PC12 cells, resulting in neuronal differentiation and proliferation respectively, use the common Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/AP-1 signalling pathway to activate clusterin expression. PMID:10215617

  19. EDUCATION AS A FACTOR IN ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACKERTICH, ALEX

    THE VALUE OF AN EDUCATION IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF AN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY (INDIA) WAS INVESTIGATED USING THE CASE STUDY APPROACH. DATA WERE GATHERED AT BOTH THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND VILLAGE LEVELS THROUGH INTERVIEWS WITH INDIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND FROM OFFICIAL GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CONCERNING THE NATION'S EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS, AS…

  20. Phenylpropanoic Acid: Growth Factor for Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hungate, R. E.; Stack, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    Phenylpropanoic acid accounted for part of the stimulatory effect of rumen fluid on the rate of growth and of cellulose digestion by cultures of Ruminococcus albus strain 8 grown on a chemically defined medium. As little as 3 ?M concentration gave maximum response. PMID:16346069

  1. Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-β1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-β1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-β1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-β1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. PMID:24105960

  2. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  3. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Robertson, L.W.; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA ; Ludewig, G.

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and telomerase activity was found in NFK. ► Increased intracellular superoxide levels and reduced cell growth was seen in both. ► PCB153 may damage telomerase expressing cells like stem cells.

  4. Transforming growth factor-alpha-induced transcriptional activation of the vascular permeability factor (VPF/VEGF) gene requires AP-2-dependent DNA binding and transactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Gille, J; Swerlick, R A; Caughman, S W

    1997-01-01

    The endothelial cell-specific mitogen vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) represents a central regulator of cutaneous angiogenesis. Increased VPF/VEGF expression has recently been reported in psoriatic skin and healing wounds, both conditions in which transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) and its ligand, the epidermal growth factor receptor, are markedly up-regulated. Since TGF alpha strongly induces VPF/VEGF synthesis in keratinocytes, TGF alpha-mediated VPF/VEGF expression is likely to play a significant role in the initiation and maintenance of increased vascular hyperpermeability and hyperproliferation in skin biology. The objectives of the present studies were to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for TGF alpha-induced transcriptional activation of the VPF/VEGF gene. We have identified a GC-rich TGF alpha-responsive region between -88 bp and -65 bp of the VPF/VEGF promoter that is necessary for constitutive and TGF alpha-inducible transcriptional activation. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, this region binds Sp1-dependent protein complexes constitutively and an additional TGF alpha-inducible protein complex that is distinct from Sp1 protein. Both AP-2 and Egr-1 transcription factors were detected as components of the TGF alpha-inducible protein complex in supershift EMSA studies. In co-transfection studies, an AP-2 but not an Egr-1 expression vector activated VPF/VEGF transcription, thus indicating that AP-2 protein is functionally important in TGF alpha-induced VPF/VEGF gene expression. By clarifying regulatory mechanisms that are critical for angiogenic processes in the skin, these studies may form the basis for new therapeutic strategies to modulate VPF/VEGF expression in cutaneous inflammation and wound healing. PMID:9049304

  5. Targeting the Insulin Growth Factor Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Arnaldez, Fernanda I.; Helman, Lee J.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The IGF axis is a tightly controlled endocrine system that regulates cell growth and development, known to have an important function in cancer biology. IGF1 and IGF2 can promote cancer growth in a GH-independent manner both through paracrine and autocrine secretion and can also confer resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Many alterations of this system have been found in neoplasias, including increased expression of ligands and receptors, loss of heterozigosity of the IGF2 locus and increased IGF1R gene copy number. The IGF1 network is an attractive candidate for targeted therapy, including receptor blockade with monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors of receptor downstream signaling. This article reviews the role of the IGF axis in the initiation and progression of cancer, and describes the recent advances in IGF inhibition as a therapeutic tool. PMID:22520978

  6. Keratinocytes synthesize and activate cortisol.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Nicola; Prime, Stephen S

    2011-06-01

    The bioavailability of circulating and/or endogenous hydrocortisone (cortisol) in epidermal cells is a key determinant in inflammatory disease and chronic wounds. It is not known, however, whether epidermal cells can regulate tissue cortisol and whether they are capable of producing endogenous glucocorticoids. In the present study, we show by microarray analysis that epidermal cells express mRNAs to all the major enzymes involved in the metabolic chain from cholesterol to cortisol, including cytocrome P450 chain, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD11Bs), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor (MC2R), and glucocorticoid receptor. The two enzymes mediating activation/deactivation of cortisone to cortisol, namely HSD11B1 and HSD11B2, were expressed at the protein level in cultured keratinocytes as well as human skin samples, as shown by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In functional assays, we show that keratinocytes are not only able to activate cortisone to cortisol in a HSD11B-dependent manner but also silencing of either HSD11B1 or HSD11B2 specifically modulates the bioavailability of the inactive glucocorticoid and the active steroid, respectively. A further key observation was that keratinocytes responded to stimulation with ACTH by a significant increase in the de novo synthesis of cortisol. Taken together, we provide evidence for a novel non-adrenal steroideal system in human keratinocytes. PMID:21344493

  7. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  8. Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ≈ 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

  9. Non-thermal Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  10. Non-thermal plasma activates human keratinocytes by stimulation of antioxidant and phase II pathways.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-03-13

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  11. The contribution of transforming growth factor-beta and epidermal growth factor signalling to airway remodelling in chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Boxall, C; Holgate, S T; Davies, D E

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is increasing in prevalence in the developing world, affecting approximately 10% of the world's population. It is characterised by chronic lung inflammation and airway remodelling associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, acute bronchial hyperresponsiveness to a variety of innocuous stimuli and a more rapid decline in lung function over time. Airway remodelling, involving proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells, particularly myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, is generally refractory to corticosteroids and makes a major contribution to disease chronicity. Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent profibrogenic factor whose expression is increased in the asthmatic airways and is a prime candidate for the initiation and persistence of airway remodelling in asthma. This review highlights the role of transforming growth factor-beta in the asthmatic lung, incorporating biosynthesis, signalling pathways and functional outcome. In vivo, however, it is the balance between transforming growth factor-beta and other growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor, which will determine the extent of fibrosis in the airways. A fuller comprehension of the actions of transforming growth factor-beta, and its interaction with other signalling pathways, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor signalling cascade, may enable development of therapies that control airway remodelling where there is an unmet clinical need. PMID:16387953

  12. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2012-04-24

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  13. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2009-10-06

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  14. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids. PMID:19152442

  15. Platelet-rich growth factor in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Uma Shanker; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Rakesh K.; Das, Somdipto; Singh, Nimisha; Singh, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich growth factor is an innovative regenerative therapy used to promote hard and soft tissue healing. It involves the application of autologous platelet-leukocyte-rich plasma containing growth factors and thrombin directly to the site of treatment. It is the intrinsic growth factors released by activated platelets which are concentrated in a topical gel formula. Clinically, it is an affordable treatment with potentially broad spectrum of applications in maxillofacial surgery especially in the treatment of complex or refractory wounds. The present article reviews its various applications not only in the specialization of oral and maxillofacial surgery but also in regenerative medicine. PMID:23833484

  16. Guanine is a growth factor for Legionella species.

    PubMed Central

    Pine, L; Franzus, M J; Malcolm, G B

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of previously described chemically defined media for the growth of Legionella pneumophila showed that these media supported poor growth of several strains of L. pneumophila and did not support growth of certain of the Legionella species described later. Growth was stimulated by the dialysate from yeast extract but not by the nondialyzable fraction. Further investigations indicated that the active factors from the yeast extract dialysate were purine or pyrimidine derivatives, and certain known purines and pyrimidines were found to stimulate growth. Of these, guanine universally stimulated growth of all Legionella strains and was a growth requirement for several of the species tested. A balanced, N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid-buffered, chemically defined medium having guanine or a purine-pyrimidine mix is presented for the general growth of Legionella species. PMID:3700600

  17. The Antipsoriatic Agent Monomethylfumarate Has Antiproliferative, Prodifferentiative, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Helwa, Inas; Patel, Ravi; Karempelis, Peter; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Choudhary, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Monomethylfumarate (MMF) is thought to be the bioactive ingredient of the drug Fumaderm (Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA), licensed in Germany since 1994 for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Psoriasis is a common inflammatory hyperproliferative skin disorder that involves cross-talk between different cell types, including immune cells and keratinocytes. Psoriatic lesions are characterized by hyperproliferation, aberrant differentiation, and inflammation, with the psoriatic cytokine network maintained by communication between immune cells and keratinocytes. Recently, there is increasing evidence regarding the pivotal role of keratinocytes in mediating the disease process, and these cells can be regarded as safe therapeutic targets. From the data available on human subjects treated with Fumaderm, MMF is an effective antipsoriatic agent with known effects on immune cells. However, little is known about its direct effects on keratinocytes. We hypothesized that MMF has direct antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, and anti-inflammatory effects on keratinocytes. Indeed, MMF dose-dependently inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, indicating a direct antiproliferative action on keratinocytes. MMF significantly increased the protein level of keratin 10, the early keratinocyte differentiation marker, and the activity of transglutaminase, a late differentiation marker. These results are consistent with an ability of MMF to promote keratinocyte differentiation and inhibit proliferation, thereby improving psoriatic lesions. In 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)–induced keratinocytes, MMF significantly inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1α as well as the production of TNFα. Our results support the notion that MMF has direct antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, and anti-inflammatory effects on keratinocytes, highlighting its potential use as a multifactorial antipsoriatic agent. PMID:25332455

  18. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Placental Growth Factor Heterodimer Levels in Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Procianoy, Renato S; Hentges, Cláudia R; Silveira, Rita C

    2016-04-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is associated with changes in pulmonary angiogenesis. However, the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor/placental growth factor (VEGF/PlGF) heterodimer, an antiangiogenic factor, remains unknown in this disease. Objective To compare VEGF/PlGF levels in preterm infants with and without BPD. Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Preterm neonates with birth weight <2,000 g and gestational age ≤34 weeks were included. Exclusion criteria were: neonates transferred from other institutions after 72 hours of life; death before blood collection; presence of major congenital malformations, inborn errors of metabolism, and early sepsis; and mothers with multiple pregnancies, TORCH infections, HIV infection, or autoimmune diseases. BPD was defined as the need for oxygen therapy for a period equal to or greater than 28 days, accompanied by radiographic changes compatible with the disease. Blood was collected from neonates in the first 72 hours of life. VEGF/PlGF levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The chi-square test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, analysis of variance, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Variables found to be significant in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. Results Seventy-three patients were included (19 with BPD, 43 without BPD, and 11 neonates who died in the first 28 days of life), with a mean (SD) gestational age of 30.32 (2.88) weeks and birth weight of 1,288 (462) g. Median VEGF/PlGF levels were higher in the groups with BPD and death in the first 28 days of life than in the group without BPD (16.46 [IQR, 12.19-44.57] and 20.64 [IQR, 13.39-50.22], respectively, vs. 9.14 [IQR, 0.02-20.64] pg/mL], p < 0.001). Higher VEGF/P1GF levels remained associated with BPD and death in the first 28 days of life in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Higher plasma VEGF/PlGF levels were found in preterm neonates with BPD and in those who died in the first 28 days of life, suggesting an important role of this substance in pulmonary vascular development. PMID:26529476

  19. Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor β1, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor by Silicone Gel Sheeting in Early-Stage Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaehoon; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scars and keloids are associated with abnormal levels of growth factors. Silicone gel sheets are effective in treating and preventing hypertrophic scars and keloids. There has been no report on the change in growth factors in the scar tissue following the use of silicone gel sheeting for scar prevention. A prospective controlled trial was performed to evaluate whether growth factors are altered by the application of a silicone gel sheet on a fresh surgical scar. Methods Four of seven enrolled patients completed the study. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were investigated immunohistochemically in biopsies taken from five scars at 4 months following surgery. Results In both the epidermis and the dermis, the expression of TGF-β1 (P=0.042 and P=0.042) and PDGF (P=0.043 and P=0.042) was significantly lower in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars. The expression of bFGF in the dermis was significantly higher in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars (P=0.042), but in the epidermis, the expression of bFGF showed no significant difference between the groups (P=0.655). Conclusions The levels of TGF-β1, PDGF, and bFGF are altered by the silicone gel sheet treatment, which might be one of the mechanisms of action in scar prevention. PMID:25606485

  20. Comparison of vascular growth factors in the murine brain reveals placenta growth factor as prime candidate for CNS revascularization.

    PubMed

    Gaál, Emília Ilona; Tammela, Tuomas; Anisimov, Andrey; Marbacher, Serge; Honkanen, Petri; Zarkada, Georgia; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Alitalo, Kari

    2013-08-01

    Vascular bypass procedures in the central nervous system (CNS) remain technically challenging, hindered by complications and often failing to prevent adverse outcome such as stroke. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for a safe and effective CNS revascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are promising candidates for revascularization; however, their effects appear to be tissue-specific and their potential in the CNS has not been fully explored. To test growth factors for angiogenesis in the CNS, we characterized the effects of endothelium-specific growth factors on the brain vasculature and parenchyma. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding the growth factors were injected transcranially to the frontoparietal cerebrum of mice. Angiogenesis, mural cell investment, leukocyte recruitment, vascular permeability, reactive gliosis and neuronal patterning were evaluated by 3-dimensional immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, optical projection tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Placenta growth factor (PlGF) stimulated robust angiogenesis and arteriogenesis without significant side effects, whereas VEGF and VEGF-C incited growth of aberrant vessels, severe edema, and inflammation. VEGF-B, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and a VEGF/angiopoietin-1 chimera had minimal effects on the brain vessels or parenchyma. Of the growth factors tested, PlGF emerged as the most efficient and safe angiogenic factor, hence making it a candidate for therapeutic CNS revascularization. PMID:23803710

  1. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E.

    2013-09-15

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-?. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-? treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-?-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer. - Highlights: Ski oncoprotein levels increase during progression of HPV16-transformed cells. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent. Ski knock-down in HPV16-transformed keratinocytes inhibited cell proliferation. Cervical cancer samples overexpress Ski.

  2. Improved production of recombinant fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7/KGF) from bacteria in high magnesium chloride.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongde; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Jones, Richard B; Jin, Chengliu; McKeehan, Wallace L

    2004-02-01

    Because of specificity for both heparin/heparan sulfate and the receptor complex on epithelial cells relative to other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologues, there is considerable interest in clinical and commercial applications of FGF7 (also called keratinocyte growth factor or KGF) that require large quantities at reasonable cost. Production of recombinant FGF7 from bacteria suffers from lower yields and recovery relative to FGF1 and FGF2. Fusion of FGF7 at the N-terminus with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) followed by removal of GST by proteolysis while bound to natural ligand heparin improved the intrinsically low yields from Escherichia coli hosts to 3.2 mg per liter per OD(600), which was still only 10% of that for FGF1. Yield of the GST-FGF7 fusion product was improved to about 17 mg per liter per OD(600) in strain BL21(DE3)pLysS by inclusion of 10-100mM magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) in the culture medium. This improved by about five times the yields of fully active 54ser-FGF7 after proteolytic excision of the GST portion from GST-FGF7 immobilized on heparin-Sepharose. This simple enhancement improves the cost-effectiveness of production of recombinant FGF7 in bacteria for clinical and commercial applications. PMID:14711521

  3. Comparison of the enzymatic and explant methods for the culture of keratinocytes isolated from human foreskin

    PubMed Central

    ORAZIZADEH, MAHMOUD; HASHEMITABAR, MAHMOUD; BAHRAMZADEH, SOMAYEH; DEHBASHI, FRESHTEH NEJAD; SAREMY, SADEGH

    2015-01-01

    Currently, culture and growth keratinocytes are important stages in achieving a reliable and reproducible skin tissue. In the present study, two different methods, enzymatic and explant methods, for keratinocytes isolation from human foreskin were compared. Foreskins were cut into 2–3 mm pieces and placed in trypsin at 4°C overnight for separation of the epidermis from the dermis. Subsequently, these samples were divided into two groups: i) Keratinocytes separated from the epidermis by trypsin and ii) by the explant method. These keratinocytes were divided into two groups: i) With no feeder layer and ii) onto a type I collagen scaffold. The cells were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and 4′,6-diamidine-2′-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. In the enzymatic treatment, after 7–10 days no attached cells were found in the cell culture dishes. In the explant method, keratinocytes were separated after ~24 h, attached rapidly and formed big colonies into a collagen scaffold. In the absence of a feeder layer, small colonies were developed with rapid loss of proliferation within 2–3 days. Keratinocytes showed positive immunoreactivity for the pan-cytokeratin marker and keratinocytes' nuclei were clearly observed. This method could be applied and developed as a component of skin substitutes to treat burns and wounds and also in laboratory testing. PMID:26137227

  4. Release kinetics of platelet-derived and plasma-derived growth factors from autologous plasma rich in growth factors.

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Orive, Gorka

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have evaluated the biological effects of platelet rich plasma reporting the final outcomes on cell and tissues. However, few studies have dealt with the kinetics of growth factor delivery by plasma rich in growth factors. Venous blood was obtained from three healthy volunteers and processed with PRGF-Endoret technology to prepare autologous plasma rich in growth factors. The gel-like fibrin scaffolds were then incubated in triplicate, in a cell culture medium to monitor the release of PDGF-AB, VEGF, HGF and IGF-I during 8 days of incubation. A leukocyte-platelet rich plasma was prepared employing the same technology and the concentrations of growth factors and interleukin-1β were determined after 24h of incubation. After each period, the medium was collected, fibrin clot was destroyed and the supernatants were stored at -80°C until analysis. The growth factor delivery is diffusion controlled with a rapid initial release by 30% of the bioactive content after 1h of incubation and a steady state release when almost 70% of the growth factor content has been delivered. Autologous fibrin matrix retained almost 30% of the amount of the growth factors after 8 days of incubation. The addition of leukocytes to the formula of platelet rich plasma did not increase the concentration of the growth factors, while it drastically increased the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Further studies employing an in vitro inflammatory model would be interesting to study the difference in growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines between leukocyte-free and leukocyte-rich platelet rich plasma. PMID:23722041

  5. Growth factors and vitamin E modify neuronal glutamate toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, D; Kimura, H; Maher, P

    1992-01-01

    The sympathetic nerve cell line PC-12 is killed by glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. Although glycine and the deletion of magnesium weakly potentiate glutamate toxicity and PC-12 cells express N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor mRNA, most toxicity is mediated by means of a mechanism independent of typical N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Glutamate toxicity is, however, greatly enhanced by prior exposure to nerve growth factor or basic fibroblast growth factor. Glutamate killing is blocked by epidermal growth factor and, to a lesser extent, by vitamin E. These observations show that synergistic interactions between growth factors and excitotoxic amino acids may play critical roles in the developing nervous system and that antioxidants attenuate this toxicity. Images PMID:1387712

  6. CRITICAL FACTORS CONTROLLING VEGETATION GROWTH ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study identifies some of the critical factors that affect tree and shrub growth on reclaimed sanitary landfill sites and determines which woody species are adaptable to the adverse growth conditions of such sites. Trees planted at the Edgeboro Landfill, East Brunswick, New J...

  7. Lysosomotropic amines inhibit mitogenesis induced by growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    King, A C; Hernaez-Davis, L; Cuatrecasas, P

    1981-01-01

    The stimulation of DNA synthesis by epidermal growth factor, insulin, and serum is inhibited by a variety of alkylamines when present for the duration of the stimulatory preincubation (20-24 hr). These results contradict an earlier report [Maxfield, F. R., Davies, P. J. A., Klempner, L., Willingham, M. C. & Pastan, I. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 5731-5735] and can be explained by differences in incubation conditions. The most straightforward interpretation of our results is that the mitogenic activities of growth factors are blocked by agents that inhibit the intracellular processing of hormone-receptor complexes. Therefore, the continued internalization and degradation of growth factors or their receptors within cells may play an important role in inducing mitogenesis in cultured human fibroblasts and may explain the prolonged requirement for epidermal growth factor in the culture medium (8 hr) to elicit a mitogenic response. We also found that bacitracin, a potent inhibitor of the enzyme transglutaminase, neither prevents receptor internalization or degradation in human fibroblasts nor inhibits the mitogenic activity of epidermal growth factor. These results suggest that transglutaminase activity may not be relevant to the mechanisms of growth-factor-induced receptor internalization or mitogenesis. PMID:6262764

  8. Activation of Nrf2 in keratinocytes causes chloracne (MADISH)-like skin disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Matthias; Willrodt, Ann-Helen; Kurinna, Svitlana; Link, Andrea S; Farwanah, Hany; Geusau, Alexandra; Gruber, Florian; Sorg, Olivier; Huebner, Aaron J; Roop, Dennis R; Sandhoff, Konrad; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Tschachler, Erwin; Schneider, Marlon R; Langbein, Lutz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Werner, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging. Upregulation of epigen, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi), and small proline-rich protein 2d (Sprr2d) in hair follicles was identified as the likely cause of infundibular acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cyst formation. These alterations were highly reminiscent to the phenotype of chloracne/“metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas” (MADISH) patients. Indeed, SLPI, SPRR2, and epigen were strongly expressed in cysts of MADISH patients and upregulated by dioxin in human keratinocytes in an NRF2-dependent manner. These results identify novel Nrf2 activities in the pilosebaceous unit and point to a role of NRF2 in MADISH pathogenesis. PMID:24503019

  9. Investigation of human embryonic stem cell-derived keratinocytes as an in vitro research model for mechanical stress dynamic response.

    PubMed

    Cherbuin, Thibaud; Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi; Toh, Wei Seong; Cao, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The epidermis is mainly composed of keratinocytes forming a protective barrier. It is perpetually subjected to mechanical stress and strain during development, homeostasis and disease. Perturbation of the normal strain with alteration of its biological response may lead to severe diseases such as psoriasis and epidermolysis bullosa. To date, most of the studies about skin response to mechanical stress used immortalized cell lines (i.e. HaCaT) or primary cells from donors, which suffer issues of limited physiological relevance and inter-donor variability. It is therefore necessary to develop a new human model for the study of normal skin physiology and response to mechanical stress. In this study, we investigated the use of keratinocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a reliable alternative model to HaCaT for study of the effects of mechanical tension. With comparison to HaCaT, hESC-derived keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) were exposed to up to 3 days of cyclic mechanical stress, and gene expression changes were analyzed. Dynamic expression of several key mechanical stress related-genes was studied at mRNA level using qPCR. The expression of matrix-metallopeptidase9 was studied at protein level using ELISA. The two cell types displayed similar gene expression kinetics for most of the genes including E-cadherin, cateninβ1, connexin43, desmoglein1, endothelin1, integrinα6, interleukinα1, keratin1, 6, and 10, keratinocyte growth-factor-receptor and lamininα5. Unlike HaCaT, hESC-Kert displayed early gene and protein expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 following mechanical stimulation, suggesting that these cells have remodeling capacity that resembles that of normal human skin. Our study confirmed the use of hESC-Kert as a good model for study of skin response to mechanical stress. PMID:25283762

  10. UVB activates ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways via reactive oxygen species in cultured keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Peus, D; Vasa, R A; Beyerle, A; Meves, A; Krautmacher, C; Pittelkow, M R

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that hydrogen peroxide is an important mediator of ultraviolet B induced phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human keratinocytes. Here we demonstrate that physiologic doses of ultraviolet B and hydrogen peroxide stimulate activation of two related but distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways: extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), as well as p38, the mammalian homolog of HOG1 in yeast which is a major kinase for a recently identified stress-induced signaling pathway. The time-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and p38 are distinct, and ultraviolet B-induced ERK1/2 activation is downregulated more rapidly than p38. Using dihydrorhodamine or Amplex as specific fluorescent dye probes, we show that ultraviolet B-induced peroxides can be inhibited by ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid strongly blocks ERK1/2 and p38 activation by ultraviolet B and hydrogen peroxide whereas pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and butyl hydroxyanisole are less effective. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate was unable to inhibit ultraviolet B-induced p38 activation. Cell death was increased after ultraviolet B when ERK1/2 activation was attenuated by the specific inhibitor PD098059. The distinct time courses and extents of activation and inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 indicate that these pathways are separate and regulated independently in keratinocytes. Specific types of reactive oxygen species induced by ultraviolet B as well as selective activation or inhibition of specific phosphatases may mediate these responses in keratinocytes. These findings demonstrate that reactive oxygen species are important multifunctional mediators of ultraviolet B-induced ERK1/2 and p38 signaling transduction pathways and suggest that ERK1/2 may play an important part in protecting keratinocytes from cell death following oxidative stress. PMID:10233767

  11. Role of VEGF Receptors in Normal and Psoriatic Human Keratinocytes: Evidence from Irradiation with Different UV Sources

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian-Wei; Wu, Xian-Jie; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Luo, Dan; Cai, Sui-Qing; Zheng, Min

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes angiogenesis and plays important roles both in physiological and pathological conditions. VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) are high-affinity receptors for VEGF and are originally considered specific to endothelial cells. We previously reported that VEGFRs were also constitutively expressed in normal human keratinocytes and overexpressed in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, UVB can activate VEGFRs in normal keratinocytes, and the activated VEGFR-2 signaling is involved in the pro-survival mechanism. Here, we show that VEGFRs were also upregulated and activated by UVA in normal human keratinocytes via PKC, and interestingly, both the activated VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 protected against UVA-induced cell death. As VEGFRs were over-expressed in psoriatic epidermis, we further investigated whether narrowband UVB (NB-UVB) phototherapy or topical halomethasone monohydrate 0.05% cream could affect their expression. Surprisingly, the over-expressed VEGFRs in psoriatic epidermis were significantly attenuated by both treatments. During NB-UVB therapy, VEGFRs declined first in the basal, and then gradually in the upper psoriatic epidermis. VEGFRs were activated in psoriatic epidermis, their activation was enhanced by NB-UVB, but turned undetectable after whole therapy. This process was quite different from that by halomethasone, in which VEGFRs and phospho-VEGFRs decreased in a gradual, homogeneous manner. Our findings further suggest that UV-induced activation of VEGFRs serves as a pro-survival signal for keratinocytes. In addition, VEGFRs may be involved in the pathological process of psoriasis, and UV phototherapy is effective for psoriasis by directly modulating the expression of VEGFRs. PMID:23383198

  12. Neutrophil biology and the next generation of myeloid growth factors.

    PubMed

    Dale, David C

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are the body's critical phagocytic cells for defense against bacterial and fungal infections; bone marrow must produce approximately 10 x 10(9) neutrophils/kg/d to maintain normal blood neutrophil counts. Production of neutrophils depends on myeloid growth factors, particularly granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). After the original phase of development, researchers modified these growth factors to increase their size and delay renal clearance, increase their biologic potency, and create unique molecules for business purposes. Pegylated G-CSF is a successful product of these efforts. Researchers have also tried to identify small molecules to serve as oral agents that mimic the parent molecules, but these programs have been less successful. In 2006, the European Medicines Agency established guidelines for the introduction of new biologic medicinal products claimed to be similar to reference products that had previously been granted marketing authorization in the European community, called bio-similars. Globally, new and copied versions of G-CSF and other myeloid growth factors are now appearing. Some properties of the myeloid growth factors are similar to other agents, offering opportunities for the development of alternative drugs and treatments. For example, recent research shows that hematopoietic progenitor cells can be mobilized with a chemokine receptor antagonist, chemotherapy, G-CSF, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Advances in neutrophil biology coupled with better understanding and development of myeloid growth factors offer great promise for improving the care of patients with cancer and many other disorders. PMID:19176209

  13. Growth factor-induced delayed early response genes.

    PubMed Central

    Lanahan, A; Williams, J B; Sanders, L K; Nathans, D

    1992-01-01

    Growth factors induce the sequential expression of cellular genes whose products are thought to mediate long-term responses to the growth factors. In mouse 3T3 fibroblastic cells, the first genes to be expressed (immediate-early genes) are activated within minutes after the addition of platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, or serum. By cDNA cloning, we have identified genes that are activated after a delay of a few hours and several hours prior to serum-induced DNA replication. Activation of these delayed early response genes requires new protein synthesis, presumably the synthesis of immediate-early transcription factors described previously. Partial or complete sequencing of 13 different delayed early cDNAs, representing about 40% of the 650 primary cDNA isolates, revealed that 8 were related to known gene sequences and 5 were not. Among the former are cDNAs encoding nonhistone chromosomal proteins [HMGI(Y) and HMGI-C], adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), a protein related to human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a protein of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) family homologous to the integral membrane protein of human erythrocytes, and cyclin CYL1. In 3T3 cells, the delayed early gene response to growth factors appears to be at least as complex as the immediate-early gene response previously described. Images PMID:1508193

  14. Cultivation and transplantation of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Terskikh, V V; Vasiliev, A V

    1999-01-01

    Transplantation of autologous cultured keratinocytes is the most advanced area of tissue engineering which has clinical application in restoration of skin lesions. In vitro, disaggregated keratinocytes undergo activation and after adhesion and histogenic aggregation form three-dimensional epithelial sheets suitable for grafting on prepared wounds that provide a reparative environment. Epidermal stem cells survive and proliferate in culture, retaining their potential to differentiate and to produce neoepidermis. Reconstructed skin is physiologically compatible to split-thickness autografts. Autotransplantation of cultured keratinocytes is a promising technique for gene therapy. In many cases allografting of cultured keratinocytes promotes wound healing by stimulation of epithelialization. Banking of cryopreserved keratinocytes is a significant improvement in usage of cultured keratinocytes for wound healing. Skin substitutes reconstructed in vitro that have morphological, biochemical, and functional features of the native tissue are of interest as model systems that enable extrapolation to situations in vivo. PMID:10208010

  15. Dental metal-induced innate reactivity in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Buskermolen, Jeroen K; Scheper, Rik J; Gibbs, Susan; von Blomberg, B Mary E; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2015-12-25

    Gold, nickel, copper and mercury, i.e. four metals frequently used in dental applications, were explored for their capacity to induce innate immune activation in keratinocytes (KC). Due to their anatomical location the latter epithelial cells are key in primary local irritative responses of skin and mucosa. Fresh foreskin-derived keratinocytes and skin and gingiva KC cell lines were studied for IL-8 release as a most sensitive parameter for NF-kB activation. First, we verified that viral-defense mediating TLR3 is a key innate immune receptor in both skin- and mucosa derived keratinocytes. Second, we found that, in line with our earlier finding that ionized gold can mimic viral dsRNA in triggering TLR3, gold is very effective in KC activation. It would appear that epithelial TLR3 can play a key role in both skin- and mucosa localized irritation reactivities to gold. Subsequently we found that not only gold, but also nickel, copper and mercury salts can activate innate immune reactivity in keratinocytes, although the pathways involved remain unclear. Although current alloys have been optimized for minimal leakage of metal ions, secondary factors such as mechanical friction and acidity may still facilitate such leakage. Subsequently, these metal ions may create local irritation, itching and swelling by triggering innate immune reactions, potentially also facilitating the development of metal specific adaptive immunity. PMID:26456670

  16. Plasma transforming growth factor beta1 as a biomarker of psoriasis activity and treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Flisiak, Iwona; Porebski, Piotr; Flisiak, Robert; Chodynicka, Bozena

    2003-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGFbeta(1)) is thought to be an inhibitor of the keratinocyte hyperproliferation associated with psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma TGFbeta(1) and TGFbeta(2) concentrations in psoriatic patients as possible indicators of treatment efficacy. TGFbeta concentrations were measured in the plasma of 26 patients with psoriasis using an enzyme immunoassay and analysed with respect to the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) before and after treatment with salicylic acid and/or sulphur followed by dithranol ointment. Baseline plasma concentrations of both TGFbeta(1) and TGFbeta(2) (20.3+/-2.2 ng ml(-1) and 0.14+/-0.02 ng ml(-1), respectively) did not differ significantly from control values (18.3+/-1.6 ng ml(-1) and 0.14+/-0.03 ng ml(-1), respectively). However, a significant positive correlation (r=0.69) between the baseline PASI and TGFbeta(1), but not TGFbeta(2), values was demonstrated. The pretreatment TGFbeta(1) concentration in patients with a PASI >/=15 (26.6+/-3.2 ng ml(-1)) was significantly higher than control values. There were no significant elevation of pretreatment TGFbeta(1) concentrations in patients with a PASI<15, or with respect to TGFbeta(2) in both groups. Treatment caused a significant decrease in TGFbeta(1), but only in patients with a PASI>/=15. Patients with baseline TGFbeta(1) concentrations exceeding the mean of the control group had a PASI value that was significantly higher than that of patients with a TGFbeta(1) concentration below the mean of the controls. These results confirmed an association between plasma TGFbeta(1) concentration and psoriasis severity, and demonstrated its normalization during treatment. Measurement of TGFbeta(1) in plasma should be considered as a possible biomarker of psoriasis activity during its management. PMID:14602527

  17. Tumor-necrosis-factor-induced fibroblast growth factor-1 acts as a survival factor in a transformed endothelial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Maier, J. A.; Morelli, D.; Ménard, S.; Colnaghi, M. I.; Balsari, A.

    1996-01-01

    Endothelial cells undergo apoptosis after withdrawal of growth factors, alterations in the extracellular matrix, or exposure to cytokines. Here we report that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces apoptosis of human endothelial cells derived from the umbilical vein in a dose-dependent fashion. Apoptosis is triggered through a pathway that is independent from the levels of Bcl-2. On the contrary, TNF stimulates the growth of spontaneously transformed human umbilical vein endothelial cells. This proliferative effect is mediated through the up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor-1 by TNF. The addition of specific fibroblast growth factor-1 antisense oligonucleotides inhibits TNF-induced fibroblast growth factor-1 expression, thus inhibiting the growth and triggering apoptosis of spontaneously transformed human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8780398

  18. Growth factors in the management of adult acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, S H

    1993-02-01

    This review has explored the various ways that growth factors may be used in the management of adult acute leukemia. Growth factors have the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of both induction and postremission therapy by enhancing hematopoietic recovery or, when used as an adjunct to standard antimicrobial therapy, reducing the infectious complications of chemotherapy. In addition, they may have favorable effects on the biology of leukemia either by recruitment of leukemic progenitors into cycle, rendering them more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy, or by inducing the terminal differentiation of the leukemic clone. Finally, disruption of aberrant growth factor networks, thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of leukemia, may be a therapeutic strategy now that soluble receptors and receptor antagonists to such growth factors as IL-1 are available. Whether growth factors used in such ways will have beneficial, or in fact adverse, effects on the treatment outcome for acute leukemia is not yet known. As such, the use of growth factors in the management of adults with acute leukemia is still experimental and needs to be studied in the context of clinical trials. Perhaps the ultimate benefit to be derived from the study of these growth factors will be a deeper understanding of the genetic perturbations that define the leukemic state. The development of molecular therapeutic techniques, such as gene transfer technology and the use of antisense oligonucleotides, has paralleled our increasing knowledge of cytokines. The hope is that as we come to understand leukemia at the molecular level, we will be able to develop the new therapeutic tools necessary to increase the numbers of patients cured. PMID:8449861

  19. An opioid growth factor regulates the replication of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zagon, I S; McLaughlin, P J

    1992-01-01

    An opioid growth factor (OGF), [Met5]-enkephalin, interacts with the zeta (zeta) opioid receptor to modulate development of eukaryotes. We have found that [Met5]-enkephalin, an endogenous opioid peptide serves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. This effect on growth involves cell proliferative events and is under tonic control, since potent opioid antagonists accelerate cell replication. Both the OGF and zeta opioid receptor were associated with these microorganisms. Other opioid receptors (mu, delta and kappa) were not detected. OGF also controlled the growth of other bacteria: P. aeruginosa and S. marcesans. These results indicate that OGF and its receptor, known to be important in the regulation of mammalian development, also function in the growth of simple unicellular organisms. We suggest that the endogenous opioid system related to growth originated billions of years ago. PMID:1313136

  20. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in human fetal growth cartilage.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ramirez, M; Toran, N; Andaluz, P; Carrascosa, A; Audi, L

    2000-03-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial event in endochondral ossification. Chemoattractants and mitogens for endothelial cells (such as basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-beta]), which act as local regulators of the process, are synthesized by chondrocytes under several stimuli and in relation to the differentiation stage of the cartilage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a 44-kDa protein well known as a potent angiogenic molecule owing to its mitogenic and permeability-causing properties. In this work, VEGF was located by immunohistochemistry in growth plate cartilage of human fetuses (20-22 weeks old) and its expression was demonstrated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Primary culture of human fetal epiphyseal chondrocytes (HFEC) maintained VEGF expression at protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and this expression was stimulated by cartilage-promoting growth factors incorporated into the culture media (rFGF-b, rTGF-beta1, and insulin-like growth factor [rFGF-b] at 50 ng/ml). The conditioned medium (CM) of HFEC stimulated the proliferation of endothelial cells, and this was partially blocked by anti-VEGF antibody. These studies showed VEGF production by chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth cartilage and suggested a role of this factor in cartilage physiology and the angiogenic process. PMID:10750568

  2. Hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor activator and arginine in a rat fulminant colitis model

    PubMed Central

    Zwintscher, Nathan P.; Shah, Puja M.; Salgar, Shashikumar K.; Newton, Christopher R.; Maykel, Justin A.; Samy, Ahmed; Jabir, Murad; Steele, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used to induce a murine fulminant colitis model. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to decrease the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the effect of its activator, HGFA, is not well characterized. Arginine reduces effects of oxidative stress but its effect on IBD is not well known. The primary aim is to determine whether HGF and HGFA, or arginine will decrease IBD symptoms such as pain and diarrhea in a DSS-induced fulminant colitis murine model. Methods A severe colitis was induced in young, male Fischer 344 rats with 4% (w/v) DSS oral solution for seven days; rats were sacrificed on day 10. Rats were divided into five groups of 8 animals: control, HGF (700 mcg/kg/dose), HGF and HGFA (10 mcg/dose), HGF and arginine, and high dose HGF (2800 mcg/kg/dose). Main clinical outcomes were pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Blinded pathologists scored the terminal ileum and distal colon. Results DSS reliably induced severe active colitis in 90% of animals (n = 36/40). There were no differences in injury scores between control and treatment animals. HGF led to 1.38 fewer days in pain (p = 0.036), while arginine led to 1.88 fewer days of diarrhea (P = 0.017) compared to controls. 88% of HGFA-treated rats started regaining weight (P < 0.001). Discussion/Conclusion Although treatment was unable to reverse fulminant disease, HGF and arginine were associated with decreased days of pain and diarrhea. These clinical interventions may reduce associated symptoms for severe IBD patients, even when urgent surgical intervention remains the only viable option. PMID:27144006

  3. Tumour endothelial marker-8 in wound healing and its impact on the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHEILA C.; YE, LIN; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; RUGE, FIONA; HARDING, KEITH G.; JIANG, WEN G.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wound management represents a significant burden on healthcare systems and negatively impacts on the quality of patient life. New strategies to understand and identify wounds that will not heal in a normal manner are required. Tumour endothelial marker-8 (TEM-8) has been implicated in the wound healing and angiogenesis processes. TEM-8 expression was examined at the transcript level in a cohort of acute (n=10) and chronic (n=14) wounds and in normal skin (n=10). Protein analysis of TEM-8 was also undertaken for this cohort using immunohistochemistry (IHC). TEM-8 impact on keratinocyte cell growth and migration was assessed following TEM-8 ribozyme transgene transfection of human HaCaT keratinocytes using cell growth and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS)-based assays. Expression of TEM-8 was observed to be increased in acute wounds compared to chronic wounds and normal skin using quantitative polymerase chain reaction transcript analysis and IHC staining of wound tissues. Knockdown of TEM-8 in HaCaT cells, using two independent ribozyme transgenes, resulted in significant decreases in cell growth as well as reductions in the rate of migration assessed using an ECIS-based system. TEM-8 may be differentially expressed between wound types and loss of this molecule impacts HaCaT growth and migration, potentially implicating this molecule as a factor involved in successful progression of wound healing. PMID:26677171

  4. Endothelin-1 is a transcriptional target of p53 in epidermal keratinocytes and regulates ultraviolet-induced melanocyte homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hyter, Stephen; Coleman, Daniel J; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Merrill, Gary F; Ma, Steven; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Indra, Arup K

    2013-03-01

    Keratinocytes contribute to melanocyte activity by influencing their microenvironment, in part, through secretion of paracrine factors. Here, we discovered that p53 directly regulates Edn1 expression in epidermal keratinocytes and controls UV-induced melanocyte homeostasis. Selective ablation of endothelin-1 (EDN1) in murine epidermis (EDN1(ep-/-) ) does not alter melanocyte homeostasis in newborn skin but decreases dermal melanocytes in adult skin. Results showed that keratinocytic EDN1 in a non-cell autonomous manner controls melanocyte proliferation, migration, DNA damage, and apoptosis after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Expression of other keratinocyte-derived paracrine factors did not compensate for the loss of EDN1. Topical treatment with EDN1 receptor (EDNRB) antagonist BQ788 abrogated UV-induced melanocyte activation and recapitulated the phenotype seen in EDN1(ep-/-) mice. Altogether, the present studies establish an essential role of EDN1 in epidermal keratinocytes to mediate UV-induced melanocyte homeostasis in vivo. PMID:23279852

  5. Immunohistochemical demonstration of nerve growth factor receptor in bovine testis.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, K H; Bickel, D; Schimmel, M; Kujat, R

    1996-08-01

    Nerve growth factor receptor (low-affinity form) was demonstrated immunohistochemically in bovine testis by using a monoclonal mouse anti-human antibody. In the 7-month-old fetus and in the early postnatal testis, the peritubular and intertubular fibroblast-like mesenchymal cells showed a strong reaction. Following differentiation of these cells into Leydig and myoid peritubular cells, the nerve growth factor receptor was no longer expressed. However, peritubular and intertubular testicular fibroblasts/fibrocytes, which are also derived from mesenchymal precursors, remained positive. Additionally, the nerve growth factor receptor was demonstrated in postnatal prespermatogonia, A-spermatogonia, I-spermatogonia and members of the spermatogonia precursor cell line; B-spermatogonia remained negative. In A-spermatogonia and I-spermatogonia, the expression of the nerve growth factor receptor was cell-cycle-dependent and was mostly observed during G1-phase. Pre-embedding ultrahistochemistry with gold-conjugated antibody followed by silver-enhancement revealed that the nerve growth factor receptor was localized at the outer cell surface. The metal granules showed a regular distribution in positive spermatogonia. In testicular fibroblasts/fibrocytes the long narrow processes were preferentially decorated. PMID:8766155

  6. Beclin 1 regulates growth factor receptor signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, R A; Janusis, J; Leonard, D; Bellvé, K D; Fogarty, K E; Baehrecke, E H; Corvera, S; Shaw, L M

    2015-10-16

    Beclin 1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that is decreased in many human tumors. The function of beclin 1 in cancer has been attributed primarily to its role in the degradative process of macroautophagy. However, beclin 1 is a core component of the vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34)/class III phosphatidylinositoI-3 kinase (PI3KC3) and Vps15/p150 complex that regulates multiple membrane-trafficking events. In the current study, we describe an alternative mechanism of action for beclin 1 in breast cancer involving its control of growth factor receptor signaling. We identify a specific stage of early endosome maturation that is regulated by beclin 1, the transition of APPL1-containing phosphatidyIinositol 3-phosphate-negative (PI3P(-)) endosomes to PI3P(+) endosomes. Beclin 1 regulates PI3P production in response to growth factor stimulation to control the residency time of growth factor receptors in the PI3P(-)/APPL(+)-signaling-competent compartment. As a result, suppression of BECN1 sustains growth factor-stimulated AKT and ERK activation resulting in increased breast carcinoma cell invasion. In human breast tumors, beclin 1 expression is inversely correlated with AKT and ERK phosphorylation. Our data identify a novel role for beclin 1 in regulating growth factor signaling and reveal a mechanism by which loss of beclin 1 expression would enhance breast cancer progression. PMID:25639875

  7. Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Gaber, M. Waleed

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-{gamma}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-{alpha}) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and tumor control.

  8. The Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Gene Therapy and Cell Transplantation on Rat Acute Wound Model

    PubMed Central

    Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Fadaei Fathabadi, Fatemeh; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz; Piryae, Abbas; Ghasemi, Azar; Khalilian, Alireza; Yeganeh, Farshid; Mosaffa, Nariman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wound healing is a complex process. Different types of skin cells, extracellular matrix and variety of growth factors are involved in wound healing. The use of recombinant growth factors in researches and production of skin substitutes are still a challenge. Objectives: Much research has been done on the effects of gene therapy and cell therapy on wound healing. In this experimental study, the effect of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene transfer in fibroblast cells was assessed on acute dermal wound healing. Materials and Methods: Fibroblasts were cultured and transfected with IGF-1. Lipofectamine 2000 was used as a reagent of transfection. Transgene expression levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To study in vivo, rats (weighing 170-200 g) were randomly divided into three groups (five/group) and full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum region. Suspensions of transfected fibroblast cells were injected into the wound and were compared with wounds treated with native fibroblast cells and normal saline. For the microscopic examination, biopsy was performed on day seven. Results: In vitro, the maximum expression of IGF1 (96.95 pg/mL) in transfected fibroblast cells was 24 hours after gene transfer. In vivo, it was clear that IGF-1 gene therapy caused an increase in the number of keratinocyte cells during the wound healing process (mean of group A vs. group B with P value = 0.01, mean of group A vs. group C with P value = 0.000). Granulation of tissue formation in the transfected fibroblast group was more organized when compared with the normal saline group and native fibroblast cells. Conclusions: This study indicated that the optimization of gene transfer increases the expression of IGF-1. High concentrations of IGF-1, in combination with cell therapy, have a significant effect on wound healing. PMID:25558384

  9. Substrate Stiffness Affects Human Keratinocyte Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zarkoob, Hoda; Bodduluri, Sandeep; Ponnaluri, Sailahari V.; Selby, John C.; Sander, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of epidermal organization and function in response to a variety of pathophysiological insults is critically dependent on coordinated keratinocyte migration, proliferation, and stratification during the process of wound healing. These processes are mediated by the reconfiguration of both cell-cell (desmosomes, adherens junctions) and cell-matrix (focal adhesions, hemidesmosomes) junctions and the cytoskeletal filament networks that they serve to interconnect. In this study, we investigated the role of substrate elasticity (stiffness) on keratinocyte colony formation in vitro during the process of nascent epithelial sheet formation as triggered by the calcium switch model of keratinocyte culture. Keratinocytes cultured on pepsin digested type I collagen coated soft (nominal E = 1.2 kPa) polyacrylamide gels embedded with fluorescent microspheres exhibited (i) smaller spread contact areas, (ii) increased migration velocities, and (iii) increased rates of colony formation with more cells per colony than did keratinocytes cultured on stiff (nominal E = 24 kPa) polyacrylamide gels. As assessed by tracking of embedded microsphere displacements, keratinocytes cultured on soft substrates generated large local substrate deformations that appeared to recruit adjacent keratinocytes into joining an evolving colony. Together with the observed differences in keratinocyte kinematics and substrate deformations, we developed two ad hoc analyses, termed distance rank (DR) and radius of cooperativity (RC), that help to objectively ascribe what we perceive as increasingly cooperative behavior of keratinocytes cultured on soft versus stiff gels during the process of colony formation. We hypothesize that the differences in keratinocyte colony formation observed in our experiments could be due to cell-cell mechanical signaling generated via local substrate deformations that appear to be correlated with the increased expression of β4 integrin within keratinocytes positioned along the periphery of an evolving cell colony. PMID:26019727

  10. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Babitha, V; Verma, M R; Bag, S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal (24, 48, and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (0, 5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and EGF) in vitro expression and secretion patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in luteal cell culture during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes. Corpus luteum samples from ovaries of early luteal phase (ELP; Days 1-4), midluteal phase (Days 5-10), and late luteal phase (Days 11-16) were collected from a local slaughterhouse. The samples were then processed and cultured in (serum containing) appropriate cell culture medium and incubated separately with three factors (LH, IGF-1, or EGF) at the previously mentioned three dose-duration combinations. At the end of the respective incubation periods, VEGF was assayed in the spent culture medium by ELISA, whereas the cultured cells were used for VEGF mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study disclosed dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effects of LH, IGF-1, and EGF on VEGF production in bubaline luteal cells. The VEGF expression and secretion from the cultured luteal cells were highest during the ELP, intermediate in the midluteal phase, and lowest in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle for all the three tested factors. Comparison of the results of the three treatments depicted EGF as the most potent stimulating factor followed by IGF-1 and LH. Immunocytochemistry findings in luteal cell culture of ELP agreed with the VEGF expression and secretion. In conclusion, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and immunolocalization of VEGF data clearly indicated for the first time that LH, IGF-1, and EGF play an important role in stimulating luteal angiogenesis in buffalo CL. The highest expression and secretion of VEGF in the ELP might be associated with the development of blood vessels in early growth of CL, which in turn gets augmented by the aforementioned factors emphasizing their regulatory role in luteal angiogenesis. Further studies are however necessary to divulge more information on other factors which regulate VEGF secretion in bubaline CL and the synergistic effects existing among such growth factors. PMID:26242566

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor GM 6001 attenuates keratinocyte migration, contraction and myofibroblast formation in skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Haaksma, Carol J; Tomasek, James J; Agren, Magnus S

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) on epithelialization, granulation tissue development, wound contraction, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) expression during cutaneous wound repair through systemic administration of the synthetic broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM 6001 (N-[(2R)-2-(hydroxamidocarbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl]-L-tryptophan methylamide). Four full-thickness excisional wounds (50 mm2) on the back of 22 young female Sprague-Dawley rats, 12 treated with GM 6001 100 mg/kg and 10 with vehicle, were allowed to heal by secondary intention. GM 6001-treated wounds were minimally resurfaced with neoepithelium, despite unaltered keratinocyte proliferation in wound edges, whereas control wounds were completely covered with 3-7 cell layers of parakeratinized epithelium on post-wounding day 7. Hydroxyproline concentration, a marker of collagen, and cell proliferation in granulation tissue did not differ significantly between GM 6001-treated and control groups. Impaired wound contraction (P < 0.01) was associated with a dramatic reduction of ASMA-positive myofibroblasts in granulation tissue of GM 6001 wounds. This was not due to GM6001 blocking transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced myofibroblast differentiation since GM 6001 did not inhibit TGF-beta1-induced ASMA expression and force generation in cultured rat dermal fibroblasts. The profound impairment of skin repair by the nonselective MMP inhibitor GM 6001 suggests that keratinocyte resurfacing, wound contraction, and granulation tissue organization are highly MMP-dependent processes. PMID:15350544

  12. Effects of Growth Factors on Dental Stem/ProgenitorCells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sahng G.; Solomon, Charles; Zheng, Ying; Suzuki, Takahiro; Mo, Chen; Song, Songhee; Jiang, Nan; Cho, Shoko; Zhou, Jian; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The primary goal of regenerative endodontics is to restore the vitality and functions of the dentin-pulp complex, as opposed to filing of the root canal with bioinert materials. Structural restoration is also important but is likely secondary to vitality and functions. Myriads growth factors regulate multiple cellular functions including migration, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of several cell types that are intimately involved in dentin-pulp regeneration: odontoblasts, interstitial fibroblasts, vascular-endothelial cells and sprouting nerve fibers. Recent work showing that growth factor delivery, without cell transplantation, can yield pulp-dentin like tissues in vivo provides one of the tangible pathways for regenerative endodontics. This review synthesizes our knowledge on a multitude of growth factors that are known or anticipated to be efficacious in dental pulp-dentin regeneration. PMID:22835538

  13. Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerman, D.; Taylor, S.; Kirschenbaum, I.; Klagsbrun, M.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Thomas, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint.

  14. Partial purification and characterization of a growth factor present in goat's colostrum. Similarities with platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed

    Brown, K D; Blakeley, D M

    1984-04-15

    A factor in goat's colostrum which stimulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts has been purified approx. 350-fold by a sequence of acid precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The growth factor is a highly basic, heat stable (100 degrees C for 5 min) polypeptide with Mr approx. 35000. The polypeptide resists denaturation by guanidinium chloride or urea but is totally inactivated by treatment with reducing agents. The factor, which we have termed colostric basic growth factor ( CBGF ), inhibits the binding of 125I-labelled epidermal growth factor (125I-EGF) to Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts but does not inhibit 125I-EGF binding to epidermoid A431 cells. CBGF interacts synergistically with plasma in stimulating DNA synthesis in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. The chemical and biological properties of CBGF are thus very similar to the properties reported for the human platelet-derived growth factor. Although high concentrations of CBGF are present in the colostrum of goats, cows, and sheep, the milk of these species contains little or no factor. The origin and possible functions of CBGF are unknown. PMID:6378177

  15. Cultured human foreskin fibroblasts produce a factor that stimulates their growth with properties similar to basic fibroblast growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Story, M.T. )

    1989-05-01

    To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue.

  16. Expression and localization of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α and epidermal growth factor receptor in the canine testis

    PubMed Central

    TAMADA, Hiromichi; TAKEMOTO, Kohei; TOMINAGA, Masato; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; HATOYA, Shingo; MATSUYAMA, Satoshi; INABA, Toshio; SAWADA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and EGF receptor (EGF-R) and the localization of the corresponding proteins in the canine testis were studied. Levels of mRNA expressions were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the testes of the peripubertal (4–6 months), young adult (3–4 years), advanced adult (7–8 years) and senescent (11–16 years) groups. The EGF-R mRNA level in the testes of the peripubertal group was significantly higher than those in the other groups, whereas there was no difference in EGF and TGF-α mRNA levels among groups. Immunohistochemical stainings for EGF, TGF-α and EGF-R in the testis revealed that immunoreactivity in the seminiferous epithelium and Sertoli cell was weak and nonspecific for the stage of spermatogenesis, and distinct staining was found in Leydig cells. These results suggest that the EGF family of growth factors may be involved in testicular maturation and function in the dog. PMID:26498203

  17. Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-β1 expression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Jamil; Sung, Chang Keun

    2015-02-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E. alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E. alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E. alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-β1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E. alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia. PMID:25484129

  18. A high yield method for growing primary canine keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adrian; Baker, Claire; Bailey, Julie; Fray, Tim; Markwell, Peter

    2004-07-01

    From a small amount of starting material, a large quantity of canine keratinocytes can be generated for experimental purposes using a refined method of explant culture to initiate the growth of basal cells with a high proliferative potential. The dividing capacity of cultures was promoted by a system selecting clonogenic cells onto an i3T3 feeder layer in combination with carefully monitoring cell morphology and passaging to select out excessive numbers of differentiated keratinocytes. Levels of contaminating dermal fibroblasts, which if left unchecked will overgrow keratinocytes, were kept to a minimum by a combination of careful explant micro-dissection to remove dermis, eliminating explants with signs of fibroblast growth as well as using cholera toxin, EGF and i3T3 feeder layers. The advantage of the method described is that it does not rely on the provision of large quantities of starting material thereby reducing the need for repeated tissue sampling, and passage numbers of five or six can be routinely achieved. This technique can therefore be useful to experimenters who require a regular and reliable source of cells for their studies. PMID:15158212

  19. Epidermal growth factor in synaptosomal fractions of mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, J; Weichsel, M E; Fisher, D A

    1986-04-01

    Using a specific and sensitive epidermal growth factor radioimmunoassay (EGF-RIA) we measured EGF concentrations in whole brain, cerebral cortex, and cerebral cortical synaptosomal (pinched-off presynaptic nerve terminals) fractions of 26-day-old mouse brain. The relative EGF concentration in synaptosomal fractions was significantly greater than the growth factor concentrations in whole brain or cerebral cortex. Intracerebral injection, in an amount of EGF, several-fold greater than whole brain EGF content, did not appreciably increase synaptosomal EGF concentration, suggesting that no artifact was involved. The high synaptosomal EGF content suggests a neurotransmitter or a neuromodulator role for EGF in the CNS. PMID:3485181

  20. [Cytokinetics and keratins of keratinocytes from skin of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wevers, A; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1989-11-15

    Regarding the keratin pattern of non-exposed skin, we found no significant qualitative or quantitative differences between 6 old persons (mean age 85 years) and 4 young adults (mean age 20 years). There was, however, a slight increase of proliferation keratins (K6, K16) in aged skin. In non-exposed skin taken from 6 old (mean age 70 years) and 5 young persons (mean age 37 years), longterm primary submersion cultures of keratinocytes did not show any significant differences as far as the classical parameters of growth behavior were concerned (i.e. plating efficiency, cell count, and labeled thymidine incorporation). In accordance with these findings, daily measurements of the thymidine kinase activity in the supernatants revealed discrete but not significant differences between keratinocytes in aged people and those in young persons. PMID:2481907

  1. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  2. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-β family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-β, and third IGF-I. TGF-β enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-β affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-β mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-β and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  3. Binding, sequestration, and processing of epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor by PC12 cells. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, C.E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1983-03-01

    Th rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line exhibits biological responses to both nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The existence of receptors and biological responses on a common cell for these two well-characterized polypeptide growth factors makes this an attractive system for comparison of ligand binding and processing. Both NGF and EGF are bound to PC12 cells in a competable form at 4/sup 0/C. At 37/sup 0/C both ligands are ''sequestered,'' but at different rates and to different extents. While sequestration happens rapidly and nearly quantitatively for bound EGF, the dissociation reaction appears to compete favorably with NFG sequestration. Both EGF and NGF are degraded by PC12 cells. Sequestered EGF, however, is degraded to a greater extent than sequestered NGF.

  4. Ligand Targeting of EphA2 Enhances Keratinocyte Adhesion and Differentiation via Desmoglein 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Samantha; Gordon, Kristin; Kaplan, Nihal

    2010-01-01

    EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is engaged and activated by membrane-linked ephrin-A ligands residing on adjacent cell surfaces. Ligand targeting of EphA2 has been implicated in epithelial growth regulation by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2)-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Although contact-dependent EphA2 activation was required for dampening Erk1/2-MAPK signaling after a calcium switch in primary human epidermal keratinocytes, the loss of this receptor did not prevent exit from the cell cycle. Incubating keratinocytes with a soluble ephrin-A1-Fc peptide mimetic to target EphA2 further increased receptor activation leading to its down-regulation. Moreover, soluble ligand targeting of EphA2 restricted the lateral expansion of epidermal cell colonies without limiting proliferation in these primary cultures. Rather, ephrin-A1-Fc peptide treatment promoted epidermal cell colony compaction and stratification in a manner that was associated with increased keratinocyte differentiation. The ligand-dependent increase in keratinocyte adhesion and differentiation relied largely upon the up-regulation of desmoglein 1, a desmosomal cadherin that maintains the integrity and differentiated state of suprabasal keratinocytes in the epidermis. These data suggest that keratinocytes expressing EphA2 in the basal layer may respond to ephrin-A1–based cues from their neighbors to facilitate entry into a terminal differentiation pathway. PMID:20861311

  5. Growth suppressing factor for endothelial cells exhibits tumor regressing activity.

    PubMed

    Usui, S; Matsunaga, T; Ukai, S; Kiho, T; Hirano, K

    1999-04-01

    Endothelium growth suppressing and tumor-regressing activities were copurified from the conditioned medium of P388D1 culture in the presence of 100 microg/ml carboxymethylated curdlan by a procedure including ammonium sulfate fractionation and six column chromatographies of Ceramic hydroxyapatite, Q-Sepharose, Sephacryl S-300 HR, Matrex PBA-30, PBE94, and anti-bovine serum albumin (anti-BSA) agarose. The intravenous administration of the purified growth suppressing factor for endothelial cells to sarcoma 180-bearing mouse caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable tumor cells in tumor lumps within 16 h. Immunohistochemical study showed that the intravenous injection of the purified factor to sarcoma 180-bearing mouse resulted in hemorrhagic disorder all over the tissue in the tumor lamp. Thus, the purified factor exhibited not only growth suppressing activity for endothelial cells but also tumor regressing activity at a concentration as low as about 15 ng/mouse. The purified factor significantly inhibited in vitro tubulogenesis of bovine artery, human umbilical vein, and adult human darmal microvascular endothelial cells on collagen gel at a concentration of about 5 ng/ml. After the tube formation of endothelial cells was completed on a collagen gel, the purified factor disrupted the tubes at a concentration of about 5 ng/ml within 48 h. These findings demonstrate that endothelium growth suppressing factor is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis as well as the growth of endothelial cells, and may bring about the regression of a solid tumor by inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:10328553

  6. Priming Dental Pulp Stem Cells With Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Increases Angiogenesis of Implanted Tissue-Engineered Constructs Through Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Caroline; Rochefort, Gael Y; Bascetin, Rumeyza; Ying, Hanru; Lesieur, Julie; Sadoine, Jérémy; Beckouche, Nathan; Berndt, Sarah; Novais, Anita; Lesage, Matthieu; Hosten, Benoit; Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal; Le-Denmat, Dominique; Marchiol, Carmen; Letourneur, Didier; Nicoletti, Antonino; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Poliard, Anne; Salmon, Benjamin; Muller, Laurent; Chaussain, Catherine; Germain, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineering strategies based on implanting cellularized biomaterials are promising therapeutic approaches for the reconstruction of large tissue defects. A major hurdle for the reliable establishment of such therapeutic approaches is the lack of rapid blood perfusion of the tissue construct to provide oxygen and nutrients. Numerous sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) displaying angiogenic potential have been characterized in the past years, including the adult dental pulp. Establishment of efficient strategies for improving angiogenesis in tissue constructs is nevertheless still an important challenge. Hypoxia was proposed as a priming treatment owing to its capacity to enhance the angiogenic potential of stem cells through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The present study aimed to characterize additional key factors regulating the angiogenic capacity of such MSCs, namely, dental pulp stem cells derived from deciduous teeth (SHED). We identified fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) as a potent inducer of the release of VEGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by SHED. We found that FGF-2 limited hypoxia-induced downregulation of HGF release. Using three-dimensional culture models of angiogenesis, we demonstrated that VEGF and HGF were both responsible for the high angiogenic potential of SHED through direct targeting of endothelial cells. In addition, FGF-2 treatment increased the fraction of Stro-1+/CD146+ progenitor cells. We then applied in vitro FGF-2 priming to SHED before encapsulation in hydrogels and in vivo subcutaneous implantation. Our results showed that FGF-2 priming is more efficient than hypoxia at increasing SHED-induced vascularization compared with nonprimed controls. Altogether, these data demonstrate that FGF-2 priming enhances the angiogenic potential of SHED through the secretion of both HGF and VEGF. PMID:26798059

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1) Ec/Mechano Growth Factor – A Splice Variant of IGF-1 within the Growth Plate

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Werner; Raimann, Adalbert; Halbauer, Daniel; Scharmer, Daniela; Sagmeister, Susanne; Wessner, Barbara; Helmreich, Magdalena; Haeusler, Gabriele; Egerbacher, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor 1 Ec (IGF-1Ec), also called mechano growth factor (MGF), is a splice variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which has been shown in vitro as well as in vivo to induce growth and hypertrophy in mechanically stimulated or damaged muscle. Growth, hypertrophy and responses to mechanical stimulation are important reactions of cartilaginous tissues, especially those in growth plates. Therefore, we wanted to ascertain if MGF is expressed in growth plate cartilage and if it influences proliferation of chondrocytes, as it does in musculoskeletal tissues. MGF expression was analyzed in growth plate and control tissue samples from piglets aged 3 to 6 weeks. Furthermore, growth plate chondrocyte cell culture was used to evaluate the effects of the MGF peptide on proliferation. We showed that MGF is expressed in considerable amounts in the tissues evaluated. We found the MGF peptide to be primarily located in the cytoplasm, and in some instances, it was also found in the nucleus of the cells. Addition of MGF peptides was not associated with growth plate chondrocyte proliferation. PMID:24146828

  8. Assessing the Factors of Regional Growth Decline of Sugar Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, D. A.; Beier, C. M.; Pederson, N.; Lawrence, G. B.; Stella, J. C.; Sullivan, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is among the most ecologically, economically and culturally important trees in North America, but has experienced a decline disease across much of its range. We investigated the climatic and edaphic factors associated with A. saccharum growth in the Adirondack Mountains (USA) using a well-replicated tree-ring network incorporating a range of soil fertility (base cation availability). We found that nearly 3 in 4 A. saccharum trees exhibited declining growth rates during the last several decades, regardless of tree age or size. Although diameter growth was consistently higher on base-rich soils, the negative trends in growth were largely consistent across the soil chemistry gradient. Sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic variability was overall weaker than expected, but were also non-stationary during the 20th century. We observed increasingly positive responses to late-winter precipitation, increasingly negative responses to growing season temperatures, and strong positive responses to moisture availability during the 1960s drought that became much weaker during the recent pluvial. Further study is needed of these factors and their interactions as potential mechanisms for sugar maple growth decline.

  9. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    PubMed

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  10. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor/Diphtheria Toxin Receptor in Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Vinante, Fabrizio; Rigo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) belongs to the EGF family of growth factors. It is biologically active either as a molecule anchored to the membrane or as a soluble form released by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. HB-EGF is involved in relevant physiological and pathological processes spanning from proliferation and apoptosis to morphogenesis. We outline here the main activities of HB-EGF in connection with normal or neoplastic differentiative or proliferative events taking place primitively in the hematopoietic microenvironment. PMID:23888518

  11. Transcriptional profiling in human HaCaT keratinocytes in response to kaempferol and identification of potential transcription factors for regulating differential gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung Young; Lee, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Yong Sung; Hong, Il; Lee, Mi-Ock; Min, Daejin; Chang, Ihseop; Hwang, Jae Sung; Park, Jun Seong; Kim, Duck Hee

    2008-01-01

    Kaempferol is the major flavonol in green tea and exhibits many biomedically useful properties such as antioxidative, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic activities. To elucidate its effects on the skin, we investigated the transcriptional profiles of kaempferol-treated HaCaT cells using cDNA microarray analysis and identified 147 transcripts that exhibited significant changes in expression. Of these, 18 were up-regulated and 129 were down-regulated. These transcripts were then classified into 12 categories according to their functional roles: cell adhesion/cytoskeleton, cell cycle, redox homeostasis, immune/defense responses, metabolism, protein biosynthesis/modification, intracellular transport, RNA processing, DNA modification/ replication, regulation of transcription, signal transduction and transport. We then analyzed the promoter sequences of differentially-regulated genes and identified over-represented regulatory sites and candidate transcription factors (TFs) for gene regulation by kaempferol. These included c-REL, SAP-1, Ahr-ARNT, Nrf-2, Elk-1, SPI-B, NF-κB and p65. In addition, we validated the microarray results and promoter analyses using conventional methods such as real-time PCR and ELISA-based transcription factor assay. Our microarray analysis has provided useful information for determining the genetic regulatory network affected by kaempferol, and this approach will be useful for elucidating gene-phytochemical interactions. PMID:18446059

  12. Constitution of Fibrin-Based Niche for In Vitro Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Jayakumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Epithelialization of chronic cutaneous wound is troublesome and may require use of skin/cell substitutes. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have immense potential as autologous cell source for treating wounds; they can cross the germ layer boundary of differentiation and regenerate skin. When multipotent adult stem cells are considered for skin regeneration, lineage committed keratinocytes may be beneficial to prevent undesirable post-transplantation outcome. This study hypothesized that ADMSCs may be directed to epidermal lineage in vitro on a specifically designed biomimetic and biodegradable niche. Cells were seeded on the test niche constituted with fibrin, fibronectin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, laminin V, platelet growth factor, and epidermal growth factor in the presence of cell-specific differentiation medium (DM). The ADMSCs grown on bare tissue culture polystyrene surface in DM is designated DM-control and those grown in basal medium (BM) is the BM-control. Lineage commitment was monitored with keratinocyte-specific markers such as cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 5, cytokeratin 19, and integrin α6 at the transcriptional/translational level. The in vitro designed biomimetic fibrin composite matrix may have potential application as cell transplantation vehicle. PMID:25469318

  13. Constitution of fibrin-based niche for in vitro differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Jayakumar, K; Krishnan, Lissy K

    2014-12-01

    Epithelialization of chronic cutaneous wound is troublesome and may require use of skin/cell substitutes. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have immense potential as autologous cell source for treating wounds; they can cross the germ layer boundary of differentiation and regenerate skin. When multipotent adult stem cells are considered for skin regeneration, lineage committed keratinocytes may be beneficial to prevent undesirable post-transplantation outcome. This study hypothesized that ADMSCs may be directed to epidermal lineage in vitro on a specifically designed biomimetic and biodegradable niche. Cells were seeded on the test niche constituted with fibrin, fibronectin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, laminin V, platelet growth factor, and epidermal growth factor in the presence of cell-specific differentiation medium (DM). The ADMSCs grown on bare tissue culture polystyrene surface in DM is designated DM-control and those grown in basal medium (BM) is the BM-control. Lineage commitment was monitored with keratinocyte-specific markers such as cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 5, cytokeratin 19, and integrin α6 at the transcriptional/translational level. The in vitro designed biomimetic fibrin composite matrix may have potential application as cell transplantation vehicle. PMID:25469318

  14. Mapping growth-factor-modulated Akt signaling dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gross, Sean M; Rotwein, Peter

    2016-05-15

    Growth factors alter cellular behavior through shared signaling cascades, raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Here, we have determined how growth factor actions are encoded into Akt signaling dynamics by real-time tracking of a fluorescent sensor. In individual cells, Akt activity was encoded in an analog pattern, with similar latencies (∼2 min) and half-maximal peak response times (range of 5-8 min). Yet, different growth factors promoted dose-dependent and heterogeneous changes in signaling dynamics. Insulin treatment caused sustained Akt activity, whereas EGF or PDGF-AA promoted transient signaling; PDGF-BB produced sustained responses at higher concentrations, but short-term effects at low doses, actions that were independent of the PDGF-α receptor. Transient responses to EGF were caused by negative feedback at the receptor level, as a second treatment yielded minimal responses, whereas parallel exposure to IGF-I caused full Akt activation. Small-molecule inhibitors reduced PDGF-BB signaling to transient responses, but only decreased the magnitude of IGF-I actions. Our observations reveal distinctions among growth factors that use shared components, and allow us to capture the consequences of receptor-specific regulatory mechanisms on Akt signaling. PMID:27044757

  15. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,

  16. NEUROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLCHICINE: MODULATION BY NERVE GROWTH FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study the effects of exogenously applied nerve growth factor (NGF) on colchicine-induced neurodegeneration in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal formation, male Fischer 344 rats (n=75) weighing 275-325 grams received colchicine [COLCH; 2.5 ug/site in 0.5 ul of artificial...

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,…

  18. Role of fibroblast growth factors in organ regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    El Agha, Elie; Kosanovic, Djuro; Schermuly, Ralph T; Bellusci, Saverio

    2016-05-01

    In its broad sense, regeneration refers to the renewal of lost cells, tissues or organs as part of the normal life cycle (skin, hair, endometrium etc.) or as part of an adaptive mechanism that organisms have developed throughout evolution. For example, worms, starfish and amphibians have developed remarkable regenerative capabilities allowing them to voluntarily shed body parts, in a process called autotomy, only to replace the lost parts afterwards. The bizarre myth of the fireproof homicidal salamander that can survive fire and poison apple trees has persisted until the 20th century. Salamanders possess one of the most robust regenerative machineries in vertebrates and attempting to draw lessons from limb regeneration in these animals and extrapolate the knowledge to mammals is a never-ending endeavor. Fibroblast growth factors are potent morphogens and mitogens that are highly conserved among the animal kingdom. These growth factors play key roles in organogenesis during embryonic development as well as homeostatic balance during postnatal life. In this review, we provide a summary about the current knowledge regarding the involvement of fibroblast growth factor signaling in organ regeneration and repair. We also shed light on the use of these growth factors in previous and current clinical trials in a wide array of human diseases. PMID:26459973

  19. Controlled growth factor release from synthetic extracellular matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Peters, Martin C.; Anderson, Kenneth W.; Mooney, David J.

    2000-12-01

    Polymeric matrices can be used to grow new tissues and organs, and the delivery of growth factors from these matrices is one method to regenerate tissues. A problem with engineering tissues that exist in a mechanically dynamic environment, such as bone, muscle and blood vessels, is that most drug delivery systems have been designed to operate under static conditions. We thought that polymeric matrices, which release growth factors in response to mechanical signals, might provide a new approach to guide tissue formation in mechanically stressed environments. Critical design features for this type of system include the ability to undergo repeated deformation, and a reversible binding of the protein growth factors to polymeric matrices to allow for responses to repeated stimuli. Here we report a model delivery system that can respond to mechanical signalling and upregulate the release of a growth factor to promote blood vessel formation. This approach may find a number of applications, including regeneration and engineering of new tissues and more general drug-delivery applications.

  20. Regulation of liver regeneration by growth factors and cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Bhm, Friederike; Khler, Ulrike A; Speicher, Tobias; Werner, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The capability of the liver to fully regenerate after injury is a unique phenomenon essential for the maintenance of its important functions in the control of metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The regeneration process is histologically well described, but the genes that orchestrate liver regeneration have been only partially characterized. Of particular interest are cytokines and growth factors, which control different phases of liver regeneration. Historically, their potential functions in this process were addressed by analyzing their expression in the regenerating liver of rodents. Some of the predicted roles were confirmed using functional studies, including systemic delivery of recombinant growth factors, neutralizing antibodies or siRNAs prior to liver injury or during liver regeneration. In particular, the availability of genetically modified mice and their use in liver regeneration studies has unraveled novel and often unexpected functions of growth factors, cytokines and their downstream signalling targets in liver regeneration. This review summarizes the results obtained by functional studies that have addressed the roles and mechanisms of action of growth factors and cytokines in liver regeneration after acute injury to this organ. PMID:20652897

  1. Hyperglycemia to nephropathy via transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Garud, Mayuresh Sudamrao; Kulkarni, Yogesh Anant

    2014-05-01

    Nephropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes which further directs to end stage renal disease. Extensive work has been done to find out the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of the DN. Now, many researchers have been convinced that almost all of the molecular mediators and intracellular signaling pathways involved in progression of diabetic nephropathy have involvement in transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β) at some stage. In DN, hyperglycemia causes increase in the expression of TGF- β genes, TGF- β proteins and their receptors. Increased glucose level mediates these effects through activation of polyol pathway, protein kinase C pathway, hexosamine pathway, increases advanced glycation end products (AGE) and increases oxidative stress. Hyperglycemia also activates the TGF- β via activation of glucose transporters (GLUT), angiotensine II and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Activated TGF-β further leads to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and glomerulosclerosis through activation of connective tissue growth factor (CDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We have discussed the progression of hyperglycemia to DN via TGF- β, whose schematic presentation may serve as an effective way to understand the mechanisms and to find out an effective way for the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24919657

  2. COW PLACENTA EXTRACT PROMOTES MURINE HAIR GROWTH THROUGH ENHANCING THE INSULIN - LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongliang; Lijuan, Gu; Jingjie, Li; Zheng, Li; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Lei; Mira, Li; Sung, Changkeun

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE), water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss. PMID:21572784

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) Inhibits Chondrocyte Function and Growth Hormone Action Directly at the Growth Plate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shufang; Levenson, Amy; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; De Luca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) modulates glucose and lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, previous evidence indicates that increased expression of FGF21 during chronic food restriction is associated with reduced bone growth and growth hormone (GH) insensitivity. In light of the inhibitory effects on growth plate chondrogenesis mediated by other FGFs, we hypothesized that FGF21 causes growth inhibition by acting directly at the long bones' growth plate. We first demonstrated the expression of FGF21, FGFR1 and FGFR3 (two receptors known to be activated by FGF21) and β-klotho (a co-receptor required for the FGF21-mediated receptor binding and activation) in fetal and 3-week-old mouse growth plate chondrocytes. We then cultured mouse growth plate chondrocytes in the presence of graded concentrations of rhFGF21 (0.01–10 μg/ml). Higher concentrations of FGF21 (5 and 10 μg/ml) inhibited chondrocyte thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression. 10 ng/ml GH stimulated chondrocyte thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression, with both effects prevented by the addition in the culture medium of FGF21 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGF21 reduced GH binding in cultured chondrocytes. In cells transfected with FGFR1 siRNA or ERK 1 siRNA, the antagonistic effects of FGF21 on GH action were all prevented, supporting a specific effect of this growth factor in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that increased expression of FGF21 during food restriction causes growth attenuation by antagonizing the GH stimulatory effects on chondrogenesis directly at the growth plate. In addition, high concentrations of FGF21 may directly suppress growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. PMID:22696219

  4. A Model to Predict the Risk of Keratinocyte Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, David C; Thompson, Bridie S; Thrift, Aaron P; Hughes, Maria-Celia; Muranushi, Chiho; Neale, Rachel E; Green, Adele C; Olsen, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin are the commonest cancers in humans, yet no validated tools exist to estimate future risks of developing keratinocyte carcinomas. To develop a prediction tool, we used baseline data from a prospective cohort study (n = 38,726) in Queensland, Australia, and used data linkage to capture all surgically excised keratinocyte carcinomas arising within the cohort. Predictive factors were identified through stepwise logistic regression models. In secondary analyses, we derived separate models within strata of prior skin cancer history, age, and sex. The primary model included terms for 10 items. Factors with the strongest effects were >20 prior skin cancers excised (odds ratio 8.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 6.73-10.91), >50 skin lesions destroyed (odds ratio 3.37, 95% CI 2.85-3.99), age ≥ 70 years (odds ratio 3.47, 95% CI 2.53-4.77), and fair skin color (odds ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.15). Discrimination in the validation dataset was high (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.80, 95% CI 0.79-0.81) and the model appeared well calibrated. Among those reporting no prior history of skin cancer, a similar model with 10 factors predicted keratinocyte carcinoma events with reasonable discrimination (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.72, 95% CI 0.70-0.75). Algorithms using self-reported patient data have high accuracy for predicting risks of keratinocyte carcinomas. PMID:26908057

  5. Mitogenic signaling mechanisms of human cementum-derived growth factors.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, K; Raines, E W; Ahn, N G; Narayanan, A S

    1993-12-15

    Cementum-derived growth factor (CGF) is a M(r) 23,000 protein, which is sequestered in the mineralized matrix of tooth cementum. We have investigated the mitogenic signaling reactions induced by CGF using quiescent human gingival fibroblasts as target cells. Cells activated with CGF were compared with those treated with CGF plus epidermal growth factor (EGF) and other growth factors. CGF caused a transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and this was accompanied by enhancement of membrane protein kinase C activity, myelin basic protein and S6 kinase activities, inositol phosphate levels, and activation of c-fos and jun-B gene expression. Membranes obtained from cells activated with CGF contained several protein bands, which cross-reacted with antiphosphotyrosine antibody; however, proteins corresponding to a putative phosphorylated CGF receptor were not detected. DNA synthesis induced by CGF was inhibited by 65% in cells treated with pertussis toxin but only 25-29% in cultures exposed to H7 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate; these values were different from those obtained when EGF, PDGF, or fetal bovine serum were used as mitogens. CGF and TGF-beta, but not EGF, caused an increase of PDGF-A chain mRNA expression 4 h after mitogen addition. However, while CGF was mitogenic for gingival fibroblasts, TGF-beta was not. Kinetics of DNA stimulation and experiments with anti-PDGF antibodies indicated that PDGF-A expression does not contribute significantly to CGF-induced DNA synthesis. When the stimulation of various signaling pathways induced by CGF and other growth factors was compared, the pattern of stimulation by CGF was different from other growth factors. The characteristic signaling reactions of CGF are likely to be important components of the mechanisms that regulate the formation and regeneration of cementum and adjacent connective tissues. PMID:8253729

  6. Gelatin Methacrylate Microspheres for Growth Factor Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh H.; McKinney, Jay; Miller, Tobias; Bongiorno, Tom; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin has been commonly used as a delivery vehicle for various biomolecules for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications due to its simple fabrication methods, inherent electrostatic binding properties, and proteolytic degradability. Compared to traditional chemical cross-linking methods, such as the use of glutaraldehyde (GA), methacrylate modification of gelatin offers an alternative method to better control the extent of hydrogel cross-linking. Here we examined the physical properties and growth factor delivery of gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles formulated with a wide range of different cross-linking densities (15–90%). Less methacrylated MPs had decreased elastic moduli and larger mesh sizes compared to GA MPs, with increasing methacrylation correlating to greater moduli and smaller mesh sizes. As expected, an inverse correlation between microparticle cross-linking density and degradation was observed, with the lowest cross-linked GMA MPs degrading at the fastest rate, comparable to GA MPs. Interestingly, GMA MPs at lower cross-linking densities could be loaded with up to a 10-fold higher relative amount of growth factor over conventional GA cross-linked MPs, despite an order of magnitude greater gelatin content of GA MPs. Moreover, a reduced GMA cross-linking density resulted in more complete release of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and accelerated release rate with collagenase treatment. These studies demonstrate that GMA MPs provide a more flexible platform for growth factor delivery by enhancing the relative binding capacity and permitting proteolytic degradation tunability, thereby offering a more potent controlled release system for growth factor delivery. PMID:25463489

  7. 20-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, enhances the production of hyaluronic acid through the activation of ERK and Akt mediated by Src tyrosin kinase in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae-Gyu; Jeon, Ae Ji; Yoon, Ji Hye; Song, Dasom; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kang, Nam Joo; Park, Jun-Seong; Yeom, Myeong Hun; Oh, Deok-Kun; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Charles C; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms through which 20-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (20GPPD) promotes the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) in human keratinocytes. 20GPPD is the primary bioactive metabolite of Rb1, a major ginsenoside found in ginseng (Panax ginseng). We sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the 20GPPD-induced production of HA. We found that 20GPPD induced an increase in HA production by elevating hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression in human keratinocytes. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt was also enhanced by 20GPPD in a dose-dependent manner. The pharmacological inhibition of ERK (using U0126) or Akt (using LY294002) suppressed the 20GPPD-induced expression of HAS2, whereas treatment with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor (AG1478) or an intracellular Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA/AM) did not exert any observable effects. The increased Src phosphorylation was also confirmed following treatment with 20GPPD in the human keratinocytes. Following pre-treatment with the Src inhibitor, PP2, both HA production and HAS2 expression were attenuated. Furthermore, the 20GPPD-enhanced ERK and Akt signaling decreased following treatment with PP2. Taken together, our results suggest that Src kinase plays a critical role in the 20GPPD-induced production of HA by acting as an upstream modulator of ERK and Akt activity in human keratinocytes. PMID:25738334

  8. Induction of nerve growth factor receptors on cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peacocke, M.; Yaar, M.; Mansur, C.P.; Chao, M.V.; Gilchrest, B.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human melanocytes involve a complex series of interactions during which both genetic and environmental factors play roles. At present, the regulation of these processes is poorly understood. The authors have induced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on cultured human melanocytes with phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate and have correlated this event with the appearance of a more differentiated, dendritic morphology. Criteria for NGF receptor expression included protein accumulation and cell-surface immunofluorescent staining with a monoclonal antibody directed against the human receptor and induction of the messenger RNA species as determined by blot-hybridization studies. The presence of the receptor could also be induced by UV irradiation or growth factor deprivation. The NGF receptor is inducible in cultured human melanocytes, and they suggest that NGF may modulate the behavior of this neural crest-derived cell in the skin.

  9. Induction of nerve growth factor receptors on cultured human melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Peacocke, M; Yaar, M; Mansur, C P; Chao, M V; Gilchrest, B A

    1988-01-01

    Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human melanocytes involve a complex series of interactions during which both genetic and environmental factors play roles. At present, the regulation of these processes is poorly understood. We have induced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on cultured human melanocytes with phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate and have correlated this event with the appearance of a more differentiated, dendritic morphology. Criteria for NGF receptor expression included protein accumulation and cell-surface immunofluorescent staining with a monoclonal antibody directed against the human receptor and induction of the messenger RNA species as determined by blot-hybridization studies. The presence of the receptor could also be induced by UV irradiation or growth factor deprivation. The NGF receptor is inducible in cultured human melanocytes, and we suggest that NGF may modulate the behavior of this neural crest-derived cell in the skin. Images PMID:2839841

  10. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  11. Differential response of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes to burn wound exudates: potential role of skin-specific chemokine CCL27.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; Kroeze, Kim L; Waaijman, Taco; Breetveld, Melanie; Sampat-Sardjoepersad, Shakun C; Niessen, Frank B; Middelkoop, Esther; Scheper, Rik J; Gibbs, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Many cell-based regenerative medicine strategies toward tissue-engineered constructs are currently being explored. Cell-cell interactions and interactions with different biomaterials are extensively investigated, whereas very few studies address how cultured cells will interact with soluble wound-healing mediators that are present within the wound bed after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine how adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC), dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes will react when they come in contact with the deep cutaneous burn wound bed. Burn wound exudates isolated from deep burn wounds were found to contain many cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors related to inflammation and wound healing. Seventeen mediators were identified by ELISA (concentration range 0.0006-9 ng/mg total protein), including the skin-specific chemokine CCL27. Burn wound exudates activated both ASC and dermal fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, to increase secretion of CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL2, and CCL20. Notably, ASC but not fibroblasts or keratinocytes showed significant increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (5-fold) and interleukin-6 (253-fold), although when the cells were incorporated in bi-layered skin substitute (SS) these differences were less pronounced. A similar discrepancy between ASC and dermal fibroblast mono-cultures was observed when recombinant human-CCL27 was used instead of burn wound exudates. Although CCL27 did not stimulate the secretion of any of the wound-healing mediators by keratinocytes, these cells, in contrast to ASC or dermal fibroblasts, showed increased proliferation and migration. Taken together, these results indicate that on transplantation, keratinocytes are primarily activated to promote wound closure. In contrast, dermal fibroblasts and, in particular, ASC respond vigorously to factors present in the wound bed, leading to increased secretion of angiogenesis/granulation tissue formation factors. Our findings have implications for the choice of cell type (ASC or dermal fibroblast) to be used in regenerative medicine strategies and indicate the importance of taking into account interactions with the wound bed when developing advanced therapies for difficult-to-close cutaneous wounds. PMID:23980822

  12. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  13. Transforming Growth Factor-β–Independent Role of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in the Development of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Keiko; Jawaid, Safdar; Sasaki, Takako; Bou-Gharios, George; Sakai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling as a fibronectin-independent mechanism of type I collagen fibrillogenesis following adult liver injury. To address the contribution of TGF-β signaling during the development of liver fibrosis, we generated adult mice lacking TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βIIR) from the liver. TGF-βIIR knockout livers indeed showed a dominant effect in reducing fibrosis, but fibrosis still remained approximately 45% compared with control and fibronectin knockout livers. Unexpectedly, this was accompanied by significant up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor mRNA levels. Organized type I collagen networks in TGF-βIIR knockout livers colocalized well with fibronectin. We provide evidence that elimination of TGF-βIIR is not sufficient to completely prevent liver fibrosis. Our results indicate a TGF-β–independent mechanism of type I collagen production and suggest connective tissue growth factor as its potent mediator. We advocate combined elimination of TGF-β signaling and connective tissue growth factor as a potential therapeutic target by which to attenuate liver fibrosis. PMID:25108224

  14. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo ); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi ); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  15. Vascular growth factors and receptors in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Böhling, T.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Persico, M. G.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas are highly vascular central nervous system tumors of controversial origin. Of interest in their pathogenesis are mechanisms regulating endothelial cell growth. The endothelial cell mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis, and together with its two receptor tyrosine kinases VEGFR-1(FLT1) and VEGFR-2(KDR), is up-regulated during the malignant progression of gliomas. We have analyzed the expression of VEGF and its receptors, the related placental growth factor (PlGF) and the endothelial receptors FLT4 and Tie by in situ hybridization in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in all of the hemangiopericytomas studied and highly expressed in the stromal cells of hemangioblastomas. In addition, some hemangioblastoma tumor cells expressed high levels of PlGF. Significantly elevated levels of Tie mRNA, Tie protein, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 but not FLT4 mRNAs were observed in the endothelia of both tumor types. In hemangioblastomas, however, the receptors were also highly expressed by a subpopulation of stromal cells. Consistent results were obtained for a human hemangioblastoma cell line in culture. Up-regulation of the endothelial growth factors and receptors may result in autocrine or paracrine stimulation of endothelial cells and their precursors involved in the genesis of these two vascular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8774132

  16. ZIP2 Protein, a Zinc Transporter, Is Associated with Keratinocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yu; Hasegawa, Seiji; Ban, Sadanori; Yamada, Takaaki; Date, Yasushi; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Tanaka, Masahiko; Hirashima, Naohide

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is essential for the proper functioning of various enzymes and transcription factors, and its homeostasis is rigorously controlled by zinc transporters (SLC39/ZIP, importers; SLC30/ZnT, exporters). Skin disease is commonly caused by a zinc deficiency. Dietary and inherited zinc deficiencies are known to cause alopecia and the development of vesicular or pustular dermatitis. A previous study demonstrated that zinc played crucial roles in the survival of keratinocytes and their unique functions. High levels of zinc have been detected in the epidermis. Epidermal layers are considered to use a mechanism that preferentially takes in zinc, which is involved with the unique functions of keratinocytes. However, few studies have investigated the ZIP (Zrt- and Irt-like protein) proteins specifically expressed in keratinocytes and their functions. We explored the ZIP proteins specifically expressed in the epidermis and analyzed their functions. Gene expression analysis showed that the expression of ZIP2 was consistently higher in the epidermis than in the dermis. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the expression of ZIP2 in differentiating keratinocytes. The expression of ZIP2 was found to be up-regulated by the differentiation induction of cultured keratinocytes. Intracellular zinc levels were decreased in keratinocytes when ZIP2 was knocked down by siRNA, and this subsequently inhibited the differentiation of keratinocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZIP2 knockdown inhibited the normal formation of a three-dimensional cultured epidermis. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ZIP2, a zinc transporter expressed specifically in the epidermis, and zinc taken up by ZIP2 are necessary for the differentiation of keratinocytes. PMID:24936057

  17. The adaptation of the blood-brain barrier to vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Schreurs, Malou P. H.; Houston, Emily M.; May, Victor; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PLGF) are increased in the maternal circulation during pregnancy. These factors may increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, yet brain edema does not normally occur during pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that in pregnancy, the BBB adapts to high levels of these permeability factors. We investigated the influence of pregnancy-related circulating factors on VEGF-induced BBB permeability by perfusing cerebral veins with plasma from nonpregnant (NP) or late-pregnant (LP) rats (n=6/group) and measuring permeability in response to VEGF. The effect of VEGF, PLGF, and VEGF-receptor (VEGFR) activation on BBB permeability was also determined. Results showed that VEGF significantly increased permeability (×107 μm3/min) from 9.7 ± 3.5 to 21.0 ± 1.5 (P<0.05) in NP veins exposed to NP plasma, that was prevented when LP veins were exposed to LP plasma; (9.7±3.8; P>0.05). Both LP plasma and soluble FMS-like tyrosine-kinase 1 (sFlt1) in NP plasma abolished VEGF-induced BBB permeability in NP veins (9.5±2.9 and 12±2.6; P>0.05). PLGF significantly increased BBB permeability in NP plasma (18±1.4; P<0.05), and required only VEGFR1 activation, whereas VEGF-induced BBB permeability required both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Our findings suggest that VEGF and PLGF enhance BBB permeability through different VEGFR pathways and that circulating sFlt1 prevents VEGF- and PLGF-induced BBB permeability during pregnancy. —Schreurs, M. P. H., Houston, E. M., May, V., Cipolla, M. J. The adaptation of the blood-brain barrier to vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor during pregnancy. PMID:21911594

  18. Lifetime growth in wild meerkats: incorporating life history and environmental factors into a standard growth model.

    PubMed

    English, Sinad; Bateman, Andrew W; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2012-05-01

    Lifetime records of changes in individual size or mass in wild animals are scarce and, as such, few studies have attempted to model variation in these traits across the lifespan or to assess the factors that affect them. However, quantifying lifetime growth is essential for understanding trade-offs between growth and other life history parameters, such as reproductive performance or survival. Here, we used model selection based on information theory to measure changes in body mass over the lifespan of wild meerkats, and compared the relative fits of several standard growth models (monomolecular, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and Richards). We found that meerkats exhibit monomolecular growth, with the best model incorporating separate growth rates before and after nutritional independence, as well as effects of season and total rainfall in the previous nine months. Our study demonstrates how simple growth curves may be improved by considering life history and environmental factors, which may be particularly relevant when quantifying growth patterns in wild populations. PMID:22108854

  19. Factors affecting growth and urease production by Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A L; El-Shanawany, A A; Omar, S A

    1996-01-01

    Among Trichophyton spp. examined for urease production, T. rubrum was negative, whereas T. mentagrophytes appeared to be the most active species. Urease was not detected in cell-free culture fluids of the tested fungi. The endocellular urease of the test fungi was essentially constitutive. Moreover, addition of urea to the growth medium of these organisms markedly inhibited their mycelial biomass and ureolytic yield. Environmental factors showed variable effects on the test fungi and there was no correlation between mycelial growth and urease activity of these fungi. PMID:9091827

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Inhibits the Toxic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus on Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mohammedsaeed, Walaa; McBain, Andrew J.; Cruickshank, Sheena M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the potential benefits of the topical application of probiotic bacteria or material derived from them. We have investigated whether a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection of human primary keratinocytes in culture. When primary human keratinocytes were exposed to S. aureus, only 25% of the keratinocytes remained viable following 24 h of incubation. However, in the presence of 108 CFU/ml of live L. rhamnosus GG, the viability of the infected keratinocytes increased to 57% (P = 0.01). L. rhamnosus GG lysates and spent culture fluid also provided significant protection to keratinocytes, with 65% (P = 0.006) and 57% (P = 0.01) of cells, respectively, being viable following 24 h of incubation. Keratinocyte survival was significantly enhanced regardless of whether the probiotic was applied in the viable form or as cell lysates 2 h before or simultaneously with (P = 0.005) or 12 h after (P = 0.01) S. aureus infection. However, spent culture fluid was protective only if added before or simultaneously with S. aureus. With respect to mechanism, both L. rhamnosus GG lysate and spent culture fluid apparently inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion, but only viable bacteria or the lysate could displace S. aureus (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, growth of S. aureus was inhibited by either live bacteria or lysate but not spent culture fluid. Together, these data suggest at least two separate activities involved in the protective effects of L. rhamnosus GG against S. aureus, growth inhibition and reduction of bacterial adhesion. PMID:25015889

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factors: New Roles in Neuronal Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Pablo, Juan L; Pitt, Geoffrey S

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) are a noncanonical subset of intracellular fibroblast growth factors that have been implicated in a variety of neurobiological processes and in disease. They are most prominently regulators of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaVs). In this review, we discuss new insights into how FHFs modulate NaVs. This is followed by a summary of a growing body of evidence that FHFs operate in much broader fashion. Finally, we highlight unknown aspects of FHF function as areas of future interest. PMID:25492945

  2. Growth factor choice is critical for successful functionalization of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pinkernelle, Josephine; Raffa, Vittoria; Calatayud, Maria P.; Goya, Gerado F.; Riggio, Cristina; Keilhoff, Gerburg

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) show new characteristics compared to the corresponding bulk material. These nanoscale properties make them interesting for various applications in biomedicine and life sciences. One field of application is the use of magnetic NPs to support regeneration in the nervous system. Drug delivery requires a functionalization of NPs with bio-functional molecules. In our study, we functionalized self-made PEI-coated iron oxide NPs with nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Next, we tested the bio-functionality of NGF in a rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) and the bio-functionality of GDNF in an organotypic spinal cord culture. Covalent binding of NGF to PEI-NPs impaired bio-functionality of NGF, but non-covalent approach differentiated PC12 cells reliably. Non-covalent binding of GDNF showed a satisfying bio-functionality of GDNF:PEI-NPs, but turned out to be unstable in conjugation to the PEI-NPs. Taken together, our study showed the importance of assessing bio-functionality and binding stability of functionalized growth factors using proper biological models. It also shows that successful functionalization of magnetic NPs with growth factors is dependent on the used binding chemistry and that it is hardly predictable. For use as therapeutics, functionalization strategies have to be reproducible and future studies are needed. PMID:26388717

  3. Progressive glomerulosclerosis develops in transgenic mice chronically expressing growth hormone and growth hormone releasing factor but not in those expressing insulinlike growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    Doi, T; Striker, L J; Quaife, C; Conti, F G; Palmiter, R; Behringer, R; Brinster, R; Striker, G E

    1988-06-01

    An increase in glomerular size occurs in normal maturation after subtotal renal ablation and disease states such as diabetes mellitus. The role that growth hormone (GH), growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), and insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play in these processes has been investigated using transgenic mice chronically expressing these hormones. The glomeruli were enlarged in all 3 strains of mice. Mesangial proliferation followed by progressive glomerulosclerosis was observed in the GH and GHRF animals only. In the IGF-1 mice the large glomeruli remained morphologically normal except for the enlargement. These data suggest that the glomerulosclerosis was due, in part, to disordered mesangial cell growth in response to circulating GH. The mesangial lesions in mice with chronically high plasma GH levels mimicked those in human diabetes mellitus. These models provide a means to study the hormonal regulation of glomerular growth and the role that specific hormones might play in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. PMID:3132856

  4. Progressive glomerulosclerosis develops in transgenic mice chronically expressing growth hormone and growth hormone releasing factor but not in those expressing insulinlike growth factor-1.

    PubMed Central

    Doi, T.; Striker, L. J.; Quaife, C.; Conti, F. G.; Palmiter, R.; Behringer, R.; Brinster, R.; Striker, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    An increase in glomerular size occurs in normal maturation after subtotal renal ablation and disease states such as diabetes mellitus. The role that growth hormone (GH), growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), and insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play in these processes has been investigated using transgenic mice chronically expressing these hormones. The glomeruli were enlarged in all 3 strains of mice. Mesangial proliferation followed by progressive glomerulosclerosis was observed in the GH and GHRF animals only. In the IGF-1 mice the large glomeruli remained morphologically normal except for the enlargement. These data suggest that the glomerulosclerosis was due, in part, to disordered mesangial cell growth in response to circulating GH. The mesangial lesions in mice with chronically high plasma GH levels mimicked those in human diabetes mellitus. These models provide a means to study the hormonal regulation of glomerular growth and the role that specific hormones might play in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. Images Figure 1 PMID:3132856

  5. Ultrastructural effects of recombinant gamma-interferon on cultured human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Mahrle, G; Morhenn, V

    1986-01-01

    To extend our initial observations that recombinant gamma-interferon (r gamma IFN) influences the growth and differentiation of normal cultured human keratinocytes, we studied the electron microscopic changes induced by r gamma IFN. Treatment of cultured human keratinocytes with 10(3) units/ml (7.1 nM) of r gamma IFN produced a shift toward an increasing percentage of attached cells that had a mature-type, differentiated appearance rather than a basal type of proliferating cell, as observed in control, untreated cultures. This report extends the number of cell types that can be influenced by r gamma IFN at the ultrastructural level and supports the notion that r gamma IFN can influence both growth and maturation of normal cultured human keratinocytes. PMID:2421470

  6. In vitro and in vivo epidermal growth factor gene therapy for diabetic ulcers with electrospun fibrous meshes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Sung; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2013-07-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) gene therapy was achieved with an electrospun nanofibrous mesh with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) responsiveness to control release of plasmid human epidermal growth factor (phEGF) in diabetic ulcers. For MMP responsiveness, linear poly(ethyleneimine) (LPEI) was immobilized on the surface of the nanofiber via an MMP-cleavable linker. phEGF was electrostatically incorporated into LPEI-immobilized nanofibrous meshes with various charge ratios and phEGF incorporation efficiency was increased with increasing charge ratios. The release of both phEGF and LPEI was significantly increased in the presence of MMP-2 due to the enzymatic digestion of the MMP-cleavable linkage between the matrix and LPEI. Human dermal fibroblasts with the released fraction showed a higher expression level of hEGF compared to naked phEGF or phEGF/LPEI complexes. Diabetic wounds treated with phEGF-incorporated nanofibrous meshes showed high hEGF expression level and accelerated wound recovery rates without wound contractions for 14days. Neocollagen and cytokeratin accumulation were significantly increased as well as the expression of the keratinocyte-specific markers at the re-epithelized tissue treated with phEGF nanofibrous meshes, which clearly indicates that EGF gene was transfected to dermal cells and this consequently assisted wound recovery without phenotypic changes of the re-epithelized tissues. Thus, phEGF-incorporated nanofibrous mesh is expected to accelerate the wound-healing process as well as reduce wound contraction during recovery from diabetic ulcers. PMID:23528498

  7. A fully autologous co-culture system utilising non-irradiated autologous fibroblasts to support the expansion of human keratinocytes for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Jubin, K; Martin, Y; Lawrence-Watt, D J; Sharpe, J R

    2011-12-01

    Autologous keratinocytes can be used to augment cutaneous repair, such as in the treatment of severe burns and recalcitrant ulcers. Such cells can be delivered to the wound bed either as a confluent sheet of cells or in single-cell suspension. The standard method for expanding primary human keratinocytes in culture uses lethally irradiated mouse 3T3 fibroblasts as feeder cells to support keratinocyte attachment and growth. In an effort to eliminate xenobiotic cells from clinical culture protocols where keratinocytes are applied to patients, we investigated whether human autologous primary fibroblasts could be used to expand keratinocytes in culture. At a defined ratio of a 6:1 excess of keratinocytes to fibroblasts, this co-culture method displayed a population doubling rate comparable to culture with lethally irradiated 3T3 cells. Furthermore, morphological and molecular analysis showed that human keratinocytes expanded in co-culture with autologous human fibroblasts were positive for proliferation markers and negative for differentiation markers. Keratinocytes expanded by this method thus retain their proliferative phenotype, an important feature in enhancing rapid wound closure. We suggest that this novel co-culture method is therefore suitable for clinical use as it dispenses with the need for lethally irradiated 3T3 cells in the rapid expansion of autologous human keratinocytes. PMID:21822682

  8. Modulation of NFAT-5, an outlying member of the NFAT family, in human keratinocytes and skin

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daraji, Wael I; Afolayan, John; Zelger, Bettina G; Abdellaoui, Adel; Zelger, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus block T cell activation by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin and preventing translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the transcription factor Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT). NFAT compose a family of transcription factors that are turned on during T cell activation. Aims To study the expression of NFAT-5 mRNA and protein in normal human keratinocytes and to investigate the cellular and subcellular pattern of expression of NFAT-5 in normal human skin and psoriasis, and analyze effects of different agonists and ultraviolet radiation on NFAT-5 in normal human skin. Methods Tissue cultures, Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western analysis, immunostaining, confocal microscopy. Results Sequencing of RT-PCR products confirmed the identity of the product that showed 100 % homology with the predicted NFAT-5 sequence. anti-NFAT-5 mainly detected a single band in cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts using Western analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in normal human and psoriatic skin express NFAT-5. NFAT-5 showed predominantly nuclear localization in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts within five normal adult skin biopsies. Our data also suggest that UV irradiation reduces NFAT-5 nuclear localization within the epidermis. Unlike NFAT 1-4, NFAT-5/TonEBP was localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm of cultured keratinocytes. Cyclosporin A induces nuclear membrane translocation of NFAT-5 in cultured keratinocytes and raffinose (a hypertonicity inducing agent) induces more nuclear localization of NFAT-5 compared to untreated cells. In addition, differentiation-promoting agonists that induce sustained rise in intracellular calcium did not result in changes in NFAT-5 localization in cultured keratinocytes. Conclusion These studies provide the first observation of expression of NFAT-5/TonEBP mRNA protein in cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and possible functional regulation in cultured keratinocytes. CsA and raffinose effects on NFAT-5/TonEBP in cultured keratinocytes suggest diverse intracellular signaling pathways for NFAT-5/TonEBP in these cells, and that NFAT-5/TonEBP might function to translate different extracellular stimuli into appropriate functional responses. PMID:19956430

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4 act as "epitheliotrophins" in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Botchkarev, V A; Metz, M; Botchkareva, N V; Welker, P; Lommatzsch, M; Renz, H; Paus, R

    1999-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced by keratinocytes and modulates their proliferation and apoptosis. However, it is as yet unknown whether other members of the NGF family of neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), also modulate keratinocyte proliferation in situ. We determined by ELISA and reverse transcriptase-PCR that BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 are expressed in C57BL/6 mouse skin. By immunofluorescence, the subcutaneous panniculus carnosus muscle and arrector pili muscle showed strong NT-3 immunoreactivity, whereas BDNF-IR was found only in skin nerve bundles. NT-4 immunoreactivity was noted in single epidermal keratinocytes. The high affinity receptor for both BDNF and NT-4, TrkB, was detected in basal and suprabasal epidermal keratinocytes, whereas the high affinity NT-3 receptor, TrkC, was observed in skin nerve bundles. Compared with the corresponding age-matched wild-type mice, BDNF or NT-3-overexpressing transgenic mice showed a significantly increased epidermal thickness and enhanced number of Ki-67-positive (ie, proliferating) epidermal keratinocytes in vivo, whereas the number of these cells was substantially reduced in BDNF knockout mice. In skin organ culture of C57BL/6 mice, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 all significantly increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into epidermal keratinocytes. Co-administration of NGF neutralizing antibody failed to abrogate the stimulatory effect of NT-3 on keratinocyte proliferation in skin organ culture. This demonstrates that normal murine epidermal keratinocytes in situ are direct or indirect target cells for these neurotrophins. Therefore, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 can also act as "epitheliotrophins" and may thus be intimately involved in the control of epidermal homeostasis. PMID:10334567

  10. Synergism between vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor contributes to angiogenesis and plasma extravasation in pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Carmeliet, P; Moons, L; Luttun, A; Vincenti, V; Compernolle, V; De Mol, M; Wu, Y; Bono, F; Devy, L; Beck, H; Scholz, D; Acker, T; DiPalma, T; Dewerchin, M; Noel, A; Stalmans, I; Barra, A; Blacher, S; VandenDriessche, T; Ponten, A; Eriksson, U; Plate, K H; Foidart, J M; Schaper, W; Charnock-Jones, D S; Hicklin, D J; Herbert, J M; Collen, D; Persico, M G

    2001-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). The role of its homolog, placental growth factor (PlGF), remains unknown. Both VEGF and PlGF bind to VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), but it is unknown whether VEGFR-1, which exists as a soluble or a membrane-bound type, is an inert decoy or a signaling receptor for PlGF during angiogenesis. Here, we report that embryonic angiogenesis in mice was not affected by deficiency of PlGF (Pgf-/-). VEGF-B, another ligand of VEGFR-1, did not rescue development in Pgf-/- mice. However, loss of PlGF impaired angiogenesis, plasma extravasation and collateral growth during ischemia, inflammation, wound healing and cancer. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow rescued the impaired angiogenesis and collateral growth in Pgf-/- mice, indicating that PlGF might have contributed to vessel growth in the adult by mobilizing bone-marrow-derived cells. The synergism between PlGF and VEGF was specific, as PlGF deficiency impaired the response to VEGF, but not to bFGF or histamine. VEGFR-1 was activated by PlGF, given that anti-VEGFR-1 antibodies and a Src-kinase inhibitor blocked the endothelial response to PlGF or VEGF/PlGF. By upregulating PlGF and the signaling subtype of VEGFR-1, endothelial cells amplify their responsiveness to VEGF during the 'angiogenic switch' in many pathological disorders. PMID:11329059

  11. Antitumor effect of hepatocyte growth factor on hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Y; Shibusawa, M; Tsunoda, A; Gomi, A; Yatsuzuka, M; Okamatsu, T

    1998-01-01

    A six month-old girl presented with an abdominal mass, and high serum level of alpha-fetoprotein. She was diagnosed as having a well-differentiated hepatoblastoma by open biopsy. The biopsy specimen was transplanted on a nude mouse, and a xenograft was successfully established. Because the xenograft maintained the characteristics of the original tumor, the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on hepatoblastoma xenograft was investigated. Recently HGF was reported to be involved in growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. Contrary to our expectations, the treatment of hepatoblastoma xenograft with recombinant 20 ng/ml HGF produced a marked inhibition of cell growth and a suppression of producing alpha-fetoprotein. PMID:9891489

  12. Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-α on hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Afkar Abdel-Ghany; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Gabal, Samia; Said, Noha

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor system plays a central hepato-protective and pro-regenerative role in liver. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is an important autocrine growth regulator of hepatocytes that plays a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study was done on 40 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC, 20 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC as well as five normal controls. All were immunohistochemically stained with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TGF-α antibodies. Some selected HCC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect EGFR gene alteration. By immunohistochemistry EGFR and TGF-α were overexpressed in HCC and cirrhotic cases compared to CHC cases without cirrhosis. Also, their expression was stronger in CHC cases with higher grades of activity and stages of fibrosis compared to lower ones. FISH positive results for EGFR were detected in 33.3% of the examined HCC cases. EGFR and TGF-α can be used as predictive markers for activity, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis in CHC patients. Overexpression of EGFR in HCC patients can be promising in selecting those who can get benefit from anti-EGFR target therapy. PMID:26279457

  13. Phorbol ester binding and protein kinase C activity in normal and transformed human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, G.T.; de Laat, S.W. ); Boonstra, J. ); Ponec, M. )

    1987-09-01

    Normal keratinocytes, SV40-transformed keratinocytes (SVK{sub 14}), and various squamous carcinoma cell (SCC) lines have been used as an in vitro model system to study the properties of phorbol ester receptor and protein kinase C expression during keratinocyte differentiation. The cell lines used exhibit a decreasing capacity to differentiate; moreover, all cell lines respond to a low external Ca{sup 2+} concentration by a decreased capacity to differentiate. Normal keratinocytes exhibited the highest number of phorbol ester receptors as compared to the other cell lines, while each individual cell line exhibited a higher number of phorbol ester receptors during growth under normal Ca{sup 2+} conditions as compared to cells grown under low Ca{sup 2+} conditions. The apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d}) demonstrated only small variations in the various cell lines. These studies revealed differences between protein kinase C properties from the two cell lines grown under normal and low Ca{sup 2+} conditions. The differences included the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the redistribution pattern of protein kinase C between the cytoplasmic and particulate fractions as well as the activating effect of diolein in vitro on protein kinase C activity. These observations demonstrate that the functional protein kinase C activity of keratinocytes is determined by various endogenous and exogenous activators and that these activators are modulated differently in various cell lines, under various growth conditions (low Ca{sup 2+} versus normal Ca{sup 2+}).

  14. Reduction in facial photodamage by a topical growth factor product.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rahul C; Smith, Stacy R; Grove, Gary L; Ford, Rosanne O; Canfield, William; Donofrio, Lisa M; Flynn, Timothy C; Leyden, James J

    2008-09-01

    A topical gel containing a proprietary mixture of over 110 growth factors, cytokines, and soluble matrix proteins secreted by human dermal fibroblasts was evaluated for safety and efficacy in the treatment of mild to severe facial photodamage. In a double-blind study, 60 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either active gel or the vehicle and applied twice daily for 6 months along with a moisturizing cleanser and sunscreen. Efficacy (profilometry, photography, and clinical assessment) and safety (adverse event reporting) measures were evaluated at 0, 3, and 6 months. Treatment with the active gel for 3 months produced greater reduction in fine lines and wrinkles than the vehicle treatment as measured by objective and subjective assessment techniques. The results were either statistically significant (P < or = .05) or trending towards statistical significance (P < or = .1). This study demonstrates that addition of a topical formulation of growth factors and cytokines to a basic skin care regimen reduces the signs of photoaging. PMID:19112801

  15. Targeting growth factors and angiogenesis; using small molecules in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Wanebo, Harold J; Argiris, Athanassios; Bergsland, Emily; Agarwala, Sanjiv; Rugo, Hope

    2006-06-01

    Targeted biologic therapy for cancer has evolved from the laboratory to active clinical protocols and applied clinical practice in selected patients. Major targets include epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors which are commonly expressed in gastro-intestinal cancers head & neck and lung cancers, and to some degree breast and gynecologic malignancy. Down stream signal transduction pathway inhibition of B-raf and N-ras mutations are examined in melanoma. New approaches involving re-packaging of chemotherapeutic agents are being exemplified in the nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel which provides increased access to endothelial and tumor cells with potential enhanced therapeutic efficacy compared to the conventional version solubilized in a cremophor. PMID:16770540

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight.

  17. Nerve Growth Factor: A Focus on Neuroscience and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Rocco, Maria Luisa; Omar Balzamino, Bijorn; Micera, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the firstly discovered and best characterized neurotrophic factor, known to play a critical protective role in the development and survival of sympathetic, sensory and forebrain cholinergic neurons. NGF promotes neuritis outgrowth both in vivo and in vitro and nerve cell recovery after ischemic, surgical or chemical injuries. Recently, the therapeutic property of NGF has been demonstrated on human cutaneous and corneal ulcers, pressure ulcer, glaucoma, maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. NGF eye drops administration is well tolerated, with no detectable clinical evidence of systemic or local adverse effects. The aim of this review is to summarize these biological properties and the potential clinical development of NGF. PMID:26411962

  18. Cdc42 and p190RhoGAP activation by CCN2 regulates cell spreading and polarity and induces actin disassembly in migrating keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Lee, Cameron Cy; Hackl, Florian; Caterson, Edward J; Junker, Johan Pe; Gerdin, Bengt; Eriksson, Elof

    2016-06-01

    Cell migration requires spatiotemporal integration of signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. In response to a migration-promoting agent, cells begin to polarise and extend protrusions in the direction of migration. These cytoskeletal rearrangements are orchestrated by a variety of proteins, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Rho family of GTPases. CCN2, also known as connective tissue growth factor, has emerged as a regulator of cell migration but the mechanism by which CCN2 regulates keratinocyte function is not well understood. In this article, we sought to elucidate the basic mechanism of CCN2-induced cell migration in human keratinocytes. Immunohistochemical staining was used to demonstrate that treatment with CCN2 induces a migratory phenotype through actin disassembly, spreading of lamellipodia and re-orientation of the Golgi. In vitro assays were used to show that CCN2-induced cell migration is dependent on FAK, RhoA and Cdc42, but independent of Rac1. CCN2-treated keratinocytes displayed increased Cdc42 activity and decreased RhoA activity up to 12 hours post-treatment, with upregulation of p190RhoGAP. An improved understanding of how CCN2 regulates cell migration may establish the foundation for future therapeutics in fibrotic and neoplastic diseases. PMID:25185742

  19. Growth hormone releasing factor-like immunoreactivity in human milk.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Amarant, T; Fridkin, M; Koch, Y

    1986-03-28

    The presence of immunoreactive growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) in human milk has been demonstrated. By using sequential high performance liquid chromatography, it has been shown that most of the immunoreactivity co-elutes with the synthetic, hypothalamic-like, GRF (1-40). The concentrations of GRF detected (between 152 and 432 pg GRF/ml milk) exceed several fold its values in plasma. PMID:3083812

  20. Cytokines and growth factors cross-link heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Migliorini, Elisa; Thakar, Dhruv; Kühnle, Jens; Sadir, Rabia; Dyer, Douglas P.; Li, Yong; Sun, Changye; Volkman, Brian F.; Handel, Tracy M.; Coche-Guerente, Liliane; Fernig, David G.; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Richter, Ralf P.

    2015-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS), present at the surface of most cells and ubiquitous in extracellular matrix, binds many soluble extracellular signalling molecules such as chemokines and growth factors, and regulates their transport and effector functions. It is, however, unknown whether upon binding HS these proteins can affect the long-range structure of HS. To test this idea, we interrogated a supramolecular model system, in which HS chains grafted to streptavidin-functionalized oligoethylene glycol monolayers or supported lipid bilayers mimic the HS-rich pericellular or extracellular matrix, with the biophysical techniques quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We were able to control and characterize the supramolecular presentation of HS chains—their local density, orientation, conformation and lateral mobility—and their interaction with proteins. The chemokine CXCL12α (or SDF-1α) rigidified the HS film, and this effect was due to protein-mediated cross-linking of HS chains. Complementary measurements with CXCL12α mutants and the CXCL12γ isoform provided insight into the molecular mechanism underlying cross-linking. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which has three HS binding sites, was also found to cross-link HS, but FGF-9, which has just one binding site, did not. Based on these data, we propose that the ability to cross-link HS is a generic feature of many cytokines and growth factors, which depends on the architecture of their HS binding sites. The ability to change matrix organization and physico-chemical properties (e.g. permeability and rigidification) implies that the functions of cytokines and growth factors may not simply be confined to the activation of cognate cellular receptors. PMID:26269427

  1. Insulin, insulin-like growth factors, insulin resistance, and neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Michael N

    2007-09-01

    An accumulating body of epidemiologic and laboratory evidence suggests that insulin and insulin-like growth factors influence both the risk and the prognosis of cancer. In this brief review, I highlight topics covered in my lecture on research directions in this field, including the view that metformin deserves investigation as a potential adjunct in the treatment or prevention of cancer in persons with hyperinsulinemia. PMID:18265475

  2. Curcuminoids activate p38 MAP kinases and promote UVB-dependent signalling in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ayli, Elias E; Dugas-Breit, Susanne; Li, Weijie; Marshall, Christine; Zhao, Liang; Meulener, Marc; Griffin, Thomas; Gelfand, Joel M; Seykora, John T

    2010-06-01

    Curcuminoids exhibit anti-proliferative properties in many cell lines by modulating signalling pathways to inhibit cell growth. However, the specific effects of curcuminoids on human keratinocytes are not well defined, and this situation impairs mechanistic thinking regarding potential therapeutic uses. We hypothesized that curcuminoids would modulate key growth regulatory pathways in keratinocytes to inhibit cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, the effects of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling in keratinoctyes were determined. Primary human keratinocytes treated with curcumin or THC demonstrated decreased activation of p44/42 MAP kinases but increased levels of activated p38 MAP kinases. These data suggest that curcuminoids specifically activate stress-induced MAP kinases while inhibiting mitogen-induced MAP kinases. Curcuminoids also promote the phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 in a dose-dependent and p38-dependent manner, suggesting that these compounds may activate p53. The effects of curcuminoids on keratinocytes mirrored some aspects of UVB and could be inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that these compounds activate p38 through a mechanism that involves glutathione depletion. Both curcuminoids induced G2/M block and inhibited keratinocyte growth, and THC increased cellular levels of p21, a known p53 transcriptional target. These data demonstrate that curcuminoids can differentially regulate MAP kinases to inhibit keratinocyte growth while inducing p21. Curcuminoids also synergize with UVB to enhance p53 phosphorylation. The findings provide a rationale for testing curcuminoids in disorders associated with impaired p53 function or in which UVB-treatment is efficacious. PMID:20456495

  3. Measuring Growth Hormone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in Infants: What is Normal?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick; Grimberg, Adda

    2014-01-01

    The role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) change through early childhood. Whereas poor growth is a later presenting feature, infants with isolated GH deficiency have a normal birth weight and length, and often present with hypoglycemia. IGF-I plays an important role antenatally and post-natally in somatic and brain growth. In order to evaluate the GH/IGF-I axis in infancy, an understanding of the normal physiology is required. Measurements of GH and IGF-I in this population should be interpreted in the context of the assays used, as well as their limitations. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of normal GH and IGF-I secretion in children under 18 months of age, and describe variations in the reported assay-specific measurements. PMID:24575549

  4. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Berseth, C.L. )

    1987-11-01

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 {mu}g/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth.

  5. The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Robert H.; Cheung, Wai W.; Roberts, Charles T.

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are important physiologic regulators of growth, body composition, and kidney function. Perturbations in the GH-IGF-I axis are responsible for many important complications seen in chronic kidney disease (CKD), such as growth retardation and cachectic wasting, as well as disease progression. Recent evidence suggests that CKD is characterized by abnormalities in GH and IGF-I signal transduction and the interaction of these pathways with those that involve other molecules such as ghrelin, myostatin, and the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family. Further understanding of GH/IGF pathophysiology in CKD may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for these devastating complications, which are associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. PMID:17826224

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor is a potential tumour angiogenesis factor in human gliomas in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, Karl H.; Breier, Georg; Weich, Herbert A.; Risau, Werner

    1992-10-01

    CLINICAL and experimental studies suggest that angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumour growth1,2. Several growth factors with mitogenic or chemotactic activity for endothelial cells in vitro have been described, but it is not known whether these mediate tumour vascularization in vivo3,4. Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant brain tumour in humans, is distinguished from astrocytoma by the presence of necroses and vascular prolifer-ations5'6. Here we show that expression of an endothelial cell-specific mitogen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is induced in astrocytoma cells but is dramatically upregulated in two apparently different subsets of glioblastoma cells. The high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF, flt, although not expressed in normal brain endothelium, is upregulated in tumour endothelial cells in vivo. These observations strongly support the concept that tumour angiogenesis is regulated by paracrine mechanisms and identify VEGF as a potential tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo.

  7. Hypoxia induces undifferentiated phenotype of oral keratinocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroko; Izumi, Kenji; Uenoyama, Atsushi; Shiomi, Aki; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Feinberg, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of hypoxia on the proliferating potential and phenotype of primary human oral keratinocytes cultured at ambient oxygen tension (20%) or at different levels of hypoxia (2.0 and 0.5% O2). The effects of oxygen tensions on cellular metabolic activity, cell proliferation, clonogenicity and proliferation heterogeneity were measured. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter, and p21WAF1/CIP1 expression in G0/G1-phase was also concomitantly quantitated. The expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins were examined by immunoblotting, and the cellular senescence was assessed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Basal and suprabasal keratinocyte phenotypes were determined by the expression levels of 14-3-3σ, p75NTR and α6 integrin. Despite of lower metabolism, the proliferation rate and clonogenic potential were remarkably enhanced in hypoxic cells. The significantly higher percentage of cells in G0/G1-phase under hypoxia and the expression patterns of cell cycle regulatory proteins in hypoxic cells were indicative of a state of cell cycle arrest in hypoxia. Furthermore, decrease in the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4A and the fewer number of β-galactosidase positive cells suggested a quiescent phenotype rather than a senescent one in hypoxic cells. Compared with normoxic cells, differential expression pattern of keratinocyte phenotypic markers suggested hypoxic cells that generate minimal reactive oxygen species, suppress the mammalian target of rapamycin activity and express hypoxia-inducible factor-1α favor a basal cell phenotype. Thus, regardless of the state of cell cycle arrest, hypoxic conditions can maintain oral keratinocytes, in vitro, in an undifferentiated and quiescence state. PMID:25720390

  8. Novel therapeutic strategies for acute lung injury induced by lung damaging agents: the potential role of growth factors as treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Christopher D

    2011-07-01

    The increasing threat from terrorism has brought attention to the possible use of toxic industrial compounds (TICs) and other lung-damaging agents as weapons against civilian populations. The way in which these agents could be used favours the development of generic countermeasures. Improved medical countermeasures would increase survivability and improve the quality of recovery of lung damaged casualties. It is evident that there is a dearth of therapeutic regimes available to treat those forms of lung damage that currently require intensive care management. It is quite possible that mass casualties from a terrorist incident or major industrial accident involving the release of large quantities of inhaled TICs would place a severe burden on already scarce intensive care facilities. The development of effective pharmacological approaches to assist the recovery of casualties suffering from acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may improve the prognosis of such patients (which is currently poor) and would ideally be used as a means of preventing subjects from developing the pulmonary oedema characteristic of ALI/ARDS. Many promising candidate pharmacological treatments have been evaluated for the treatment of ALI/ARDS, but their clinical value is often debatable. Thus, despite improvements in ventilation strategies, pharmacological intervention for ALI/ARDS remains problematical. A new approach is clearly required for the treatment of patients with severely compromised lungs. Whilst the pathology of ALI/ARDS associated with exposure to a variety of agents is complex, numerous experimental studies suggest that generic therapeutic intervention directed at approaches that aim to upregulate repair of the damaged alveolar blood/air barrier of the lung may be of value, particularly with respect to chemical-induced injury. To this end, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), epithelial growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are emerging as the most important candidates. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) does not have epithelial specificity for lung tissue. However, the enhanced effects of combinations of growth factors, such as the synergistic effect of HGF upon vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial cell activity, and the combined effect of HGF and KGF in tissue repair should be investigated, particularly as the latter pair of growth factors are frequently implicated in processes associated with the repair of lung damage. Synergistic interactions also occur between trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides and growth factors such as EGF. TFF peptides are most likely to be of value as a short term therapeutic intervention strategy in stimulating epithelial spreading activities which allow damaged mucosal surfaces to be rapidly covered by epithelial cells. PMID:20621953

  9. Differential mRNA and tissue expression of lymphangiogenic growth factors (VEGF-C and -D) and their receptor (VEGFR-3) during tail regeneration in a gecko.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Helen A; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Lymphangiogenesis, the growth of new lymph vessels, has important roles in both normal and pathological lymphatic function. Despite recent advances, the precise molecular mechanisms behind the lymphangiogenic process remain unclear. The Australian marbled gecko, Christinus marmoratus, voluntarily drops its tail (autotomy) as a predator avoidance strategy. Following autotomy a new tail is regenerated including lymphatic drainage pathways. We examined the molecular control of lymphangiogenesis within the unique model of the regenerating gecko tail. Partial sequences were obtained of the gecko lymphangiogenic growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D along with their receptor VEGFR-3. These were highly homologous to other vertebrates. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated up-regulation of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 mRNA expression during the early and middle stages of tail regeneration (between 4 and 9 weeks following autotomy), in late regeneration (12 weeks) and during mid-regeneration (7 and 9 weeks), respectively. VEGF-C and VEGF-D immunostaining was observed lining some lymphatic-like and blood vessels in early-mid tail regeneration, indicating possible associations of the proteins with VEGFRs on endothelia. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts also showed positive staining of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in early-mid tail regeneration. Additionally, VEGF-C was localised in adipose tissue in all tail states examined. This work suggests that specific timings exist for the expression of the lymphangiogenic growth factors, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, and their receptor, VEGF-R3, throughout the regeneration of a functional lymphatic network. Along with localisation data, this suggests potential functions for the growth factors in lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis throughout tail regeneration. PMID:21800152

  10. KLF10, transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible early gene 1, acts as a tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ki-Duk; Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Comparative Immunology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 ; Kim, Duk-Jung; Lee, Jong Eun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Comparative Immunology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 ; Lee, Woon Kyu

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} mice exhibited accelerated papilloma development after DMBA/TPA treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} keratinocytes showed increased proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} MEFs yielded more colonies than wild-type one with H-Ras transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10 dose-dependently activated p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10 is a tumor suppressor and that it targets p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription. -- Abstract: Krueppel-like factor 10 (KLF10) has been suggested to be a putative tumor suppressor. In the present study, we generated KLF10 deficient mice to explore this hypothesis in vivo. KLF10 deficient mice exhibited increased predisposition to skin tumorigenesis and markedly accelerated papilloma development after DMBA/TPA treatment. On the other hand, KLF10 deficient keratinocytes showed increased proliferation and apoptosis. In colony formation assays after oncogenic H-Ras transfection, KLF10 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) yielded more colonies than wild-type MEFs. Furthermore, KLF10 dose-dependently activated p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription, which was independent of p53 and Sp1 binding sites in p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter. This study demonstrates that KLF10 is a tumor suppressor and that it targets p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription.

  11. Processing, secretion, and biological properties of a novel growth factor of the fibroblast growth factor family with oncogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Delli-Bovi, P.; Curatola, A.M.; Newman, K.M.; Sato, Y.; Moscatelli, D.; Hewick, R.M.; Rifkin, D.B.; Basilico, C.

    1988-07-01

    The authors recently reported that the protein encoded in a novel human oncogene isolated from Kaposi sarcoma DNA was a growth factor with significant homology to basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). To study the properties of this growth factor (referred to as K-FGF) and the mechanism by which the K-fgf oncogene transforms cells, the authors have studied the production and processing of K-FGF in COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the K-fgf cDNA. The results show that, unkike basic and acidic FGFs, the K-FGF protein is cleaved after a single peptide, glycosylated, and efficiently secreted as a mature protein of 176 or 175 amino acids. Inhibition of glycosylation impaired secretion, and the stability of the secreted K-FGF was greatly enhanced by the presence of heparin in the cultured medium. They have used the conditioned medium from transfected COS-1 cells to test the K-FGF biological activity. Similar to basic FGF, the K-FGF protein was mitogenic for fibroblasts and endothelial cells and induced the growth of NIH 3T3 mouse cells in serum-free medium. Accordingly, K-fgf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells grew in serum-free medium consistent with an autorcrine mechanism of growth. The authors have also expressed the protein encoded in the K-fgf protooncogene in COS-1 cells, and it was indistinguishable in its molecular weight, glycosylation, secretion, and biological activity from K-FGF. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of activation of this oncogene is due to overexpression rather than to mutations in the coding sequences.

  12. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha- vs. growth factor deprivation-promoted cell death: different receptor requirements for mediating nerve growth factor-promoted rescue.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Todd C; Decorti, Francesco; Macdonald, Nancy J; Neet, Kenneth E; Taglialatela, Giulio

    2003-04-01

    Physiological and pathological aging of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by functional neuronal impairments which may lead to perturbed cell homeostasis and eventually to neuronal death. Many toxic events may underlie age-related neurodegeneration. These include the effects of beta amyloid, Tau and mutated presenilin proteins, free radicals and oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lack of growth factor support, which can be individually or collectively involved. Taken individually, these toxicants can induce very diverse cell responses, thus requiring individually targeted corrective interventions upstream of common cell death (apoptotic) pathways. Recent preliminary evidence suggests that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and growth factor withdrawal can both activate a common apoptotic pathway in nerve growth factor (NGF)-responsive PC12 cells involving caspase 3, albeit through very distinct upstream pathways: the former through active signalling and the latter through passive or lack of survival signalling. Here, we show that NGF can rescue PC12 cells from both growth factor withdrawal- and TNFalpha-promoted cell death. However, NGF rescue from growth factor withdrawal requires NGF signalling through the high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkA), while NGF rescue from TNFalpha-promoted cell death requires NGF signalling through the low-affinity p75NTR receptor. These results strengthen the idea that prevention of age- or pathology-associated neurodegeneration may require varied molecular approaches reflecting the diversity of the toxicants involved, possibly acting simultaneously. PMID:12882321

  13. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Wellington Luiz; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungusParacoccidioides brasiliensisandParacoccidioides lutzii In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction ofP. brasiliensiswith these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensisantibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM. PMID:26768374

  14. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I stimulates normal somatic growth in growth hormone-deficient transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Behringer, R R; Lewin, T M; Quaife, C J; Palmiter, R D; Brinster, R L; D'Ercole, A J

    1990-09-01

    A line of transgenic mice expressing insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) under the control of the mouse metallothionien-1 promoter was crossed to a line of dwarf transgenic mice lacking GH expressing cells that were genetically ablated by diphtheria toxin expression. Mice generated from this cross that carry both transgenes express IGF-I in the absence of GH. These mice grew larger than their GH-deficient transgenic littermates and exhibited weight and linear growth indistinguishable from that of their nontransgenic siblings. These results confirm the suspected role of IGF-I in mediating GH's stimulation of somatic growth, including that of long bones, and illustrates the essential role of GH and IGF-I in the modulation of postnatal growth. Analysis of differences in organ growth among these mice, however, suggests that GH and IGF-I also have growth promoting actions that are independent of one another; GH appears to be necessary for the attainment of normal liver size, while IGF-I can stimulate brain growth. PMID:2387246

  15. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and the aging cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amir S; Sane, David C; Wannenburg, Thomas; Sonntag, William E

    2002-04-01

    There is a large body of evidence that biological aging is related to a series of long-term catabolic processes resulting in decreased function and structural integrity of several physiological systems, among which is the cardiovascular system. These changes in the aging phenotype are correlated with a decline in the amplitude of pulsatile growth hormone secretion and the resulting decrease in plasma levels of its anabolic mediator, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The relationship between growth hormone and biological aging is supported by studies demonstrating that growth hormone administration to old animals and humans raises plasma IGF-1 and results in increases in skeletal muscle and lean body mass, a decrease in adiposity, increased immune function, improvements in learning and memory, and increases in cardiovascular function. Since growth hormone and IGF-1 exert potent effects on the heart and vasculature, the relationship between age-related changes in cardiovascular function and the decline in growth hormone levels with age have become of interest. Among the age-related changes in the cardiovascular system are decreases in myocyte number, accumulation of fibrosis and collagen, decreases in stress-induced cardiac function through deterioration of the myocardial conduction system and beta-adrenergic receptor function, decreases in exercise capacity, vessel rarefaction, decreased arterial compliance and endothelial dysfunction leading to alterations in blood flow. Growth hormone has been found to exert potent effects on cardiovascular function in young animals and reverses many of the deficits in cardiovascular function in aged animals and humans. Nevertheless, it has been difficult to separate the effects of growth hormone deficiency from age-related diseases and associated pathologies. The development of novel animal models and additional research are required in order to elucidate the specific effects of growth hormone deficiency and assess its contribution to cardiovascular impairments and biological aging. PMID:12062358

  16. Immunolocalisation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human neonatal growth plate cartilage

    PubMed Central

    HORNER, A.; BISHOP, N. J.; BORD, S.; BEETON, C.; KELSALL, A. W.; COLEMAN, N.; COMPSTON, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the replacement of cartilage by bone during growth and repair. In order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating vascular invasion at sites of endochondral ossification we have investigated the expression of the endothelial cell-specific mitogen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), by chondrocytes in human neonatal growth plates. VEGF was absent from chondrocytes in the resting zone and only weakly expressed by occasional chondrocytes in the proliferating region. In the hypertrophic zone the number of chondrocytes stained and the intensity of staining for VEGF increased with chondrocyte hypertrophy, maximum expression of VEGF being observed in chondrocytes in the lower hypertrophic and mineralised regions of the cartilage. These observations provide the first demonstration of the presence of VEGF in situ in developing human bone and are consistent with in vitro observations demonstrating the upregulation of proangiogenic growth factor production with increasing chondrocyte hypertrophy. The presence of numerous small blood vessels and vascular structures in the subchondral region where VEGF expression was maximal indicates that VEGF produced by hypertrophic chondrocytes may play a key role in the regulation of vascular invasion of the growth plate. PMID:10445820

  17. An expandable, inducible hemangioblast state regulated by fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Vereide, David T; Vickerman, Vernella; Swanson, Scott A; Chu, Li-Fang; McIntosh, Brian E; Thomson, James A

    2014-12-01

    During development, the hematopoietic and vascular lineages are thought to descend from common mesodermal progenitors called hemangioblasts. Here we identify six transcription factors, Gata2, Lmo2, Mycn, Pitx2, Sox17, and Tal1, that "trap" murine cells in a proliferative state and endow them with a hemangioblast potential. These "expandable" hemangioblasts (eHBs) are capable, once released from the control of the ectopic factors, to give rise to functional endothelial cells, multilineage hematopoietic cells, and smooth muscle cells. The eHBs can be derived from embryonic stem cells, from fetal liver cells, or poorly from fibroblasts. The eHBs reveal a central role for fibroblast growth factor, which not only promotes their expansion, but also facilitates their ability to give rise to endothelial cells and leukocytes, but not erythrocytes. This study serves as a demonstration that ephemeral progenitor states can be harnessed in vitro, enabling the creation of tractable progenitor cell lines. PMID:25458896

  18. Transcriptional Regulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Kim, Jung-Guk

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an attractive target for treating metabolic disease due to its wide-ranging beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating FGF21 levels are increased in insulin-resistant states; however, endogenous FGF21 fails to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity, suggesting that metabolic syndrome is an FGF21-resistant state. Therefore, transcription factors for FGF21 are potential drug targets that could increase FGF21 expression in obesity and reduce FGF21 resistance. Despite many studies on the metabolic effects of FGF21, the transcriptional regulation of FGF21 gene expression remains controversial and is not fully understood. As the FGF21 transcription factor pathway is one of the most promising targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, further investigation of FGF21 transcriptional regulation is required. PMID:25031882

  19. Nrf2 Regulates the Sensitivity of Mouse Keratinocytes to Nitrogen Mustard via Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 (Mrp1).

    PubMed

    Udasin, Ronald G; Wen, Xia; Bircsak, Kristin M; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Shakarjian, Michael P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine, HN2) are potent vesicants developed as chemical warfare agents. These electrophilic, bifunctional alkylating agents cause skin injury, including inflammation, edema, and blistering. HN2 covalently modifies macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins or is scavenged by glutathione, forming adducts that can contribute to toxicity. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1/MRP1) is a transmembrane ATPase known to efflux glutathione-conjugated electrophiles. In the present studies, we examined the effects of modulating Mrp1-mediated transport activity on the sensitivity of primary and PAM212 mouse keratinocytes to HN2. Primary keratinocytes, and to a lesser extent, PAM212 cells, express Mrp1 mRNA and protein and possess Mrp1 functional activity, as measured by calcein efflux. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, increased Mrp1 mRNA, protein, and functional activity in primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells and decreased their sensitivity to HN2-induced growth inhibition (IC(50) = 1.4 and 4.8 µM in primary keratinocytes and 1 and 13 µM in PAM212 cells, in the absence and presence of sulforaphane, respectively). The Mrp1 inhibitor, MK-571, reversed the effects of sulforaphane on HN2-induced growth inhibition in both primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells. In primary keratinocytes from Nrf2(-/-) mice, sulforaphane had no impact on Mrp1 expression or activity, or on sensitivity to HN2, demonstrating that its effects depend on Nrf2. These data suggest that Mrp1-mediated efflux is important in regulating HN2-induced keratinocyte growth inhibition. Enhancing HN2 efflux from keratinocytes may represent a novel strategy for mitigating vesicant-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26454883

  20. Role of growth factors in the growth of normal and transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lokeshwar, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    Growth factors play an important role in the growth of normal cells. However, their untimely and/or excess production leads to neoplastic transformation. The role of growth factors in the growth of normal cells was studied by investigating the mechanism of transmodulation of the cell surface EGF receptor number by protamine. Protamine increased the EGF stimulated mitogenic response in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells and A431 cells by increasing the number of functionally active EGF receptors. Protamine also increased EGF receptor number in plasma membranes and solubilized membranes. This was evidenced by an increase in both {sup 125}I-EGF-EGF-receptor complex and EGF stimulated phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The solubilized EGF receptor was retained on a protamine-agarose gel indicating that protamine might increase EGF receptor number by directly activating cryptic EGF receptors in the plasma membranes. The role of growth factors in neoplastic transformation was studied by investigating the role of the oncogene v-sis in the growth of Simian sarcoma virus (SSV) transformed cells. The product of the oncogene v-sis is 94% homologous to the B chain of PDGF. This study found that (i) v-sis gene product is synthesized as a 32 kDa unglycosylated monomer which is glycosylated, dimerized and proteolytically processed into p36, p72, p68, p58, p44 and p27 mol. wt. species respectively. (ii) p36, p72, p68 and p58 are very likely formed in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi complex. A fraction of newly synthesized p72, p68 and p58 is degraded intracellularly at a fast rate. (iii) p44 is a secretory product which remains tightly associated with the cell surface. p44 is recaptured by the cells through interaction with cell surface PDGF receptors and degraded into p27. (iv) During long term cultures p44 is extracellularly cleaved into a 27 kDa product.

  1. Transcription factor LSF (TFCP2) inhibits melanoma growth.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yuji; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Asami; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Inoue, Yuji; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Kyoya, Mikiko; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Bennett, Dorothy C; Kato, Masashi

    2016-01-19

    Late SV40 factor 3 (LSF), a transcription factor, contributes to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, decreased expression level of LSF in skin melanoma compared to that in benign melanocytic tumors and nevi in mice and humans was found in this study. Anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of melanoma cells was suppressed by LSF overexpression through an increased percentage of G1 phase cells and an increased p21CIP1 expression level in vitro and in vivo. Anchorage-dependent growth in LSF-overexpressed melanoma cells was promoted by depletion of LSF in the LSF-overexpressed cells. Integrated results of our EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed binding of LSF within a 150-bp upstream region of the transcription start site of p21CIP1 in melanoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest potential roles of LSF as a growth regulator through control of the transcription of p21CIP1 in melanocytes and melanoma cells as well as a biomarker for nevus. PMID:26506241

  2. The LRIG family enigmatic regulators of growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Simion, Catalina; Prieto, Maria Elvira Cedano; Sweeney, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The LRIG (leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains) family of transmembrane proteins contains three vertebrate members (LRIG1, LRIG2, LRIG3) and one member each in flies (Lambik) and worms (Sma-10). LRIGs have stepped into the spotlight as essential regulators of growth factor receptors, including receptor tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. LRIGs have been found to both negatively (LRIG1, LRIG3) and positively (Sma-10, LRIG3) regulate growth factor receptor expression and signaling, although the precise molecular mechanisms by which LRIGs function are not yet understood. The most is known about LRIG1, which was recently demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Indeed, in vivo experiments reinforce the essential link between LRIG1 and repression of its targets for tissue homeostasis. LRIG1 has also been identified as a stem cell marker and regulator of stem cell quiescence in a variety of tissues, discussed within. Comparably less is known about LRIG2 and LRIG3 although studies to date suggest that their functions are largely distinct from LRIG1 and that they likely do not serve as growth/tumor suppressors. Finally, the translational applications of expressing soluble forms of LRIG1 in LRIG1-deficient tumors are being explored and hold tremendous promise. PMID:25183430

  3. Immortalized B lymphocytes produce B-cell growth factor.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Ley, S C; Melamed, M D; English, L S; Hughes-Jones, N C

    The activation, clonal expansion and terminal differentiation of small resting B lymphocytes primed by an antigen (or antibodies to its receptors) appear to follow an orderly developmental sequence triggered at each stage by distinct soluble cytokines, primarily produced by T lymphocytes. For man, the only known B-cell mitogen independent of accessory cells for its action is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Lymphocytes transformed by EBV are released from the usual constraints on B-cell growth, proliferating continuously in the absence of any exogenous cytokine. The resultant cell lines are of special interest as they possess certain features compatible with a preneoplastic state of Burkitt's lymphoma, one of two human cancers with which the virus is intimately associated. We report here that following EBV-transformation, B lymphoblasts release a soluble factor which mimics the B-cell stimulatory product(s) of mitogen-conditioned T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the virally-transformed cells utilize this activity to sustain their own growth. The ectopic production of an otherwise normal growth factor may represent a critical event in the malignant evolution of human lymphomas harbouring the EBV genome. PMID:6610833

  4. Production of human epidermal growth factor using adenoviral based system

    PubMed Central

    Negahdari, Babak; Shahosseini, Zahra; Baniasadi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth factor involved in cell growth and differentiation, is a small polypeptide with molecular weight of approximately 6 kDa known to be present in a number of different mammalian species. Experimental studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that the topical application of EGF accelerates the rate of epidermal regeneration of partial-thickness wounds and second-degree burns. Due to its commercial applications, Human EGF (hEGF) has been cloned in several forms. In the present study, adenoviral based expression system was used to produce biologically active recombinant hEGF. The presence of secreted recombinant hEGF was confirmed by a dot blot and its expression level was determined by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Moreover, biological activity of secreted hEGF was evaluated by a proliferation assay performed on A549 cells. For production of hEGF in a secretory form, a chimeric gene coding for the hEGF fused to the signal peptide was expressed using adenoviral based method. This method enables the production of hEGF at the site of interest and moreover it could be used for cell proliferation and differentiation assays in tissue engineering research experiments instead of using commercially available EGF. PMID:27051431

  5. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in development and skeletal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Teven, Chad M.; Farina, Evan M.; Rivas, Jane; Reid, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors serve many functions in both the developing and adult organism. Humans contain 18 FGF ligands and four FGF receptors (FGFR). FGF ligands are polypeptide growth factors that regulate several developmental processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration, morphogenesis, and patterning. FGF-FGFR signaling is also critical to the developing axial and craniofacial skeleton. In particular, the signaling cascade has been implicated in intramembranous ossification of cranial bones as well as cranial suture homeostasis. In the adult, FGFs and FGFRs are crucial for tissue repair. FGF signaling generally follows one of three transduction pathways: RAS/MAP kinase, PI3/AKT, or PLCγ. Each pathway likely regulates specific cellular behaviors. Inappropriate expression of FGF and improper activation of FGFRs are associated with various pathologic conditions, unregulated cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Additionally, aberrant signaling has been implicated in many skeletal abnormalities including achondroplasia and craniosynostosis. The biology and mechanisms of the FGF family have been the subject of significant research over the past 30 years. Recently, work has focused on the therapeutic targeting and potential of FGF ligands and their associated receptors. The majority of FGF-related therapy is aimed at age-related disorders. Increased understanding of FGF signaling and biology may reveal additional therapeutic roles, both in utero and postnatally. This review discusses the role of FGF signaling in general physiologic and pathologic embryogenesis and further explores it within the context of skeletal development. PMID:25679016

  6. Transcription factor LSF (TFCP2) inhibits melanoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yuji; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Asami; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Inoue, Yuji; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Kyoya, Mikiko; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Kato, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Late SV40 factor 3 (LSF), a transcription factor, contributes to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, decreased expression level of LSF in skin melanoma compared to that in benign melanocytic tumors and nevi in mice and humans was found in this study. Anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of melanoma cells was suppressed by LSF overexpression through an increased percentage of G1 phase cells and an increased p21CIP1 expression level in vitro and in vivo. Anchorage-dependent growth in LSF-overexpressed melanoma cells was promoted by depletion of LSF in the LSF-overexpressed cells. Integrated results of our EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed binding of LSF within a 150-bp upstream region of the transcription start site of p21CIP1 in melanoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest potential roles of LSF as a growth regulator through control of the transcription of p21CIP1 in melanocytes and melanoma cells as well as a biomarker for nevus. PMID:26506241

  7. Secretion of growth factors from macrophages when cultured with microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Archana; Wooten, R. Mark; Jayasuriya, A. Champa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of macrophages on osteoblast performance and differentiation. In this regard, we studied the secretion of growth factors including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) from before and after activation of macrophages. We also evaluated osteogenic markers in the co-culture of macrophages and osteoblsats (OBs). The macrophages were seeded on microparticles (MPs) based on chitosan (CS). Two types of MPs were fabricated including CS MPs and 10% calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) incorporated CS MPs. Macrophage seeded on MPs was activated using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The expression of BMP-2, BMP-6, BMP-7, and transforming growth-?) from macrophages seeded and cultured on hybrid MPs before and after activation of LPS at pre-determined times was quantified using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All of the above growth factors were expressed from MP-macrophage cultures before LPS activation. Ostesogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I (COL-I) in the cultures of MP-OB-macrophage were quantified using a quantitative RT-PCR at day 2, 4, and 7. We found an elevation of gene expression of ALP and COL-1 in the co-cultures of OB-macrophage on MPs compared to OB on MP cultures. These data suggest that macrophages enhance expression of osteogenic markers in OBs, and demonstrate the importance of the role of macrophages in bone regeneration. PMID:23554098

  8. Autocrine growth regulation of human glomerular mesangial cells is primarily mediated by basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Francki, A.; Uciechowski, P.; Floege, J.; von der Ohe, J.; Resch, K.; Radeke, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    For various forms of human glomerulonephritis a close relationship between inflammatory injury and a local mesangial proliferative response has been described. Herein, we used primary cultures of human glomerular mesangial cells (HMCs) from five different donors to determine the autocrine growth-inducing capacity of their supernatants after stimulation with different cytokines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine whether this effect is due to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The basal growth-inducing capacity of supernatants collected from serum-free cultured HMC and concentrated 100-fold above a cut-off size of 10 kd was significantly increased by interleukin (IL)-1 beta, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and LPS up to 15-fold, but not by IL-1 alpha, IL-6, or bFGF. An anti-human bFGF antibody blocked the majority of IL-1 or LPS-induced proliferative effect of supernatants; complete inhibition was achieved by a combination of anti-human bFGF- and anti-human platelet-derived growth factor antibodies. HMCs express different isoforms of bFGF (18, 21.5, and 24 kd) in membrane, cytosolic, and nuclear fractions. All isoforms of bFGF were found in the nuclear fraction of HMC, whether stimulated or not. Immunoblots for bFGF protein of HMC demonstrated that only a approximate to 16 kd bFGF protein was released into HMC supernatants after stimulation with IL-1 beta, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and LPS. The 18 kd isoform of bFGF accumulated in the membranes but was not released after stimulation with IL-1 alpha, IL-6, and bFGF, suggesting that its release was a prerequisite for autocrine growth stimulation. By means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction controlled by Southern blots, bFGF-mRNA expression of HMC was enhanced by IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and LPS. Finally, we were able to show that HMCs are expressing bFGF receptors. In summary, our data demonstrate for the first time that the autocrine proliferative response of HMC to major inflammatory factors may primarily be mediated by bFGF. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7485400

  9. Organotypic co-cultures allow for immortalized human gingival keratinocytes to reconstitute a gingival epithelial phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Steinberg, Thorsten; Bosch, F Xavier; Müssig, Eva; Whitaker, Noel; Wiest, Tina; Kohl, Annette; Komposch, Gerda; Tomakidi, Pascal

    2006-12-01

    We report here that the organotypic co-culture (OCC) system allows for significant preservation of the tissue-specific phenotype of human gingival keratinocytes (IHGK) immortalized with the E6/E7 gene of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). The approach adopted is based on the OCC system facilitating spatially separated cell growth and cell-to-cell interactions via diffusible growth factors. Generally, IHGK reveal transcription of the HPV16 E6/E7 gene at rising passages. Fluorescence in situ hybridization performed for chromosomes 1, 8, 10, and 18 demonstrates that disomic fractions differ between the tested chromosomes but otherwise remain fairly constant. Monosomies of chromosome 18 are more prominent in late passages 81 and 83, while polysomies of chromosome 10 and 18 are detected in early passages 25 and 27. In comparison with corresponding monolayer cultures (MCs), IHGK in OCCs form stratified epithelia, proliferate, and express gingival-specific gene products in vitro. Moreover, mRNA gene transcription for growth factors interleukin 1beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, and EGF in OCCs is different from that in MCs. When grafted onto nude mice, IHGK develop hyperplastic, differentiated surface epithelia devoid of malignant growth. We are not aware of any other OCC system comprising of IHGK, which allows for site-specific expression of gingival epithelial markers. This substantiates reconstitution of a gingival epithelial phenotype in vitro. PMID:17177858

  10. Extracellular vimentin interacts with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor to promote axonal growth

    PubMed Central

    Shigyo, Michiko; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Sawai, Yusuke; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Tohda, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is generally recognised as an intracellular protein. Previously, we reported that vimentin was secreted from astrocytes and promoted axonal growth. The effect of extracellular vimentin in neurons was a new finding, but its signalling pathway was unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the signalling mechanism of extracellular vimentin that facilitates axonal growth. We first identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as a receptor that is highly phosphorylated by vimentin stimulation. IGF1R blockades diminished vimentin- or IGF1-induced axonal growth in cultured cortical neurons. IGF1, IGF2 and insulin were not detected in the neuron culture medium after vimentin treatment. The combined drug affinity responsive target stability method and western blotting analysis showed that vimentin and IGF1 interacted with IGF1R directly. In addition, immunoprecipitation and western blotting analyses confirmed that recombinant IGF1R bound to vimentin. The results of a molecular dynamics simulation revealed that C-terminal residues (residue number 330-407) in vimentin are the most appropriate binding sites with IGF1R. Thus, extracellular vimentin may be a novel ligand of IGF1R that promotes axonal growth in a similar manner to IGF1. Our results provide novel findings regarding the role of extracellular vimentin and IGF1R in axonal growth. PMID:26170015

  11. Interaction of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated p85 with epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, P; Margolis, B; Skolnik, E Y; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J

    1992-01-01

    One of the immediate cellular responses to stimulation by various growth factors is the activation of a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. We recently cloned the 85-kDa subunit of PI 3-kinase (p85) from a lambda gt11 expression library, using the tyrosine-phosphorylated carboxy terminus of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor as a probe (E. Y. Skolnik, B. Margolis, M. Mohammadi, E. Lowenstein, R. Fischer, A. Drepps, A. Ullrich, and J. Schlessinger, Cell 65:83-90, 1991). In this study, we have examined the association of p85 with EGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors and the tyrosine phosphorylation of p85 in 3T3 (HER14) cells in response to EGF and PDGF treatment. Treatment of cells with EGF or PDGF markedly increased the amount of p85 associated with EGF and PDGF receptors. Binding assays with glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins demonstrated that either Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain of p85 is sufficient for binding to EGF and PDGF receptors and that receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation is required for binding. Binding of a GST fusion protein expressing the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85 (GST-N-SH2) to EGF and PDGF receptors was half-maximally inhibited by 2 and 24 mM phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr), respectively, suggesting that the N-SH2 domain interacts more stably with PDGF receptors than with EGF receptors. The amount of receptor-p85 complex detected in HER14 cells treated with EGF or PDGF. Growth factor treatment also increased the amount of p85 found in anti-PDGF-treated HER14 cells, suggesting that the vast majority of p85 in the anti-P-Tyr fraction is receptor associated but not phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. Only upon transient overexpression of p85 and PDGF receptor did p85 become tyrosine phosphorylated. These are consistent with the hypothesis that p85 functions as an adaptor molecule that targets PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372091

  12. Temporins A and B Stimulate Migration of HaCaT Keratinocytes and Kill Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Di Grazia, Antonio; Luca, Vincenzo; Segev-Zarko, Li-av T.; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of microbial pathogens resistant to available antibiotics is a serious threat to human life. Among them is the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, which colonizes keratinocytes, the most abundant cell type in the epidermis. Its intracellular accumulation complicates treatments against resulting infections, mainly due to the limited diffusion of conventional drugs into the cells. Temporins A (Ta) and B (Tb) are short frog skin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Despite extensive studies regarding their antimicrobial activity, very little is known about their activity on infected cells or involvement in various immunomodulatory functions. Here we show that Tb kills both ATCC-derived and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus within infected HaCaT keratinocytes (80% and 40% bacterial mortality, respectively) at a nontoxic concentration, i.e., 16 μM, whereas a weaker effect is displayed by Ta. Furthermore, the peptides prevent killing of keratinocytes by the invading bacteria. Further studies revealed that both temporins promote wound healing in a monolayer of HaCaT cells, with front speed migrations of 19 μm/h and 12 μm/h for Ta and Tb, respectively. Migration is inhibited by mitomycin C and involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Finally, confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that the peptides diffuse into the cells. By combining antibacterial and wound-healing activities, Ta and Tb may act as multifunctional mediators of innate immunity in humans. Particularly, their nonendogenous origin may reduce microbial resistance to them as well as the risk of autoimmune diseases in mammals. PMID:24514087

  13. Temporins A and B stimulate migration of HaCaT keratinocytes and kill intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Di Grazia, Antonio; Luca, Vincenzo; Segev-Zarko, Li-Av T; Shai, Yechiel; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2014-05-01

    The growing number of microbial pathogens resistant to available antibiotics is a serious threat to human life. Among them is the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, which colonizes keratinocytes, the most abundant cell type in the epidermis. Its intracellular accumulation complicates treatments against resulting infections, mainly due to the limited diffusion of conventional drugs into the cells. Temporins A (Ta) and B (Tb) are short frog skin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Despite extensive studies regarding their antimicrobial activity, very little is known about their activity on infected cells or involvement in various immunomodulatory functions. Here we show that Tb kills both ATCC-derived and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus within infected HaCaT keratinocytes (80% and 40% bacterial mortality, respectively) at a nontoxic concentration, i.e., 16 μM, whereas a weaker effect is displayed by Ta. Furthermore, the peptides prevent killing of keratinocytes by the invading bacteria. Further studies revealed that both temporins promote wound healing in a monolayer of HaCaT cells, with front speed migrations of 19 μm/h and 12 μm/h for Ta and Tb, respectively. Migration is inhibited by mitomycin C and involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Finally, confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that the peptides diffuse into the cells. By combining antibacterial and wound-healing activities, Ta and Tb may act as multifunctional mediators of innate immunity in humans. Particularly, their nonendogenous origin may reduce microbial resistance to them as well as the risk of autoimmune diseases in mammals. PMID:24514087

  14. H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Peus, D; Vasa, R A; Meves, A; Pott, M; Beyerle, A; Squillace, K; Pittelkow, M R

    1998-06-01

    Exposure of human keratinocytes to physiologic doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We demonstrate that H2O2 generated by UVB mediates EGFR phosphorylation. Using dihydrorhodamine 123 as a specific fluorescent dye probe, we show that UVB irradiation (50-800 J per m2) of keratinocytes leads within minutes to concentration-dependent intracellular production of H2O2. A corresponding concentration-dependent increase in the release of extracellular H2O2 was measured by using Amplex, a derivative of dihydrophenoxazine. The levels of intracellular H2O2 that are induced by UVB irradiation and that stimulate EGFR phosphorylation correlate strongly with the response induced by exogenously added H2O2. UVB or H2O2 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent stimulation of EGFR phosphorylation that was initially observed within 1-5 min and exhibited a proportionate delay for UVB-induced production of H2O2. EGFR phosphorylation induced by UVB or H2O2 declined significantly toward baseline levels by 4 h and could be restimulated after H2O2 but not after UVB exposure. Phosphorylation of EGFR was inhibited by the structurally unrelated antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, or by the H2O2-degrading enzyme catalase. These data indicate that generation of H2O2 by UVB radiation of human keratinocytes participates in the rapid, ligand-independent phosphorylation of EGFR and implicate H2O2 as a biologic mediator in EGFR activation and regulation of the downstream signaling cascade. UVB-induced H2O2 has the potential to initiate or modulate early EGFR-mediated signaling events that could play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. PMID:9620307

  15. THIAMINE AND NICOTINIC ACID: ANAEROBIC GROWTH FACTORS FOR MUCOR ROUXII

    PubMed Central

    Bartnicki-Garcia, S.; Nickerson, Walter J.

    1961-01-01

    Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (Rutgers, the State University, New Brunswick, N. J.), and Walter J. Nickerson. Thiamine and nicotinic acid: Anaerobic growth factors for Mucor rouxii. J. Bacteriol. 82:142–148. 1961.—Mucor rouxii requires preformed thiamine and nicotinic acid for anaerobic growth. Such requirements are not manifested during aerobic incubation. Aerobically, the fungus was shown to be able to synthesize both vitamins. The yeastlike form and the filamentous form of anaerobically grown M. rouxii exhibit the same vitamin requirements. Thiamine can be substituted by its thiazole moiety. Under certain conditions, nicotinic acid was partly substituted by tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Anaerobically. the fungus (thiamine requiring) was about ten times more susceptible to pyrithiamine antagonism than the same organism grown aerobically (thiamine independent). PMID:16561911

  16. Release characteristics of encapsulated formulations incorporating plant growth factors.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Slawomir; Schwartz, Liliana; Wiesman, Zeev; Markus, Arie; Wolf, David

    2002-05-01

    The release characteristics of encapsulated formulations containing a combination of plant growth factors (PGF)--plant hormones (IBA, paclobutrazol), nutrients (fertilizers, microelements), and fungicide (prochloraz)--were studied. The formulations were prepared by encapsulating the active ingredients in a polyethylene matrix and, in some cases, subsequently coating the product with polyurethane. Dissolution experiments were carried out with both coated and non-coated formulations to determine the sustained release patterns of the active ingredients. The PGF controlled-release systems obtained have been shown to promote development of root systems, vegetative growth, and reproductive development in cuttings, potted plants, or garden plants of various plant species. These beneficial effects are attributable to the lasting and balanced PGF availability provided by these systems. PMID:12009194

  17. Interdependent epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sylwia; Rappoport, Joshua Z

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signalling regulates diverse cellular functions, promoting cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell growth and survival. EGFR signalling is critical during embryogenesis, in particular in epithelial development, and disruption of the EGFR gene results in epithelial immaturity and perinatal death. EGFR signalling also functions during wound healing responses through accelerating wound re-epithelialisation, inducing cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. Upregulation of EGFR signalling is often observed in carcinomas and has been shown to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation and metastasis. Therefore aberrant EGFR signalling is a common target for anticancer therapies. Various reports indicate that EGFR signalling primarily occurs at the plasma membrane and EGFR degradation following endocytosis greatly attenuates signalling. Other studies argue that EGFR internalisation is essential for complete activation of downstream signalling cascades and that endosomes can serve as signalling platforms. The aim of this review is to discuss current understanding of intersection between EGFR signalling and trafficking. PMID:24681003

  18. Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Malignant Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Sorensen, A. Gregory; Jain, Rakesh K.; Batchelor, Tracy T.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are among the most vascular tumors because they oversecrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent stimulator of angiogenesis. Consequently, new drug regimens are being developed to target the VEGF signaling pathway in an attempt to halt tumor growth. Antibodies that bind VEGF, decoy molecules that sequester VEGF, and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that block receptor activation are being tested. Preliminary results with these agents have been promising, with prolonged progression-free survival reported. The antipermeability effects of anti-VEGF agents have important consequences for tumor imaging and for patient quality of life by decreasing corticosteroid dependence. However, because most patients eventually relapse, more work is needed to understand mechanisms of disease escape, including vascular cooption of native brain blood vessels. PMID:19348715

  19. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins--an Update.

    PubMed

    Bach, Leon A

    2015-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is essential for normal growth and development, and its perturbation is implicated in a number of diseases. IGF activity is finely regulated by a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). 1GFBPs usually inhibit IGF actions but may enhance them under certain conditions. Additionally, IGFBPs bind non-IGF ligands in the extracellular space, cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, thereby modulating cell proliferation, survival and migration in an IGF-independent manner. IGFBP activity is regulated by transcriptional mechanisms as well as by post-translational modifications and proteolysis. Understanding the balance between the various actions of IGFBPs in vivo may lead to novel insights into disease processes and possible IGFBP-based therapeutics. PMID:26841640

  20. The emerging role of hepatocyte growth factor in renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Song; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a kringle-containing polypeptide, acts on various epithelial cells to regulate cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis. HGF also accelerates tissue regeneration of injured organs and is regarded as a key molecule in organ regeneration. Besides the regeneration of the liver, HGF also plays a role in the renal regeneration. In addition, an adaptive alteration of HGF status in various renal diseases occurs. However, the precise role of HGF in various renal diseases remains elusive. The signaling pathways of HGF may be associated with renal diseases. In this review, we will try to provide an in-depth understanding of the underlying role of HGF and its possible interactions with other molecules in renal diseases. PMID:26460681

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berasain, Carmen; Latasa, María Ujue; Urtasun, Raquel; Goñi, Saioa; Elizalde, María; Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane; Azcona, María; Prieto, Jesús; Ávila, Matías A.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment. PMID:24212818

  2. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 15 deficiency impairs liver regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bo; Huang, Jiansheng; Zhu, Yan; Li, Guodong; Williams, Jessica; Shen, Steven; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Richardson, Jason R.; Apte, Udayan; Rudnick, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 (human homolog, FGF19) is an endocrine FGF highly expressed in the small intestine of mice. Emerging evidence suggests that FGF15 is critical for regulating hepatic functions; however, the role of FGF15 in liver regeneration is unclear. This study assessed whether liver regeneration is altered in FGF15 knockout (KO) mice following 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PHx). The results showed that FGF15 KO mice had marked mortality, with the survival rate influenced by genetic background. Compared with wild-type mice, the KO mice displayed extensive liver necrosis and marked elevation of serum bile acids and bilirubin. Furthermore, hepatocyte proliferation was reduced in the KO mice because of impaired cell cycle progression. After PHx, the KO mice had weaker activation of signaling pathways that are important for liver regeneration, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, nuclear factor-κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Examination of the KO mice at early time points after PHx revealed a reduced and/or delayed induction of immediate-early response genes, including growth-control transcription factors that are critical for liver regeneration. In conclusion, the results suggest that FGF15 deficiency severely impairs liver regeneration in mice after PHx. The underlying mechanism is likely the result of disrupted bile acid homeostasis and impaired priming of hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:24699334

  4. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A Structural Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Briony E.; McCarthy, Peter; Norton, Raymond S.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6) bind insulin-like growth factors-I and -II (IGF-I and IGF-II) with high affinity. These binding proteins maintain IGFs in the circulation and direct them to target tissues, where they promote cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival via the type 1 IGF receptor. IGFBPs also interact with many other molecules, which not only influence their modulation of IGF action but also mediate IGF-independent activities that regulate processes such as cell migration and apoptosis by modulating gene transcription. IGFBPs-1 to -6 are structurally similar proteins consisting of three distinct domains, N-terminal, linker, and C-terminal. There have been major advances in our understanding of IGFBP structure in the last decade and a half. While there is still no structure of an intact IGFBP, several structures of individual N- and C-domains have been solved. The structure of a complex of N-BP-4:IGF-I:C-BP-4 has also been solved, providing a detailed picture of the structural features of the IGF binding site and the mechanism of binding. Structural studies have also identified features important for interaction with extracellular matrix components and integrins. This review summarizes structural studies reported so far and highlights features important for binding not only IGF but also other partners. We also highlight future directions in which structural studies will add to our knowledge of the role played by the IGFBP family in normal growth and development, as well as in disease. PMID:22654863

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 1: a key regulator of human adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hutley, Louise; Shurety, Wenda; Newell, Felicity; McGeary, Ross; Pelton, Nicole; Grant, Jennifer; Herington, Adrian; Cameron, Donald; Whitehead, Jon; Prins, Johannes

    2004-12-01

    Obesity, with its related problems, is recognized as the fastest growing disease epidemic facing the world, yet we still have limited insight into the regulation of adipose tissue mass in humans. We have previously shown that adipose-derived microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) secrete a factor(s) that increases proliferation of human preadipocytes. We now demonstrate that coculture of human preadipocytes with MVECs significantly increases preadipocyte differentiation, evidenced by dramatically increased triacylglycerol accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity compared with controls. Subsequent analysis identified fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 as an adipogenic factor produced by MVECs. Expression of FGF-1 was demonstrated in MVECs but not in preadipocytes, while preadipocytes were shown to express FGF receptors 1-4. The proliferative effect of MVECs on human preadipocytes was blocked using a neutralizing antibody specific for FGF-1. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF-1 signaling at multiple steps inhibits preadipocyte replication and differentiation, supporting the key adipogenic role of FGF-1. We also show that 3T3-L1 cells, a highly efficient murine model of adipogenesis, express FGF-1 and, unlike human preadipocytes, display no increased differentiation potential in response to exogenous FGF-1. Conversely, FGF-1-treated human preadipocytes proliferate rapidly and differentiate with high efficiency in a manner characteristic of 3T3-L1 cells. We therefore suggest that FGF-1 is a key human adipogenic factor, and these data expand our understanding of human fat tissue growth and have significant potential for development of novel therapeutic strategies in the prevention and management of human obesity. PMID:15561939

  6. Self-inactivating MLV vectors have a reduced genotoxic profile in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, A; Cocchiarella, F; Bartholomae, C; Schmidt, M; Pincelli, C; Larcher, F; Mavilio, F

    2013-09-01

    Transplantation of epithelia derived from keratinocyte stem cells transduced by retroviral vectors is a potential therapy for epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a family of inherited skin adhesion defects. The biosafety characteristics of retroviral vectors in keratinocytes are, however, poorly defined. We developed self-inactivating (SIN) vectors derived from the Moloney murine leukemia (MLV) and the human immunodeficiency (HIV) viruses expressing therapeutic levels of LAMB3, a transgene defective in junctional EB, and tested their integration profile in human primary keratinocytes. The SIN-HIV vector showed the expected preference for transcribed genes while the SIN-MLV vector integrated preferentially in regulatory elements, but showed a significantly lower tendency to target cell growth-related genes, transcription start sites and epigenetically defined promoters compared with a wild-type MLV vector in an epithelial cell context. A quantitative gene expression assay in individual keratinocyte clones showed that MLV-derived vectors deregulate expression of targeted genes at a lower frequency than in hematopoietic cells, and that the SIN-MLV design has the lowest activity compared to both MLV and SIN-HIV vectors. This study indicates that SIN-MLV vectors may have a better safety profile in keratinocyte than in hematopoietic cells, and be a reasonable alternative to lentiviral vectors for gene therapy of inherited skin disorders. PMID:23615186

  7. Induction of proteins and mRNAs after uv irradiation of human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kartasova, T.; Ponec, M.; van de Putte, P.

    1988-02-01

    uv sensitivity of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes was analyzed at different growth conditions and compared with the sensitivity of dermal fibroblasts derived from the same skin specimen. No significant differences in survival curves were found between these two cell types, although keratinocytes grown under standard conditions were slightly more resistant to uv irradiation than fibroblasts. The extracellular concentration of calcium appeared to be critical not only in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, but also in the uv sensitivity of these cells: keratinocytes grown under conditions which favor cell proliferation (low calcium concentration) are more resistant to uv irradiation than those grown under conditions favoring differentiation (high calcium concentration). Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis was used to detect a possible effect of uv irradiation on the accumulation of specific mRNAs in the cytoplasm and/or on the synthesis of specific proteins. Proteins were pulse labeled in vivo with (/sup 35/S)methionine or synthesized in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysates on mRNA isolated from keratinocytes that were irradiated with different uv doses at different periods of time prior to isolation. Alterations in expression were demonstrated for several proteins in both in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  8. Production of Superoxide Anions by Keratinocytes Initiates P. acnes-Induced Inflammation of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Grange, Philippe A.; Chéreau, Christiane; Raingeaud, Joël; Nicco, Carole; Weill, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous follicles. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a gram-positive anareobic bacterium, plays a critical role in the development of these inflammatory lesions. This study aimed at determining whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by keratinocytes upon P. acnes infection, dissecting the mechanism of this production, and investigating how this phenomenon integrates in the general inflammatory response induced by P. acnes. In our hands, ROS, and especially superoxide anions (O2•−), were rapidly produced by keratinocytes upon stimulation by P. acnes surface proteins. In P. acnes-stimulated keratinocytes, O2•− was produced by NAD(P)H oxidase through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36. O2•− was dismuted by superoxide dismutase to form hydrogen peroxide which was further detoxified into water by the GSH/GPx system. In addition, P. acnes-induced O2•− abrogated P. acnes growth and was involved in keratinocyte lysis through the combination of O2•− with nitric oxide to form peroxynitrites. Finally, retinoic acid derivates, the most efficient anti-acneic drugs, prevent O2•− production, IL-8 release and keratinocyte apoptosis, suggesting the relevance of this pathway in humans. PMID:19629174

  9. A Glutathione-Nrf2-Thioredoxin Cross-Talk Ensures Keratinocyte Survival and Efficient Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Telorack, Michèle; Meyer, Michael; Ingold, Irina; Conrad, Marcus; Bloch, Wilhelm; Werner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is the most abundant cellular antioxidant with high medical relevance, and it is also required as a co-factor for various enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and toxic compounds. However, its cell-type specific functions and its interaction with other cytoprotective molecules are largely unknown. Using a combination of mouse genetics, functional cell biology and pharmacology, we unraveled the function of glutathione in keratinocytes and its cross-talk with other antioxidant defense systems. Mice with keratinocyte-specific deficiency in glutamate cysteine ligase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glutathione biosynthesis, showed a strong reduction in keratinocyte viability in vitro and in the skin in vivo. The cells died predominantly by apoptosis, but also showed fe