Science.gov

Sample records for keratinocyte growth factor

  1. The Roles of Growth Factors in Keratinocyte Migration

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Paller, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The re-epithelialization of wounded skin requires the rapid and coordinated migration of keratinocytes (KC) into the wound bed. Almost immediately after wounding, cells present at or attracted to the wound site begin to secrete a complex milieu of growth factors. These growth factors exert mitogenic and motogenic effects on KCs, inducing the rapid proliferation and migration of KCs at the wound edge. Recent Advances: New roles for growth factors in KC biology are currently being discovered and investigated. This review will highlight the growth factors, particularly transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF-7), FGF-10, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which have conclusively been shown to be the most motogenic for KCs. Critical Issues: The cellular and molecular heterogeneity of wounded tissue makes establishing direct relationships between specific growth factors and KC migration difficult in situ. The absence of this complexity in simplified in vitro experimental models of migration makes the clinical relevance of the results obtained from these in vitro studies ambiguous. Future Directions: Deciphering the relationship between growth factors and KC migration is critical for understanding the process of wound healing in normal and disease states. Insights into the basic science of the effects of growth factors on KC migration will hopefully lead to the development of new therapies to treat acute and chronic wounds. PMID:25945284

  2. The effect of pantothenic acid deficiency on keratinocyte proliferation and the synthesis of keratinocyte growth factor and collagen in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisaku; Kusama, Miho; Onda, Masaaki; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and panthenol, an alcohol derivative of pantothenic acid, have beneficial moisturizing effects on the skin. However, few studies have investigated the mechanism of action of pantothenic acid on skin tissues. We tried to clarify the role of pantothenic acid on skin function by using keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The depletion of pantothenic acid from the culture medium suppressed keratinocyte proliferation and promoted differentiation. Moreover, pantothenic acid depletion decreased the synthesis of keratinocyte growth factor and procollagen 4a2 in fibroblasts. These results suggest that pantothenic acid is essential for maintaining keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. PMID:21258175

  3. Effects of UVB irradiation on keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and receptor (KGFR) expression in cultured human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Lee, H S; Kooshesh, F; Fujisawa, H; Sauder, D N; Kondo, S

    1996-06-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and its receptor (KGFR) are thought to play important roles in normal keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Since UVB radiation is known to influence keratinocyte growth, we sought to determine whether UVB would alter the expression of KGF and KGFR. Using a reverse-transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the present study examined the expression of KGF and KGFR mRNA in cultured normal human keratinocytes exposed to UVB irradiation. Total cellular RNA was extracted from cultured keratinocytes at various time points after irradiation, reverse transcribed and used for PCR amplification using primers specific for KGF and KGFR. Constitutive expression of KGFR mRNA, but not KGF mRNA, was detected in normal cultured human keratinocytes. After UVB irradiation at 300 J/m2, the KGF mRNA remained undetectable while the KGFR mRNA level was significantly decreased. The down-regulation of KGFR mRNA expression was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a decreased positive signal of KGFR in human keratinocytes after UVB irradiation. Our results suggest a possible role for the KGF-KGFR signalling pathway in the skin after exposure to UVB, and that UVB-induced growth inhibition of keratinocytes in hyperproliferative skin disorders may be related to downregulation of KGFR. PMID:8840153

  4. Expression and modulation of nerve growth factor in murine keratinocytes (PAM 212)

    SciTech Connect

    Tron, V.A.; Coughlin, M.D.; Jang, D.E.; Stanisz, J.; Sauder, D.N. )

    1990-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a polypeptide that is required for normal development and maintenance of the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems. Skin has been shown to contain relatively high amounts of NGF, which is in keeping with the finding that the quantity of NGF in a tissue is proportional to the extent of sympathetic innervation of that organ. Since the keratinocyte, a major cellular constituent of the skin, is known to produce other growth factors and cytokines, our experiments were designed to determine whether keratinocytes are a source of NGF. Keratinocyte-conditioned media from the keratinocyte cell line PAM 212 contained NGF-like activity, approximately 2-3 ng/ml, as detected by the neurite outgrowth assay. Freshly isolated BALB/c keratinocytes contained approximately 0.1 ng/ml. Using a cDNA probe directed against NGF, we demonstrated the presence of a 1.3-kb NGF mRNA in both PAM 212 and BALB/c keratinocytes. Since ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a potentially important modulating factor for cytokines in skin, we examined the effect of UV on NGF mRNA expression. Although UV initially inhibited the expression of keratinocyte NGF mRNA (4 h), by 24 h an induction of NGF mRNA was seen. The NGF signal could also be induced by phorbol esters. Thus, keratinocytes synthesize and express NGF, and its expression is modulated by UVB and phorbol esters.

  5. Hematopoietic growth factors including keratinocyte growth factor in allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Einsele, Hermann

    2007-07-01

    The aim of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to cure patients of malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and immunodeficiency disorders by redirecting the immune system: the often described graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) or graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. Unfortunately, fulfillment of this goal is often hampered by relapse of the underlying disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or severe opportunistic infections, which account for the majority of post-transplantation deaths. Moreover, studies of long-term survivors of transplantation indicate an accelerated immune aging due to the transplantation procedure itself, preceding chemo- or radiotherapy, and acute and chronic GVHD. Significant advances have been made towards overcoming these obstacles by enhancing immune reconstitution with hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or erythropoietin (EPO) or through the application of cytokines. In addition, there are approaches to promote the thymic-dependent development of naive T cells, which are prepared for the interaction with a multitude of pathogens. Examples are the application of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), neuroendocrine hormones such as growth hormone or prolactin, sex hormone ablation, or the invention of a three-dimensional artificial thymus based on a cytomatrix. Might these measures result in a higher rate of healthy and fully recovered patients? Here we review progress in each of these areas. PMID:17631184

  6. Keratinocyte growth factor is a growth factor for type II pneumocytes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ulich, T R; Yi, E S; Longmuir, K; Yin, S; Biltz, R; Morris, C F; Housley, R M; Pierce, G F

    1994-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) administered as a single intratracheal injection causes a prominent dose-dependent proliferation of type II alveolar epithelial cells in the lungs of adult rats. The increase in mitotically active alveolar cells histologically appears as a micropapillary epithelial cell hyperplasia after 2 d and peaks after 3 d in the form of monolayers of cuboidal epithelial cells lining alveolar septae. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry confirmed the profound proliferative response induced by KGF. The hyperplastic alveolar lining cells contain immunoreactive surfactant protein B and are ultrastructurally noted to contain lamellar inclusions characteristic of surfactant-producing type II pneumocytes. Mild focal bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia is noted but is much less striking than the proliferation of type II pneumocytes. Large airways are unaffected by KGF. Daily intravenous injection of KGF is also able to cause pneumocyte proliferation. The normal adult rat lung constitutively expresses both KGF and KGF receptor mRNA, suggesting that endogenous KGF may be implicated in the paracrine regulation of the growth of pneumocytes. In conclusion, KGF rapidly and specifically induces proliferation and differentiation of type II pneumocytes in the normal adult lung. Images PMID:8132770

  7. Keratinocyte response to immobilized growth factors for enhanced dermal wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefonek-Puccinelli, Tracy Jane

    Chronic wounds cost billions of dollars per year to treat and wound care is limited to ineffective and/or expensive options. Chronic wounds are characterized by a failure to reepithelialize, as well as deficiencies in growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), normally present during wound healing. Our system described herein begins to tackle the problems associated with designing bioactive materials for chronic wound healing applications. We show that we can induce accelerated keratinocyte migration with photo-immobilized EGF and further control migration speed through the culture of cells on different types of gradient patterns of EGF. We also successfully immobilized IGF-1 while retaining its bioactivity, and further showed it induces directed keratinocyte migration, although not as potently as immobilized EGF. Potential synergy between co-immobilized IGF-1 and EGF was also investigated, although EGF continued to dominate the cellular response, and no significant increase in cell migration was achieved via the addition of IGF-1 to the system. To further understand cellular response to our immobilized growth factors, we investigated keratinocyte signaling and function in response to changes in EGF presentation. It was found that immobilized and soluble EGF can play different, yet complementary, roles in regulating keratinocyte function. Specifically, keratinocytes responded to immobilized EGF with high EGF receptor (EGFR) activation, accompanied by low proliferation and high migratory activity. In contrast, keratinocytes treated with soluble EGF displayed a highly proliferative, rather than migratory, phenotype. We then transitioned our photo-immobilization techniques to materials that may be more suitable as a wound dressing, such as silk fibroin films. Silk fibroin is a natural fiber with many desirable qualities for a biomaterial including high strength and elasticity, biocompatibility, a beta-keratin structure which closely mimics human keratin, and ease of fabrication and modification. These silk films can also provide topographical cues via simple cast molding of any feature on the micron scale. This system allowed simultaneous presentation of topographic cues, inhibitory and/or synergistic, with our chemotactic cues. Our preliminary data suggest keratinocytes remain viable on silk fibroin films, and that these films can be patterned with immobilized EGF to induce keratinocyte migration.

  8. Altered expression of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor in psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, P. W.; Murphy, F.; Cardinale, I.; Krueger, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the biological characteristics of psoriasis is excessive flaking of the skin. This is directly related to the marked hyperplasia of epidermal keratinocytes and to incomplete epidermal differentiation. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a potent mitogen for human keratinocytes, is expressed by stromal cells. Alterations in the KGF signaling pathway might account for the epidermal hyperplasia associated with psoriasis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the expression of KGF and its receptor (KGFR) in psoriasis tissue. KGF and KGFR mRNA levels were found to be frequently elevated in psoriatic skin specimens as compared with normal skin. Increased KGF transcript expression was localized to the dermal layer of the involved skin specimen using in situ hybridization. In contrast, KGFR transcript and protein expression was localized to the basal layer of keratinocytes in normal skin and to the basal and suprabasal layers of the psoriatic epidermis, coincident with the expanded proliferative keratinocyte pool. To identify molecules that might regulate KGFR expression we investigated the effects of various pharmacological agents and cytokines on KGFR synthesis by keratinocytes. Phorbol ester, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and ultraviolet B (UVB) treatment all led to substantial down-regulation of KGFR expression. The down-regulation of KGFR synthesis by UVB suggests a possible mechanism for the antiproliferative action of this agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Taken together, these results suggest that increased KGFR-mediated signaling in keratinocytes in the lesional epidermis might account in part for the epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9403712

  9. Keratinocyte-derived T-cell growth factor: a T-cell growth factor functionally distinct from interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Kupper, T S; Coleman, D L; McGuire, J; Goldminz, D; Horowitz, M C

    1986-01-01

    T-cell growth factor, more recently termed interleukin 2 (IL-2), is the product of activated T lymphocytes and is considered the principal trophic factor for T lymphocytes. The activity of IL-2 preparations is assessed by the degree to which they support the growth of various IL-2-dependent cell lines. We report that murine epidermal epithelial cells (keratinocytes) produce and release a factor that supports the growth of the helper-T-cell-derived, IL-2-dependent cell line HT-2. This substance, keratinocyte-derived T-cell growth factor (KTGF), does not support the growth of an IL-2-dependent cell line derived from cytotoxic T cells (line CTLL-2). This differential effect on IL-2-dependent cell lines is unique to KTGF. KTGF has an apparent molecular weight of 25,000-35,000 and has properties similar to those of conventional IL-2 by reversed-phase and gel-filtration HPLC analysis. However, even highly purified KTGF fails to stimulate the proliferation of CTLL-2 cells. The observation that epidermal epithelium produces a trophic factor for T lymphocytes may help explain the basis for preferential proliferation of T cells in the microenvironment of skin in certain dermatologic disorders. Further, it suggests that different IL-2-dependent T-cell lines may have distinct growth requirements and that non-lymphocyte cell types may produce factors capable of maintaining the growth of T cells. PMID:3520573

  10. Nerve growth factor modulates keratinocyte proliferation in murine skin organ culture.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Lftl, M; Czarnetzki, B M

    1994-02-01

    Despite the fact that several cell types residing in or travelling through the skin are targets and/or sources of nerve growth factor (NGF), little is known about the role of NGF in skin development, physiology and disease. Employing a previously defined skin organ culture assay for studying the proliferation of murine keratinocytes in their natural tissue environment, we have assessed the effect of murine NGF (7S) on keratinocyte proliferation in intact skin derived from two defined stages of the murine hair cycle. We found that 10-200 ng/ml NGF stimulated epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in organ-cultured C57 BL-6 mouse skin in the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Follicle keratinocyte proliferation was stimulated by 100 ng/ml NGF in telogen skin organ culture, but this concentration of NGF inhibited both epidermal and follicle keratinocyte proliferation in organ culture of anagen skin. The latter inhibitory effect of NGF was abrogated by co-incubation with neutralizing anti-NGF antibodies or with the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine. The proliferation-modulatory effects of NGF were associated with the induction of significant mast cell degranulation, and were inhibited by cromoglycate co-administration. This is the first report of a modulatory, hair cycle-dependent effect of NGF on keratinocyte proliferation in situ, which may require the presence of mast cells. Our study supports the notion of auto- and paracrine functions of NGF in murine skin physiology, which can be further assessed in the physiologically relevant mouse model delineated here. PMID:8123570

  11. Nerve growth factor modulates keratinocyte proliferation in murine skin organ culture.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Paus R; Lftl M; Czarnetzki BM

    1994-02-01

    Despite the fact that several cell types residing in or travelling through the skin are targets and/or sources of nerve growth factor (NGF), little is known about the role of NGF in skin development, physiology and disease. Employing a previously defined skin organ culture assay for studying the proliferation of murine keratinocytes in their natural tissue environment, we have assessed the effect of murine NGF (7S) on keratinocyte proliferation in intact skin derived from two defined stages of the murine hair cycle. We found that 10-200 ng/ml NGF stimulated epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in organ-cultured C57 BL-6 mouse skin in the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Follicle keratinocyte proliferation was stimulated by 100 ng/ml NGF in telogen skin organ culture, but this concentration of NGF inhibited both epidermal and follicle keratinocyte proliferation in organ culture of anagen skin. The latter inhibitory effect of NGF was abrogated by co-incubation with neutralizing anti-NGF antibodies or with the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine. The proliferation-modulatory effects of NGF were associated with the induction of significant mast cell degranulation, and were inhibited by cromoglycate co-administration. This is the first report of a modulatory, hair cycle-dependent effect of NGF on keratinocyte proliferation in situ, which may require the presence of mast cells. Our study supports the notion of auto- and paracrine functions of NGF in murine skin physiology, which can be further assessed in the physiologically relevant mouse model delineated here.

  12. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Chun, Young-Jin; Lee, Ai-Young; Noh, Minsoo

    2015-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFN?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNF?. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFN?, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. PMID:25617811

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor-Peptide Improves Barrier Function and Proliferation in Human Keratinocytes After Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Kunzhong; Tian Yeping; Yin Liangjie; Zhang Mei; Beck, Lisa A.; Zhang, Bingrong; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang Lurong; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Epidermal keratinocytes, which can be severely damaged after ionizing radiation (IR), are rapid turnover cells that function as a barrier, protecting the host from pathogenic invasion and fluid loss. We tested fibroblast growth factor-peptide (FGF-P), a small peptide derived from the receptor-binding domain of FGF-2, as a potential mitigator of radiation effects via proliferation and the barrier function of keratinocytes. Methods and Materials: Keratinocytes isolated from neonatal foreskin were grown on transwells. After being exposed to 0, 5, or 10 Gy IR, the cells were treated with a vehicle or FGF-P. The permeability of IR cells was assessed by using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and a paracellular tracer flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) with Ussing chambers. The cell proliferation was measured with yellow tetrazolium salt (MTT) and tritiated thymidine ([{sup 3}H]-TdR) assays. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) was measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-like assay, and the proteins related to tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) were examined with Western blotting. We used a mouse model to assess the ability of FGF-P to promote the healing of skin {beta} burns created with a strontium applicator. Results: We found (1) FGF-P reduced the permeability of irradiated keratinocytes, as evidenced by increased TEER and decreased diffusion of FITC-BSA, both associated with the regulation of different proteins and levels of TJ and AJ; and (2) FGF-P enhanced the proliferation of irradiated keratinocytes, as evidenced by increased MTT activity and [{sup 3}H]-TdR incorporation, which was associated with activation of the ERK pathway; and (3) FGF-P promoted the healing of skin {beta} burns. Conclusions: FGF-P enhances the barrier function, including up-regulation of TJ proteins, increases proliferation of human keratinocytes, and accelerates the healing of skin {beta} burns. FGF-P is a promising mitigator that improves the proliferation and barrier function of keratinocytes after IR.

  14. Keratinocytic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Novel Biomarker for Pathological Skin Condition

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Chun, Young-Jin; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Skin is an emerging target tissue in pharmaceutical and cosmetic science. Safety assessment for dermal toxicity is a critical step for development of topically applicable pharmaceutical agents and ingredients in cosmetics. Urgent needs exist to set up toxicity testing methods for dermal safety, and identification of novel biomarkers for pathological cutaneous alteration is highly required. Here we will discuss if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a potential as a biomarker for dermal impairment. Experimental and clinical evidences for induction of keratinocytic VEGF under pathological conditions will be reviewed. PMID:25593638

  15. Keratinocyte growth factor functions in epithelial induction during seminal vesicle development.

    PubMed Central

    Alarid, E T; Rubin, J S; Young, P; Chedid, M; Ron, D; Aaronson, S A; Cunha, G R

    1994-01-01

    Development of the seminal vesicle (SV) is elicited by androgens and is dependent on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Androgenic signal transmission from the androgen-receptor-positive mesenchyme to the epithelium has been postulated to involve paracrine factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, is produced by stromal/mesenchymal cells and acts specifically on epithelial cells. The KGF transcript was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in newborn mouse SVs and by Northern blot analysis of RNA from cultured neonatal SV mesenchymal cells. Newborn SVs placed in organ culture undergo androgen-dependent growth and differentiation. Addition of a KGF-neutralizing monoclonal antibody to this system caused striking inhibition of both SV growth and branching morphogenesis. This inhibition was due to a decline in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, as the mesenchymal layer was not affected by anti-KGF treatment. When KGF (100 ng/ml) was substituted for testosterone in the culture medium, SV growth was approximately 50% that observed with an optimal dose of testosterone (10(-7) M). All of these findings suggest that KGF is present during a time of active SV morphogenesis and functions as an important mediator of androgen-dependent development. Images PMID:8302834

  16. Emergence of the keratinocyte growth factor multigene family during the great ape radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, M J; Pech, M; Seuanez, H N; Rubin, J S; O'Brien, S J; Aaronson, S A

    1992-01-01

    The structural gene for human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, consists of three coding exons and two introns typical of other fibroblast growth factor loci. A portion of the KGF gene, located on chromosome 15, is amplified to approximately 16 copies in the human genome, and these highly related copies (which consist of exon 2, exon 3, the intron between them, and a 3' noncoding segment of the KGF transcript) are dispersed to multiple human chromosomes. The KGF-like sequences are transcriptionally active, differentially regulated in various tissues, and composed of three distinct classes of coding sequences that are 5% divergent from each other and from the authentic KGF sequence. Multiple copies of KGF-like genes were also discovered in the genomic DNAs of chimpanzee and gorilla but were not found in lesser apes (gibbon), Old World monkeys (African green monkey and macaques), mice, or chickens. The pattern of evolutionary occurrence suggests that a primordial KGF gene was amplified and chromosomally dispersed subsequent to the divergence of orangutan from African apes but before the trichotomous divergence of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla 5-8 million years ago. The appearance of a transcriptionally active and chromosomally dispersed multigene KGF family may have implications in the evolution of the great apes and humans. Images PMID:1409637

  17. Chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors in keratinocytes and dermal endothelial cells in the margin of chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Galkowska, Hanna; Wojewodzka, Urszula; Olszewski, Waldemar L

    2006-01-01

    Keratinocytes and dermal endothelial cells, excluding leukocytes that infiltrate wounds, are the main source of soluble factors regulating healing of skin ulcers. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of various chemotactic and growth factors and their receptors in the margin of diabetic foot ulcers and in normal nondiabetic foot skin. Our study found significantly elevated expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and type I TGF-beta receptors (TGFbetaR1), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in keratinocytes in the ulcer margin (p < 0.05). Significantly increased expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, GM-CSF, CXCR1, and TGFbetaRI and decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-15, and TGF-beta1 were observed in ulcer dermal endothelial cells (p < 0.05). There was a lack of up-regulation of IL-8, CCR2A, IL-10 receptor, GM-CSF receptor, platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor and its type II receptor, EGF receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and nitric oxide synthase-2 in both KCs and endothelial cells in the ulcer. Finally, there was a lack of up-regulation of IL-10 and IL-15 in keratinocytes and of EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, and nitric oxide synthase-3 in endothelial cells in the ulcer margins. The enhanced expression of some factors responsible for KC behavior could suggest an unimpaired capacity of keratinocytes to reepithelialize the margin of diabetic foot ulcers. However, lack of up-regulation of some angiogenic and leukocyte chemotactic factors, associated with the reduced influx of immune cells, may account for a poor formation of granulation tissue and chronicity of ulcer epithelialization. PMID:17014667

  18. Enhanced Expression of Keratinocyte Growth Factor and Its Receptor Correlates with Venous Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kazumitsu; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Eiji; Nakazawa, Nando; Korc, Murray; Naito, Zenya; Tajiri, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and KGF receptor (KGFR) have been implicated in cancer growth as well as tissue development and repair. In this study, we examined whether KGF and KGFR have a role in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). KGFR mRNA was expressed in eight pancreatic cancer cell lines, whereas the KGF mRNA was detected in seven of the cell lines and was absent in MIA PaCa-2 cells. KGFR and KGF immunoreactivity were localized in the cancer cells in 41.5 and 34.0% of patients, respectively. There was a significant correlation between KGFR or KGF immunoreactivity and venous invasion and a significant correlation between the presence of both markers and venous invasion, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression, and poor prognosis. Exogenous KGF increased VEGF-A expression and release in MIA PaCa-2 cells, and PANC-1 cells stably transfected to overexpress KGF-exhibited increased VEGF-A expression. Moreover, short hairpin-KGFR transfection in MIA PaCa-2 cells reduced the stimulatory effect of exogenous KGF on VEGF-A expression. Short hairpin-KGF transfection in KLM-1 cells reduced VEGF-A expression in the cells. KGFR and KGF may act to promote venous invasion and tumor angiogenesis in PDAC, raising the possibility that they may serve as novel therapeutic targets in anti-angiogenic strategies in PDAC. PMID:17525264

  19. Transforming growth factor-? enhances invasion and metastasis in Ras-transfected human malignant epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Maria; Prime, Stephen S; Eveson, John W; Price, Nicky; Ganapathy, Anu; D'Mello, Anita; Paterson, Ian C

    2012-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is known to act as a tumour suppressor early in carcinogenesis, but then switches to a pro-metastatic factor in some late stage cancers. However, the actions of TGF-? are context dependent, and it is currently unclear how TGF-? influences the progression of human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study examined the effect of overexpression of TGF-?1 or TGF-?2 in Ras-transfected human malignant epidermal keratinocytes that represent the early stages of human SCC. In vitro, the proliferation of cells overexpressing TGF-?1 or TGF-?2 was inhibited by exogenous TGF-?1; cells overexpressing TGF-?1 also grew more slowly than controls, but the growth rate of TGF-?2 overexpressing cells was unaltered. However, cells that overexpressed either TGF-?1 or TGF-?2 were markedly more invasive than controls in an organotypic model of SCC. The proliferation of the invading TGF-?1 overexpressing cells in the organotypic assays was higher than controls. Similarly, tumours formed by the TGF-?1 overexpressing cells following transplantation to athymic mice were larger than tumours formed by control cells and proliferated at a higher rate. Our results demonstrate that elevated expression of either TGF-?1 or TGF-?2 in cells that represent the early stages in the development of human SCC results in a more aggressive phenotype. PMID:22414291

  20. The role of chronic inflammation in cutaneous fibrosis: fibroblast growth factor receptor deficiency in keratinocytes as an example.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael; Mller, Anna-Katharina; Yang, Jingxuan; ?ulcov, Jitka; Werner, Sabine

    2011-12-01

    Fibrosis is associated with a variety of skin diseases and causes severe aesthetic and functional impairments. Functional studies in rodents, together with clinical observations, strongly suggest a crucial role of chronic injury and inflammation in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. The phenotype of mice lacking fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors 1 and 2 in keratinocytes supports this concept. In these mice, a defect in keratinocytes alone initiated an inflammatory response, which in turn caused keratinocyte hyperproliferation and dermal fibrosis. As the mechanism underlying this phenotype, we identified a loss of FGF-induced expression of claudins and occludin, which caused abnormalities in tight junctions with concomitant deficits in epidermal barrier function. This resulted in severe transepidermal water loss and skin dryness. In turn, activation of keratinocytes and epidermal ?? T cells occurred, which produced IL-1 family member 8 and S100A8 and S100A9. These cytokines attracted immune cells and activated fibroblasts, resulting in a double paracrine loop through production of keratinocyte mitogens by dermal cells. In addition, a profibrotic response was induced in fibroblasts. Our results highlight the importance of an intact epidermal barrier for the prevention of inflammation and fibrosis and the role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. PMID:22076327

  1. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 intratracheal instillation significantly attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Jing; Tong, Lin; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yang, Dong; Bai, Chunxue; Song, Yuanlin; She, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Preservation or restoration of normal alveolar epithelial barrier function is crucial for pulmonary oedema resolution. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), a potent epithelial cell mitogen, may have a role in preventing ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), which occurs frequently in mechanically ventilated patients. The aim of the study was to test the role of KGF-2 in VILI in rats. Forty healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups, where rats in Groups HVZP (high-volume zero positive end-expiratory pressure) and HVZP+KGF-2 were given intratracheally equal PBS and 5mg/kg KGF-2 72hrs before 4hrs HVZP ventilation (20ml/kg), respectively, while PBS and KGF-2 were administered in the same manner in Groups Control and KGF-2, which underwent tracheotomy only with spontaneous breathing. Inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-?, macrophage inflammatory protein 2), neutrophil and total protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and surfactant protein mRNA expression in lung tissue were detected; the number of alveolar type II cells, lung water content and lung morphology were also evaluated. The results indicate that pre-treatment with KGF-2 showed dramatic improvement in lung oedema and inflammation compared with HVZP alone, together with increased surfactant protein mRNA and alveolar type II cells. Our results suggest that KGF-2 might be considered a promising prevention for human VILI or other acute lung injury diseases. PMID:24650242

  2. Strengthening the Skin with Topical Delivery of Keratinocyte Growth Factor-1 Using a Novel DNA Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Chunqing; Lay, Frank; Ansari, Amir Mehdi; Rees, Donald J; Ahmed, Ali Karim; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Matsangos, Aerielle E.; Du, Junkai; Hosseini, Sayed Mohammad; Steenbergen, Charles; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Tabor, Aaron T.; Williams, James A; Liu, Lixin; Marti, Guy P; Harmon, John W

    2014-01-01

    Fragile skin, susceptible to decubitus ulcers and incidental trauma, is a problem particularly for the elderly and for those with spinal cord injury. Here, we present a simple approach to strengthen the skin by the topical delivery of keratinocyte growth factor-1 (KGF-1) DNA. In initial feasibility studies with the novel minimalized, antibiotic-free DNA expression vector, NTC8385-VA1, the reporter genes luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein were delivered. Transfection was documented when luciferase expression significantly increased after transfection. Microscopic imaging of enhanced green fluorescent proteintransfected skin showed green fluorescence in hair follicles, hair shafts, and dermal and superficial epithelial cells. With KGF-1 transfection, KGF-1 mRNA level and protein production were documented with quantitative reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Epithelial thickness of the transfected skin in the KGF group was significantly increased compared with the control vector group (26??2 versus 16??4 m) at 48 hours (P = 0.045). Dermal thickness tended to be increased in the KGF group (255??36 versus 162??16 m) at 120 hours (P = 0.057). Biomechanical assessment showed that the KGF-1treated skin was significantly stronger than control vectortransfected skin. These findings indicate that topically delivered KGF-1 DNA plasmid can increase epithelial thickness and strength, demonstrating the potential of this approach to restore compromised skin. PMID:24434934

  3. Keratinocyte growth factor augments immune reconstitution after autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Lor, Karin; Guenaga, F. Javier; Pittaluga, Stefania; Mattapallil, Joseph; Chow, Catherine K.; Koup, Richard A.; Camphausen, Kevin; Nason, Martha C.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Donahue, Robert E.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic infections contribute to morbidity and mortality after peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation and are related to a deficient T-cell compartment. Accelerated T-cell reconstitution may therefore be clinically beneficent. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been shown to protect thymic epithelial cells in mice. Here, we evaluated immune reconstitution after autologous CD34+ PBPC transplantation in rhesus macaques conditioned with myeloablative total body irradiation in the absence or presence of single pretotal body irradiation or repeated peritransplant KGF administration. All KGF-treated animals exhibited a well-preserved thymic architecture 12 months after graft. In contrast, thymic atrophy was observed in the majority of animals in the control group. The KGF-treated animals showed higher frequencies of naive T cells in lymph nodes after transplantation compared with the control animals. The animals given repeated doses of KGF showed the highest levels of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and the lowest frequencies of Ki67+ T cells, which suggest increased thymic-dependent reconstitution in these animals. Of note, the humoral response to a T-celldependent neo-antigen was significantly higher in the KGF-treated animals compared with the control animals. Thus, our findings suggest that KGF may be a useful adjuvant therapy to augment T-cell reconstitution after human PBPC transplantation. PMID:17374737

  4. Keratinocyte growth factor augments immune reconstitution after autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Lor, Karin; Guenaga, F Javier; Pittaluga, Stefania; Mattapallil, Joseph; Chow, Catherine K; Koup, Richard A; Camphausen, Kevin; Nason, Martha C; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Donahue, Robert E; Blazar, Bruce R; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Douek, Daniel C

    2007-07-01

    Opportunistic infections contribute to morbidity and mortality after peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation and are related to a deficient T-cell compartment. Accelerated T-cell reconstitution may therefore be clinically beneficent. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been shown to protect thymic epithelial cells in mice. Here, we evaluated immune reconstitution after autologous CD34(+) PBPC transplantation in rhesus macaques conditioned with myeloablative total body irradiation in the absence or presence of single pretotal body irradiation or repeated peritransplant KGF administration. All KGF-treated animals exhibited a well-preserved thymic architecture 12 months after graft. In contrast, thymic atrophy was observed in the majority of animals in the control group. The KGF-treated animals showed higher frequencies of naive T cells in lymph nodes after transplantation compared with the control animals. The animals given repeated doses of KGF showed the highest levels of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and the lowest frequencies of Ki67(+) T cells, which suggest increased thymic-dependent reconstitution in these animals. Of note, the humoral response to a T-cell-dependent neo-antigen was significantly higher in the KGF-treated animals compared with the control animals. Thus, our findings suggest that KGF may be a useful adjuvant therapy to augment T-cell reconstitution after human PBPC transplantation. PMID:17374737

  5. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 is protective in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lin; Bi, Jing; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Jie; Rong, Linyi; Wang, Qin; Xu, Nuo; Zhong, Ming; Zhu, Duming; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2014-09-15

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) plays a key role in lung development, but its role in acute lung injury has not been well characterized. Lipopolysaccharide instillation caused acute lung injury, which significantly elevated lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibited surfactant protein A and C expression in lung tissue, and increased pathological injury. Pretreatment with KGF-2 improved the above lung injury parameters, partially restored surfactant protein A and C expression, and KGF-2 given 2-3 days before LPS challenge showed maximum lung injury improvement. Pretreatment with KGF-2 also markedly reduced the levels of TNF-?, MIP-2, IL-1? and IL-6 in BALF and the levels of IL-1? and IL-6 in lung tissue. Histological analysis showed there was increased proliferation of alveolar type II epithelial cells in lung parenchyma, which reached maximal 2 days after KGF-2 instillation. Intratracheal administration of KGF-2 attenuates lung injury induced by LPS, suggesting KGF-2 may be potent in the intervention of acute lung injury. PMID:24973472

  6. Recent advances in the epidermal growth factor receptor/ligand system biology on skin homeostasis and keratinocyte stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Nanba, Daisuke; Toki, Fujio; Barrandon, Yann; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2013-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor/ligand system stimulates multiple pathways of signal transduction, and is activated by various extracellular stimuli and inter-receptor crosstalk signaling. Aberrant activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling is found in many tumor cells, and humanized neutralizing antibodies and synthetic small compounds against EGFR are in clinical use today. However, these drugs are known to cause a variety of skin toxicities such as inflammatory rash, skin dryness, and hair abnormalities. These side effects demonstrate the multiple EGFR-dependent homeostatic functions in human skin. The epidermis and hair follicles are self-renewing tissues, and keratinocyte stem cells are crucial for maintaining these homeostasis. A variety of molecules associated with the EGF receptor/ligand system are involved in epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle development, and the modulation of EGFR signaling impacts the behavior of keratinocyte stem cells. Understanding the roles of the EGF receptor/ligand system in skin homeostasis is an emerging issue in dermatology to improve the current therapy for skin disorders, and the EGFR inhibitor-associated skin toxicities. Besides, controlling of keratinocyte stem cells by modulating the EGF receptor/ligand system assures advances in regenerative medicine of the skin. We present an overview of the recent progress in the field of the EGF receptor/ligand system on skin homeostasis and regulation of keratinocyte stem cells. PMID:23819985

  7. Intratracheal instillation of keratinocyte growth factor decreases hyperoxia-induced mortality in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Panos, R J; Bak, P M; Simonet, W S; Rubin, J S; Smith, L J

    1995-01-01

    Alveolar type II cell proliferation occurs after many forms of lung injury and is thought to play a critical role in alveolar epithelial repair. Keratinocyte growth factor/fibroblast growth factor 7 (KGF) has been shown to promote alveolar type II cell growth in primary culture and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in vivo. In this study, we used immunohistochemical analysis to determine the intrapulmonary distribution and cellular localization of recombinant human KGF (rhKGF) instilled into the trachea of rats. 6 h after administration, immunoreactive KGF was observed within the lung parenchyma and along alveolar epithelial cell membranes. By 18-24 h, KGF was detected intracellularly in alveolar epithelial cells and intraalveolar macrophages. Immunoreactive KGF was not demonstrable 48 h after delivery or in lung sections from PBS-treated animals. Intratracheal instillation of 5 mg/kg rhKGF stimulated a marked, time-dependent increase in the alveolar type II cell specific labeling index to a maximum level of 33 +/- 3% 48 h after rhKGF administration compared with 1.3 +/- 0.3% after PBS instillation. In addition, this increase in type II cell proliferation in vivo was documented by flow cytometric analysis of isolated type II cells which revealed a nearly fivefold increase in the proportion of cells traversing through the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. To test the hypothesis that KGFs effects on type II cells in vivo might affect the response to lung injury, rats were treated with rhKGF and exposed to hyperoxia. Animals that received 1 or 5 mg/kg rhKGF exhibited dramatically reduced mortality (P < 0.001, for both doses). Survival for animals treated with 0.1 mg/kg rhKGF was not significantly different from either untreated rats or animals treated with heat-denatured rhKGF. The lungs of rhKGF-treated animals that survived hyperoxia exposure had minimal hemorrhage and no exudate within the intraalveolar space. These experiments established that intratracheal administration of rhKGF stimulated alveolar type II cell proliferation in vivo and reduced hyperoxia-induced lung injury in rats. Directed delivery of KGF to the lungs may provide a therapeutic strategy to preserve or restore the alveolar epithelium during exposure to hyperoxia or other injurious agents. Images PMID:7560096

  8. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 inhibits bacterial infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Nana; Wang, Qin; Zhou, Jian; Li, Jing; Wen, Xiaoxing; Chen, Shujing; Zhu, Zhenhua; Bai, Chunxue; Song, Yuanlin; Li, Huayin

    2016-01-01

    To determine protective effects of concurrent administration of Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) inoculation on the induced pneumonia. KGF-2 (5mg/kg) was concurrently administered into the left lobe of 55 mice with P. aeruginosa PAO1 (5נ10(6)CFU, half-lethal dose); 55 mice in the control group were concurrently administered PBS with the PAO1. We detected and analyzed: body temperature; amount of P. aeruginosa in homogenates; count of total number of nucleated cells and of mononuclear macrophages; protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); lung wet-to-dry weight ratio; cytokines in BALF and blood; and lung morphology. To study survival rate, concurrent administration of KGF-2 (experimental group) versus PBS (control) with a lethal dose of PAO1 (1נ10(7)CFU was performed, and survivorship was documented for 7 days post-inoculation. The bacterial CFU in lung homogenates was significantly decreased in the KGF-2 group compared to the control group. There were significantly more mononuclear macrophages in the BALF from the KGF-2 group than from the control group (p<0.05). KGF-2 increased the surfactant protein and GM-CSF mRNA in lung at 6h and 72h after inoculation. Significant reduction of lung injury scores, protein concentrations, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and IL-6 and TNF-? levels was noted in the KGF-2 treated rats at 72h after inoculation (p<0.05). The 7-day survival rate of the KGF-2 group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Concurrent administration of KGF-2 facilitates the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs, attenuates P. aeruginosa-induced lung injury, and extends the 7-day survival rate in mice model with P. aeruginosa pneumonia. PMID:26617350

  9. Efficacy of keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin) for the treatment of caustic esophageal burns

    PubMed Central

    NUMANOĞLU, KEMAL VARIM; TATLI, DUYGU; BEKTAŞ, SIBEL; ER, EBUBEKIR

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment strategies against the development of corrosive esophageal strictures remain unsatisfactory. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of keratinocyte growth factor, in the form of palifermin, for the prevention of stricture development following esophageal caustic injuries in a rat model. A total of 32 female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, which included the control (C), burn (B), steroid (S) and steroid plus palifermin (S/P) groups. An experimental corrosive esophageal burn model was established in the B, S and S/P groups. Weight gain was recorded and histopathological evaluation was performed for each group. Weight gain in the S and B groups was compared with the control group and statistically significant differences were observed. In addition, statistically significant differences in weight gain were observed between the S/P group and the B group. Histopathologically, statistically significant differences were identified with regard to submucosal collagen deposition, muscularis mucosa and tunica muscularis damage when comparing the B group with the C group. In addition, statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the S and S/P groups with the B group. Furthermore, significant submucosal collagen deposition and tunica muscularis damage were observed in the S group when compared with the S/P group. The stenosis indexes in the C and S groups were significantly lower compared with the B group. In addition, the stenosis index in the S/P group was significantly lower compared with the S group. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate the effect of palifermin on corrosive esophageal burns. The addition of palifermin to the corrosive esophageal burn standard treatment regimen was found to reduce the degree of fibrosis and ameliorate histopathological damage in an experimental model of corrosive esophagitis in rats. PMID:25187801

  10. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Induces Gene Expression Signature Associated with Suppression of Malignant Phenotype of Cutaneous Squamous Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toriseva, Mervi; Ala-aho, Risto; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha; Grnman, Reidar; Khri, Veli-Matti

    2012-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, fibroblast growth factor-7) is a fibroblast-derived mitogen, which stimulates proliferation of epithelial cells. The expression of KGF by dermal fibroblasts is induced following injury and it promotes wound repair. However, the role of KGF in cutaneous carcinogenesis and cancer progression is not known. We have examined the role of KGF in progression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. The expression of KGF receptor (KGFR) mRNA was lower in cutaneous SCCs (n?=?6) than in normal skin samples (n?=?6). Expression of KGFR mRNA was detected in 6 out of 8 cutaneous SCC cell lines and the levels were downregulated by 24-h treatment with KGF. KGF did not stimulate SCC cell proliferation, but it reduced invasion of SCC cells through collagen. Gene expression profiling of three cutaneous SCC cell lines treated with KGF for 24 h revealed a specific gene expression signature characterized by upregulation of a set of genes specifically downregulated in SCC cells compared to normal epidermal keratinocytes, including genes with tumor suppressing properties (SPRY4, DUSP4, DUSP6, LRIG1, PHLDA1). KGF also induced downregulation of a set of genes specifically upregulated in SCC cells compared to normal keratinocytes, including genes associated with tumor progression (MMP13, MATN2, CXCL10, and IGFBP3). Downregulation of MMP-13 and KGFR expression in SCC cells and HaCaT cells was mediated via ERK1/2. Activation of ERK1/2 in HaCaT cells and tumorigenic Ha-ras-transformed HaCaT cells resulted in downregulation of MMP-13 and KGFR expression. These results provide evidence, that KGF does not promote progression of cutaneous SCC, but rather suppresses the malignant phenotype of cutaneous SCC cells by regulating the expression of several genes differentially expressed in SCC cells, as compared to normal keratinocytes. PMID:22427941

  11. Ultraviolet-A-induced transactivation of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in HaCaT keratinocytes is conveyed by activator protein-2 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Gille, J; Reisinger, K; Asbe-Vollkopf, A; Hardt-Weinelt, K; Kaufmann, R

    2000-07-01

    Ultraviolet-A radiation represents a significant proportion of the ultraviolet solar spectrum that was recently shown to affect gene expression of epidermal keratinocytes by molecular mechanisms distinct from ultraviolet-B radiation. As ultraviolet-A either alone or in combination with ultraviolet-B may contribute to photocarcinogenesis, we aimed to explore the biologic effects of ultraviolet-A radiation on vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression by the immortalized keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. As keratinocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor not only provides the major cutaneous angiogenic activity but may also augment the malignant phenotype of tumor cells, we studied the molecular mechanisms of ultraviolet-A-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in HaCaT cells, serving as a transformed preneoplastic epithelial cell line. Whereas ultraviolet-B-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor expression has been previously indicated to be conveyed by indirect mechanisms, ultraviolet-A rapidly induced vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression in a fashion comparable to that seen with the transforming growth factor alpha, representing a direct and potent activator of vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription. Ultraviolet-A was found to readily induce vascular endothelial growth factor promoter-based reporter gene constructs through a consensus element for activator protein-2 transcription factor. The critical role of activator protein-2 was substantiated by demonstration of ultraviolet-A-induced activator-protein-2-dependent nuclear DNA binding activity to this site, and by inhibition of ultraviolet-A-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription through insertion of a critical mutation within the activator protein-2 sequence. Together, our data further elucidate photobiologic aspects of ultraviolet-A-induced gene expression by characterizing mechanisms of vascular endothelial growth factor upregulation at the molecular level. In addition, our experiments support the concept of a more general importance of activator protein-2 in ultra- violet-A-mediated responses by keratinocytes or keratinocyte-derived cell lines. PMID:10886504

  12. Growth factors in porcine full and partial thickness burn repair. Differing targets and effects of keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, epidermal growth factor, and neu differentiation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Danilenko, D. M.; Ring, B. D.; Tarpley, J. E.; Morris, B.; Van, G. Y.; Morawiecki, A.; Callahan, W.; Goldenberg, M.; Hershenson, S.; Pierce, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    The topical application of recombinant growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimer (rPDGF-BB), keratinocyte growth factor (rKGF), and neu differentiation factor has resulted in significant acceleration of healing in several animal models of wound repair. In this study, we established highly reproducible and quantifiable full and deep partial thickness porcine burn models in which burns were escharectomized 4 or 5 days postburn and covered with an occlusive dressing to replicate the standard treatment in human burn patients. We then applied these growth factors to assess their efficacy on several parameters of wound repair: extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production, percent reepithelialization, and new epithelial area. In full thickness burns, only rPDGF-BB and the combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF induced significant changes in burn repair. rPDGF-BB induced marked extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production (P = 0.013) such that the burn defect was filled within several days of escharectomy, but had no effect on new epithelial area or reepithelialization. The combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF in full thickness burns resulted in a highly significant increase in extracellular matrix and granulation tissue area (P = 0.0009) and a significant increase in new epithelial area (P = 0.007), but had no effect on reepithelialization. In deep partial thickness burns, rKGF induced the most consistent changes. Daily application of rKGF induced a highly significant increase in new epithelial area (P < 0.0001) but induced only a modest increase in reepithelialization (83.7% rKGF-treated versus 70.2% control; P = 0.016) 12 days postburn. rKGF also doubled the number of fully reepithelialized burns (P = 0.02) at 13 days postburn, at least partially because of marked stimulation of both epidermal and follicular proliferation as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. In situ hybridization for KGFR in porcine burns revealed strong expression of KGFR on hair follicles and basal epidermis, confirming direct rKGF action on follicular as well as epidermal keratinocytes. Although the epithelial proliferation induced by rKGF resulted in marked neoepidermal psoriasiform hyperplasia with exaggerated rete ridges and neoepidermal and follicular maturation as assessed by expression of cytokeratin 10, a marker of keratinocyte terminal differentiation was not delayed and appeared to be accelerated in some rKGF-treated burns. Recombinant epidermal growth factor induced a trend toward increased new epithelial area in deep partial thickness burns, but had no effect on reepithelialization. The recombinant neu differentiation factor-alpha 2 isoform had no significant biological effects in either full or deep partial thickness burns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7485390

  13. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) supports adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells through interaction with RGD-binding integrins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueqing; Hu Xiaobo; Tian Ruiyang; Wei Wangui; Hu Wei; Chen Xia; Han Wei; Chen Huayou; Gong Yi . E-mail: ygong@sibs.ac.cn

    2006-08-18

    Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is a newly identified member of angiopoietin-related proteins (ARPs)/angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls). AGF has been considered as a novel growth factor in accelerating cutaneous wound healing, as it is capable of stimulating keratinocytes proliferation as well as angiogenesis. But in our paper, we demonstrate that AGF stimulates keratinocytes proliferation only at high protein concentration, however, it can potently promote adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, we confirm that the adhesion and migration cellular events are mediated by RGD-binding integrins, most possibly the {alpha}{sub v}-containing integrins, by in vitro inhibition assays using synthetic competitive peptides. Our results strongly suggest that AGF is an integrin ligand as well as a mitogenic growth factor and theoretically participates in cutaneous wound healing in a more complex mechanism.

  14. The E5 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 transforms fibroblasts and effects the downregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Straight, S W; Hinkle, P M; Jewers, R J; McCance, D J

    1993-01-01

    To determine the function of the E5 open reading frame (ORF) of the human papillomaviruses (HPVs), rodent fibroblast cell lines were transfected with the E5 ORF of HPV type 6 (HPV-6) and HPV-16 expressed from an exogenous promoter. Transfected fibroblasts were transformed to colony formation in soft agar, and the transformation frequency was increased by epidermal growth factor (EGF) but not by platelet-derived growth factor. In a transitory assay, the E5 ORFs from both HPV-6 and HPV-16 were mitogenic in primary human foreskin epithelial cells (keratinocytes) and acted synergistically with EGF. Investigation of keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E5 showed that the number of endogenous EGF receptors (EGFRs) per cell was increased two- to fivefold. Immunofluorescence microscopy of HPV-16 E5-expressing keratinocytes indicated that there was an apparent delay in the internalization and degradation of EGFRs compared with controls. Kinetic studies with [125I]EGF showed that the ligand underwent normal internalization and degradation in both HPV-16 E5-expressing and control keratinocytes, but in E5-expressing cells, a greater number of receptors recycled back to the cell surface within 1 to 6 h of ligand binding. Finally, ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of the EGFR on tyrosine, an indication of receptor kinase activity, was of greater magnitude in the HPV-16 E5-expressing keratinocytes than in control cells, although the basal level of receptor phosphorylation was similar. Images PMID:8392596

  15. Transactivation of involucrin, a marker of differentiation in keratinocytes, by lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF).

    PubMed

    Kubo, E; Fatma, N; Sharma, P; Shinohara, T; Chylack, L T; Akagi, Y; Singh, D P

    2002-07-26

    Human involucrin (hINV), first appears in the cytosol of keratinocytes and ultimately cross-linked to membrane proteins via transglutaminase and forms a protective barrier as an insoluble envelope beneath the plasma membrane. Although the function and evolution of involucrin is known, the regulation of its gene expression is not well understood. An analysis of the hINV gene sequence, upstream of the transcription start site (-534 to +1 nt) revealed the presence of potential sites for binding of lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF); stress response element (STRE; A/TGGGGA/T) and heat shock element (HSE; nGAAn). We reported earlier that LEDGF activates stress-associated genes by binding to these elements and elevates cellular resistance to various stresses. Here, gel-shift and super-shift assays confirm the binding of LEDGF to the DNA fragments containing HSEs and STREs that are present in the involucrin gene promoter. Furthermore, hINV promoter linked to CAT reporter gene, cotransfected in human corneal simian virus 40-transformed keratinocytes (HCK), was transactivated by LEDGF significantly. In contrast, the activity of hINV promoter bearing mutations at the WT1 (containing HSE and STRE), WT2 (containing STRE) and WT3 (containing STRE) binding sites was diminished. In addition, in HCK cell over-expressing LEDGF, the levels of hINV mRNA and hINV protein are increased by four to five-fold. LEDGF is inducible to oxidants. Cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), known to stimulate production of H(2)O(2), showed higher levels of LEDGF mRNA. Furthermore, our immunohistochemical studies revealed that hINV protein is found in the cytoplasm of HCK cells over-expressing LEDGF, but not detectable in the normal HCK cells or HCK cells transfected with vector. This regulation appears to be physiologically important, as over-expression of HCK with LEDGF increases the expression of the endogenous hINV gene and may provide new insight to understand the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation of this gene. LEDGF may play an important role in establishing an important barrier in corneal keratinocytes by maintaining epidermal turn-over rate, and protecting HCKs against stress. PMID:12126624

  16. A protective role for keratinocyte growth factor in a murine model of chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Luis . E-mail: borgesl@amgen.com; Rex, Karen L.; Chen, Jennifer N.; Wei, Ping; Kaufman, Stephen; Scully, Sheila; Pretorius, James K.; Farrell, Catherine L.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the activity of palifermin (rHuKGF) in a murine model of mucosal damage induced by a radiotherapy/chemotherapy (RT/CT) regimen mimicking treatment protocols used in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A model of mucosal damage induced by RT/CT was established by injecting female BDF1 mice with cisplatin (10 mg/kg) on Day 1; 5-fluorouracil (40 mg/kg/day) on Days 1-4, and irradiation (5 Gy/day) to the head and neck on Days 1-5. Palifermin was administered subcutaneously on Days -2 to 0 (5 mg/kg/day) and on Day 5 (5 mg/kg). Evaluations included body weight, organ weight, keratinocyte growth factor receptor expression, epithelial thickness, and cellular proliferation. Results: Initiation of the radiochemotherapeutic regimen resulted in a reduction in body weight in control animals. Palifermin administration suppressed weight loss and resulted in increased organ weight (salivary glands and small intestine), epithelial thickness (esophagus and tongue), and cellular proliferation (tongue and salivary glands). Conclusions: Administration of palifermin before RT/CT promotes cell proliferation and increases in epithelial thickness in the oral mucosa, salivary glands, and digestive tract. Palifermin administration before and after RT/CT mitigates weight loss and a trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa and salivary glands, suggesting that palifermin use should be investigated further in the RT/CT settings, in which intestinal mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction are predominant side effects of cytotoxic therapy.

  17. Growth and differentiation of primary rat keratinocytes on synthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, F L; Gray, R H; Bernstein, I A

    1986-03-01

    The attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from murine epidermis were monitored after purified cell suspensions were seeded and incubated in vitro on various synthetic membranes. Concomitant studies of the effects of attachment factors added to synthetic membranes before use as substrata for keratinocytes were also done. The study demonstrated that a synthetic membrane composed of nylon was superior to other membranes and to plastic control culture vessels in supporting the growth of murine keratinocytes. Although laminin enhanced initial attachment and proliferation of cells on nylon membranes, the untreated substratum was more effective for extended incubation. Stratification and differentiation of these keratinocytes on the nylon substratum was enhanced by raising confluent cultures (7 d) to the air-medium interface so that they were in contact with medium only from the bottom. Cultures raised for 14 d produced many morphologic markers of the epidermis and closely resembled the architecture of this tissue in situ. PMID:3949677

  18. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-2 in alkali-burned and intact rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianqiu; Dou, Guifang; Zheng, Long; Yang, Ting; Jia, Xuechao; Tang, Lu; Huang, Yadong; Wu, Wencan; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2015-07-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), an effective agent in the development of epithelial tissue and regeneration during corneal wound healing, is a potential therapeutic option to treat the corneal diseases with corneal epithelial defects. However the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of KGF-2 have not been explored yet in eye upon topical application. Using (125)I-labeled recombinant human KGF-2 ((125)I-rhKGF-2), tissue distribution of rhKGF-2 in alkali-burned and control rabbit eyes was studied. Our results revealed that (125)I-rhKGF-2 was distributed to all eye tissues examined. The highest radioactivity level was found in the cornea, followed by iris, sclera, ciliary body, lens, aqueous humor, vitreous body, and serum in a greatest to least order. The levels of (125)I-rhKGF-2 were higher in corneas of alkali-burned eyes than those in control eyes though without statistical significance. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax of rhKGF-2 in the rabbit corneas were 3.4h, 135.2ng/ml, and 0.5h, respectively. In iris, lens, aqueous humor, and tear, t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax values were 6.2, 6.5, 5.2, and 2.5h; 23.2, 4.5, 24.1, and 29,498.9ng/ml; and 1.0, 0.5, 0.5, and 1.0h, respectively. Predominant and rapid accumulation of rhKGF-2 in corneas suggests that therapeutic doses of rhKGF-2 could be delivered by topical application for treatment of corneal diseases. PMID:25987499

  19. Keratinocyte growth factor augments pulmonary innate immunity through epithelium-driven, GM-CSF-dependent paracrine activation of alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huixing; Suzuki, Takuji; Carey, Brenna; Trapnell, Bruce C; McCormack, Francis X

    2011-04-29

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is an epithelial mitogen that has been reported to protect the lungs from a variety of insults. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that KGF augments pulmonary host defense. We found that a single dose of intrapulmonary KGF enhanced the clearance of Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa instilled into the lungs 24 h later. KGF augmented the recruitment, phagocytic activity, and oxidant responses of alveolar macrophages, including lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide release and zymosan-induced superoxide production. Less robust alveolar macrophage recruitment and activation was observed in mice treated with intraperitoneal KGF. KGF treatment was associated with increased levels of MIP1γ, LIX, VCAM, IGFBP-6, and GM-CSF in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Of these, only GM-CSF recapitulated in vitro the macrophage activation phenotype seen in the KGF-treated animals. The KGF-stimulated increase in GM-CSF levels in lung tissue and alveolar lining fluid arose from the epithelium, peaked within 1 h, and was associated with STAT5 phosphorylation in alveolar macrophages, consistent with epithelium-driven paracrine activation of macrophage signaling through the KGF receptor/GM-CSF/GM-CSF receptor/JAK-STAT axis. Enhanced bacterial clearance did not occur in response to KGF administration in GM-CSF(-/-) mice, or in mice treated with a neutralizing antibody to GM-CSF. We conclude that KGF enhances alveolar host defense through GM-CSF-stimulated macrophage activation. KGF administration may constitute a promising therapeutic strategy to augment innate immune defenses in refractory pulmonary infections. PMID:21343299

  20. trans-3,4'-Dimethyl-3-hydroxyflavanone, a hair growth enhancing active component, decreases active transforming growth factor beta2 (TGF-beta2) through control of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on the surface of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sasajima, Michiyo; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2008-03-01

    trans-3,4'-Dimethyl-3-hydroxyflavanone (t-flavanone) is a synthetic compound with hair growth enhancing activity that is effective against male pattern alopecia. t-Flavanone was designed as a derivative of astilbin, the active hair growth enhancing component of Hypericum perforatum extracts. This study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of hair growth enhancement by t-flavanone. We investigated the effects of t-flavanone on transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a known catagen-inducing factor induced in hair papilla cells by male hormone. When t-flavanone was added to cocultures of human hair papilla cells and human keratinocytes, there was no change in the total level of TGF-beta2. However, levels of active TGF-beta2 were reduced, suggesting the involvement of t-flavanone in the activation pathway of TGF-beta2. In order to investigate the effects of t-flavanone on TGF-beta2 activation by human keratinocytes, we evaluated the level of active TGF-beta2 converted from the inactive form in t-flavanone-treated human keratinocytes. The amount of active TGF-beta2 was reduced compared with controls suggesting that t-flavanone suppresses the TGF-beta2 activation cascade in human keratinocytes. We then examined the activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), the rate-limiting enzyme in the TGF-beta2 activation cascade, in t-flavanone-treated human keratinocytes. We found that t-flavanone reduces uPA activity on the keratinocyte surface. t-Flavanone is a hair growth enhancing component that has a novel mechanism of action which suppresses TGF-beta2 activation, and thereby is expected to have therapeutic effects on other types of alopecia in addition to male pattern alopecia. PMID:18310908

  1. The protective effect of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor on radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liguang; Brizel, David M.; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Samulski, Thaddeus V.; Farrell, Catherine L.; Larrier, Nicole; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko . E-mail: vujas@radonc.duke.edu

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced lung toxicity is a significant dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy for thoracic tumors. Recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) has been shown to be a mitogen for type II pneumocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rHuKGF prevents or ameliorates the severity of late lung damage from fractionated irradiation in a rat model. Methods and materials: Female Fisher 344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a dose of 40 Gy/5 fractions/5 days. rHuKGF at dose of 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg was given via a single intravenous injection 10 min after the last fraction of irradiation. Animals were followed for 6 months after irradiation. Results: The breathing rate increased beginning at 6 weeks and reached a peak at 14 weeks after irradiation. The average breathing frequencies in the irradiated groups with rHuKGF (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg) treatment were significantly lower than that in the group receiving radiation without rHuKGF (116.5 {+-} 1.0 and 115.2 {+-} 0.8 vs 123.5 {+-} 1.2 breaths/min, p < 0.01). The severity of lung fibrosis and the level of immunoreactivity of integrin {alpha}v{beta}6, TGF{beta}1, type II TGF{beta} receptor, Smad3, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 were significantly decreased only in the group receiving irradiation plus high-dose rHuKGF treatment compared with irradiation plus vehicle group, suggesting a dose response for the effect of rHuKGF. Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate that rHuKGF treatment immediately after irradiation protects against late radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity. These results suggest that restoration of the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium via rHuKGF stimulation may downregulate the TGF-{beta}-mediated fibrosis pathway. These data also support the use of rHuKGF in a clinical trial designed to prevent radiation-induced lung injury.

  2. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  3. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  4. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix/Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor USF2 Integrates Serum-Induced PAI-1 Expression and Keratinocyte Growth

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Higgins, Craig E.; Higgins, Stephen P.; Law, Brian K.; Simone, Tessa M.; Higgins, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a major regulator of the plasmin-dependent pericellular proteolytic cascade, is prominently expressed during the tissue response to injury although the factors that impact PAI-1 induction and their role in the repair process are unclear. Kinetic modeling using established biomarkers of cell cycle transit (c-MYC; cyclin D1; cyclin A) in synchronized human (HaCaT) keratinocytes, and previous cytometric assessments, indicated that PAI-1 transcription occurred early after serum-stimulation of quiescent (G0) cells and prior to G1 entry. It was established previously that differential residence of USF family members (USF1?USF2 switch) at the PE2 region E box (CACGTG) characterized the G0?G1 transition period and the transcriptional status of the PAI-1 gene. A consensus PE2 E box motif (5?-CACGTG-3?) at nucleotides -566 to -561 was required for USF/E box interactions and serum-dependent PAI-1 transcription. Site-directed CG?AT substitution at the two central nucleotides inhibited formation of USF/probe complexes and PAI-1 promoter-driven reporter expression. A dominant-negative USF (A-USF) construct or double-stranded PE2 decoy attenuated serum- and TGF-?1-stimulated PAI-1 synthesis. Tet-Off induction of an A-USF insert reduced both PAI-1 and PAI-2 transcripts while increasing the fraction of Ki-67+ cells. Conversely, overexpression of USF2 or adenoviral-delivery of a PAI-1 vector inhibited HaCaT colony expansion indicating that the USF1?USF2 transition and subsequent PAI-1 transcription are critical events in the epithelial go-or-grow response. Collectively, these data suggest that USF2, and its target gene PAI-1, regulate serum-stimulated keratinocyte growth, and likely the cadence of cell cycle progression in replicatively-competent cells as part of the injury repair program. PMID:24905330

  5. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 maintains the assembly of keratin into desmosomes in keratinocytes by regulating protease-activated receptor 2-dependent p38 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kanemaru, Ai; Sawaguchi, Akira; Yamamoto, Koji; Baba, Takashi; Lin, Chen-Yong; Johnson, Michael D; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1; official symbol SPINT1) is a membrane-associated serine proteinase inhibitor abundantly expressed in epithelial tissues. Genetically engineered mouse models demonstrated that HAI-1 is critical for epidermal function, possibly through direct and indirect regulation of cell surface proteases, such as matriptase and prostasin. To obtain a better understanding of the role of HAI-1 in maintaining epidermal integrity, we performed ultrastructural analysis of Spint1-deleted mouse epidermis and organotypic culture of an HAI-1 knockdown (KD) human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. We found that the aggregation of tonofilaments to desmosomes was significantly reduced in HAI-1-deficient mouse epidermis with decreased desmosome number. Similar findings were observed in HAI-1 KD HaCaT organotypic cultures. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was activated in response to HAI-1 insufficiency. Treatment of HAI-1 KD HaCaT cells with a p38 inhibitor abrogated the above-observed ultrastructural abnormalities. The activation of p38 induced by the loss of HAI-1 likely resulted from enhanced signaling of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), because its silencing abrogated the enhanced activation of p38. Consequently, treatment of HAI-1 KD HaCaT cells with a serine protease inhibitor, aprotinin, or PAR-2 antagonist alleviated the abnormal ultrastructural phenotype in organotypic culture. These results suggest that HAI-1 may have a critical role in maintaining normal keratinocyte morphology through regulation of PAR-2-dependent p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. PMID:25842366

  6. Estradiol Regulation of Constitutive and Keratinocyte Growth Factor-induced CCL20 and CXCL1 Secretion by Mouse Uterine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Severina N.; Wira, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Estradiol can directly affect epithelial cells or indirectly affect epithelial cells via stromal fibroblast secretion of growth factors, such as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). The purpose of the present study was to determine if estradiol regulates constitutive as well as KGF-induced uterine epithelial cell secretion of CCL20 and CXCL1. Method of Study Freshly isolated and polarized uterine epithelial cells from Balb/c mice were cultured with estradiol in the presence or absence of KGF. CCL20 and CXCL1 were measured by ELISA. Results Estradiol inhibited CCL20 secretion by freshly isolated and polarized uterine epithelial cells in the presence or absence of KGF. Unexpectedly, it enhanced KGF-induced CXCL1 secretion beyond that seen with KGF alone. Estradiol increased CXCL1 secretion at 24 hours and inhibited CCL20 at 48 hours. The effects of estradiol are specific in that progesterone, cortisol, dihydrotestosterone, and aldosterone had no effect on either CCL20 or CXCL1 secretion. The inhibitory effect of estradiol on CCL20 secretion was reversed with ICI 182,780, an estrogen-receptor antagonist, indicating that this effect is estrogen receptor-mediated. Conclusions Our data indicate that estradiol is important in regulating the effects of KGF on mouse uterine epithelial cell secretion of CCL20 and CXCL1. PMID:24807244

  7. Storage Stability of Keratinocyte Growth Factor-2 in Lyophilized Formulations: Effects of Formulation Physical Properties and Protein Fraction at the Solid-Air Interface

    PubMed Central

    Devineni, Dilip; Gonschorek, Christoph; Cicerone, Marcus T; Xu, Yemin; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    Lyophilized formulations of keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) were prepared with a range of disaccharide (sucrose or trehalose) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mass ratios. Protein degradation was assessed as a function of time of storage of the dried formulations at 40, 50 and 60 °C. Lyophilized and stored samples were rehydrated, and protein degradation was quantified by measuring loss of monomeric protein with size exclusion chromatography and by determining chemical degradation in the soluble fraction with reverse-phase chromatography. The secondary structure of the protein in the lyophilized formulations was studied with infrared spectroscopy. The magnitudes of degradation were compared the key physical properties of the formulations including retention of protein native secondary structure, glass transition temperature (Tg), inverse mean square displacements −1 for hydrogen atoms (fast β relaxation), and the relaxation time τβ, which correlates with relaxation due to fast Johari-Goldstein motions in the glass[1]. In addition, specific surface areas of the lyophilized formulations were determined by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of krypton adsorption isotherms and used to estimate the fraction of the KGF-2 molecules residing at the solid-air interface. KGF-2 degradation rates were highest in formulations wherein the protein’s structure was most perturbed, and wherein β relaxations were fastest, but the dominant factor governing KGF-2 degradation in freeze-dried formulations was the fraction of the protein found at the glass solid-air interface. PMID:24859390

  8. Storage stability of keratinocyte growth factor-2 in lyophilized formulations: effects of formulation physical properties and protein fraction at the solid-air interface.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Dilip; Gonschorek, Christoph; Cicerone, Marcus T; Xu, Yemin; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2014-10-01

    Lyophilized formulations of keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) were prepared with a range of disaccharide (sucrose or trehalose) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mass ratios. Protein degradation was assessed as a function of time of storage of the dried formulations at 40, 50 and 60°C. Lyophilized and stored samples were rehydrated, and protein degradation was quantified by measuring loss of monomeric protein with size exclusion chromatography and by determining chemical degradation in the soluble fraction with reverse-phase chromatography. The secondary structure of the protein in the lyophilized formulations was studied with infrared spectroscopy. The magnitudes of degradation were compared the key physical properties of the formulations including retention of protein native secondary structure, glass transition temperature (Tg), inverse mean square displacements 〈u(2)〉(-1) for hydrogen atoms (fast β relaxation), and the relaxation time τ(β), which correlates with relaxation due to fast Johari-Goldstein motions in the glass (Xu et al., 2013) [1]. In addition, specific surface areas of the lyophilized formulations were determined by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of krypton adsorption isotherms and used to estimate the fraction of the KGF-2 molecules residing at the solid-air interface. KGF-2 degradation rates were highest in formulations wherein the protein's structure was most perturbed, and wherein β relaxations were fastest, but the dominant factor governing KGF-2 degradation in freeze-dried formulations was the fraction of the protein found at the glass solid-air interface. PMID:24859390

  9. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Gene Electroporation into Skeletal Muscle as a Novel Gene Therapeutic Approach for Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tobinaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Furukawa, Katsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Miyazaki, Takuro; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a progressive disease with airspace destruction and an effective therapy is needed. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes pulmonary epithelial proliferation and has the potential to induce lung regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using KGF gene therapy for treatment of a mouse emphysema model induced by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Eight-week-old BALB/c male mice treated with intra-tracheal PPE administration were transfected with 80 ?g of a recombinant human KGF (rhKGF)-expressing FLAG-CMV14 plasmid (pKGF-FLAG gene), or with the pFLAG gene expressing plasmid as a control, into the quadriceps muscle by electroporation. In the lung, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was augmented, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) and KGF receptor (KGFR) were co-expressed in PCNA-positive cells. Moreover, endogenous KGF and KGFR gene expression increased significantly by pKGF-FLAG gene transfection. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed that the PaO2 level was not significantly reduced on day 14 after PPE instillation with pKGF-FLAG gene transfection compared to that of normal mice. These results indicated that KGF gene therapy with electroporation stimulated lung epithelial proliferation and protected depression of pulmonary function in a mouse emphysema model, suggesting a possible method of treating pulmonary emphysema. PMID:26160987

  10. Keratinocyte growth factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Increased mRNA transcripts in ulcerative colitis compared with Crohn's disease in biopsies and isolated mucosal myofibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj-Elliott, M.; Breese, E.; Poulsom, R.; Fairclough, P. D.; MacDonald, T. T.

    1997-01-01

    Inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with increased epithelial cell proliferation. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is an epithelial cell mitogen widely expressed by mesenchymal cells subjacent to the epithelial cells. In this study, we have investigated the expression and distribution of KGF in normal and diseased (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis(UC)) intestine by quantitative competitive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in whole biopsies and purified lamina propria myofibroblasts and by in situ hybridization. Analysis of whole mucosal biopsies reveals significantly higher numbers of KGF mRNA transcripts in UC compared with Crohn's colitis and control colon (P < 0.001). KGF transcripts were also elevated in Crohn's ileitis compared with normal ileum. In situ hybridization showed a marked increase in cells expressing KGF mRNA throughout the lamina propria in both UC and Crohn's tissue. In Crohn's disease, positively hybridizing cells were only rarely seen in the submucosa but were abundant around the bases of the crypts and were not associated with lymphoid aggregates. In purified mucosal myofibroblasts, increased (15- to 20-fold) KGF mRNA expression was seen in UC compared with control and Crohn's tissue. These results confirm and extend earlier studies showing that KGF transcripts are elevated in inflammatory bowel disease, but they show for the first time that transcripts are higher in UC than Crohn's disease because of increased production by mucosal mesenchymal cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9358773

  11. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Gene Electroporation into Skeletal Muscle as a Novel Gene Therapeutic Approach for Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tobinaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Furukawa, Katsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Miyazaki, Takuro; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-06-29

    Pulmonary emphysema is a progressive disease with airspace destruction and an effective therapy is needed. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes pulmonary epithelial proliferation and has the potential to induce lung regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using KGF gene therapy for treatment of a mouse emphysema model induced by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Eight-week-old BALB/c male mice treated with intra-tracheal PPE administration were transfected with 80 ?g of a recombinant human KGF (rhKGF)-expressing FLAG-CMV14 plasmid (pKGF-FLAG gene), or with the pFLAG gene expressing plasmid as a control, into the quadriceps muscle by electroporation. In the lung, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was augmented, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) and KGF receptor (KGFR) were co-expressed in PCNA-positive cells. Moreover, endogenous KGF and KGFR gene expression increased significantly by pKGF-FLAG gene transfection. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed that the PaO2 level was not significantly reduced on day 14 after PPE instillation with pKGF-FLAG gene transfection compared to that of normal mice. These results indicated that KGF gene therapy with electroporation stimulated lung epithelial proliferation and protected depression of pulmonary function in a mouse emphysema model, suggesting a possible method of treating pulmonary emphysema. PMID:26160987

  12. The Inflammasome and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Are Involved in the Staphylococcus aureus-Mediated Induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schrder, Lena; Glser, Regine; Harder, Jrgen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is an important pathogen causing various infections including those of the skin. Keratinocytes are able to sense invading S. aureus and to initiate a fast defense reaction by the rapid release of innate defense mediators such as antimicrobial peptides and cytokines. There is increasing evidence that the cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, which both signal through the IL-1 receptor, play an important role in cutaneous defense against S. aureus. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the underlying mechanisms leading to the S. aureus-induced IL-1alpha and IL-1beta expression in keratinocytes. Infection of human primary keratinocytes with S. aureus led to the induction of gene expression and protein secretion of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. Full S. aureus-induced IL-1 protein release required the inflammasome components caspase-1 and ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) whereas gene induction of IL-1alpha and IL-beta by S. aureus was not dependent on caspase-1 and ASC. Since patients receiving anti-cancer therapy by inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) often suffer from skin infections caused by S. aureus we additionally evaluated whether the EGFR pathway may be involved in the IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induction by S. aureus. Inactivation of the EGFR with a blocking antibody decreased the S. aureus-mediated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induction in primary keratinocytes. Moreover, the use of siRNA experiments revealed that ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and A Metalloprotease 17), a metalloproteinase known to mediate the shedding and release of EGFR ligands, was required for full induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in keratinocytes infected with S. aureus. A failure of keratinocytes to adequately upregulate IL-1alpha and IL-1beta may promote S. aureus skin infections. PMID:26808616

  13. The Inflammasome and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Are Involved in the Staphylococcus aureus-Mediated Induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Simanski, Maren; Rademacher, Franziska; Schrder, Lena; Glser, Regine; Harder, Jrgen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is an important pathogen causing various infections including those of the skin. Keratinocytes are able to sense invading S. aureus and to initiate a fast defense reaction by the rapid release of innate defense mediators such as antimicrobial peptides and cytokines. There is increasing evidence that the cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, which both signal through the IL-1 receptor, play an important role in cutaneous defense against S. aureus. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the underlying mechanisms leading to the S. aureus-induced IL-1alpha and IL-1beta expression in keratinocytes. Infection of human primary keratinocytes with S. aureus led to the induction of gene expression and protein secretion of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. Full S. aureus-induced IL-1 protein release required the inflammasome components caspase-1 and ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) whereas gene induction of IL-1alpha and IL-beta by S. aureus was not dependent on caspase-1 and ASC. Since patients receiving anti-cancer therapy by inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) often suffer from skin infections caused by S. aureus we additionally evaluated whether the EGFR pathway may be involved in the IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induction by S. aureus. Inactivation of the EGFR with a blocking antibody decreased the S. aureus-mediated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induction in primary keratinocytes. Moreover, the use of siRNA experiments revealed that ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and A Metalloprotease 17), a metalloproteinase known to mediate the shedding and release of EGFR ligands, was required for full induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in keratinocytes infected with S. aureus. A failure of keratinocytes to adequately upregulate IL-1alpha and IL-1beta may promote S. aureus skin infections. PMID:26808616

  14. Purification and growth of melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r)-defective primary murine melanocytes is dependent on stem cell factor from keratinocyte-conditioned media

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Timothy L.; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D’Orazio, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a transmembrane Gs-coupled surface protein found on melanocytes that binds melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and mediates activation of adenylyl cyclase and generation of the second messenger cAMP. MC1R regulates growth and differentiation of melanocytes and protects against carcinogenesis. Persons with loss-of-function polymorphisms of MC1R tend to be UV-sensitive (fair-skinned and with a poor tanning response) and are at high risk for melanoma. Mechanistic studies of the role of MC1R in melanocytic UV responses, however, have been hindered in part because Mc1r-defective primary murine melanocytes have been difficult to culture in vitro. Until now, effective growth of murine melanocytes has depended on cAMP stimulation with adenylyl cyclase activating or phosphodiesterase inhibiting agents. However, rescuing cAMP in the setting of defective MC1R signaling would be expected to confound experiments directly testing MC1R function on melanocytic UV responses. Here we report a novel method of culturing primary murine melanocytes in the absence of pharmacologic cAMP stimulation by incorporating conditioned supernatants containing stem cell factor (SCF) derived from primary keratinocytes. Importantly, this method seems to permit similar pigment expression by cultured melanocytes as that found in the skin of their parental murine strains. This novel approach will allow mechanistic investigation into MC1R’s role in protection against UV-mediated carcinogenesis and determination of the role of melanin pigment subtypes on UV-mediated melanocyte responses. PMID:19633898

  15. AMPK regulation of the growth of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Asish K. . E-mail: aksaha@bu.edu; Persons, Kelly; Safer, Joshua D.; Luo Zhijun; Holick, Michael F.; Ruderman, Neil B.

    2006-10-20

    AMP kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensing enzyme that responds to cellular energy depletion by increasing processes that generate ATP and inhibiting others that require ATP but are not acutely necessary for survival. In the present study, we examined the relationship between AMPK activation and the growth (proliferation) of cultured human keratinocytes and assessed whether the inhibition of keratinocyte growth by vitamin D involves AMPK activation. In addition, we explored whether the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation as they approach confluence could be AMPK-related. Keratinocytes were incubated for 12 h with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-{beta}-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). At concentrations of 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} M, AICAR inhibited keratinocyte growth by 50% and 95%, respectively, based on measurements of thymidine incorporation into DNA. It also increased AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (P-AMPK and P-ACC) and decreased the concentration of malonyl CoA confirming that AMPK activation had occurred. Incubation with the thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (10{sup -6} M) caused similar alterations in P-AMPK, P-ACC, and cell growth. In contrast, the well known inhibition of keratinocyte growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (10{sup -7} and 10{sup -6} M) was not associated with changes in P-AMPK or P-ACC. Like most cells, the growth of keratinocytes diminished as they approached confluence. Thus, it was of note that we found a progressive increase in P-AMPK (1.5- to 2-fold, p < 0.05) as keratinocytes grown in control medium went from 25% to 100% confluence. In conclusion, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of AMPK acts as a signal to diminish the proliferation of cultured keratinocytes as they approach confluence. They also suggest that AMPK activators, such as AICAR and troglitazone, inhibit keratinocyte growth and that the inhibition of cell growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} is AMPK-independent.

  16. Identification of Keratinocyte Growth Factor as a Target of microRNA-155 in Lung Fibroblasts: Implication in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Benoit; Puissgur, Marie-Pierre; Lebrigand, Kevin; Robbe-Sermesant, Karine; Bertero, Thomas; Lino Cardenas, Christian L.; Courcot, Elisabeth; Rios, Graldine; Fourre, Sandra; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Marcet, Brice; Cardinaud, Bruno; Barbry, Pascal; Mari, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are critical in regulating many aspects of vertebrate embryo development, and for the maintenance of homeostatic equilibrium in adult tissues. The interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme are believed to be mediated by paracrine signals such as cytokines and extracellular matrix components secreted from fibroblasts that affect adjacent epithelia. In this study, we sought to identify the repertoire of microRNAs (miRNAs) in normal lung human fibroblasts and their potential regulation by the cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and TGF-?. Methodology/Principal Findings MiR-155 was significantly induced by inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? while it was down-regulated by TGF-?. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in human fibroblasts induced modulation of a large set of genes related to cell to cell signalling, cell morphology and cellular movement. This was consistent with an induction of caspase-3 activity and with an increase in cell migration in fibroblasts tranfected with miR-155. Using different miRNA bioinformatic target prediction tools, we found a specific enrichment for miR-155 predicted targets among the population of down-regulated transcripts. Among fibroblast-selective targets, one interesting hit was keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, FGF-7), a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, which owns two potential binding sites for miR-155 in its 3?-UTR. Luciferase assays experimentally validated that miR-155 can efficiently target KGF 3?-UTR. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that only one out of the 2 potential sites was truly functional. Functional in vitro assays experimentally validated that miR-155 can efficiently target KGF 3?-UTR. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using a mouse model of lung fibrosis showed that miR-155 expression level was correlated with the degree of lung fibrosis. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly suggest a physiological function of miR-155 in lung fibroblasts. Altogether, this study implicates this miRNA in the regulation by mesenchymal cells of surrounding lung epithelium, making it a potential key player during tissue injury. PMID:19701459

  17. Paracrine factors from fibroblast aggregates in a fibrin-matrix carrier enhance keratinocyte viability and migration.

    PubMed

    Peura, Matti; Siltanen, Antti; Saarinen, Ira; Soots, Anu; Bizik, Jozef; Vuola, Jyrki; Harjula, Ari; Kankuri, Esko

    2010-11-01

    Efficient re-epithelialization of skin lesions is dependent on paracrine support from connective tissue fibroblasts. In deep skin defects, the supporting growth factor incentive is lacking. Current methods of keratinocyte transplantation with compromised attachment, spread, and cell proliferation warrant improvement and refinement. We describe here how human keratinocytes can be stimulated by matrix-embedded factors from a novel process of fibroblast activation: nemosis. Interestingly, the unique set of mediators released in this process also plays a key role in normal wound healing. To develop a system for targeted delivery of nemosis-derived paracrine effectors, herein designated as Finectra, we combined them with fibrin to establish a controlled-release gel. Keratinocytes seeded to cover this active matrix showed better adherence, outgrowth, and viability than did cells on control matrix. The matrix incorporating Finectra supported viability of both primary keratinocytes and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled HaCaT cells, as evaluated by MTT assay and persistence of GFP-fluorescence. The fibrin-Finectra matrix promoted migration of keratinocytes to cover a larger area on the matrix, suggesting better wound coverage on transplantation. An inhibitor of EGFR/c-Met receptor tyrosine kinases abolished keratinocyte responses to fibrin-Finectra matrix. This matrix can thus deliver biologically relevant synergistic stimuli to keratinocytes and hasten re-epithelialization. PMID:20725975

  18. Effects of keratinocyte-secreted soluble factors on spreading, number of dendrites and cell-cell contacts of human epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tenchini, M L; Morra, F; Soranzo, C; Malcovati, M

    1995-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that spreading and clustering of in vitro cultured human keratinocytes are autocrine-induced phenomena, mediated by keratinocyte-secreted soluble factor. In this paper, the effects of this factor on spreading, number of dendrites and cell-cell contacts of the two cellular components of skin, melanocytes and fibroblasts have been studied 24 h after plating cells on uncoated plastic surfaces in MCDB153 serum-free medium or in the same medium conditioned by keratinocytes (KCM). Spreading of melanocytes present in the epidermal cell population remained constant at increasing cell density, while that of keratinocytes showed a statistically significant increase. Moreover, time-course experiments showed that the rate of spreading was faster for melanocytes. At increasing epidermal cell density, a statistically significant increase in number of dendrites and cell-cell contacts of melanocytes was observed. Similar results were obtained when melanocytes were plated both in coculture with keratinocytes (as epidermal cell cultures) or as a pure cell population in keratinocyte conditioned medium (KCM), suggesting that the observed phenomena are due to keratinocyte-secreted soluble factors and not to direct keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions. The addition of nerve growth factor (NGF) to fresh medium or addition of an inactivating anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (alpha D11) to KCM did not affect the number of dendrites or cell-cell contacts of melanocytes. Keratinocyte-secreted soluble factor(s) present in KCM also dramatically influenced morphology and cell-cell contacts of human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:9439902

  19. Role of keratinocyte-derived factors involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa

    2005-02-01

    Melanocytes characterized by the activities of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2 as well as by melanosomes and dendrites are located mainly in the epidermis, dermis and hair bulb of the mammalian skin. Melanocytes differentiate from melanoblasts, undifferentiated precursors, derived from embryonic neural crest cells. Because hair bulb melanocytes are derived from epidermal melanoblasts and melanocytes, the mechanism of the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal melanocytes should be clarified. The regulation by the tissue environment, especially by keratinocytes is indispensable in addition to the regulation by genetic factors in melanocytes. Recent advances in the techniques of tissue culture and biochemistry have enabled us to clarify factors derived from keratinocytes. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, basic fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor, endothelins, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, steel factor, leukemia inhibitory factor and hepatocyte growth factor have been suggested to be the keratinocyte-derived factors and to regulate the proliferation and/or differentiation of mammalian epidermal melanocytes. Numerous factors may be produced in and released from keratinocytes and be involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian epidermal melanocytes through receptor-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:15649147

  20. Human hair follicle dermal sheath and papilla cells support keratinocyte growth in monolayer coculture.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rebecca P; Gardner, Aaron; Crawford, Heather C; Richer, Rachel; Dodds, Anna; Owens, William A; Lawrence, Clifford; Rao, Sam; Kara, Bo; James, S Elizabeth; Jahoda, Colin A

    2013-03-01

    Traditional skin grafting techniques are effective but limited methods of skin replacement. Autologous transplantation of rapidly cultured keratinocytes is successful for epidermal regeneration, but the current gold-standard technique requires mouse fibroblast feeders and serum-rich media, with serum-free systems and dermal fibroblast (DF) feeders performing relatively poorly. Here, we investigated the capacity of human hair follicle dermal cells to act as alternative supports for keratinocyte growth. Dermal papilla (DP) dermal sheath (DS), DF and 3T3 cells were used as inactivated feeder cells for human keratinocyte coculture. Under conditions favouring dermal cells, proliferation of keratinocytes in the presence of either DS or DP cells was significantly enhanced compared with DF cells, at levels comparable to keratinocytes cultured under gold-standard conditions. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression increased DS and DP cells relative to DFs; however, further experiments did not demonstrate a role in keratinocyte support. PMID:23489431

  1. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  2. N-Cadherin and Keratinocyte Growth Factor Receptor Mediate the Functional Interplay between Ki-RASG12V and p53V143A in Promoting Pancreatic Cell Migration, Invasion, and Tissue Architecture Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Deramaudt, Therese B.; Takaoka, Munenori; Upadhyay, Rabi; Bowser, Mark J.; Porter, Jess; Lee, Amy; Rhoades, Ben; Johnstone, Cameron N.; Weissleder, Ralph; Hingorani, Sunil R.; Mahmood, Umar; Rustgi, Anil K.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic basis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which constitutes the most common type of pancreatic malignancy, involves the sequential activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Among the pivotal genetic alterations are Ki-RAS oncogene activation and p53 tumor suppressor gene inactivation. We explain that the combination of these genetic events facilitates pancreatic carcinogenesis as revealed in novel three-dimensional cell (spheroid cyst) culture and in vivo subcutaneous and orthotopic xenotransplantation models. N-cadherin, a member of the classic cadherins important in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion, is induced in the presence of Ki-RAS mutation but subsequently downregulated with the acquisition of p53 mutation as revealed by gene microarrays and corroborated by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. N-cadherin modulates the capacity of pancreatic ductal cells to migrate and invade, in part via complex formation with keratinocyte growth factor receptor and neural cell adhesion molecule and in part via interaction with p120-catenin. However, modulation of these complexes by Ki-RAS and p53 leads to enhanced cell migration and invasion. This preferentially induces the downstream effector AKT over mitogen-activated protein kinase to execute changes in cellular behavior. Thus, we are able to define molecules that in part are directly affected by Ki-RAS and p53 during pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis, and this provides a platform for potential new molecularly based therapeutic interventions. PMID:16705170

  3. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFN? production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51faster), ostrich oil (1.46faster), and rhea oil (1.64faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFN? production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  4. Expression and growth inhibitory effect of decapentaplegic Vg-related protein 6: evidence for a regulatory role in keratinocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Drozdoff, V; Wall, N A; Pledger, W J

    1994-06-01

    Decapentaplegic Vg-related protein 6 (DVR-6 or bone morphogenetic protein BMP-6) is a member of the DVR subgroup of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, a large group of multifunctional signaling polypeptides that are expressed as secreted disulfide-bonded dimers proteolytically cleaved from larger precursors. The predominant expression of DVR-6 in the differentiating postmitotic layers of stratified squamous epithelia strongly suggests a role for DVR-6 in regulation of epithelial differentiation. In primary mouse keratinocytes induced to differentiate by suspension culture in methylcellulose, new expression of DVR-6 mRNA and protein was detected within 8 h among a majority of the suspended cells, which preceded the induction of expression of the suprabasal keratins K1 and K10. To test the hypothesis that DVR-6 is a keratinocyte growth regulatory factor, a retroviral expression vector expressing human DVR-6 was used to infect attached cultures of undifferentiated basal cells. Expression of DVR-6 in primary mouse keratinocytes before differentiation resulted in the secretion of prepro and processed (pro region) forms in the conditioned medium and a dramatic inhibition of cell growth. These findings suggest that inhibition of cell growth by DVR-6 may be a primary step in keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:7515504

  5. Expression of paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c (PITX2c) in epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ge; Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747; Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Guangxi, Nanning, 530023 ; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Choi, Tae-Young; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Sin; Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 ; Ou, Bai-sheng; Kim, Sooil; Lee, Young Ho; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-702 ; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 ; Kim, Chang Deok

    2010-11-15

    Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) has been implicated as one of the genes responsible for Rieger syndrome. It has been also shown to play a central role during development. In this study, we investigated the functional role of PITX2 in keratinocyte differentiation. RT-PCR analysis showed that PITX2c isoform was predominantly expressed in a differentiation-dependent manner. Consistent with, immunohistochemical staining showed that PITX2 expression was increased in the upper layer of epidermis. When PITX2c was overexpressed in cultured keratinocytes by a recombinant adenovirus, the differentiation markers such as involucrin and loricrin were significantly increased at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, PITX2c overexpression led to the decrease of cell growth, concomitantly with the upregulation of cell cycle-related genes p21. To investigate the effect of PITX2c in vivo, we microinjected PITX2c expression vector into zebrafish embryo. Interestingly, overexpression of PITX2c in zebrafish embryo led to the formation of horn-like structure and thickening of epidermis, together with the increase of keratin 8 (K8) expression. These results suggest that PITX2c has a role in proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes.

  6. Kinetics of growth and differentiation of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the interrelationship between replication and differentiation in cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. Measures of both parameters were made using newly developed methods to quantify the rate at which keratinocytes replicate and the rate at which they withdraw from the cell cycle. Keratinocyte replication was measured by determining the cell doubling time, labeling index, and cell cycle duration. Cell cycle length was measured using a double label assay that determines the length of time between two successive phases of DNA synthesis. The first DNA synthesis phase was marked by labeling keratinocytes with /sup 14/C-thymidine. At the next round of DNA synthesis, cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a heavy analog of thymidine. The cell cycle length is given by the time required for the /sup 14/C-labeled DNA to become double labeled. To measure keratinocyte differentiation, the rate at which cells withdraw from the cell cycle was determined. To measure withdrawal, the percentage of cells labeled by a pulse of /sup 14/C-thymidine that failed to undergo a second cycle of DNA synthesis, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was determined. Cells which failed to undergo a second cycle of synthesis were considered to have differentiated and withdrawn from the cell cycle.

  7. Growth of herpes simplex virus in epidermal keratinocytes determines cutaneous pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Li, ZhiHong; Kurokawa, Masahiko; Kawana, Takashi; Imakita, Masami; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2005-03-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV)-1 and -2 isolated from genital lesions were examined for cutaneous pathogenicity and its correlation with cellular tropism. HSV-1 caused vesiculation, erosion/ulcer, and zosteriform lesions successively, but skin lesions of HSV-2 developed without vesiculation in some mice, and with statistically significantly less frequent vesiculation than HSV-1. Thus, the virological type of HSV was correlated with its cutaneous pathogenicity. The growth characteristics of HSV-1 and -2 were compared in cultured human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts, human lung cancer A549 cells, human neonatal epidermal keratinocytes, human neonatal dermal fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and Vero cells. HSV-2 produced plaques that were 72% times the size of HSV-1 plaques in epidermal keratinocytes but 230%-500% the size in the other cells. The difference between HSV-1 and -2 in the ratio of plaque size to virus yield in epidermal keratinocytes was much larger (502 times) than the ratio of the other cells (5.57-28.8 times). Keratinocytes are the major constituent of the epidermal layer of the skin and the cells in which vesiculation and erosion/ulceration occur histologically. Therefore, the smaller spread of HSV-2 in keratinocytes of the epidermal layer and the greater spread in other cells of the dermal layer might reflect its lesser invasiveness in the epidermal layer despite larger invasiveness in the dermal layer, which is reflected in the low incidence of erosion/ulcer of the skin compared to HSV-1. Thus, the growth of HSV in epidermal keratinocytes appeared to correlate with the cutaneous pathogenicity causing vesiculation in the skin. PMID:15648069

  8. Loss of serum response factor in keratinocytes results in hyperproliferative skin disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, Heidi; von Tobel, Lukas; Schäfer, Matthias; Alberti, Siegfried; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mauch, Cornelia; Hohl, Daniel; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Bloch, Wilhelm; Nordheim, Alfred; Werner, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) plays a crucial role in the development of several organs. However, its role in the skin has not been explored. Here, we show that keratinocytes in normal human and mouse skin expressed high levels of SRF but that SRF expression was strongly downregulated in the hyperproliferative epidermis of wounded and psoriatic skin. Keratinocyte-specific deletion within the mouse SRF locus during embryonic development caused edema and skin blistering, and all animals died in utero. Postnatal loss of mouse SRF in keratinocytes resulted in the development of psoriasis-like skin lesions. These lesions were characterized by inflammation, hyperproliferation, and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes as well as by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Ultrastructural analysis revealed markedly reduced cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts and loss of cell compaction in all epidermal layers. siRNA-mediated knockdown of SRF in primary human keratinocytes revealed that the cytoskeletal abnormalities and adhesion defects were a direct consequence of the loss of SRF. In contrast, the hyperproliferation observed in vivo was an indirect effect that was most likely a consequence of the inflammation. These results reveal that loss of SRF disrupts epidermal homeostasis and strongly suggest its involvement in the pathogenesis of hyperproliferative skin diseases, including psoriasis. PMID:19307725

  9. Hair-growth-promoting effect of conditioned medium of high integrin ?6 and low CD 71 (?6bri/CD71dim) positive keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Chong Hyun; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Kang, Sangjin; Koo, Tae-Sung; Park, So-Hyun; Park, Ki-Young; Sung, Young-Kwan; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells (KSCs) reside in the bulge region of the hair follicles and may be involved in hair growth. Hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) of KSCs. Moreover, the effects of KSC-CM on hair growth were examined ex vivo and in vivo. A human growth factor chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify enriched proteins in KSC-CM as compared with CM from keratinocytes. KSC-CM significantly increased the proliferation of HFDPCs and ORS cells, and increased the S-phase of the cell cycle in HFDPCs. KSC-CM led to the phosphorylation of ATK and ERK1/2 in both cell types. After subcutaneous injection of KSC-CM in C3H/HeN mice, a significant increase in hair growth and increased proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes ex vivo was observed. We identified six proteins enriched in KSC-CM (amphiregulin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, Platelet-derived growth factor-AA, and vascular endothelial growth factor). A growth-factor cocktail that contains these six recombinant growth factors significantly increased the proliferation of HFDPCs and ORS cells and enhanced the hair growth of mouse models. These results collectively indicate that KSC-CM has the potential to increase hair growth via the proliferative capacity of HFDPCs and ORS cells. PMID:25706512

  10. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces an autophagy-related process and sensitizes normal human keratinocytes to cell death in response to growth factor deprivation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaobo; Muenger, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Expression of oncogenes, such as the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein, promotes aberrant cell proliferation. In the absence of concurrent mitogenic stimuli, this triggers a cell-intrinsic defense mechanism, the 'trophic sentinel response', which eliminates such aberrant cells. The molecular pathways that elicit this response, however, remain obscure. We set up an experimental system to investigate the trophic sentinel pathway triggered by HPV16 E7 expression in normal human keratinocytes, the natural host cells of HPVs. Keratinocytes expressing HPV16 E7 cultured in E-medium undergo cell death and show increased sub-G1 DNA content when grown to confluence or under conditions of serum deprivation. Moreover, HPV16 E7 expressing human keratinocytes express higher levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, which can be abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that even under normal culture conditions, HPV16 E7 expression triggers metabolic stress that may result in autophagy, a pathway implicated in carcinogenesis.

  11. CCN1, a Pro-Inflammatory Factor, Aggravates Psoriasis Skin Lesions by Promoting Keratinocyte Activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Zhou; Wu, Pinru; Huo, Rongfen; Wang, Beiqing; Shen, Zhengyu; Li, Huidan; Zhai, Tianhang; Shen, Baihua; Chen, Xiangdong; Li, Ningli

    2015-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is multifactorial and is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that CCN1 (also called Cyr61, which is short for cysteine-rich 61), an extracellular matrix protein that is also considered a pro-inflammatory factor, is highly expressed in the lesional skin of psoriasis patients, as well as in that of imiquimod (IMQ)- and IL-23-treated psoriasis-like mice. Then we show that blocking CCN1 function in vivo attenuates epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation in psoriasis-like mice. Further, in primary cultured normal human keratinocytes and HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line) cells, CCN1 promotes keratinocyte activation, including the proliferation and expression of immune-related molecules. Finally, we observe that integrin ?6?1 is the receptor of CCN1 in keratinocytes, and CCN1 stimulation activates the downstream phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings reveal that CCN1 has a critical role in psoriasis pathogenesis. Moreover, as CCN1 is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, our study also provides evidence that ECM, which is involved in psoriatic pathogenesis, could be a potent target for psoriasis treatment. PMID:26099024

  12. Constitutive expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α in keratinocytes during the repair of skin wounds in horses.

    PubMed

    Deschene, Karine; Céleste, Christophe; Boerboom, Derek; Theoret, Christine L

    2011-01-01

    As a transient hypoxic state exists within skin wounds in horses and may be important for the healing process, this study sought to identify a molecular hypoxia response occurring in horse limb and body wounds healing by second intention. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) protein expression was studied throughout repair by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Paradoxically, HIF1α was strongly expressed in intact skin and its expression decreased dramatically following wounding (p<0.01), despite the expected hypoxic state within the wounded tissue. HIF1α levels reincreased in parallel with the epithelialization process, and more rapidly in body wounds than in limb wounds (p<0.01). HIF1α localized predominantly to the keratinocyte layer, in which it was constitutively expressed throughout healing. The HIF1α target gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) showed a pattern of expression similar to HIF1α throughout the healing process and also localized to the keratinocyte layer, suggesting that HIF1α may regulate its constitutive expression. The HIF1α target genes vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1 (SLC2A1) however did not have a pattern of expression similar to HIF1α, at the mRNA level. We conclude that HIF1α is expressed in a continuous and hypoxia-independent manner in equine keratinocytes in both intact and wounded skin, and may regulate the expression of CDKN1A in this cell type. PMID:21362093

  13. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC.

  14. [The role of feeder cells in the adhesion and growth of human and rat keratinocytes].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A V; Voloshin, A V; Terskikh, V V

    1991-01-01

    Effects of feeder cells on adhesion of human and rat keratinocytes were studied. The human keratinocytes from skin fragments, obtained after surgery and rat keratinocytes from tail skin of young animals, were isolated by cold trypsinization. To evaluate the rate of adhesion the human keratinocytes were labeled in vitro with 14C-leucine while the rat keratinocytes were labeled in vivo with- 14C-thymidine. The human embryo fibroblasts and stromal cells of fetal bone marrow found to be more effective than Swiss 3T3 cells, adult dermal fibroblasts, and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells in promoting keratinocyte adhesion. The adsorbed collagen supported cell adhesion better than cultural plastic surface but was inferior to feeder cells. The rate of keratinocyte culture formation was dependent on the feeder layer density: the optimum density was 50 x 10(3) cells/cm2. Dynamics of keratinocyte adhesion to substrata was studied. PMID:1841463

  15. A Method for the Immortalization of Newborn Mouse Skin Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hammiller, Brianna O.; El-Abaseri, Taghrid Bahig; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation and culture of mouse primary epidermal keratinocytes is a common technique that allows for easy genetic and environmental manipulation. However, due to their limited lifespan in culture, experiments utilizing primary keratinocytes require large numbers of animals, and are time consuming and expensive. To avoid these issues, we developed a method for the immortalization of primary mouse epidermal keratinocytes. Upon isolation of newborn epidermal keratinocytes according to established methods, the cells were cultured long-term in keratinocyte growth factor-containing medium. The cells senesced within a few weeks and eventually, small, slowly growing colonies emerged. After they regained confluency, the cells were passaged and slowly refilled the dish. With several rounds of subculture, the cells adapted to culture conditions, were easily subcultured, maintained normal morphology, and were apparently immortal. The immortalized cells retained the ability to differentiate with increased calcium concentrations, and were maintained to high passage numbers while maintaining a relatively stable karyotype. Analysis of multiple immortalized cell lines as well as primary keratinocyte cultures revealed increased numbers of chromosomes, especially in the primary keratinocytes, and chromosomal aberrations in most of the immortalized cultures and in the primary keratinocytes. Orthotopic grafting of immortalized keratinocytes together with fibroblasts onto nude mouse hosts produced skin while v-rasHa infection of the immortalized keratinocytes prior to grafting produced squamous cell carcinoma. In summary, this method of cell line generation allows for decreased use of animals, reduces the expense and time involved in research, and provides a useful model for cutaneous keratinocyte experimentation. PMID:26284198

  16. Superoxide anions produced by Streptococcus pyogenes group A-stimulated keratinocytes are responsible for cellular necrosis and bacterial growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Regnier, Elodie; Grange, Philippe A; Ollagnier, Guillaume; Crickx, Etienne; Elie, Laetitia; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Weill, Bernard; Plainvert, Cline; Poyart, Claire; Batteux, Frdric; Dupin, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a major skin pathogen and interacts with keratinocytes in cutaneous tissues. GAS can cause diverse suppurative and inflammatory infections, such as cellulitis, a common acute bacterial dermo-hypodermitis with a high morbidity. Bacterial isolation yields from the lesions are low despite the strong local inflammation observed, raising numerous questions about the pathogenesis of the infection. Using an invitro model of GAS-infected keratinocytes, we show that the major ROS produced is the superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]), and that its production is time- and dose-dependent. Using specific modulators of ROS production, we show that [Formula: see text] is mainly synthesized by the cytoplasmic NADPH oxidase. Superoxide anion production leads to keratinocyte necrosis but incomplete inhibition of GAS growth, suggesting that GAS may be partially resistant to the oxidative burst. In conclusion, GAS-stimulated keratinocytes are able to develop an innate immune response based on the production of ROS. This local immune response limits GAS development and induces keratinocyte cell death, resulting in the skin lesions observed in patients with cellulitis. PMID:26621818

  17. Targeted delivery of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to keratinocytes with a pemphigus monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Kouno, Michiyoshi; Lin, Chenyan; Schechter, Norman; Siegel, Don; Yang, Xiaoping; Seykora, John T.; Stanley, John R

    2013-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of using an anti-desmoglein (Dsg) monoclonal antibody, Px44, to deliver a biologically active protein to keratinocytes. Recombinantly produced Px44-green fluorescent protein (GFP) injected into mice and skin organ culture delivered GFP to the cell surface of keratinocytes. We replaced GFP with tumor necrosis factor -related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to produce Px44TRAIL. We chose TRAIL as a biologic model because it inhibits activated lymphocytes and causes apoptosis of hyperproliferative keratinocytes, features of various skin diseases. Px44TRAIL formed a trimer, the biologically active form of TRAIL. Standard assays of TRAIL activity showed that Px44TRAIL caused apoptosis of Jurkat cells and inhibited interferon-γ production by activated CD4+ T cells. Enzyme-linked immunoassay with Px44TRAIL showed delivery of TRAIL to Dsg. Immunofluorescence with Px44TRAIL incubated on skin sections and cultured keratinocytes or injected into mouse skin, human organ culture or human xenografts detected TRAIL on keratinocytes. Px44TRAIL caused apoptosis of hyperproliferative, but not differentiating, cultured keratinocytes through binding to Dsg3. Foldon, a small trimerization domain, cloned into Px44TRAIL maintained its stability and biological activity at 37° for at least 48 hr. These data suggest that such targeted therapy is feasible and may be useful for hyperproliferative and inflamed skin diseases. PMID:23439393

  18. The Papillomavirus E2 Protein Binds to and Synergizes with C/EBP Factors Involved in Keratinocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hadaschik, Dirk; Hinterkeuser, Korinna; Oldak, Monika; Pfister, Herbert J.; Smola-Hess, Sigrun

    2003-01-01

    The papillomavirus life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation program of the host keratinocyte. Thus, late gene expression and viral maturation are restricted to terminally differentiated keratinocytes. A variety of cellular transcription factors including those of the C/EBP family are involved in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. In this study we show that the papillomavirus transcription factor E2 cooperates with C/EBP? and -? in transcriptional activation. This synergism was independent of an E2 binding site. E2 and C/EBP factors synergistically transactivated a synthetic promoter construct containing classical C/EBP? sites and the C/EBP?-responsive proximal promoter of the involucrin gene, which is naturally expressed in differentiating keratinocytes. C/EBP? or -? coprecipitated with E2 proteins derived from human papillomavirus type 8 (HPV8), HPV16, HPV18, and bovine papillomavirus type 1 in vitro and in vivo, indicating complex formation by the cellular and viral factors. The interaction domains could be mapped to the C terminus of E2 and amino acids 261 to 302 located within the bZIP motif of C/EBP?. Our data suggest that E2, via its interaction with C/EBP factors, may contribute to enhancing keratinocyte differentiation, which is suppressed by the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 in HPV-induced lesions. PMID:12692227

  19. The topography of electrospun nanofibers and its impact on the growth and mobility of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pelipenko, J; Kocbek, P; Govedarica, B; Roic, R; Baumgartner, S; Kristl, J

    2013-06-01

    Despite a lot of intensive research in the field of polymer nanofibers as wound-healing and tissue-regeneration materials, the behavior of cells in contact with nanofibers in vitro as well as in vivo is still not well understood. However, this knowledge is crucial for the design of nanofibrillar materials that are suitable for biomedical applications. Therefore, in this study, we present the preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers from a physico-chemically characterized polymer solution by electrospinning together with a stabilization method to preserve the morphology of the nanofibers in aqueous conditions. An investigation of the effects of a nanofibrillar scaffold on the growth of human keratinocytes showed that randomly oriented PVA nanofibers delay the keratinocytes' adhesion but improve their strength, greatly alter their morphology, increase their metabolic activity, and limit their mobility. We have shown that due to the small interfiber pores, the whole cells are unable to penetrate into nanofibrillar network efficiently. However, flexible cell parts can penetrate into the nanofibrillar network, whereas the cell nuclei stay on the surface of electrospun scaffold. Additional reason for poor cell mobility is random orientation of nanofibers, which does not provide continuous routes for successful cell infiltration. Therefore, nanofibrillar support with nanosized interfiber pores could potentially be used to enable an efficient cell proliferation and accelerate surface-wound healing, but not for three-dimensional tissue regeneration. Finally, we showed that aligned nanofibers can successfully direct the migration and proliferation of cells, which is a crucial property of nanomaterials for the successful regeneration of tissues with a highly organized structure. PMID:23085581

  20. The Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Molecule LIGHT Promotes Keratinocyte Activity and Skin Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Herro, Rana; Antunes, Ricardo Da S; Aguilera, Amelia R; Tamada, Koji; Croft, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Several inflammatory diseases including scleroderma and atopic dermatitis display dermal thickening, epidermal hypertrophy, or excessive accumulation of collagen. Factors that might promote these features are of interest for clinical therapy. We previously reported that LIGHT, a TNF superfamily molecule, mediated collagen deposition in the lungs in response to allergen. We therefore tested whether LIGHT might similarly promote collagen accumulation and features of skin fibrosis. Strikingly, injection of recombinant soluble LIGHT into naive mice, either subcutaneously or systemically, promoted collagen deposition in the skin and dermal and epidermal thickening. This replicated the activity of bleomycin, an antibiotic that has been previously used in models of scleroderma in mice. Moreover skin fibrosis induced by bleomycin was dependent on endogenous LIGHT activity. The action of LIGHT in vivo was mediated via both of its receptors, HVEM and LT?R, and was dependent on the innate cytokine TSLP and TGF-?. Furthermore, we found that HVEM and LT?R were expressed on human epidermal keratinocytes and that LIGHT could directly promote TSLP expression in these cells. We reveal an unappreciated activity of LIGHT on keratinocytes and suggest that LIGHT may be an important mediator of skin inflammation and fibrosis in diseases such as scleroderma or atopic dermatitis. PMID:25789702

  1. Cultured allogenic keratinocyte grafts in the management of wound healing: prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, T J; Gilchrest, B A

    1989-11-01

    Cultured allografts derived from neonatal foreskin provide a potent stimulus to wound healing in a wide variety of wounds. Their application is a simple outpatient procedure involving no discomfort for the patient. In contrast to autografting, no biopsy is necessary, and growth of newborn keratinocytes in cultures is more rapid than that of adult cells. Use of cultured allogeneic cells offers immediate graft availability and the possibility of stockpiling and preserving the graft for future use. Cultured epidermal allografts may be valuable in accelerating healing by second intention in surgical wounds, as well as being a helpful addition to chronic ulcer management. In venous disease, the outcome is at least comparable to other forms of skin grafting. Ulcers due to connective tissue disorders fared less well and deep chronic ulcers (down to fascia or tendon) were not significantly improved by cultured allograft application. Surprisingly, patient age did not influence outcome. PMID:2808887

  2. Kyolic and Pycnogenol increase human growth hormone secretion in genetically-engineered keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Buz'Zard, Amber R; Peng, Qiaoling; Lau, Benjamin H S

    2002-02-01

    The amount of human growth hormone (HGH) decreases significantly after the age of 30. This decrease has been implicated as one of the major causes in the signs of aging, such as thinning of the skin and bones, a decrease in lean muscle mass and an increase in adipose tissue. Supplementing the body's dwindling supply with recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH) has been shown to reverse the signs and symptoms of aging. However, drawbacks in rHGH replacement therapy include prohibitively high cost, the need for repeated injection and side effects such as carpel tunnel syndrome, gynecomastia and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to establish an in vitro model using genetically-engineered keratinocytes to screen natural compounds for the ability to stimulate HGH secretion. We now report that a combination of equal amounts of L-arginine and L-lysine, aged garlic extract (Kyolic), S-allyl cysteine and Pycnogenol significantly increased secretion of HGH in this in vitro model. The data indicate that this in vitro model may be used to screen for other secretagogues. PMID:12127300

  3. Aberrant Notch signalling contributes to hypertrophic scar formation by modulating the phenotype of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Gao, Chao; Diao, Jian-Sheng; Wang, Da-Lei; Chu, Fei-Fei; Li, Yang; Wang, Gang; Guo, Shu-Zhong; Xia, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is characterized by fibroblast hyperproliferation and excessive matrix deposition. Aberrant keratinocyte differentiation and their abnormal cytokine secretion are said to contribute to HS by activating fibroblasts. However, the signalling pathway causing the aberrant keratinocytes in HS has remained unidentified thus far. Given that Notch signalling is crucial in initiating keratinocyte differentiation, we hypothesized that Notch signalling contributes to HS by modulating the phenotype of keratinocytes. We found that Notch1, Notch intracellular domain, Jagged1 and Hes-1 were overexpressed in the epidermis of patients with HS. Supernatants from recombinant-Jagged1-treated keratinocyte cultures could accelerate dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Furthermore, Jagged1 induced keratinocyte differentiation and upregulated the expression of fibrotic factors, including transforming growth factors ?1 and ?2 , insulin-like growth factor-1, connective tissue growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor, while DAPT (a Notch inhibitor) significantly suppressed these processes. In a rabbit ear model of HS, local application of DAPT downregulated the production of fibrotic factors in keratinocytes, together with ameliorated scar hyperplasia. Our findings suggest that Notch signalling contributes to HS by modulating keratinocyte phenotype. These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of HS and indicate a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26566963

  4. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  5. CORONETTE KERATINOCYTE COLONY FORMATION IS SUPPORTED BY EPIDERMAL-DERMAL CELL INTERACTIONS IN THE BOVINE CLAW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delineating factors that orchestrate keratinocyte growth and differentiation in the claw is pivotal to understanding the quality of hoof horn production in health and disease. The specific objectives of this investigation were to establish an in vitro culture system for bovine coronette keratinocyt...

  6. Growth factors for nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1999-12-01

    Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting factors were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth factors. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.

  7. Xyloglucan from Tropaeolum majus Seeds Induces Cellular Differentiation of Human Keratinocytes by Inhibition of EGFR Phosphorylation and Decreased Activity of Transcription Factor CREB.

    PubMed

    Zacharski, Dominika M; Brandt, Simone; Esch, Stefan; König, Simone; Mormann, Michael; Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-07-13

    Xyloglucan XG (molecular weight 462 kDa, 1,4-/1,4,6-(pGlc) linked backbone, side chains of 1-pXyl, 1,2-pXyl, 1-p-Gal) was isolated from the seeds of Tropaeolum majus. XG (100 μg/mL) induced terminal cellular differentiation of human keratinocytes, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot using cytokeratin 10 and involucrin as marker proteins. Differentiation was also induced by XG-derived oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization 7-9). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed the induction of gene expression of typical differentiation markers (cytokeratin, filaggrin, involucrin, loricrin, transglutaminase) in a time-dependent manner. Whole human genome microarray indicated that most of upregulated genes were related to differentiation processes. Microarray findings on selected genes were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. For identification of the molecular target of xyloglucan PAGE of keratinocyte membrane preparations was performed, followed by blotting with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled XG. XG interacting proteins were characterized by MS. Peptide fragments of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin β4 were identified. Subsequent phospho-kinase array indicated that phosphorylation of EGFR and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was decreased in the XG-treated cells. Thus, the XG-induced differentiation of keratinocytes is proposed to be mediated by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of EGFR, leading to a dimished CREB activation, which is essential for the activation of cellular differentiation. PMID:26068019

  8. Peptide growth factors, part A

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains information on the following topics: Epidermal Growth Factor;Transforming Growth Factors;Bone and Cartilage Growth Factors;Somatomedin/Insulin-Like Growth Factors;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Assays, Phosphorylation, and Surface Membrane Effects.

  9. New microbial growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  10. Peptide growth factors, part B

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor;Nerve and Glial Growth Factors;PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Genetic Approaches and Biological Effects.

  11. Receptor-interacting Protein Kinase 4 and Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 Function as a Signaling Axis to Regulate Keratinocyte Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Kwa, Mei Qi; Huynh, Jennifer; Aw, Jiamin; Zhang, Lianyi; Nguyen, Thao; Reynolds, Eric C.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Hamilton, John A.; Scholz, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) and interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) are critical regulators of keratinocyte differentiation, and their mutation causes the related developmental epidermal disorders Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and popliteal pterygium syndrome, respectively. However, the signaling pathways in which RIPK4 and IRF6 operate to regulate keratinocyte differentiation are poorly defined. Here we identify and mechanistically define a direct functional relationship between RIPK4 and IRF6. Gene promoter reporter and in vitro kinase assays, coimmunoprecipitation experiments, and confocal microscopy demonstrated that RIPK4 directly regulates IRF6 trans-activator activity and nuclear translocation. Gene knockdown and overexpression studies indicated that the RIPK4-IRF6 signaling axis controls the expression of key transcriptional regulators of keratinocyte differentiation, including Grainyhead-like 3 and OVO-like 1. Additionally, we demonstrate that the p.Ile121Asn missense mutation in RIPK4, which has been identified recently in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, inhibits its kinase activity, thereby preventing RIPK4-mediated IRF6 activation and nuclear translocation. We show, through mutagenesis-based experiments, that Ser-413 and Ser-424 in IRF6 are important for its activation by RIPK4. RIPK4 is also important for the regulation of IRF6 expression by the protein kinase C pathway. Therefore, our findings not only provide important mechanistic insights into the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation by RIPK4 and IRF6, but they also suggest one mechanism by which mutations in RIPK4 may cause epidermal disorders (e.g. Bartsocas-Papas syndrome), namely by the impaired activation of IRF6 by RIPK4. PMID:25246526

  12. Thrombospondin-induced adhesion of human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Varani, J; Nickoloff, B J; Riser, B L; Mitra, R S; O'Rourke, K; Dixit, V M

    1988-05-01

    Human epidermal keratinocytes obtained from normal skin attached and spread on thrombospondin (TSP)-coated plastic dishes but failed to attach and spread on untreated plastic culture dishes or dishes coated with fibronectin or laminin. These cells produced minimal amounts of immunoreactive TSP. Keratinocytes established in culture on MCDB 153 medium and maintained for one to three passages in an undifferentiated state by continued cultivation in this low Ca2+-containing medium attached and spread on plastic dishes as well as on TSP-coated dishes. These cells also secreted significant amounts of TSP into the culture medium. When the keratinocytes were incubated for one day in MCDB 153 medium supplemented with high Ca2+ or in MEM (which also contains high Ca2+), there was decreased secretion of TSP into the culture medium concomitant with a reduction in attachment and spreading on plastic culture dishes. Proteolytic fragments of TSP were examined for stimulation of keratinocyte attachment and spreading. A 140-kd fragment produced by removal of the 25-kd heparin-binding domain had similar activity to the intact molecule while the 25-kd fragment was without effect. Further proteolytic treatment of the 140-kd fragment gave rise to a fragment consisting of 120 kd and 18-D moieties held together in disulphide linkage. This fragment did not support attachment or spreading. This study reveals that normal epidermal keratinocytes grown under conditions that maintain the undifferentiated state are able to produce TSP and utilize it as an attachment factor. When keratinocytes are grown under conditions that promote differentiation, ability to produce and utilize TSP is diminished. Since TSP is present at the dermal-epidermal junction and because TSP promotes keratinocyte attachment and spreading, this molecule may play an important role in maintaining normal growth of the basal cell layer and may also participate in reepithelialization during wound repair. PMID:2452837

  13. Factors affecting ultraviolet-A photon emission from β-irradiated human keratinocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, M.; Mothersill, C. E.; Seymour, C. B.; Ahmad, S. B.; Armstrong, A.; Rainbow, A. J.; McNeill, F. E.

    2015-08-01

    The luminescence intensity of 340+/- 5 nm photons emitted from HaCaT (human keratinocyte) cells was investigated using a single-photon-counting system during cellular exposure to 90Y β-particles. Multiple factors were assessed to determine their influence upon the quantity and pattern of photon emission from β-irradiated cells. Exposure of 1× {{10}4} cells/5 mL to 703 μCi resulted in maximum UVA photoemission at 44.8× {{10}3}+/- 2.5× {{10}3} counts per second (cps) from live HaCaT cells (background: 1-5 cps); a 16-fold increase above cell-free controls. Significant biophoton emission was achieved only upon stimulation and was also dependent upon presence of cells. UVA luminescence was measured for 90Y activities 14 to 703 μCi where a positive relationship between photoemission and 90Y activity was observed. Irradiation of live HaCaT cells plated at various densities produced a distinct pattern of emission whereby luminescence increased up to a maximum at 1× {{10}4} cells/5 mL and thereafter decreased. However, this result was not observed in the dead cell population. Both live and dead HaCaT cells were irradiated and were found to demonstrate different rates of photon emission at low β activities (⩽400 μCi). Dead cells exhibited greater photon emission rates than live cells which may be attributable to metabolic processes taking place to modulate the photoemissive effect. The results indicate that photon emission from HaCaT cells is perturbed by external stimulation, is dependent upon the activity of radiation delivered, the density of irradiated cells, and cell viability. It is postulated that biophoton emission may be modulated by a biological or metabolic process.

  14. Loss of nuclear receptor RXR? in epidermal keratinocytes promotes the formation of Cdk4-activated invasive melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hyter, Stephen; Bajaj, Gaurav; Liang, Xiaobo; Barbacid, Mariano; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Keratinocytes contribute to melanocyte transformation by affecting their microenvironment, in part through the secretion of paracrine factors. Here we report a loss of expression of nuclear receptor RXR? in epidermal keratinocytes during human melanoma progression. In the absence of keratinocytic RXR?, in combination with mutant Cdk4, cutaneous melanoma was generated that metastasized to lymph nodes in a bigenic mouse model. Expression of several keratinocyte-derived mitogenic growth factors (Et-1, Hgf, Scf, ?-MSH and Fgf?2?) was elevated in skin of bigenic mice, whereas Fas, E-cadherin and Pten, implicated in apoptosis, cellular invasion and melanomagenesis, respectively, were downregulated within the microdissected melanocytic tumors. We demonstrated that RXR? is recruited on the proximal promoter of both Et-1 and Hgf, possibly directly regulating their transcription in keratinocytes. These studies demonstrate the contribution of keratinocytic paracrine signaling during the cellular transformation and malignant conversion of melanocytes. PMID:20629968

  15. Growth factors in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2012-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also discusses how deregulation of these growth factors or their receptors can drive malignant transformation and progression. PMID:20036812

  16. Effects of medium flow on axon growth with or without nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-11

    Axon growth is a crucial process in regeneration of damaged nerves. On the other hand, elongation of nerve fibers in the epidermis has been observed in skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Thus, regulation of nerve fiber extension might be an effective strategy to accelerate nerve regeneration and/or to reduce itching in pruritus dermatosis. We previously demonstrated that neurons and epidermal keratinocytes similarly contain multiple receptors that are activated by various environmental factors, and in particular, keratinocytes are influenced by shear stress. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of micro-flow of the medium on axon growth in the presence or absence of nerve growth factor (NGF), using cultured dorsal-root-ganglion (DRG) cells. The apparatus, AXIS, consists of two chambers connected by a set of microgrooves, through which signaling molecules and axons, but not living cells, can pass. When DRG cells were present in chamber 1, NGF was present in chamber 2, and micro-flow was directed from chamber 1 to chamber 2, axon growth was significantly increased compared with other conditions. Acceleration of axon growth in the direction of the micro-flow was also observed in the absence of NGF. These results suggest that local micro-flow might significantly influence axon growth. PMID:26212442

  17. Plant polyphenols differentially modulate inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes by interfering with activation of transcription factors NF{kappa}B and AhR and EGFR-ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Potapovich, Alla I.; Lulli, Daniela; Fidanza, Paolo; Kostyuk, Vladimir A.; De Luca, Chiara; Pastore, Saveria; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2011-09-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of inflammatory responses in primary human keratinocytes by plant polyphenols (PPs), namely the glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside, the stilbenoid resveratrol and its glycoside polydatin, and the flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin were evaluated. As non-lethal stimuli, the prototypic ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), the combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interferon (IFNgamma) (T/I), UVA + UVB irradiation, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used. We demonstrated differential modulation of inflammatory responses in keratinocytes at signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein synthesis levels as a function of PP chemical structure, the pro-inflammatory trigger used, and PP interaction with intracellular detoxifying systems. The PPs remarkably inhibited constitutive, LPS- and T/I-induced but not TGFalpha-induced ERK phosphorylation. They also suppressed NFkappaB activation by LPS and T/I. Verbascoside and quercetin invariably impaired EGFR phosphorylation and UV-associated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling, while rutin, polydatin and resveratrol did not affect EGFR phosphorylation and further activated AhR machinery in UV-exposed keratinocytes. In general, PPs down-regulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/enzymes, except significant up-regulation of IL-8 observed under stimulation with TGFalpha. Both spontaneous and T/I-induced release of IL-8 and IP-10 was suppressed, although 50 {mu}M resveratrol and polydatin up-regulated IL-8. At this concentration, resveratrol activated both gene expression and de novo synthesis of IL-8 and AhR-mediated mechanisms were involved. We conclude that PPs differentially modulate the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes through distinct signal transduction pathways, including AhR and EGFR. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Effects of plant polyphenols on inflammatory responses in human keratinocytes. > Inflammatory stimuli used: TGFalpha, TNFalpha+IFNgamma, UVA+UVB, and LPS. > Inflammatory pathways connected with NFB, ERK1/2, EGFR, and AhR were investigated. > Plant polyphenols, flavonoids, stilbenoids, and phenylpropanoids, were studied. > Modulation of inflammation depends on phenolic core structure and glycosylation.

  18. Connective tissue growth factor: expression in human skin in vivo and inhibition by ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; He, Tianyuan; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2002-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor, which is induced by transforming growth factor beta, has been reported to mediate the stimulatory actions of transforming growth factor beta on type I procollagen synthesis. Connective tissue growth factor is expressed in fibrotic disease such as scleroderma, where it is believed to promote abnormal deposition of collagen. Connective tissue growth factor expression has not been described in normal human skin or cultured skin cells, however. We report here that connective tissue growth factor mRNA is constitutively expressed in normal human skin. In situ hybridization demonstrated that connective tissue growth factor mRNA was expressed in keratinocytes throughout the epidermis and in dermal cells. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the level of connective tissue growth factor mRNA in the epidermis and dermis of normal human skin was comparable to the level of housekeeping gene 36B4. Ultraviolet irradiation (2 minimal erythema dose, UVB/A2 source) reduced connective tissue growth factor mRNA expression throughout the epidermis and dermis in normal human skin in vivo. Connective tissue growth factor mRNA was reduced (30%) within 4 h post ultraviolet irradiation, and remained reduced (50%) 8-24 h post ultraviolet. Connective tissue growth factor mRNA and protein were also constitutively highly expressed in normal cultured human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Ultraviolet irradiation of cultured normal human skin fibroblasts resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of connective tissue growth factor mRNA expression. At 24 h post ultraviolet, connective tissue growth factor mRNA expression was reduced 80%. Transforming growth factor beta1 rapidly induced connective tissue growth factor mRNA levels (5-fold within 4 h) in skin fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, and this induction was attenuated 80% by ultraviolet irradiation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that ultraviolet irradiation reduced protein binding to the transforming growth factor beta/Smad responsiveness elements in the connective tissue growth factor gene promoter, in human skin in vivo and human skin fibroblasts. Constitutive expression of connective tissue growth factor in normal human skin suggests that it is a physiologic regulator of procollagen synthesis. Ultraviolet reduction of connective tissue growth factor expression may contribute to reduced procollagen synthesis observed in ultraviolet-irradiated normal human skin and human skin fibroblasts. PMID:11874477

  19. Growth hormone, growth factors, and acromegaly

    SciTech Connect

    Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.

  20. Hepatocyte growth factor controls the proliferation of cultured epidermal melanoblasts and melanocytes from newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Osawa, Masatake; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi

    2004-02-01

    Mouse epidermal melanoblasts and melanocytes preferentially proliferated from disaggregated epidermal cell suspensions derived from newborn mouse skin in a serum-free melanocyte-proliferation medium (MDMD) and melanoblast-proliferation medium (MDMDF) supplemented with dibutyryl adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP) and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Pure cultured primary melanoblasts and melanocytes were further cultured with MDMD/MDMDF supplemented with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from 14 days (keratinocyte depletion). The HGF increased the number of melanoblasts and melanocytes, but not the percentage of differentiated melanocytes in the melanoblast-melanocyte population in the absence of keratinocytes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that melanoblasts and melanocytes in the S and/or G2/M phases of the cell cycle were increased by the treatment with HGF. Moreover, an anti-HGF antibody supplemented to MDMD/MDMDF from the initiation of the primary culture (in the presence of keratinocytes) inhibited the proliferation of melanoblasts and melanocytes, but not the differentiation of melanocytes. These results suggest that HGF is a keratinocyte-derived factor involved in regulating the proliferation of epidermal melanoblasts and melanocytes from newborn mice in cooperation with cAMP elevators and/or bFGF. PMID:14717845

  1. Id1 and NF-κB promote the generation of CD133+ and BMI-1+ keratinocytes and the growth of xenograft tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    LAI, JINHUO; CAI, QIAN; BIEL, MERRILL A.; WANG, CHUAN; HU, XIAOHUA; WANG, SHAOYUAN; LIN, JIZHEN

    2014-01-01

    Id1 and NF-κB are highly expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Whether they have a synergistic role in the carcinogenesis of OSCC is unclear. The current study was designed to demonstrate the synergy of both Id1 and NF-κB in the underlying disease mechanisms of OSCC using in vitro and in vivo animal models. Id1 and NF-κB strengthened the expression of both CD133 and BMI-1 in OSCC cell cultures. CD133+ and BMI-1+ keratinocytes from OSCC tissues and cell cultures initiated the growth of xenograft tumors in SCID/Beige mice. Id1 and NF-κB regulate the expression of CD133 and BMI-1 in an additive or synergistic manner in OSCC, which is associated with the generation of naïve and self-renewable keratinocytes and initiate the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo. PMID:24572994

  2. Functional Characterization of Cultured Keratinocytes after Acute Cutaneous Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Zedler, Siegfried; v. Spiegel, Felix; Fuhr, Jasmin; v. Donnersmarck, Guido Henkel; Faist, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to forming the epithelial barrier against the outside environment keratinocytes are immunologically active cells. In the treatment of severely burned skin, cryoconserved keratinocyte allografts gain in importance. It has been proposed that these allografts accelerate wound healing also due to the expression of a favourable - keratinocyte-derived - cytokine and growth factor milieu. Methods In this study the morphology and cytokine expression profile of keratinocytes from skin after acute burn injury was compared to non-burned skin. Skin samples were obtained from patients after severe burn injury and healthy controls. Cells were cultured and secretion of selected inflammatory mediators was quantified using Bioplex Immunoassays. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyse further functional and morphologic parameters. Results Histology revealed increased terminal differentiation of keratinocytes (CK10, CK11) in allografts from non-burned skin compared to a higher portion of proliferative cells (CK5, vimentin) in acute burn injury. Increased levels of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNFα could be detected in culture media of burn injury skin cultures. Both culture groups contained large amounts of IL-1RA. IL-6 and GM-CSF were increased during the first 15 days of culture of burned skin compared to control skin. Levels of VEGF, FGF-basic, TGF-ß und G-CSF were high in both but not significantly different. Cryoconservation led to a diminished mediator synthesis except for higher levels of intracellular IL-1α and IL-1ß. Conclusion Skin allografts from non-burned skin show a different secretion pattern of keratinocyte-derived cytokines and inflammatory mediators compared to keratinocytes after burn injury. As these secreted molecules exert auto- and paracrine effects and subsequently contribute to healing and barrier restoration after acute burn injury therapies affecting this specific cytokine/growth factor micromilieu could be beneficial in burned patients. PMID:22359539

  3. The TRAF-interacting protein (TRIP) is a regulator of keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Stphanie; Ryser, Stephan; Obarzanek-Fojt, Magdalena; Hohl, Daniel; Huber, Marcel

    2011-02-01

    The TRAF-interacting protein (TRIP/TRAIP) is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-mediated NF-?B activation. TRIP ablation results in early embryonic lethality in mice. To investigate TRIP function in epidermis, we examined its expression and the effect of TRIP knockdown (KD) in keratinocytes. TRIP mRNA expression was strongly downregulated in primary human keratinocytes undergoing differentiation triggered by high cell density or high calcium. Short-term phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) treatment or inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling in proliferative keratinocytes suppressed TRIP transcription. Inhibition by TPA was protein kinase C dependent. Keratinocytes undergoing KD of TRIP expression by lentiviral short-hairpin RNA (shRNA; T4 and T5) had strongly reduced proliferation rates compared with control shRNA. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that TRIP-KD caused growth arrest in the G1/S phase. Keratinocytes with TRIP-KD resembled differentiated cells consistent with the augmented expression of differentiation markers keratin 1 and filaggrin. Luciferase-based reporter assays showed no increase in NF-?B activity in TRIP-KD keratinocytes, indicating that NF-?B activity in keratinocytes is not regulated by TRIP. TRIP expression was increased by ?2-fold in basal cell carcinomas compared with normal skin. These results underline the important role of TRIP in the regulation of cell cycle progression and the tight linkage of its expression to keratinocyte proliferation. PMID:21068752

  4. Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphangiogenic Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Hartiala, Pauliina; Saarikko, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a progressive disease caused by damage to the lymphatic network. Recent development in the fields of preclinical growth factor research and lymphedema microsurgery promise new hope for lymphedema patients. In this article, we review the latest results on basic research and highlight the role of specific growth factors in normal lymphatic development and several disease states. Lymph node transfer, a new promising method in reconstructive lymphatic microsurgery, is also dependent on the lymphatic vascular regrowth and lymphangiogenic growth factors. We discuss the scientific basis of lymph node transfer and therapeutic potential of lymphangiogenic growth factors in the treatment of lymphedema. PMID:25665098

  5. Primary structure of keratinocyte transglutaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.A.; Stewart, B.E.; Qin, Q.; Rice, R.H. ); Chakravarty, R. ); Floyd, E.E.; Jetten, A.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the coding regions of human and rat keratinocyte transglutaminases (protein-glutamine: amine {gamma}-glutamyltransferase; EC 2.3.2.13) have been determined. These yield proteins of {approximately}90 kDa that are 92% identical, indicative of the conservation of important structural features. Alignments of amino acid sequences show substantial similarity among the keratinocyte transglutaminase, human clotting factor XIII catalytic subunit, guinea pig liver tissue transglutaminase, and the human erythrocyte band-4.2 protein. The keratinocyte enzyme is most similar to factor XIII, whereas the band-4.2 protein is most similar to the tissue transglutaminase. A salient feature of the keratinocyte transglutaminase is its 105-residue extension beyond the N terminus of the tissue transglutaminase. This extension and the unreltaed activation peptide of factor XIII (a 37-residue extension) appear to be added for specialized functions after divergence of the tissue transglutaminase from their common lineage.

  6. Transforming Growth Factor Beta 3 Is Required for Excisional Wound Repair In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Le, Mark; Naridze, Rachelle; Morrison, Jasmine; Biggs, Leah C.; Rhea, Lindsey; Schutte, Brian C.; Kaartinen, Vesa; Dunnwald, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that relies on proper levels of cytokines and growth factors to successfully repair the tissue. Of particular interest are the members of the transforming growth factor family. There are three TGF- isoformsTGF- 1, 2, and 3, each isoform showing a unique expression pattern, suggesting that they each play a distinct function during development and repair. Previous studies reported an exclusive role for TGF- 3 in orofacial development and a potent anti-scarring effect. However, the role of TGF- 3 in excisional wound healing and keratinocyte migration remains poorly understood. We tested the effect of TGF- 3 levels on excisional cutaneous wounds in the adult mouse by directly injecting recombinant TGF- 3 or neutralizing antibody against TGF- 3 (NAB) in the wounds. Our results demonstrate that TGF- 3 does not promote epithelialization. However, TGF- 3 is necessary for wound closure as wounds injected with neutralizing antibody against TGF- 3 showed increased epidermal volume and proliferation in conjunction with a delay in keratinocyte migration. Wild type keratinocytes treated with NAB and Tgfb3-deficient keratinocytes closed an in vitro scratch wound with no delay, suggesting that our in vivo observations likely result from a paracrine effect. PMID:23110169

  7. Oncogenes, genes, and growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Guroff, G.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene; Structure and Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Gene; The Erythropoietin Gene; The Interleukin-2 Gene; The Transferrin Gene; and The Transferrin Receptor Gene.

  8. The Growth of Malignant Keratinocytes Depends on Signaling Through the PGE2 Receptor EP11

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Eric J; Gupta, Ashok; Vielhauer, George A; Regan, John W; Bowden, G Tim

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Recent discoveries shed light on the importance of prostaglandin (PG) production in the development of skin cancer. Work by Fischer et al. demonstrates that skin tumor promotion caused by ultraviolet B radiation can be decreased by up to 89% by blocking cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with the drug Celecoxib. A similar study showed that Celecoxib can decrease new tumor formation by 44% in mice that already have tumors. These studies demonstrate the importance of COX-2 and PGs in the development of squamous cell carcinoma. We have explored growth signaling in a model of skin tumor progression. Because changes in PG production have been implicated in skin carcinogenesis, we examined this pathway. We found that malignant cell lines secrete more prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than the parental cells. We observed increased expression of COX-1 and -2. We also found that these cells express the PGE2 receptors EP1 and EP4. When the cells are grown in the presence of indomethacin, the growth rate of the malignant cells is decreased. This effect can be reversed by addition of PGE2 or an EP1 agonist to the medium. Thus, we have shown that skin tumor cells depend in part on PGE2 signaling through the EP1 prostanoid receptor for their in vitro growth. PMID:11687951

  9. TG-interacting factor mediates arsenic-induced malignant transformation of keratinocytes via c-Src/EGFR/AKT/FOXO3A and redox signalings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Miao; Tseng, Hong-Yu; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Huei-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Inorganic arsenic is well known as a carcinogen in human beings. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic increases risks of developing some cancers and non-carcinogenic diseases, such as skin lesions in humans. However, the modes of action are not well elucidated. In the present study, HaCaT cells, an immortalized non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte, were continuously exposed to low-dose trivalent arsenic (arsenic trioxide, 0.1 and 0.2?M) for at least 4weeks. We proved that low-dose arsenic could stimulate malignant transformation of HaCaT cells, including increase of cellular proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers alteration, matrix metalloproteinases activation, invadopodia formation, migration/invasion activities, and anchorage-independent growth. Surprisingly, low-dose arsenic could also transcriptionally increase TG-interacting factor (TGIF) expression via c-Src/EGFR/AKT/FOXO3A signaling involving superoxide production from NADPH oxidase. Moreover, stable overexpression of TGIF could also induce malignant transformation of HaCaT cells. Knockdown of TGIF with its specific shRNA abolished the arsenic-induced effects. Taken together, we suggest that TGIF plays an important role in low-dose arsenic-induced malignant transformation of HaCaT cells, which is regulated by c-Src/EGFR/AKT/FOXO3A pathway and redox signaling. PMID:25537191

  10. Growth factors and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, Stphane V; Bednarek, Nathalie; Gressens, Pierre

    2007-08-01

    Neuroprotective strategies can prevent lesions from getting worse but agents that have neurotrophic properties can also affect repair in a developing brain. Although prevention and treatment in the early stages of brain lesions are desirable, delayed cell death or improved post-lesion plasticity are the only realistic targets in many cases. Several trophic factors can limit delayed cell death in animal models of perinatal brain damage. In addition, melatonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor have been shown to promote post-lesion plasticity following neonatal excitotoxic white-matter damage in newborn mice. Despite these promising results, additional preclinical data are required for most of the trophic factors that have been tested, although some candidate drugs, e.g. melatonin or erythropoietin, might reach clinical trials in the near future. PMID:17336172

  11. Cutaneous manipulation of vascular growth factors leads to alterations in immunocytes, blood vessels and nerves: evidence for a cutaneous neurovascular unit

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Nicole L; Hatala, Denise A; Wolfram, Julie A; Knutsen, Dorothy A.; Loyd, Candace M

    2011-01-01

    Background Skin cells produce soluble factors which influence keratinocyte proliferation, angiogenesis, nerve innervation and immunocyte response. Objective To test the hypothesis that epidermal-dermal interactions influence neural outgrowth, vascular survival, immunocyte recruitment and keratinocyte proliferation. Methods We genetically manipulated the epidermis to express excess vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and/or angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and then examined the epidermal and dermal phenotypes. We compared these findings with those occurring following overexpression of the Ang1 receptor Tie2 in endothelial cells or keratinocytes. Results Keratinocyte-overexpression of Ang1 resulted in increased epidermal thickness compared to control littermates. Keratinocyte-specific overexpression of Ang1 or VEGF increased dermal angiogenesis compared to control animals and combined Ang1-VEGF lead to further increases. Cutaneous leukocyte examination revealed increases in CD4+ T cell infiltration in mice with keratinocyte-specific overexpression of Ang1, VEGF and Ang1-VEGF combined; in contrast only keratinocyte-specific Ang1 overexpression increased cutaneous F4/80+ macrophage numbers. Interestingly, combined keratinocyte-derived Ang1-VEGF overexpression reduced significantly the number of F4/80+ and Cd11c+ cells compared to mice overexpressing epidermal Ang1 alone. Endothelial cell-specific Tie2 overexpression increased dermal angiogenesis but failed to influence the epidermal and immune cell phenotypes. Keratinocyte-specific Tie2 expressing mice had the highest levels of CD4+, CD8+ and CD11c+ cell numbers and acanthosis compared to all animals. Finally, increases in the number of cutaneous nerves were found in all transgenic mice compared to littermate controls. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that change to one system (vascular or epidermal) results in change to other cutaneous systems and suggest that individual molecules can exert effects on multiple systems. PMID:21129919

  12. Barium Promotes Anchorage-Independent Growth and Invasion of Human HaCaT Keratinocytes via Activation of c-SRC Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y.; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U.; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl2) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (550 M) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 M) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.55 M) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro. PMID:22022425

  13. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase.

    PubMed

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl(2)) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5-50 M) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 M) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5-5 M) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro. PMID:22022425

  14. MicroRNA-31 Promotes Skin Wound Healing by Enhancing Keratinocyte Proliferation and Migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongqing; Li, Xi; Wang, Aoxue; Meisgen, Florian; Pivarcsi, Andor; Sonkoly, Enik; Sthle, Mona; Landn, Ning Xu

    2015-06-01

    Wound healing is a basic biological process restoring the integrity of the skin. The role of microRNAs during this process remains largely unexplored. By using an in vivo human skin wound healing model, we show here that the expression of miR-31 is gradually upregulated in wound edge keratinocytes in the inflammatory (1 day after injury) through the proliferative phase (7 days after injury) in comparison with intact skin. In human primary keratinocytes, overexpression of miR-31 promoted cell proliferation and migration, whereas inhibition of miR-31 had the opposite effects. Moreover, we identified epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP-1) as a direct target of miR-31 in keratinocytes. The expression of EMP-1 in the skin was negatively correlated with the level of miR-31 during wound healing. Silencing of EMP-1 mimicked the effects of overexpression of miR-31 on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, indicating that EMP-1 is a critical target mediating the functions of miR-31 in keratinocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that transforming growth factor-?2, which is highly expressed in skin wounds, upregulated miR-31 expression in keratinocytes. Collectively, we identify miR-31 as a key regulator for promoting keratinocyte proliferation and migration during wound healing. PMID:25685928

  15. Galectin-7 Regulates Keratinocyte Proliferation and Differentiation through JNK-miR-203-p63 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Lin; Chiang, Po-Cheng; Lo, Chia-Hui; Lo, Yuan-Hsin; Hsu, Daniel K; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-7, a member of the β-galactoside-binding protein family, is primarily expressed in stratified epithelial cells, including keratinocytes. There is information in the literature suggesting a role for this protein in regulation of keratinocyte survival and growth, but the underlying mechanism remains relatively unknown. Moreover, its expression pattern in the epidermis suggests that it is also involved in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that galectin-7 knockdown results in reduced differentiation and increased proliferation of keratinocytes. Using microarray and deep-sequencing analyses, we found that galectin-7 positively and negatively regulates microRNA (miR)-203 and miR-146a expression, respectively. We show that galectin-7 regulates keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation through miR-203 but not miR-146a. A knockdown of either galectin-7 or miR-203 in keratinocytes increases expression of p63, an essential transcription factor involved in skin development. Rescue of miR-203 expression in a galectin-7 knockdown model reduces p63 expression to baseline. Increased galectin-7 expression upregulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein levels, which is required for miR-203 expression. Finally, we establish that galectin-7 can be associated with JNK1 and protect it from ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, our data suggest an intracellular function of galectin-7: regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation through the JNK1-miR-203-p63 pathway. PMID:26763438

  16. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  17. Growth factors in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranconi, S; Locatelli, F; Corti, S; Candelise, L; Comi, G P; Baron, P L; Strazzer, S; Bresolin, N; Bersano, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Data from pre-clinical and clinical studies provide evidence that colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and other growth factors (GFs) can improve stroke outcome by reducing stroke damage through their anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and by promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis. This review provides a critical and up-to-date literature review on CSF use in stroke. We searched for experimental and clinical studies on haemopoietic GFs such as granulocyte CSF, erythropoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor (SCF), vascular endothelial GF, stromal cell-derived factor-1α and SCF in ischemic stroke. We also considered studies on insulin-like growth factor-1 and neurotrophins. Despite promising results from animal models, the lack of data in human beings hampers efficacy assessments of GFs on stroke outcome. We provide a comprehensive and critical view of the present knowledge about GFs and stroke, and an overview of ongoing and future prospects. PMID:20015202

  18. Growth factors in synaptic function

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Vivian Y.; Choi, Sojoong; Park, Mikyoung

    2013-01-01

    Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons. PMID:24065916

  19. Inhibitory mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng on GM-CSF expression in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ira; Lee, Jieun; Park, Young Sun; Lim, Yeji; Chang, Do Hyeon; Park, Jongil; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Background UV-irradiated keratinocytes secrete various proinflammatory cytokines. UV-induced skin damage is mediated by growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In a previous study, we found that the saponin of Korean Red Ginseng (SKRG) decreased the expression of GM-CSF in UVB-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes. In this study, we attempted to find the inhibitory mechanism of SKRG on UVB-induced GM-CSF expression in SP-1 keratinocytes. Methods We investigated the inhibitory mechanism of SKRG and ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on UVB-induced GM-CSF expression in SP-1 keratinocytes. Results Treatment with SKRG decreased the expression of GM-CSF mRNA and protein induced by irradiation of UVB in SP-1 keratinocytes. The phosphorylation of ERK was induced by UVB at 10min, and decreased with SKRG treatment in SP-1 keratinocytes. In addition, treatment with SKRG inhibited the UVB-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is known to be an upstream signal of ERK. From these results, we found that the inhibition of GM-CSF expression by SKRG was derived from the decreased phosphorylation of EGFR. To identify the specific compound composing SKRG, we tested fifteen kinds of ginsenosides. Among these compounds, ginsenoside-Rh3 decreased the expression of GM-CSF protein and mRNA in SP-1 keratinocytes. Conclusion Taken together, we found that treatment with SKRG decreased the phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK in UVB-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes and subsequently inhibited the expression of GM-CSF. Furthermore, we identified ginsenoside-Rh3 as the active saponin in Korean Red Ginseng. PMID:26869824

  20. FGF receptors 1 and 2 are key regulators of keratinocyte migration in vitro and in wounded skin

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael; Müller, Anna-Katharina; Yang, Jingxuan; Moik, Daniel; Ponzio, Gilles; Ornitz, David M.; Grose, Richard; Werner, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Summary Efficient wound repair is essential for the maintenance of the integrity of the skin. The repair process is controlled by a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and their abnormal expression or activity can cause healing disorders. Here, we show that wound repair is severely delayed in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 in keratinocytes. As the underlying mechanism, we identified impaired wound contraction and a delay in re-epithelialization that resulted from impaired keratinocyte migration at the wound edge. Scratch wounding and transwell assays demonstrated that FGFR1/2-deficient keratinocytes had a reduced migration velocity and impaired directional persistence owing to inefficient formation and turnover of focal adhesions. Underlying this defect, we identified a significant reduction in the expression of major focal adhesion components in the absence of FGFR signaling, resulting in a general migratory deficiency. These results identify FGFs as key regulators of keratinocyte migration in wounded skin. PMID:22992463

  1. Dermal fibroblast expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) promotes epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in normal and diseased skin.

    PubMed

    Quan, Chunji; Cho, Moon Kyun; Shao, Yuan; Mianecki, Laurel E; Liao, Eric; Perry, Daniel; Quan, Taihao

    2015-12-01

    Stromal cells provide a crucial microenvironment for overlying epithelium. Here we investigated the expression and function of a stromal cell-specific protein, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), in normal human skin and in the tissues of diseased skin. Immunohistology and laser capture microdissection (LCM)-coupled quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that SDF-1 is constitutively and predominantly expressed in dermal stromal cells in normal human skin in vivo. To our surprise, an extremely high level of SDF-1 transcription was observed in the dermis of normal human skin in vivo, evidenced by much higher mRNA expression level than type I collagen, the most abundant and highly expressed protein in human skin. SDF-1 was also upregulated in the tissues of many human skin disorders including psoriasis, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Double immunostaining for SDF-1 and HSP47 (heat shock protein 47), a marker of fibroblasts, revealed that fibroblasts were the major source of stroma-cell-derived SDF-1 in both normal and diseased skin. Functionally, SDF-1 activates the ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinases) pathway and functions as a mitogen to stimulate epidermal keratinocyte proliferation. Both overexpression of SDF-1 in dermal fibroblasts and treatment with rhSDF-1 to the skin equivalent cultures significantly increased the number of keratinocyte layers and epidermal thickness. Conversely, the stimulative function of SDF-1 on keratinocyte proliferation was nearly completely eliminated by interfering with CXCR4, a specific receptor of SDF-1, or by knock-down of SDF-1 in fibroblasts. Our data reveal that extremely high levels of SDF-1 provide a crucial microenvironment for epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in both physiologic and pathologic skin conditions. PMID:26296527

  2. Overexpression of CRABPI in suprabasal keratinocytes enhances the proliferation of epidermal basal keratinocytes in mouse skin topically treated with all-trans retinoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X.-H.; Vivero, Marina; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether ectopic expression of CRABPI, a cellular retinoic acid binding protein, influenced the actions of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in transgenic (TG) mice. We targeted CRABPI to the basal vs. suprabasal layers of mouse epidermis by using the keratin 14 (K14) and keratin 10 (K10) promoters, respectively. Greater CRABPI protein levels were detected in the epidermis of adult transgenic(+) mice than in transgenic(-) mice for both transgenes. In adult mouse skin CRABPI overexpression in the basal or suprabasal keratinocytes did not cause morphological abnormalities, but did result in decreased CRABPII mRNA levels. Ectopically overexpressed CRABPI in suprabasal keratinocytes, but not in basal keratinocytes, enhanced the thickening of the epidermis induced by topical ATRA treatments (10 {mu}M, 400 {mu}l for 4 days) by 1.59 {+-} 0.2-fold (p < 0.05). ATRA treatment (10 {mu}M) resulted in a 59.9 {+-} 9.8% increase (p < 0.05) in the BrdU labeling index in K10/FLAG-CRABPI TG(+) mice vs. TG(-) mice. Retinoid topical treatments reduced p27 and CYP26A1 mRNA levels in TG(+) and TG(-) mouse skin in K14 and K10/FLAG-CRABPI transgenic mice. As epidermal basal keratinocyte proliferation is stimulated by paracrine growth factors secreted by ATRA activated suprabasal keratinocytes, our results indicate that CRABPI overexpression in suprabasal keratinocytes enhances the physiological functions of ATRA.

  3. Contribution of Sp1 to Telomerase Expression and Activity in Skin Keratinocytes Cultured With a Feeder Layer.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Francis; Paquet, Claudie; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Zaniolo, Karine; Rochette, Patrick J; Landreville, Solange; Damour, Odile; Boudreau, Franois; Auger, Franois A; Gurin, Sylvain L; Germain, Lucie

    2015-02-01

    The growth of primary keratinocytes is improved by culturing them with a feeder layer. The aim of this study was to assess whether the feeder layer increases the lifespan of cultured epithelial cells by maintaining or improving telomerase activity and expression. The addition of an irradiated fibroblast feeder layer of either human or mouse origin (i3T3) helped maintain telomerase activity as well as expression of the transcription factor Sp1 in cultured keratinocytes. In contrast, senescence occurred earlier, together with a reduction of Sp1 expression and telomerase activity, in keratinocytes cultured without a feeder layer. Telomerase activity was consistently higher in keratinocytes grown on the three different feeder layers tested relative to cells grown without them. Suppression of Sp1 expression by RNA inhibition (RNAi) reduced both telomerase expression and activity in keratinocytes and also abolished their long-term growth capacity suggesting that Sp1 is a key regulator of both telomerase gene expression and cell cycle progression of primary cultured human skin keratinocytes. The results of the present study therefore suggest that the beneficial influence of the feeder layer relies on its ability to preserve telomerase activity in cultured human keratinocytes through the maintenance of stable levels of Sp1 expression. PMID:24962522

  4. Epidermal growth factor: layered silicate nanocomposites for tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vaiana, Christopher A; Leonard, Mary K; Drummy, Lawrence F; Singh, Kristi M; Bubulya, Athanasios; Vaia, Richard A; Naik, Rajesh R; Kadakia, Madhavi P

    2011-09-12

    Wound healing is a complex, multistep process that can be summarized into three stages, namely, hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and finally, tissue remodeling. Battlefield wound healing demands rapid hemostasis using clotting or cauterizing agents to immediately limit blood loss, but this occurs at the expense of proper tissue repair beyond hemostasis. Layered silicate clays such as kaolin and montmorillonite (MMT) have been previously shown to induce blood clotting due to their ability to form charged interactions with clotting factors. The charge characteristics of sodium MMT (Na-MMT) also enable functionalization with active biomolecules. Herein we functionalized Na-MMT with epidermal growth factor (EGF) via ion exchange reaction to create a nanocomposite (MMT-EGF) with approximately 0.004 EGF molecules per Na(+) exchange site and conduct biochemical analyses of keratinocytes after treatment with MMT-EGF. Our results demonstrate that EGF immobilized on MMT retains the ability to activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGRF), causing phosphorylation of the AKT and MEK1 pathways, as well as upregulation of its downstream target gene expression involved in cell growth and migration. This study also shows that like EGF, MMT-EGF treatment can stimulate cell migration in vitro, which is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. PMID:21766827

  5. Cytoprotective function of sAppalpha in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Sven; Siemes, Christina; Kirfel, Gregor; Herzog, Volker

    2004-12-01

    sAPPalpha, the soluble form of the beta-amyloid precursor protein, has been shown to act as a potent epidermal growth factor by stimulating keratinocyte proliferation and migration. In this report we provide evidence for a cytoprotective role of sAPPalpha. As a model we used HaCaT cells and normal human keratinocytes (NHK) cultured in the absence of fetal calf serum and bovine pituitary extract. Under these conditions keratinocytes began to undergo apoptosis at increasing rates after 96 h of culture. Surprisingly, keratinocytes were protected from apoptosis by the addition of 50 nM recombinant sAPPalpha. Subsequent experiments were performed to elucidate the regulatory basis of the cytoprotective role of sAPPalpha. We found that recombinant sAPPalpha facilitated the substrate adhesion of keratinocytes in the first 30 minutes after seeding. The basis for this adhesion-promoting function was shown by the ability of recombinant sAPPalpha to continuously coat the culture dish thereby promoting the ability to bind keratinocytes. A second mechanism explaining the cytoprotective role was found in the significant inhibition of apoptosis by recombinant sAPPalpha. In HaCaT cells moderate UV-B irradiation was sufficient to induce apoptosis. In contrast, induction of apoptosis in NHK required additionally the depletion of endogenous sAPPalpha suggesting that sAPPalpha mediates protection against UV-B irradiation. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis rates were significantly reduced by about 59% after addition of recombinant sAPPalpha. These results show that sAPPalpha exerts a pronounced cytoprotective effect and that this effect is mediated by facilitated cell adhesion and by the antiapoptotic function of sAPPalpha. PMID:15679114

  6. Specificity in stress response: epidermal keratinocytes exhibit specialized UV-responsive signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Makoto; Gazel, Alix; Pintucci, Giuseppe; Shuck, Alyssa; Shifteh, Shiva; Ginsburg, Dov; Rao, Laxmi S; Kaneko, Takehiko; Freedberg, Irwin M; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2003-10-01

    UV light, a paradigmatic initiator of cell stress, invokes responses that include signal transduction, activation of transcription factors, and changes in gene expression. Consequently, in epidermal keratinocytes, its principal and frequent natural target, UV regulates transcription of a distinctive set of genes. Hypothesizing that UV activates distinctive epidermal signal transduction pathways, we compared the UV-responsive activation of the JNK and NFkappaB pathways in keratinocytes, with the activation of the same pathways by other agents and in other cell types. Using of inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides, we found that in keratinocytes only UVB/UVC activate JNK, while in other cell types UVA, heat shock, and oxidative stress do as well. Keratinocytes express JNK-1 and JNK-3, which is unexpected because JNK-3 expression is considered brain-specific. In keratinocytes, ERK1, ERK2, and p38 are activated by growth factors, but not by UV. UVB/UVC in keratinocytes activates Elk1 and AP1 exclusively through the JNK pathway. JNKK1 is essential for UVB/UVC activation of JNK in keratinocytes in vitro and in human skin in vivo. In contrast, in HeLa cells, used as a control, crosstalk among signal transduction pathways allows considerable laxity. In parallel, UVB/UVC and TNFalpha activate the NFkappaB pathway via distinct mechanisms, as shown using antisense oligonucleotides targeted against IKKbeta, the active subunit of IKK. This implies a specific UVB/UVC responsive signal transduction pathway independent from other pathways. Our results suggest that in epidermal keratinocytes specific signal transduction pathways respond to UV light. Based on these findings, we propose that the UV light is not a genetic stress response inducer in these cells, but a specific agent to which epidermis developed highly specialized responses. PMID:14611688

  7. Leveraging growth factor induced macropinocytosis for targeted treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Raul; Koria, Piyush

    2015-12-01

    Targeted therapy focused on highly expressed growth factor receptors is increasingly becoming popular for the treatment of lung cancer. Cancer cells exhibit higher levels of macropinocytosis than the normally quiescent non-cancerous cells, which can further be enhanced by growth factors. Here, we show the targeted enhancement of macropinocytosis in lung cancer cells for the delivery of the mitochondriotoxic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 using keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). We report the formation of a nanoparticle (NP) comprising of two chimeric fusion proteins, both fused to elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), (KLAKLAK)2-ELP and KGF-ELP. We show that (KLAKLAK)2-ELP nanoparticles are internalized via macropinocytosis and its internalization is facilitated by the interaction of the ELP domain with cell surface heparin sulfate proteoglycans. This internalization leads to mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent cell death. Also, we demonstrate that KGF-ELP selectively enhances macropinocytosis in cancer cells expressing high levels of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR). Finally, the heterogeneous NPs consisting of (KLAKLAK)2-ELP and KGF-ELP selectively kill KGFR-expressing lung cancer cells. Hence, this multipronged approach of targeting highly active processes and receptors in cancer cells will be tremendously selective in the treatment of both early-stage and advanced-stage lung cancers, thereby improving patient's prognosis and survival rate. PMID:26519258

  8. Cyclic stretch induces upregulation of endothelin-1 with keratinocytes in vitro: Possible role in mechanical stress-induced hyperpigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, Masakazu; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Fujino, Takashi; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of cyclic stretch on melanogenetic paracrine cytokines was investigated. {yields} Keratinocyte-derived endothelin-1 was upregulated with cyclic stretch. {yields} Degree of upregulation increases dose-dependently. {yields} This upregulation possibly plays a role in the pathogenesis of pigmented disorders. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pathological relation between mechanical stress and hyperpigmentation. We did this by investigating the influence of cyclic stretch on the expression of keratinocyte- and fibroblast-derived melanogenetic paracrine cytokines in vitro. Using primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, alterations of mRNA expression of melanogenetic paracrine cytokines due to cyclic stretch were investigated using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cytokines included basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1{alpha}, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) for keratinocytes and bFGF, SCF, and hepatocyte growth factor for fibroblasts. The dose dependence of keratinocyte-derived ET-1 upregulation was further investigated using real-time PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also investigated the effects of cyclic stretch on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Among the melanogenetic paracrine cytokines investigated, keratinocyte-derived ET-1 was consistently upregulated in all four cell lines. The degree of upregulation increased with the degree of the length and frequency of the stretch; in contrast, cell number and differentiation markers showed no obvious alterations with cyclic stretch. Keratinocyte-derived ET-1 upregulation possibly plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of pigmented disorders, such as friction melanosis, caused by mechanical stress.

  9. Portulaca oleracea L. aids calcipotriol in reversing keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier dysfunction in psoriasis through inhibition of the nuclear factor ?B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, HENGGUANG; LI, SHUANG; LUO, FULING; TAN, QIAN; LI, HUI; ZHOU, WEIKANG

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis affects 24% of the population worldwide and its treatment is currently far from satisfactory. Calcipotriol and Portulaca oleracea have been reported to exhibit the capacity to inhibit inflammation in psoriatic patients and improve their clinical condition. However, the efficacy of a combination regimen of these two components remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy of P. oleracea extract combined with calcipotriol on plaque psoriasis and its potential mechanism. Eleven patients with plaque psoriasis were treated with humectant containing the active ingredients of P. oleracea extract, with or without 0.005% calcipotriol ointment in a right-left bilateral lesion self-control study. Differences were evaluated by investigation of the clinical efficacy, adverse effects, skin barrier function, histological structure, expression and proliferation of keratinocytes, differentiation markers (cytokeratin 10, filaggrin and loricrin), inflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-8], as well as the status of the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathway. The combination of P. oleracea and calcipotriol was revealed to decrease adverse effects, reduce transepidermal water loss, potently reverse keratinocyte differentiation dysfunction, and inhibit the expression of TNF-? and IL-8 and the phosphorylation of the NF-?B inhibitor I?B?. This treatment is therefore anticipated to be suitable for use as a novel adjuvant therapy for psoriatic patients. PMID:25574190

  10. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Increases Cytokine Production and Cutaneous Inflammation in Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Abaseri, Taghrid Bahig; Repertinger, Susan K.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated in cutaneous keratinocytes upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure and has been implicated in ultraviolet-(UV-)induced inflammation and skin tumorigenesis. Egfr mutant mice and EGFR inhibitors were used to investigate the hypothesis that EGFR activation augments inflammation following UV irradiation. Topical treatment of mouse skin with the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 before UV exposure suppressed UV-induced erythema, edema, mast cell infiltration, and neutrophil infiltration. Genetic ablation of Egfr and EGFR inhibition by AG1478 also suppressed the increase in the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin-1?, KC (murine IL-8), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after UV exposure of cultured keratinocytes. Finally, genetic ablation of inhibition of EGFR in cultured keratinocytes decreased p38 activation after UV, while inhibition of p38 kinase reduced COX-2 expression after UV. These data demonstrate that EGFR regulates multiple aspects of UV-induced inflammation and suggest activation of p38 kinase leading to increased COX-2 and cytokine expression as one mechanism through which it acts. PMID:23878744

  11. The trk family of receptors mediates nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 effects in melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yaar, M; Eller, M S; DiBenedetto, P; Reenstra, W R; Zhai, S; McQuaid, T; Archambault, M; Gilchrest, B A

    1994-01-01

    We have recently shown that (a) human melanocytes express the p75 nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor in vitro; (b) that melanocyte dendricity and migration, among other behaviors, are regulated at least in part by NGF; and (c) that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes produce NGF. We now report that melanocyte stimulation with phorbol 12-tetra decanoate 13-acetate (TPA), previously reported to induce p75 NGF receptor, also induces trk in melanocytes, and TPA effect is further potentiated by the presence of keratinocytes in culture. Moreover, trk in melanocytes becomes phosphorylated within minutes after NGF stimulation. As well, cultures of dermal fibroblasts express neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNA; NT-3 mRNA levels in cultured fibroblasts are modulated by mitogenic stimulation, UV irradiation, and exposure to melanocyte-conditioned medium. Moreover, melanocytes constitutively express low levels of trk-C, and its expression is downregulated after TPA stimulation. NT-3 supplementation to cultured melanocytes maintained in Medium 199 alone prevents cell death. These combined data suggest that melanocyte behavior in human skin may be influenced by neurotrophic factors, possibly of keratinocyte and fibroblast origin, which act through high affinity receptors. Images PMID:7929831

  12. Fetal Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes with Immunosuppressive Properties for Allogeneic Cell-Based Wound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Thomas; Saiagh, Soraya; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Esbelin, Julie; Drno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic properties of the fetal cells were investigated by allogeneic PBMC proliferation tests. In addition, the potential advantage of fibroblasts/keratinocytes co-application for wound healing stimulation has been examined in co-culture experiments with in vitro scratch assays and a multiplex cytokines array system. Based on keratin 14 and prolyl-4-hydroxylase expression analyses, purity of both clinical batches was found to be above 98% and neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells could be detected. Both cell types demonstrated strong immunosuppressive properties as shown by the dramatic decrease in allogeneic PBMC proliferation when co-cultured with fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes. We further showed that the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity is required for the immunoregulatory activity of fetal skin cells. Co-cultures experiments have also revealed that fibroblasts-keratinocytes interactions strongly enhanced fetal cells secretion of HGF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and to a lesser extent VEGF-A. Accordingly, in the in vitro scratch assays the fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-culture accelerated the scratch closure compared to fibroblast or keratinocyte mono-cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the combination of fetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be of particular interest for the development of a new allogeneic skin substitute with immunomodulatory activity, acting as a reservoir for wound healing growth factors. PMID:23894651

  13. Fibroblast growth factor and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, P; Gimnez-Gallego, G

    2000-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was studied in ventricular ependyma and choroid plexus of aged-matched normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats at different ages using a polyclonal antibody against bFGF. The bFGF-like immunoreactivity was observed in brain ependyma and choroid plexus of young and old normotensive rats. However, a progressive loss of immunoreactivity was observed with age in spontaneously hypertensive rats, that was associated with a progressive cerebroventricular dilation. These results show a new neuroendocrine anomaly to be added to the many others previously observed in this rat strain, when they develop hydrocephalus as they age. PMID:10672586

  14. Keratinocytes from APP/APLP2-deficient mice are impaired in proliferation, adhesion and migration in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Siemes, Christina; Quast, Thomas; Kummer, Christiane; Wehner, Sven; Kirfel, Gregor; Mueller, Ulrike; Herzog, Volker . E-mail: Herzog@uni-bonn.de

    2006-07-01

    Growing evidence shows that the soluble N-terminal form (sAPP{alpha}) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) represents an epidermal growth factor fostering keratinocyte proliferation, migration and adhesion. APP is a member of a protein family including the two mammalian amyloid precursor-like proteins APLP1 and APLP2. In the mammalian epidermis, only APP and APLP2 are expressed. APP and APLP2-deficient mice die shortly after birth but do not display a specific epidermal phenotype. In this report, we investigated the epidermis of APP and/or APLP2 knockout mice. Basal keratinocytes showed reduced proliferation in vivo by about 40%. Likewise, isolated keratinocytes exhibited reduced proliferation rates in vitro, which could be completely rescued by either exogenously added recombinant sAPP{alpha}, or by co-culture with dermal fibroblasts derived from APP knockout mice. Moreover, APP-knockout keratinocytes revealed reduced migration velocity resulting from severely compromised cell substrate adhesion. Keratinocytes from double knockout mice died within the first week of culture, indicating essential functions of APP-family members for survival in vitro. Our data indicate that sAPP{alpha} has to be considered as an essential epidermal growth factor which, however, in vivo can be functionally compensated to a certain extent by other growth factors, e.g., factors released from dermal fibroblasts.

  15. Human papillomavirus causes an angiogenic switch in keratinocytes which is sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Li, F.; Mead, L.; White, H.; Walker, J.; Ingram, D.A.; Roman, A.

    2007-10-10

    One of the requirements for tumor growth is the ability to recruit a blood supply, a process known as angiogenesis. Angiogenesis begins early in the progression of cervical disease from mild to severe dysplasia and on to invasive cancer. We have previously reported that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 (HPV16 E6E7) proteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) decreases expression of two inhibitors and increases expression of two angiogenic inducers [Toussaint-Smith, E., Donner, D.B., Roman, A., 2004. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes is sufficient to alter the expression of angiogenic factors. Oncogene 23, 2988-2995]. Here we report that HPV-induced early changes in the keratinocyte phenotype are sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media from HPV16 E6E7 expressing HFKs as well as from human cervical keratinocytes containing the intact HPV16 were able to stimulate proliferation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, introduction of the conditioned media into immunocompetent mice using a Matrigel plug model resulted in a clear angiogenic response. These novel data support the hypothesis that HPV proteins contribute not only to the uncontrolled keratinocyte growth seen following HPV infection but also to the angiogenic response needed for tumor formation.

  16. Expression profiling of human epidermal keratinocyte response following 1-minute JP-8 exposure.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chi-Chung; Yang, Jen-Hung; Chen, San-Duo; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Li, Han-Ni; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA microarray analysis of 9600 expressed sequence tags was performed to examine the gene expression changes in human epidermal keratinocytes after 1-minute JP-8 exposure; 151 genes were identified as JP-8 responsive and classified into 8 clusters by self organization map. Genes involved in basal transcription and translations were up-regulated, whereas genes related to DNA repair, metabolism, and keratin were mostly down-regulated. Genes encoded for growth factors, apoptosis, signal transduction, and adhesion were also altered. These results indicated that human keratinocyte responds to a single dose of JP-8 insult and revealed several cellular processes previously not associated with jet fuel exposure. PMID:16835149

  17. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  18. Comparative effects of growth inhibitors on DNA replication, DNA repair, and protein synthesis in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bohr, V; Mansbridge, J; Hanawalt, P

    1986-06-01

    Cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were used as a model system for testing compounds with potential therapeutic effect against hyperproliferative skin disorders. We have investigated whether each test compound caused direct damage to the DNA or inhibited DNA repair and/or seminconservative replication of DNA, as well as its effect on the overall rate of protein synthesis and on expression of specific keratin genes. The following compounds were studied: (a) inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha [aphidicolin and its derivative aphidicolin glycine], (b) inhibitors of topoisomerases [novobiocin, nalidixic acid, teniposide, etoposide, and 4'-(9-acridylamine) methanesulfon-m-anisidide], (c) modifiers of chromatin structure [sodium butyrate, 3-aminobenzamide, and nicotinamide], (d) inhibitors of calmodulin activation and protein kinase C [chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine]; and (e) drugs used in clinical dermatology [anthralin, fluocinolone acetonide, ketoconazole, and hydroxyurea]. The compounds were tested at concentrations at which they were known from the literature to be effective in their respective actions. Among the groups of compounds studied, the topoisomerase inhibitors were particularly interesting since they caused no detectable damage to DNA but exhibited maximal inhibitory effect on replication combined with minimal inhibition of DNA repair. In addition most of the topoisomerase inhibitors, particularly novobiocin, changed the pattern of gene expression by inhibiting the synthesis of certain keratins and inducing a Mr 67,000 protein in the prekeratin fraction. These properties combined with minimal systemic side effects may encourage the clinical exploration of some topoisomerase inhibitors for antiproliferative therapy of skin disorders. PMID:2421888

  19. Arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth of HaCaT cells through placental growth factor.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Naito, Hisao; Shekhar, Hossain U; Omata, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    Various cancers including skin cancer are increasing in 45 million people exposed to arsenic above the World Health Organization's guideline value of 10??g?l(-1). However, there is limited information on key molecules regulating arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis. Our fieldwork in Bangladesh demonstrated that levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) in urine samples from residents of cancer-prone areas with arsenic-polluted drinking water were higher than those in urine samples from residents of an area that was not polluted with arsenic. Our experimental study in human nontumorigenic HaCaT skin keratinocytes showed that arsenite promoted anchorage-independent growth with increased expression and secretion of PlGF, a ligand of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1 (VEGFR1), and increased VEGFR1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities. The arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth was strongly inhibited by PlGF depletion with decreased activities of the PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, arsenite proteasome-dependently degrades metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) protein, resulting in a decreased amount of MTF-1 protein binding to the PlGF promoter. MTF-1 negatively controlled PlGF transcription in HaCaT cells, resulting in increased PlGF transcription. These results suggest that arsenite-mediated MTF-1 degradation enhances the activity of PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK signaling, resulting in promotion of the malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Thus, this study proposed a molecular mechanism for arsenite-mediated development of skin cancer. PMID:25493652

  20. Growth Factor Signals in Neural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Walent, Tom; Becker, Kevin G.; Prabhu, Vinayakumar V.; Wood, William; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean-Lud; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Individual neurons express receptors for several different growth factors that influence the survival, growth, neurotransmitter phenotype, and other properties of the cell. Although there has been considerable progress in elucidating the molecular signal transduction pathways and physiological responses of neurons and other cells to individual growth factors, little is known about if and how signals from different growth factors are integrated within a neuron. In this study, we determined the interactive effects of nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, and epidermal growth factor on the activation status of downstream kinase cascades and transcription factors, cell survival, and neurotransmitter production in neural cells that express receptors for all three growth factors. We document considerable differences in the quality and quantity of intracellular signaling and eventual phenotypic responses that are dependent on whether cells are exposed to a single or multiple growth factors. Dual stimulations that generated the greatest antagonistic or synergistic actions, compared with a theoretically neutral summation of their two activities, yielded the largest eventual change of neuronal phenotype indicated by the ability of the cell to produce norepinephrine or resist oxidative stress. Combined activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptors was particularly notable for antagonistic interactions at some levels of signal transduction and norepinephrine production, but potentiation at other levels of signaling and cytoprotection. Our findings suggest that in true physiological settings where multiple growth factors are present, activation of one receptor type may result in molecular and phenotypic responses that are different from that observed in typical experimental paradigms in which cells are exposed to only a single growth factor at a time. PMID:19038969

  1. Human Alveolar Macrophage Growth Factor for Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bitterman, Peter B.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    1982-01-01

    The number of fibroblasts composing the alveolar structures in controlled within narrow limits by a strictly modulated rate of fibroblast replication. One possible source of growth-modulating signals for alveolar fibroblasts is the alveolar macrophage, a member of the mononuclear phagocyte family of cells, which collectively are known to be important sources of growth factors for a variety of target cells. To evaluate the role of alveolar macrophages in the control of alveolar fibroblast replication, macrophages from normal individuals obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were maintained in suspension culture with and without added stimuli, and supernates were evaluated for fibroblast growth-promoting effect. Supernates from unstimulated macrophages contained no growth factor activity. In marked contrast, supernates from macrophages stimulated with particulates and immune complexes contained a growth factor that caused a significant increase in fibroblast replication rate. Maximum growth factor activity was observed 3-4 h after macrophage stimulation, at a concentration of 1-2 106 macrophages/ml. The alveolar macrophagederived growth factor eluted from DEAE-cellulose at 0.27 M NaCl at neutral pH had an apparent molecular weight of 18,000, and appeared to be distinct from other characterized growth factors. The alveolar macrophage-derived growth factor stimulated lung fibroblast DNA synthesis within 12 h, with cell division apparent within 48 h. In serum-free culture, the alveolar macrophage-derived growth factor by itself did not promote fibroblast replication, but rather acted as a progression factor causing a synergistic increase in fibroblast replication rate in the presence of competence factors such as fibroblast growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor. These studies suggest that when stimulated, human alveolar macrophages may modulate, in part, the replication rate of alveolar fibroblasts by releasing a growth factor within the alveolar microenvironment. PMID:7119116

  2. RIP2: A novel player in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and cutaneous wound repair?

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Stephanie; Valchanova, Ralitsa S.; Munz, Barbara

    2010-03-10

    We could recently demonstrate an important role of receptor interacting protein 4 (RIP4) in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. Now, we analyzed a potential role of the RIP4 homolog RIP2 in keratinocytes. Specifically, we demonstrate here that rip2 expression is induced by scratch-wounding and after the induction of differentiation in these cells. Furthermore, serum growth factors and cytokines can induce rip2, with TNF-{alpha}-dependent induction being dependent on p38 MAPK. In addition, we demonstrate that scratch-induced upregulation of rip2 expression is completely blocked by the steroid dexamethasone. Since we also show that RIP2 is an important player in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation, these data suggest that inhibition of rip2 upregulation after wounding might contribute to the reduced and delayed wound re-epithelialization phenotype seen in glucocorticoid-treated patients.

  3. A Modeling Approach to Study the Effect of Cell Polarization on Keratinocyte Migration

    PubMed Central

    Fuhr, Matthias Jrg; Meyer, Michael; Fehr, Eric; Ponzio, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The skin forms an efficient barrier against the environment, and rapid cutaneous wound healing after injury is therefore essential. Healing of the uppermost layer of the skin, the epidermis, involves collective migration of keratinocytes, which requires coordinated polarization of the cells. To study this process, we developed a model that allows analysis of live-cell images of migrating keratinocytes in culture based on a small number of parameters, including the radius of the cells, their mass and their polarization. This computational approach allowed the analysis of cell migration at the front of the wound and a reliable identification and quantification of the impaired polarization and migration of keratinocytes from mice lacking fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 an established model of impaired healing. Therefore, our modeling approach is suitable for large-scale analysis of migration phenotypes of cells with specific genetic defects or upon treatment with different pharmacological agents. PMID:25671585

  4. Effects of Y27632 on keratinocyte procurement and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Gandham, V D; Maddala, R L; Rao, V; Jin, J Y; Epstein, D L; Hall, R P; Zhang, J Y

    2013-10-01

    A number of Rho-kinase inhibitors have been developed for various clinical applications. We examined the effects of the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632 on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, and found that it promoted primary human keratinocyte proliferation and migration in both monolayer and skin explant cultures. In addition, topical application of Y27632 enhanced cutaneous wound closure in the majority of wounds in mice. The growth and migration effects of Y27632 appeared to be specific to keratinocytes compared with dermal fibroblasts, and required intact Jun kinase function. Y27632 seems to be a promising agent for keratinocyte procurement and wounding healing. PMID:23675999

  5. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  6. Design and Synthesis of Binding Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Seiichi; Kitajima, Takashi; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Growth factors play important roles in tissue regeneration. However, because of their instability and diffusible nature, improvements in their performance would be desirable for therapeutic applications. Conferring binding affinities would be one way to improve their applicability. Here we review techniques for conjugating growth factors to polypeptides with particular affinities. Conjugation has been designed at the level of gene fusion and of polypeptide ligation. We summarize and discuss the designs and applications of binding growth factors prepared by such conjugation approaches. PMID:22754349

  7. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria Del R; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:24371457

  8. Staphylococcus aureus keratinocyte invasion is mediated by integrin-linked kinase and Rac1.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Xu, Stacey X; Rudkouskaya, Alena; McGavin, Martin J; McCormick, John K; Dagnino, Lina

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major component of the skin microbiota and causes a large number of serious infections. S. aureus first interacts with epidermal keratinocytes to breach the epidermal barrier through mechanisms not fully understood. By use of primary keratinocytes from mice with epidermis-restricted Ilk gene inactivation and control integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-expressing littermates, we investigated the role of ILK in epidermal S. aureus invasion. Heat-killed, but not live, bacteria were internalized to Rab5- and Rab7-positive phagosomes, and incubation with keratinocyte growth factor increased their uptake 2.5-fold. ILK-deficient mouse keratinocytes internalized bacteria 2- to 4-fold less efficiently than normal cells. The reduced invasion by live S. aureus of ILK-deficient cells was restored in the presence of exogenous, constitutively active Rac1. Thus, Rac1 functions downstream from ILK during invasion. Further, invasion by S. aureus of Rac1-deficient cells was 2.5-fold lower than in normal cells. Paradoxically, staphylococcal cutaneous penetration of mouse skin explants with ILK-deficient epidermis was 35-fold higher than that of normal skin, indicating defects in epidermal barrier function in the absence of ILK. Thus, we identified an ILK-Rac1 pathway essential for bacterial invasion of keratinocytes, and established ILK as a key contributor to prevent invasive staphylococcal cutaneous infection. PMID:25416549

  9. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria del R.; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:24371457

  10. Efficacy of palifermin (keratinocyte growth factor-1) in the amelioration of oral mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Sonis, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a significant toxicity of cytotoxic chemo- and radiation-therapy used to treat cancer. Palifermin is the first pharmaceutical/biological agent approved for the intervention of oral mucositis. The major objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting the use of palifermin. Methods: A literature search was performed using an appropriate keyword search in MEDLINE and PubMed databases. Results: Of 100 full papers and 4 abstracts identified, 12 papers and 3 abstracts were appropriate for analysis. Level 2 evidence supporting palifermin use in patients with hematologic malignancies being treated with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is clear. Level 2 evidence also exists for the use of palifermin in the prevention of oral mucositis in patients with solid tumors (colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer), but is incomplete. Level ? 3 data support the use of palifermin in allogeneic HSCT recipients and cycled chemotherapy. A single health economic study concluded that palifermin is essentially cost neutral in the autologous HSCT population. Conclusion: Data supporting the use of palifermin in autologous HSCT recipients with hematologic malignancies is clear. Some data exist demonstrating its efficacy in other oncologic indications. Additional studies are needed to broaden the potential applications of palifermin and to ascertain its economic, but not symptomatic, effectiveness. PMID:20694076

  11. Potential prognostic and diagnostic application of a novel monoclonal antibody against keratinocyte growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Simona; Bei, Roberto; Vescarelli, Enrica; D'Amici, Sirio; di Gioia, Cira; Modesti, Andrea; Romano, Ferdinando; Redler, Adriano; Marchese, Cinzia; Angeloni, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    KGFR is involved in the pathogenesis of several human cancers. In this study, we generated and characterized a monoclonal antibody specific to KGFR (SC-101mAb) and evaluated its potential use in basic research and as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. The specificity and biological activity of the SC-101mAb were evaluated by Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation analyses on various cell lines. KGFR expression in breast, pancreatic, and thyroid carcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with SC-101mAb. KGFR expression levels revealed by SC-101mAb resulted to increase proportionally with tumor grade in breast and pancreatic cancer. In addition, SC-101mAb was able to detect KGFR down-modulation in thyroid cancer. SC-101mAb might represent a useful tool for basic research applications, and it could also contribute to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis of epithelial tumors. PMID:24899248

  12. Effects of fiber density and plasma modification of nanofibrous membranes on the adhesion and growth of HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bacakova, Marketa; Lopot, Frantisek; Hadraba, Daniel; Varga, Marian; Zaloudkova, Margit; Stranska, Denisa; Suchy, Tomas; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    It may be possible to regulate the cell colonization of biodegradable polymer nanofibrous membranes by plasma treatment and by the density of the fibers. To test this hypothesis, nanofibrous membranes of different fiber densities were treated by oxygen plasma with a range of plasma power and exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests showed significant modification of nanofibers after plasma treatment. The intensity of the fiber modification increased with plasma power and exposure time. The exposure time seemed to have a stronger effect on modifying the fiber. The mechanical behavior of the membranes was influenced by the plasma treatment, the fiber density, and their dry or wet state. Plasma treatment increased the membrane stiffness; however, the membranes became more brittle. Wet membranes displayed significantly lower stiffness than dry membranes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a slight increase in oxygen-containing groups on the membrane surface after plasma treatment. Plasma treatment enhanced the adhesion and growth of HaCaT keratinocytes on nanofibrous membranes. The cells adhered and grew preferentially on membranes of lower fiber densities, probably due to the larger area of void spaces between the fibers. PMID:25085812

  13. Smad7 Modulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Turnover through Sequestration of c-Cbl.

    PubMed

    Ha Thi, Huyen Trang; Kim, Hye-Youn; Choi, Seo-Won; Kang, Jin-Muk; Kim, Seong-Jin; Hong, Suntaek

    2015-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates various cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and tumorigenesis. For the maintenance of homeostasis, EGF signaling should be tightly regulated to prevent the aberrant activation. Smad7 has been known as inhibitory Smad that blocks the signal transduction of transforming growth factor ?. In the process of cell proliferation or transformation, Smad7 has been shown the opposite activities as a promoter or suppressor depending on cell types or microenvironments. We found that the overexpression of Smad7 in human HaCaT keratinocyte cells and mouse skin tissues elevated EGF receptor (EGFR) activity by impairing ligand-induced ubiquitination and degradation of activated receptor, which is induced by the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl. The C-terminal MH2 region but not MH1 region of Smad7 is critical for interaction with c-Cbl to inhibit the ubiquitination of EGFR. Interestingly, wild-type Smad7, but not Smad6 or mutant Smad7, destabilized the EGF-induced complex formation of c-Cbl and EGFR. These data suggest a novel role for Smad7 as a promoter for prolonging the EGFR signal in keratinocyte and skin tissue by reducing its ligand-induced ubiquitination and degradation. PMID:26055326

  14. Production of functional active human growth factors in insects used as living biofactories.

    PubMed

    Dudognon, Benoit; Romero-Santacreu, Lorena; Gmez-Sebastin, Silvia; Hidalgo, Ana B; Lpez-Vidal, Javier; Bellido, Mara L; Muoz, Eduardo; Escribano, Jos M

    2014-08-20

    Growth factors (GFs) are naturally signalling proteins, which bind to specific receptors on the cell surface. Numerous families of GFs have already been identified and remarkable progresses have been made in understanding the pathways that these proteins use to activate/regulate the complex signalling network involved in cell proliferation or wound healing processes. The bottleneck for a wider clinical and commercial application of these factors relay on their scalable cost-efficient production as bioactive molecules. The present work describes the capacity of Trichoplusia ni insect larvae used as living bioreactors in combination with the baculovirus vector expression system to produce three fully functional human GFs, the human epidermal growth factor (huEGF), the human fibroblast growth factor 2 (huFGF2) and the human keratinocyte growth factor 1 (huKGF1). The expression levels obtained per g of insect biomass were of 9.1, 2.6 and 3mg for huEGF, huFGF2 and huKGF1, respectively. Attempts to increase the productivity of the insect/baculovirus system we have used different modifications to optimize their production. Additionally, recombinant proteins were expressed fused to different tags to facilitate their purification. Interestingly, the expression of huKGF1 was significantly improved when expressed fused to the fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of the human antibody IgG. The insect-derived recombinant GFs were finally characterized in terms of biological activity in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The present work opens the possibility of a cost-efficient and scalable production of these highly valuable molecules in a system that favours its wide use in therapeutic or cosmetic applications. PMID:24915129

  15. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor in reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Lebovic, D I; Mueller, M D; Taylor, R N

    1999-06-01

    The critical role of angiogenesis in embryology and tumor biology has been recognized for more than 20 years. However, the fact that neovascularization is essential to processes in mammalian female reproduction has only recently been appreciated widely. In this review we focus on a single angiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor. As scientists have discovered in many aspects of cell biology, multiple and redundant signaling pathways have evolved in nature, presumably to protect essential biological functions from inactivating diseases or mutations. Despite this redundancy, some factors are of hierarchical importance. Vascular endothelial growth factor appears to be such a factor in the regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:10369200

  17. Roles for Growth Factors in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Witsch, Esther; Sela, Michael; Yarden, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, cells receive fate-determining signals from their tissue surroundings, primarily in the form of polypeptide growth factors. Integration of these extracellular signals underlies tissue homeostasis. Although departure from homeostasis and tumor initiation are instigated by oncogenic mutations rather than by growth factors, the latter are the major regulators of all subsequent steps of tumor progression, namely clonal expansion, invasion across tissue barriers, angiogenesis, and colonization of distant niches. Here, we discuss the relevant growth factor families, their roles in tumor biology, as well as the respective downstream signaling pathways. Importantly, cancer-associated activating mutations that impinge on these pathways often relieve, in part, the reliance of tumors on growth factors. On the other hand, growth factors are frequently involved in evolvement of resistance to therapeutic regimens, which extends the roles for polypeptide factors to very late phases of tumor progression and offers opportunities for cancer therapy. PMID:20430953

  18. Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2013-04-01

    Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair. PMID:23097312

  19. Adipose-derived stem cells and keratinocytes in a chronic wound cell culture model: the role of hydroxyectoine.

    PubMed

    Thamm, Oliver C; Theodorou, Panagiotis; Stuermer, Ewa; Zinser, Max J; Neugebauer, Edmund A; Fuchs, Paul C; Koenen, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Chronic wounds represent a major socio-economic problem in developed countries today. Wound healing is a complex biological process. It requires a well-orchestrated interaction of mediators, resident cells and infiltrating cells. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes play a crucial role in tissue regeneration. In chronic wounds these processes are disturbed and cell viability is reduced. Hydroxyectoine (HyEc) is a membrane protecting osmolyte with protein and macromolecule stabilising properties. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and keratinocytes were cultured with chronic wound fluid (CWF) and treated with HyEc. Proliferation was investigated using MTT test and migration was examined with transwell-migration assay and scratch assay. Gene expression changes of basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 were analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). CWF significantly inhibited proliferation and migration of keratinocytes. Addition of HyEc did not affect these results. Proliferation capacity of ASC was not influenced by CWF whereas migration was significantly enhanced. HyEc significantly reduced ASC migration. Expression of b-FGF, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in ASC, and b-FGF, VEGF and MMP-9 in keratinocytes was strongly induced by chronic wound fluid. HyEc enhanced CWF induced gene expression of VEGF in ASC and MMP-9 in keratinocytes. CWF negatively impaired keratinocyte function, which was not influenced by HyEc. ASC migration was stimulated by CWF, whereas HyEc significantly inhibited migration of ASC. CWF induced gene expression of VEGF in ASC and MMP-9 in keratinocytes was enhanced by HyEc, which might partly be explained by an RNA stabilising effect of HyEc. PMID:23841674

  20. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  1. The epidermal growth factor receptor decreases Stathmin 1 and triggers catagen entry in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Hammiller, Brianna; Trempus, Carol S; Li, Yanhua; Hansen, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is necessary for normal involution of hair follicles after the growth phase of anagen, although the mechanisms through which it acts are not well understood. In this report, we used transcriptional profiling of microdissected hair follicles from mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr to investigate how EGFR activation triggers catagen. Immunofluorescence for phospho-EGFR in mouse skin revealed increased activation of EGFR in follicular keratinocytes at catagen onset. Consistent with other models of EGFR deficiency, mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr (Krt14-Cre(+) /Egfr(fl/fl) ) exhibited a delayed and asynchronous catagen entry. Transcriptional profiling at the time of normal catagen onset at post-natal day (P) 17 revealed increased expression of the mitotic regulator Rcc2 in hair follicles lacking EGFR. Rcc2 protein was strongly immunopositive in the nuclei of control follicular keratinocytes at P16 then rapidly decreased until it was undetectable between P18 and 21. In contrast, Rcc2 expression continued in Egfr mutant follicles throughout this period. Proliferation, measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was also significantly increased in Egfr mutant follicular keratinocytes compared to controls at P18-21. Similarly, Rcc2-regulated mitotic regulator Stathmin 1 was strikingly reduced in control but not Egfr mutant follicles between P17 and P19. Deletion of Stmn1, in turn, accelerated catagen entry associated with premature cessation of proliferation in the hair follicles. These data reveal EGFR suppression of mitotic regulators including Rcc2 and Stathmin 1 as a mechanism for catagen induction in mouse skin. PMID:26661905

  2. Effects of insulin-like growth factor 2 and its receptor expressions on corneal repair

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanyan; Ju, Zhicai; Zhang, Junfu; Liu, Xinchang; Tian, Jie; Mu, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    Limbal stem cell (LSC) on the basal layer of cornea plays an important role in the epithelial repair after corneal injury as it can proliferate, differentiate and migrate into injury sites under the direction of cytokines. This study explored the signaling pathway and cellular mechanism between corneal epithelial cells LSC, on a mouse model with mechanic corneal injury. Ipsilateral corneal mechanic injury model was prepared on mice using the contralateral eye as the control. Tissues from both central and peripheral regions of cornea were collected, cultured and quantified for expression of various cytokines including epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor-? (FGF-?), heparin-like growth factor (HGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), IGF-1 and IGF-2. The effects of these factors on the differentiation of LSC and fibroblasts were also studied. Most of those cytokines had elevated gene expressions after the corneal injury. Among those IGF-2 had significantly increased expression, along with the high expression of IGF-2 receptor in corneal peripheral cells. IGF-2 also induced the differentiation of LSC into keratin-12-positive cells. Further studies showed the prominent expression of ?-actin in injured tissues, suggesting the potential transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Both IGF-2 and its receptor had elevated expressions after corneal injury. They may facilitate the transformation of LSC into epithelial cells, in addition to the role in transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. PMID:26617727

  3. Effect of chemical modification of keratinocytes and collagen in keratinocyte-collagen interactions.

    PubMed

    Karasek, M A

    1980-01-01

    Neonatal and adult keratinocytes isolated from thin sections of split-thickness skin by trypsin-release show a preferential and strong attachment to collagen when compared to plastic, fibronectin-coated plastic, glass, or agar gels. We have investigated the reactive groups of keratinocytes and collagen required for this interaction and have determined the kinetics of attachment. At 37 degrees C both neonatal and adult keratinocytes show a rapid and irreversible attachment to collagen, reaching a plateau phase at 30-60 minutes. The cells cannot be replaced from the gel by extensive washing or by conditions normally expected to break ionic bonds. Chilling to 0 degree C before plating completely inhibits attachment, and heating at 37 degrees C reverses the inhibition. One cycle of freezing and thawing of cells inhibits the interaction. Removal of sialic residues from keratinocytes before plating with neuraminidase, or oxidation of sugars with periodate, does not inhibit attachment or growth, indicating that cell carbohydrates are not required for interaction with collagen. Neither denaturation of collagen with 8 M urea nor oxidation of sugar side chains on the gel with periodic acid affects attachment or growth. However, reaction of free-SH groups with iodoacetic acid or -NH2 groups with dinitrofluorobenzene of the gel completely inhibits growth. Blocking the guanidyl residues of collagen arginine with cyclohexanedione markedly alters all aspects of attachment, growth, and morphology, producing new and completely unique growth patterns. These studies indicate that specific chemical groups on collagen affect keratinocyte-matrix interactions and that the availability of specific residues in collagen directly influences growth and maturation. Most vertebrate cells remain closely associated with extracellular collagenous substances throughout their lifespan. The collagen may be present in both collagen fibers and in reticular fibers as well as in basement membranes. The way cells interact with and are anchored to these various substrata influences a number of important cellular functions including growth and maturation and the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. Skin epithelial cells display a particularly striking and strong dependence on collagen for growth. When plated on a collagen gel, the plating efficiency and growth is increased several-fold compared to other substrates such as glass, plastic, or agar. More recently, the initial observations on the selective attachment of keratinocytes to collagen gels have been extended by Murray et al., who demonstrated that guinea pig keratinocytes show increased plating efficiencies on Type IV collagen gels. In these studies, we have examined the mechanisms for keratinocyte-collagen interaction, and described the kinetics of attachment, the reactive sites on the cell and collagen, and the effects of chemical modification of collagen on the expression of the keratinocytes phenotype. PMID:7238089

  4. Development and bioevaluation of nanofibers with blood-derived growth factors for dermal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bertoncelj, Valentina; Pelipenko, Jan; Kristl, Julijana; Jeras, Matja; Cukjati, Marko; Kocbek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our work was to produce a modern nanomaterial with incorporated blood-derived growth factors, produced by electrospinning, applicable in treatment of chronic wounds. Platelet-rich plasma was chosen as a natural source of growth factors. Results showed that platelet-rich plasma stimulates keratinocyte and fibroblast cell growth in vitro. Its optimal concentration in growth medium was 2% (v/v) for both types of skin cells, while higher concentrations caused alterations in cell morphology, with reduced cell mobility and proliferation. In the next step hydrophilic nanofibers loaded with platelet-rich plasma were produced from chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide), using electrospinning. The morphology of nanofibers was stable in aqueous conditions for 72 h. It was shown that electrospinning does not adversely affect the biological activity of platelet-rich plasma. The effects of nanofibers with incorporated platelet-rich plasma on cell proliferation, survival, morphology and mobility were examined. Nanofibers limited cell mobility, changed morphology and stimulated cell proliferation. Despite of the small amount of blood-derived growth factors introduced in cell culture via platelet-rich plasma-loaded nanofibers, such nanofibrillar support significantly induced cell proliferation, indicating synergistic effect of nanotopography and incorporated growth factors. The overall results confirm favorable in vitro properties of produced nanofibers, indicating their high potential as a nanomaterial suitable for delivery of platelet-rich plasma in wound healing applications. PMID:24931341

  5. Growth factors from genes to clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, V.R. ); Hall, K.; Low, H. )

    1990-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion in the identification of growth factors and their receptors. This has been greatly facilitated by recombinant DNA technology, which has provided the tools not only to identify these proteins at the gene level but also to produce recombinant proteins for evaluating their biological activities. With the help of such techniques, we are moving toward an understanding of the biosynthesis of growth factors and their receptors, structure-function relationships, as well as mechanisms for intracellular signal transmission. The possibility of modifying these factors has opened new fields of clinical application. In this paper, four major areas of growth factor research are presented: the characterization of growth factor genes and their protein products, growth factor receptors and signal transduction by the receptors to mediate biological action, the biological actions of the various growth factors, and the role of growth factors in health and disease and their possible clinical application. Some of the topics covered include: structure of the IGFs and their variants; isoforms of PDGF receptor types; tyrosine kinase activation; structure of G-proteins in biological membranes; possible therapeutic application of NGF in the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases; PDGF's possible role in the development of several fibroproliferative diseases and its therapeutic application in wound healing; and the possible use of angiogenic inhibitors in tumor treatment.

  6. growl: Growth factor and growth rate of expanding universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Growl calculates the linear growth factor Da and its logarithmic derivative dln D/dln a in expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with arbitrary matter and vacuum densities. It permits rapid and stable numerical evaluation.

  7. Proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives is enhanced by fibroblast nemosis

    SciTech Connect

    Raesaenen, Kati; Vaheri, Antti

    2010-06-10

    The role of paracrine tumor-stroma regulation in the progression of cancer is under intense investigation. Activated fibroblasts are key components of the tumor microenvironment providing the soluble factors mediating the regulation. Nemosis is an experimental model to study these parameters: formation of a multicellular spheroid activates fibroblasts and leads to increased production of soluble factors involved in the promotion of growth and motility. Role of nemosis was investigated in the tumorigenesis of HaCaT derivatives representing skin carcinoma progression. Conditioned medium from fibroblast spheroids increased proliferation rate of HaCaT derivatives. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 increased significantly in benign A5 and low-grade malignant II-4 cells, but did not further increase in the metastatic RT3 cells. Expression of p63, keratinocyte stem cell marker linked to cancer progression, was augmented by medium from nemotic fibroblasts; this increase was also seen in RT3 cells. Scratch-wound healing of the keratinocytes was enhanced in response to fibroblast nemosis. Neutralizing antibodies against growth factors inhibited wound healing to some extent; the response varied between benign and malignant keratinocytes. Migration and invasion were enhanced by conditioned medium from nemotic fibroblasts in benign and low-grade malignant cells. RT3 keratinocyte migration was further augmented, but invasion was not, indicating their intrinsic capacity to invade. Our data demonstrate that fibroblast nemosis increases proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives, and thus nemosis can be used as a model to study the role of soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts in tumor progression.

  8. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    Muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow skeletal myofibers which differentiate into more adult-like myofibers. Mechanical simulation studies of these muscle cells in a newly developed mechanical cell simulator can now be performed to study growth processes in skeletal muscle. Conditions in the mechanical cell simulator were defined where mechanical activity can either prevent muscle wasting or stimulate muscle growth. The role of endogenous and exogenous growth factors in tension-induced muscle growth is being investigated under the defined conditions of tissue culture.

  9. Specific changes of Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a GAP-associated p62 protein during calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Filvaroff, E; Calautti, E; McCormick, F; Dotto, G P

    1992-01-01

    Induction of tyrosine phosphorylation occurs as an early and specific event in keratinocyte differentiation. A set of tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates which transduce mitogenic signals by tyrosine kinases has previously been identified. We show here that of these substrates, the Ras GTPase-activating protein, GAP, is specifically affected during calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation. As early as 10 min after calcium addition to cultured primary mouse keratinocytes, GAP associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and translocates to the membrane. In addition, a GAP-associated protein of approximately 62 kDa (p62) becomes rapidly and heavily tyrosine phosphorylated in both membrane and cytosolic fractions. This protein corresponds to the major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that is induced in differentiating keratinocytes as early as 5 min after calcium addition. p62 phosphorylation was not observed after exposure of these cells to epidermal growth factor, phorbol ester, or transforming growth factor beta. In contrast, PLC gamma and P13K were tyrosine phosphorylated after epidermal growth factor, but not calcium, stimulation. Thus, changes of Ras GAP and an associated p62 protein occur as early and specific events in keratinocyte differentiation and appear to involve a calcium-induced tyrosine kinase. Images PMID:1448067

  10. EFFECT OF ARSENICALS ON ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION-INDUCED GROWTH ARREST AND RELATED SIGNALING EVENTS IN HUMAN KERATINOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The molecular mechanisms mediating arsenic-induced carcinogenesis are not well understood. The role of confounding factors such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), add another level of complexity to the study of arsenic carcinogenesis and the cancer risk assessment to humans. We hypot...

  11. New Clue Found to Growth Factor Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the discovery which may help to explain epidermal growth factor effects on the cell skeleton. The role of a protein called profilin in the regulation of the microfilament system is described. (CW)

  12. Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promotes Vascular Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjornsson, Thorir D.; Dryjski, Maciej; Tluczek, John; Mennie, Robert; Ronan, John; Mellin, Theodore N.; Thomas, Kenneth A.

    1991-10-01

    Intravascular injury to arteries can result in thickening of the intimal smooth muscle layer adjacent to the lumen by migration and proliferation of cells from the underlying medial smooth muscle layer accompanied by deposition of extracellular matrix. This pathological response, which decreases lumen diameter, might, in part, be the result of the access of smooth muscle cells to plasma and platelet-derived growth factors as a consequence of denudation of the overlying confluent monolayer of vascular endothelial cells. Injured rat carotid arteries were treated by i.v. administration of acidic fibroblast growth factor, a heparin-binding protein that is chemotactic and mitogenic for vascular endothelial cells. The growth factor treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of intimal thickening with parallel promotion of endothelial regeneration over the injured area. Therefore, acidic fibroblast growth factor might be efficacious in the prevention of restenosis caused by intimal thickening following angioplasty in humans.

  13. ?-Fetoprotein as a modulator of the pro-inflammatory response of human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Potapovich, AI; Pastore, S; Kostyuk, VA; Lulli, D; Mariani, V; De Luca, C; Dudich, EI; Korkina, LG

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The immunomodulatory effects of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) on lymphocytes and macrophages have been described in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant forms of human AFP have been proposed as potential therapeutic entities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. We examined the effects of embryonic and recombinant human AFP on the spontaneous, UVA- and cytokine-induced pro-inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes. Experimental approach: Cultures of primary and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human blood T lymphocytes were used. The effects of AFP on cytokine expression were studied by bioplexed elisa and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. Kinase and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) phosphorylation were quantified by intracellular elisa. Nuclear activator protein 1 and NF?B DNA binding activity was measured by specific assays. Nitric oxide and H2O2 production and redox status were assessed by fluorescent probe and biochemical methods. Key results: All forms of AFP enhanced baseline expression of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. AFP dose-dependently increased tumour necrosis factor alpha-stimulated granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin 8 expression and decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and IP-10 (interferon gamma-produced protein of 10 kDa) expression. AFP induced a marked activator protein 1 activation in human keratinocytes. AFP also increased H2O2 and modulated nitrite/nitrate levels in non-stimulated keratinocytes whereas it did not affect these parameters or cytokine release from UVA-stimulated cells. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt1 but not NF?B was activated by AFP alone or by its combination with UVA. Conclusions and implications: Exogenous AFP induces activation of human keratinocytes, with de novo expression of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and modulation of their pro-inflammatory response to cytokines or UVA. AFP may modulate inflammatory events in human skin. PMID:19785658

  14. [Hepatocyte growth factor and male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; He, Qing-hu

    2015-08-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor ( HGF) is a multifunctional growth factor, which produces multiple biological effects by binding to the c-Met acceptor. This article reviews the biological properties of HGF, particularly those correlated with male reproduction, including its abilities to promote testis embryonic development, spermatogenesis, and testosterone synthesis of Leydig cells. HGF may provide a new insight into the treatment of male hypogonadism and infertility. PMID:26442306

  15. Determination of ligand-binding specificity by alternative splicing: Two distinct growth factor receptors encoded by a single gene

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, T.; Bottaro, D.P.; Fleming, T.P.; Smith, C.L.; Chan, A.M.L.; Aaronson, S.A. ); Burgess, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Expression cDNA cloning and structural analysis of the human keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) revealed identity with one of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors encoded by the bek gene (FGFR-2), except for a divergent stretch of 49 amino acids in their extracellular domains. Binding assays demonstrated that the KGFR was a high-affinity receptor for both KGF and acidic FGF, while FGFR-2 showed high affinity for basic and acidic FGF but no detectable binding by KGF. Genomic analysis of the bek gene revealed two alternative exons responsible for the region of divergence between the two receptors. The KGFR transcript was specific to epithelial cells, and it appeared to be differentially regulated with respect to the alternative FGFR-2 transcript. Thus, two growth factor receptors with different ligand-binding specificities and expression patterns are encoded by alternative transcripts of the same gene.

  16. Effects of retinoids on differentiation, lipid metabolism, epidermal growth factor, and low-density lipoprotein binding in squamous carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ponec, M.; Weerheim, A. ); Havekes, L. ); Boonstra, J. )

    1987-08-01

    The relationship among keratinocyte differentiation capacity, lipid synthesis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, plasma membrane composition, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding has been studied in SCC-12F2 cells. The differentiation capacity of the cells, i.e., ionophore-induced cornified envelope formation, was inhibited by various retinoids and stimulated by hydrocortisone. Retinoids that caused a significant reduction of cornified envelope formation, i.e., retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid, caused only minor changes in lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Arotinoid ethylsulfone, having a minor effect on cornified envelope formation, caused a drastic inhibition of cholesterol synthesis resulting in changes in the plasma membrane composition. Hydrocortisone stimulated cornified envelope formation but had only minor effects on lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Of all retinoids tested, only arotinoid ethylsulfone caused a drastic increase in EGF binding, while hydrocortisone had no effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the plasma membrane composition is not related to keratinocyte differentiation capacity, but most likely does determine EGF binding. Furthermore, EGF binding does not determine keratinocyte differentiation capacity.

  17. Pluronic/chitosan hydrogels containing epidermal growth factor with wound-adhesive and photo-crosslinkable properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2010-11-01

    Wound-adhesive and thermo-responsive hydrogels were prepared in an aim to develop a wound-care device for diabetic ulcers. A mixture of glycidyl methacrylated chitooligosaccharide (COS), di-acrylated Pluronic, and a recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) formed a physical hydrogel. Photo-irradiation was subsequently applied to chemically crosslink the hydrogel. Release profiles of encapsulated rhEGF from the hydrogel showed that release rates were dependent on degradation rates of hydrogels. Human primary keratinocytes were cultivated with the released fraction from the hydrogel to measure effects of released rhEGF on in vitro differentiation of keratinocytes. Muco-adhesive property of the hydrogel was investigated in animal skins and significant amounts of quantum dot-labeled rhEGF were retained at wound sites along with chitosan. The hydrogel was administered to dorsal burn wounds in wound healing impaired animals and photo-irradiated. COS and rhEGF in the hydrogels significantly enhanced epidermal differentiation during the wound healing process. Thus, the rhEGF-encapsulated hydrogel was expected to be a potential wound care product by increasing local concentration of rhEGF at wound sites with maintaining keratinocytic differentiation. PMID:20725966

  18. Signaling mechanism underlying the promotion of keratinocyte migration by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Matsuura, Kenji; Tanaka, Yoshie; Honda, Takeshi; Nishida, Teruo; Inui, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Re-epithelialization begins early during skin wound healing and is regulated by various growth factors and cytokines. Angiotensin II promotes the migration of keratinocytes and thereby contributes to wound healing. We investigated the mechanism by which angiotensin II stimulates human keratinocyte migration. Angiotensin II-induced keratinocyte migration was inhibited by an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist (candesartan) or an angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) antagonist (PD123319) as well as by depletion of AT1R or AT2R. A biased agonist for AT1R, [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]angiotensin II, induced cell migration, whereas depletion of ?-arrestin2 inhibited angiotensin II-induced migration. Angiotensin II-induced migration was blocked by neutralizing antibodies to transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) as well as by the TGF-? receptor inhibitor SB431542. The amount of TGF-?1 was increased in the culture medium of angiotensin II-treated cells, and this effect was inhibited by candesartan or PD123319. Both angiotensin II- and TGF-?-induced cell migration were inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor but not by those to EGF receptor ligands. Angiotensin II-induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor, and this effect was inhibited by candesartan, PD123319, SB431542, or depletion of ?-arrestin2, but not by neutralizing antibodies to heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. Our results indicate that ?-arrestin-dependent signaling downstream of AT1R as well as AT2R signaling are necessary for angiotensin II-induced keratinocyte migration, and that such signaling promotes generation of the active form of TGF-?, consequent activation of the TGF-? receptor, and transactivation of the EGF receptor by the TGF-? receptor. PMID:25473119

  19. Evaluation of emulsion electrospun polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor nanofibrous scaffolds for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenbei; Qian, Yuna; Li, Linhao; Pan, Lianhong; Njunge, Lucy W; Dong, Lili; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing scaffolds provide cells with structural integrity and can also deliver biological agents to establish a skin tissue-specific microenvironment to regulate cell functions and to accelerate the healing process. In this study, we fabricated biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds with an emulsion electrospinning technique. The scaffolds were composed of polycaprolactone, hyaluronan and encapsulating epidermal growth factor. The morphology and core-sheath structure of the nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The scaffolds were also characterized for chemical composition and hydrophilicity with a Fourier-transform infrared analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy and the water contact angle. An invitro model protein bovine serum albumin and epidermal growth factor release study was conducted to evaluate the sustained release potential of the core-sheath structured nanofibers with and without the hyaluronan component. Additionally, an invitro cultivation of human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and fibroblasts on polycaprolactone/hyaluronan and polycaprolactone/hyaluronan-epidermal growth factor scaffolds showed a significant synergistic effect of hyaluronan and epidermal growth factor on cell proliferation and infiltration. Furthermore, there was an up-regulation of the wound-healing-related genes collagen I, collagen III and TGF-? in polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor scaffolds compared with control groups. In the full-thickness wound model, the enhanced regeneration of fully functional skin was facilitated by epidermal regeneration in the polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor treatment group. Our findings suggest that bioactivity and hemostasis of the hyaluronan-based nanofibrous scaffolds have the capability to encapsulate and control the release of growth factors that can serve as skin tissue engineering scaffolds for wound healing. PMID:26012354

  20. Repression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor transcriptional activity by epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Oliver

    2009-06-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates most, if not all, of the many toxicological effects of the environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin [(TCDD) or dioxin]. The "classical" pathway of AHR action involves dimerization of the liganded AHR with the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) protein, and the AHR-ARNT dimer specifically associates with the enhancer regions of dioxin-responsive genes, leading to their increased transcription. Sutter and coworkers recently reported that epidermal growth factor (EGF) represses the dioxin-mediated induction of CYP1A1 in cultured normal human keratinocytes by inhibiting the recruitment of the transcriptional coactivator protein p300 to the CYP1A1 gene. EGF also inhibits the dioxin-dependent induction of certain parameters in keratinocytes that are reflective of dioxin-induced chloracne. These findings point to the potential usefulness of EGF for the treatment of chloracne and also describe a novel mechanism for repression of dioxin-induced gene transcription. PMID:19592671

  1. Priming of mononuclear cells with a combination of growth factors enhances wound healing via high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Enze; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that a specific combination of growth factors enhances the survival, adhesion and angiogenic potential of mononuclear cells (MNCs). In this study, we sought to investigate the changes of the angiogenic potential of MNCs after short-time priming with a specific combination of growth factors. MNCs were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and incubated with a priming cocktail containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3L , Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2 and thrombopoietin (TPO) (all 400ng/ml) for 15, 30 and 60min. Wounds in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficiency (NOD-SCID) mice were created by skin excision followed by cell transplantation. We performed a qRT-PCR analysis on the growth factor-primed cells. The angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, FGF-2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the anti-apoptotic factors IGF-1 and transforming growth factor-?1 were significantly elevated in the MNCs primed for 30min. (T30) compared with the non-primed MNCs (T0). The scratch wound assay revealed that T30- conditioned media (CM) significantly increased the rate of fibroblast-mediated wound closure compared with the rates from T0-CM and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-CM at 20hrs. In vivo wound healing results revealed that the T30-treated wounds demonstrated accelerated wound healing at days 7 and 14 compared with those treated with T0. The histological analyses demonstrated that the number of engrafted cells and transdifferentiated keratinocytes in the wounds were significantly higher in the T30-transplanted group than in the T0-transplanted group. In conclusion, this study suggests that short-term priming of MNCs with growth factors might be alternative therapeutic option for cell-based therapies. PMID:24118840

  2. PAI-1 Mediates the TGF-?1+EGF-Induced Scatter Response in Transformed Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Freytag, Jennifer; Wilkins-Port, Cynthia E.; Higgins, Craig E.; Higgins, Stephen P.; Samarakoon, Rohan; Higgins, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative interactions between growth factor signaling pathways are important elements in carcinoma progression. A model system combining transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and EGF was developed to investigate mechanisms underlying induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ras-transformed human (HaCaT II-4) keratinocytes. Dual stimulation with TGF-?1+EGF resulted in keratinocyte plasticity and pronounced colony dispersal. The most highly expressed transcript, identified by mRNA profiling, encoded plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1). PAI-1 negatively regulates plasmin-dependent matrix degradation, preserving a stromal scaffold permissive for keratinocyte motility. Mitogen-activated extracellular kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling were required for maximal PAI-1 upregulation and TGF-?1+EGF-stimulated cell locomotion, as pharmacologic disruption of MEK/p38 activity ablated both responses. Moreover, PAI-1 knockdown alone effectively inhibited TGF-?1+EGF-dependent cell scattering, indicating a functional role for this SERPIN in the dual-growth factor model of induced motility. Moreover, EGFR signaling blockade or EGFR knockdown attenuated TGF-?1-induced PAI-1 expression, implicating EGFR transactivation in TGF-?1-stimulated PAI-1 expression, and reduced colony dispersal in TGF-?1+EGF-treated cultures. Identification of such cooperative signaling networks and their effect on specific invasion-promoting target genes, such as PAI-1, may lead to the development of pathway-specific therapeutics that affect late-stage events in human tumor progression. PMID:20428185

  3. Factor-binding element in the human c-myc promoter involved in transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor. beta. 1 and by the retinoblastoma gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Pietenpol, J.A.; Stein, R.W.; Moses, H.L. ); Muenger, K.; Howley, P.M. )

    1991-11-15

    Previous studies have shown that transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation involves suppression of c-myc transcription, and indirect evidence has suggested that the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) may be involved in this process. In this study, transient expression of pRB in skin keratinocytes was shown to repress transcription of the human c-myc promoter region was required for regulation by both TGF-{beta}1 and pRB. These sequences, termed the TGF-{beta} control element (TCE), lie between positions {minus}86 and {minus}63 relative to the P1 transcription start site. Oligonucleotides containing the TCE bound to several nuclear factors in mobility-shift assays using extracts from cells with or without normal pRB. Binding of some factors was inhibited by TGF-{beta}1 treatment of TGF-{beta}-sensitive but not TGF-{beta}-insensitive cells. These data indicate that pRB can suppress c-myc transcription and growth inhibition.

  4. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  5. Activin controls skin morphogenesis and wound repair predominantly via stromal cells and in a concentration-dependent manner via keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Casimir; Schrer, Agnes; Antsiferova, Maria; Tychsen, Birte; Pankow, Sandra; Mller, Mischa; Rlicke, Thomas; Paus, Ralf; Werner, Sabine

    2005-09-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta family member activin is a potent regulator of skin morphogenesis and repair. Transgenic mice overexpressing activin in keratinocytes display epidermal hyper-thickening and dermal fibrosis in normal skin and enhanced granulation tissue formation after wounding. Mice overexpressing the secreted activin antagonist follistatin, however, have the opposite wound-healing phenotype. To determine whether activin affects skin morphogenesis and repair via activation of keratinocytes and/or stromal cells, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative activin receptor IB mutant (dnActRIB) in keratinocytes. The architecture of adult skin was unaltered in these mice, but delays were observed in postnatal pelage hair follicle morphogenesis and in the first catagen-telogen transformation of hair follicles. Although dnActRIB-transgenic mice showed slightly delayed wound re-epithelialization after skin injury, the strong inhibition of granulation tissue formation seen in follistatin-transgenic mice was not observed. Therefore, although endogenous activin appeared to affect skin morphogenesis and repair predominantly via stromal cells, overexpressed activin strongly affected the epidermis. The epidermal phenotype of activin-overexpressing mice was partially rescued by breeding these animals with dnActRIB-transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that activin affects both stromal cells and keratinocytes in normal and wounded skin and that the effect on keratinocytes is dose-dependent in vivo. PMID:16127153

  6. Hematopoietic growth factors: current knowledge, future prospects.

    PubMed

    Demetri, G D

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of hematopoietic growth factors into clinical medicine represents one of the more exciting developments in oncology in the past several years. The identification, gene cloning, and large-scale production of hematopoietic growth factors represent important examples of the practical benefits that may accrue from application of the sophisticated technology derived from recombinant DNA research. Research, both at the bench and by the bedside, has proceeded at an extraordinarily rapid pace in this field over the past five years, leading to an abundance of new information, novel promising agents, and important clinical controversies related to the biology and appropriate clinical applications of hematopoietic growth factors. With these agents, for the first time in history, the production of human blood cells can be systematically manipulated in vivo in an effort to optimize physiology beyond the endogenous host response. Additionally, investigators utilizing purified hematopoietic growth factors as reagents may provide crucial insights into the mechanisms of blood cell production in health and in various disease states. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the control of blood cell production by specific factors and to put these data in the context of clinical medicine. The emphasis will be on factors that primarily influence myeloid (rather than lymphoid) cell growth, differentiation, and activation, and the clinical focus will be on applications in oncologic therapeutics and in the treatment of primary hematologic disorders. By reviewing what we know and what has already been done, we may be better able to define the important questions that remain and to formulate the means to answer our current uncertainties about the activities and clinical uses of hematopoietic growth factors. PMID:1382921

  7. Serum growth factors and oncoproteins in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ford, J; Smith, S; Luo, J C; Friedman-Jimenez, G; Brandt-Rauf, P; Markowitz, S; Garibaldi, K; Niman, H

    1992-02-01

    Firefighters are potentially at increased risk for cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease due to their toxic exposures on the job. Growth factors and oncogene proteins are thought to play a role in the development of various malignancies and pulmonary fibrotic diseases. Therefore, a cohort of firefighters and matched controls have been screened for the presence of nine different growth factors and oncoproteins using an immunoblotting assay. Fourteen of the firefighters were found to be positive for beta-transforming growth factor (beta-TGF) related proteins compared to no positives in the controls (P = 0.0017). These results suggest that beta-TGF may be a possible biomarker for monitoring firefighters and other exposed workers for the potential development of cancer or non-malignant respiratory disease. PMID:1533320

  8. Activated protein C: A regulator of human skin epidermal keratinocyte function

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Kelly; Jackson, Christopher John; Xue, Meilang

    2014-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a physiological anticoagulant, derived from its precursor protein C (PC). Independent of its anticoagulation, APC possesses strong anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and barrier protective properties which appear to be protective in a number of disorders including chronic wound healing. The epidermis is the outermost skin layer and provides the first line of defence against the external environment. Keratinocytes are the most predominant cells in the epidermis and play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. PC/APC and its receptor, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), once thought to be restricted to the endothelium, are abundantly expressed by skin epidermal keratinocytes. These cells respond to APC by upregulating proliferation, migration and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and inhibiting apoptosis/inflammation leading to a wound healing phenotype. APC also increases barrier function of keratinocyte monolayers by promoting the expression of tight junction proteins and re-distributing them to cell-cell contacts. These cytoprotective properties of APC are mediated through EPCR, protease-activated receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor or Tie2. Future preventive and therapeutic uses of APC in skin disorders associated with disruption of barrier function and inflammation look promising. This review will focus on APCs function in skin epidermis/keratinocytes and its therapeutical potential in skin inflammatory conditions. PMID:24921007

  9. Genetically modified human keratinocytes overexpressing PDGF-A enhance the performance of a composite skin graft.

    PubMed

    Eming, S A; Medalie, D A; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L; Morgan, J R

    1998-03-01

    Skin loss due to burns and ulcers is a major medical problem. Bioengineered skin substitutes that use cultured keratinocytes as an epidermal layer with or without analogues of the dermis are one strategy for skin repair. However, none can achieve definitive wound closure, function, or cosmesis comparable to split-thickness autografts. Moreover, autograft donor sites, which require time to heal, may be limited or have attendant problems such as infection or functional/cosmetic deficiencies. To determine if the performance of composite skin grafts of keratinocytes on a dermal analogue could be enhanced, human keratinocytes were genetically modified to overexpress platelet-derived growth factor A chain (PDGF-A). Composite grafts of modified keratinocytes seeded onto acellular dermis, prepared from cryopreserved cadaver skin, secreted PDGF-AA protein in vitro [90 ng/graft (1.5 x 1.5 cm)/24 hr]. To test their performance in a wound healing model, composite grafts were transplanted to full-thickness excisional wounds on the back of athymic mice. PDGF-A grafts formed a stratified differentiated epidermis similar to control grafts. The acellular dermis was repopulated with host fibrovascular cells and by day 7, the PDGF-A grafts had significantly more cells in the dermis and increased staining for murine collagen types I and IV. At this early time point, wound contraction was also significantly inhibited in PDGF-A grafts versus control grafts. Thus, PDGF-A overexpression improves graft performance during the first critical week after transplantation. PMID:9525314

  10. Evidence for nerve growth factor-mediated paracrine effects in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Yaar, M; Grossman, K; Eller, M; Gilchrest, B A

    1991-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical to the development and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system, but its possible roles in other organ systems are less well characterized. We have recently shown that human epidermal melanocytes, pigment cells derived from the neural crest, express the NGF receptor (p75 NGF-R) in vitro (Peacocke, M., M. Yaar, C. P. Mansur, M. V. Chao, and B. A. Gilchrest. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:5282-5286). Using cultured human skin-derived cells we now demonstrate that the melanocyte p75 NGF-R is functional, in that NGF stimulation modulates melanocyte gene expression; that exposure to an NGF gradient is chemotactic for melanocytes and enhances their dendricity; and that keratinocytes, the dominant epidermal cell type, express NGF messenger RNA and hence are a possible local source of NGF for epidermal melanocytes in the skin. These combined data suggest a paracrine role for NGF in human epidermis. PMID:1655813

  11. The role of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated nuclear factor kappa B signalling in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Scott R; Sloss, Callum M; Cameron, Pamela; Kanke, Toru; McKenzie, Roderick C; Plevin, Robin

    2005-06-01

    1 In this study, we examined the role of Ca2+ in linking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) to the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) pathway in a skin epithelial cell line NCTC2544 stably expressing PAR2 (clone G). 2 In clone G, PAR2-mediated NFkappaB luciferase reporter activity and NFkappaB DNA-binding activity was reduced by preincubation with BAPTA-AM but not BAPTA. Trypsin stimulation of inhibitory kappa B kinases, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, was also inhibited following pretreatment with BAPTA-AM. 3 BAPTA/AM also prevented PAR2-mediated IKKalpha activation in cultured primary human keratinocytes. 4 The effect of BAPTA-AM was also selective for the IKK/NFkappaB signalling axis; PAR2 coupling to ERK, or p38 MAP kinase was unaffected. 5 Pharmacological inhibition of the Ca2+-dependent regulatory protein calcineurin did not inhibit trypsin-stimulated IKK activity or NFkappaB-DNA binding; however, inhibition of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C isoforms or InsP3 formation using GF109203X or the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, respectively, reduced both IKK activity and NFkappaB-DNA binding. 6 Mutation of PAR2 within the C-terminal to produce a mutant receptor, which does not couple to Ca2+ signalling, but is able to activate ERK, abrogated NFkappaB-DNA binding and IKK activity stimulated by trypsin. 7 These results suggest a predominant role for the InsP3/Ca2+ axis in the regulation of IKK signalling and NFkappaB transcriptional activation. PMID:15821758

  12. The role of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated nuclear factor kappa B signalling in keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Scott R; Sloss, Callum M; Cameron, Pamela; Kanke, Toru; McKenzie, Roderick C; Plevin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of Ca2+ in linking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) to the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway in a skin epithelial cell line NCTC2544 stably expressing PAR2 (clone G).In clone G, PAR2-mediated NFκB luciferase reporter activity and NFκB DNA-binding activity was reduced by preincubation with BAPTA-AM but not BAPTA. Trypsin stimulation of inhibitory kappa B kinases, IKKα and IKKβ, was also inhibited following pretreatment with BAPTA-AM.BAPTA/AM also prevented PAR2-mediated IKKα activation in cultured primary human keratinocytes.The effect of BAPTA-AM was also selective for the IKK/NFκB signalling axis; PAR2 coupling to ERK, or p38 MAP kinase was unaffected.Pharmacological inhibition of the Ca2+-dependent regulatory protein calcineurin did not inhibit trypsin-stimulated IKK activity or NFκB-DNA binding; however, inhibition of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C isoforms or InsP3 formation using GF109203X or the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, respectively, reduced both IKK activity and NFκB-DNA binding.Mutation of PAR2 within the C-terminal to produce a mutant receptor, which does not couple to Ca2+ signalling, but is able to activate ERK, abrogated NFκB-DNA binding and IKK activity stimulated by trypsin.These results suggest a predominant role for the InsP3/Ca2+ axis in the regulation of IKK signalling and NFκB transcriptional activation. PMID:15821758

  13. Growth factors and growth factor receptors in the hippocampus. Role in plasticity and response to injury.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Sampedro, M; Bovolenta, P

    1990-01-01

    Various growth factors are present in the hippocampal formation and appear responsible for the prominent plasticity of this brain area. Although hormone-like growth-promoting polypeptides are the best known, recent studies emphasize the importance in the growth response of molecules such as laminin proteoglycans, neurotransmitters and growth inhibitors. The progress and problems in the study of these substances are reviewed. PMID:2168060

  14. AP1-dependent repression of TGF?-mediated MMP9 upregulation by PPAR? agonists in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Markus; Berlinski, Barbara; Doll, Monika; Hrgovic, Igor; Laubach, Vesselina; Reichenbach, Gabi; Kippenberger, Stefan; Gille, Jens; Kaufmann, Roland

    2011-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that function mainly in the regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. PPAR agonists have been shown to control inflammation by inhibition of distinct proinflammatory genes. Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and/or overexpression of its ligand, transforming growth factor-? (TGF?), are key features of both neoplastic and inflammatory hyperproliferative epithelia. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) belongs to the set of genes that are effectively induced by TGF? in keratinocytes. Induction of MMP9 expression is strongly linked to regenerative skin repair mechanisms, inflammatory skin diseases and tumor metastasis. We explored whether the known anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR? ligands involve inhibiting the TGF?-mediated upregulation of MMP9. The PPAR? agonists potently inhibited TGF?-induced MMP9 expression in human keratinocytes. This inhibition was observed at both the protein and mRNA levels. Transcriptional activation studies with deletion constructs of a reporter gene revealed that PPAR? agonists mediate their inhibitory effects via an AP1-binding site. Electromobility shift assay analysis indicated that MMP9 gene expression is inhibited by repressing site-dependent DNA binding and transactivation by c-fos. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that MMP9 expression induced by TGF? is a valid target of PPAR? ligands in keratinocytes. PMID:21496113

  15. Expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors in normal and tumorous human thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, B F; Freeman, J L; Asa, S L

    1995-02-01

    A number of growth factors have been implicated as stimuli of thyroid cell proliferation; overexpression of these growth factors and/or their receptors may play a role in the growth of thyroid tumors. To determine if immunohistochemical detection of growth factors and/or their receptors correlates with morphological alterations in proliferative lesions of thyroid, we examined the localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and their common receptor, EGF-receptor (EGF-R), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1-receptor (IGF-R) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)-1, -2, -3, and -4, nerve growth factor (NGF), and its receptor NGF-receptor (NGF-R), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), in normal thyroid tissue and various thyroid tumors. We applied the streptavidin-biotin technique to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. We studied 8-16 different cases of each of the following: normal human thyroid, multinodular hyperplasia, follicular adenoma, papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. EGF, TGF-alpha, and their receptor EGF-R were widely expressed in normal thyroid and in all the thyroid lesions examined. IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 were diffusely present in all different thyroid tissues as well. There was no difference in staining intensity or distribution that correlated with the pathological process. IGFBP-4 seemed to have a variable expression. IGFBP-2 and -3 were detected only in medullary carcinomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7787437

  16. IGF-1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor -1) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... helpful? Also known as: Somatomedin C Formal name: Insulin-like Growth Factor - 1 Related tests: Growth Hormone , ... know? How is it used? A test for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may be ...

  17. Membrane-Tethered Intracellular Domainof Amphiregulin Promotes Keratinocyte Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Stefan W; Stuart, Philip E; Lambert, Sylviane; Gandarillas, Alberto; Ritti, Laure; Johnston, Andrew; Elder, James T

    2016-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligands are essential regulators of epithelial biology, which are often amplified in cancer cells. We have previously shown that shRNA-mediated silencing of one of these ligands, amphiregulin (AREG), results in keratinocyte growth arrest that cannot be rescued by soluble extracellular EGFR ligands. To further explore the functional importance of specific AREG domains, we stably transduced keratinocytes expressing tetracycline-inducible AREG-targeted shRNA with lentiviruses expressing silencing-proof, membrane-tethered AREG cytoplasmic and extracellular domains (AREG-CTD and AREG-ECD), as well as full-length AREG precursor (proAREG). Here we show that growth arrest of AREG-silenced keratinocytes occurs in G2/M and is significantly restored by proAREG and AREG-CTD but not by AREG-ECD. Moreover, the AREG-CTD was sufficient to normalize cell cycle distribution profiles and expression of mitosis-related genes. Our findings uncover animportant role of the AREG-CTD in regulating cell division, which may be relevant to tumor resistance to EGFR-directed therapies. PMID:26802239

  18. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by keratinocyte growth conditions is overcome by E6 and E7 from HPV16, but not HPV8 and HPV38: Characterization of global transcription profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Borgogna, Cinzia; Mondini, Michele; Gugliesi, Francesca; De Andrea, Marco; Chiorino, Giovanna; Scatolini, Maria; Ghimenti, Chiara; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2009-06-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth properties of primary human keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7 proteins, which are from either the beta- or alpha-genotypes, under different culture conditions. We demonstrated that keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7, from both HPV8 and 38, irreversibly underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) when grown on plastic with FAD medium (F12/DMEM/5%FBS). Expression of E6/E7 from HPV16 was capable of fully overcoming the FAD-induced EMT. Immortalization was only observed in HPV16-transduced cell lines, while the more proliferating phenotype of both KerHPV8 and 38 was mainly related to FAD-induced EMT. Microarray analysis of exponentially growing cells identified 146 cellular genes that were differentially regulated in HPV16 compared to HPV8- and 38-transduced cells. A large accumulation of transcripts associated with epidermal development and differentiation was observed in HPV16-transduced cells, whereas transcripts of genes involved in the extracellular matrix, multicellular organismal processes, and inflammatory response were affected in HPV8 and 38-transduced cells.

  19. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we have performed experiments to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured avian muscle cells alters their response to anabolic steroids or glucocorticoids. In static cultures, testosterone had no effect on muscle cell growth, but 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the synthetic steroid stanozolol increased cell growth by up to 18% and 30%, respectively, after a three day exposure. We completed development of a new IBM-based mechanical cell stimulator system to provide greater flexibility in operating and monitoring our experiments. Our previous long term studies on myofiber growth were designed around a perfusion system of our own design. We have recently changed to performing these studies using a modified CELLCO cartridge bioreactor system Z since it has been certified as the ground-based model for the Shuttle's Space Tissue Loss (STL) F= Cell Culture Module. The current goals of this aspect of the project are three fold: 1) to design a Z cell culture system for studying avian skeletal myofiber atrophy on the Shuttle and Space Station; 0 2) to expand the use of bioreactors to cells which do not grow in either suspension or attached to the hollow fibers; and 3) to combine the bioreactor system with our computerized mechanical cell stimulator to have a better in vitro model to study tension/gravity/stretch regulation of skeletal muscle size. Preliminary studies also reported on involved : (1) how release of tension can induce rapid atrophy of tissues cultured avian skeletal muscle cells, and (2) a mechanism to transfer and maintain avian skeletal muscle organoids in modified cartridges in the Space Tissue Loss Module.

  20. Reprogramming human adipose tissue stem cells using epidermal keratinocyte extracts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Tang, Xinjie; Zhang, Qun; Deng, Chenliang

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) can differentiate into various types of cell in response to lineage-specific induction factors. Reprogramming cells using nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts derived from another type of somatic cell is an effective method of producing specific types of differentiated cell. In the present study, the ability of reprogrammed ATSCs to acquire epidermal keratinocyte properties following transient exposure to epidermal keratinocyte extracts was demonstrated. Reversibly permeabilized ATSCs were incubated for 1 h in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from epidermal keratinocytes, resealed with CaCl2 and cultured. ATSC reprogramming is demonstrated by nuclear uptake of epidermal keratinocyte extracts. After one week of exposure to extracts, ATSCs underwent changes in cell morphology, cell-specific genes were activated, and epidermal keratinocyte markers including K19 and K1/K10 (markers of stem cells and terminally differentiated keratinocytes, respectively) were expressed. This study indicates that the reprogramming of ATSCs using nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from epidermal keratinocytes is a viable option for the production of specific types of cell. PMID:25333210

  1. Reprogramming human adipose tissue stem cells using epidermal keratinocyte extracts

    PubMed Central

    XIE, FENG; TANG, XINJIE; ZHANG, QUN; DENG, CHENLIANG

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) can differentiate into various types of cell in response to lineage-specific induction factors. Reprogramming cells using nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts derived from another type of somatic cell is an effective method of producing specific types of differentiated cell. In the present study, the ability of reprogrammed ATSCs to acquire epidermal keratinocyte properties following transient exposure to epidermal keratinocyte extracts was demonstrated. Reversibly permeabilized ATSCs were incubated for 1 h in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from epidermal keratinocytes, resealed with CaCl2 and cultured. ATSC reprogramming is demonstrated by nuclear uptake of epidermal keratinocyte extracts. After one week of exposure to extracts, ATSCs underwent changes in cell morphology, cell-specific genes were activated, and epidermal keratinocyte markers including K19 and K1/K10 (markers of stem cells and terminally differentiated keratinocytes, respectively) were expressed. This study indicates that the reprogramming of ATSCs using nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from epidermal keratinocytes is a viable option for the production of specific types of cell. PMID:25333210

  2. Transforming growth factor-? and smooth muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xia; Chen, Shi-You

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members are multifunctional cytokines regulating diverse cellular functions such as growth, adhesion, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. TGF-?s elicit their effects via specific type?I?and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. Knockout mouse models for the different components of the TGF-? signaling pathway have revealed their critical roles in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation. Genetic studies in humans have linked mutations in these signaling components to specific cardiovascular disorders such as aorta aneurysm and congenital heart diseases due to SMC defects. In this review, the current understanding of TGF-? function in SMC differentiation is highlighted, and the role of TGF-? signaling in SMC-related diseases is discussed. PMID:22451850

  3. Beta Adrenergic Receptors in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivamani, Raja K.; Lam, Susanne T.; Isseroff, R. Rivkah

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Beta2 adrenergic receptors were identified in keratinocytes more than 30 years ago, but their function in the epidermis continues to be elucidated. Abnormalities in their expression, signaling pathway, or in the generation of endogenous catecholamine agonists by keratinocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases such as atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and psoriasis. New studies also indicate that the beta2AR also modulates keratinocyte migration, and thus can function to regulate wound re-epithelialization. This review focuses on the function of these receptors in keratinocytes and their contribution to cutaneous physiology and disease. PMID:17903623

  4. UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induce melanoma-associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in melanocytes via secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Maiko; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Orie; Sobue, Sayaka; Kambe, Mariko; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Melanocytes showed low ST8SIA1 and high B3GALT4 levels in contrast with melanomas. • Direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes did not induce ganglioside synthase genes. • Culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. • TNFα and IL-6 secreted from keratinocytes enhanced ST8SIA1 expression in melanocytes. • Inflammatory cytokines induced melanoma-related ST8SIA1 in melanocytes. - Abstract: Although expression of gangliosides and their synthetic enzyme genes in malignant melanomas has been well studied, that in normal melanocytes has been scarcely analyzed. In particular, changes in expression levels of glycosyltransferase genes responsible for ganglioside synthesis during evolution of melanomas from melanocytes are very important to understand roles of gangliosides in melanomas. Here, expression of glycosyltransferase genes related to the ganglioside synthesis was analyzed using RNAs from cultured melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that melanomas expressed high levels of mRNA of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes and low levels of GM1/GD1b synthase genes compared with melanocytes. As a representative exogenous stimulation, effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on the expression levels of 3 major ganglioside synthase genes in melanocytes were analyzed. Although direct UVB irradiation of melanocytes caused no marked changes, culture supernatants of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) induced definite up-regulation of GD3 synthase and GM2/GD2 synthase genes. Detailed examination of the supernatants revealed that inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6 enhanced GD3 synthase gene expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines secreted from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes induced melanoma-associated ganglioside synthase genes, proposing roles of skin microenvironment in the promotion of melanoma-like ganglioside profiles in melanocytes.

  5. Signalling via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 is sufficient for lymphangiogenesis in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Veikkola, Tanja; Jussila, Lotta; Makinen, Taija; Karpanen, Terhi; Jeltsch, Michael; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Kubo, Hajime; Thurston, Gavin; McDonald, Donald M.; Achen, Marc G.; Stacker, Steven A.; Alitalo, Kari

    2001-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) has an essential role in the development of embryonic blood vessels; however, after midgestation its expression becomes restricted mainly to the developing lymphatic vessels. The VEGFR-3 ligand VEGF-C stimulates lymphangiogenesis in transgenic mice and in chick chorioallantoic membrane. As VEGF-C also binds VEGFR-2, which is expressed in lymphatic endothelia, it is not clear which receptors are responsible for the lymphangiogenic effects of VEGF-C. VEGF-D, which binds to the same receptors, has been reported to induce angiogenesis, but its lymphangiogenic potential is not known. In order to define the lymphangiogenic signalling pathway we have created transgenic mice overexpressing a VEGFR-3-specific mutant of VEGF-C (VEGF-C156S) or VEGF-D in epidermal keratinocytes under the keratin 14 promoter. Both transgenes induced the growth of lymphatic vessels in the skin, whereas the blood vessel architecture was not affected. Evidence was also obtained that these growth factors act in a paracrine manner in vivo. These results demonstrate that stimulation of the VEGFR-3 signal transduction pathway is sufficient to induce specifically lymphangiogenesis in vivo. PMID:11250889

  6. Altered (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normal epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that (/sup 125/I)EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced intracellular signalling

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Katherine A; Riordan, Stephen M; Lidder, Sukhwinderjit; Crostella, Luca; Williams, Roger; Skouteris, George G

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) identical to scatter factor (SF) is a glycoprotein involved in the development of a number of cellular phenotypes, including proliferation, mitogenesis, formation of branching tubules and, in the case of tumour cells, invasion and metastasis. This fascinating cytokine transduces its activities via its receptor encoded by the c-met oncogene, coupled to a number of transducers integrating the HGF/SF signal to the cytosol and the nucleus. The downstream transducers coupled to HGF/MET, most of which participate in overlapping pathways, determine the development of the cell's phenotype, which in most cell types is dual. PMID:10718861

  8. Ocular Angiogenesis: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Other Factors.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Roman G; Adamis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Systematic study of the mechanisms underlying pathological ocular neovascularization has yielded a wealth of knowledge about pro- and anti-angiogenic factors that modulate diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in particular has led to the development of a number of approved anti-VEGF therapies. Additional proangiogenic targets that have emerged as potential mediators of ocular neovascularization include hypoxia-inducible factor-1, angiopoietin-2, platelet-derived growth factor-B and components of the alternative complement pathway. As for VEGF, knowledge of these factors has led to a product pipeline of many more novel agents that are in various stages of clinical development in the setting of ocular neovascularization. These agents are represented by a range of drug classes and, in addition to novel small- and large-molecule VEGF inhibitors, include gene therapies, small interfering RNA agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In addition, combination therapy is beginning to emerge as a strategy to improve the efficacy of individual therapies. Thus, a variety of agents, whether administered alone or as adjunctive therapy with agents targeting VEGF, offer the promise of expanding the range of treatments for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:26502333

  9. Binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in human myometrium and leiomyomata

    SciTech Connect

    Tommola, P.; Pekonen, F.; Rutanen, E.M. )

    1989-10-01

    Samples of uterine myometrium and leiomyoma from 11 women were analyzed for the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors. In addition, the content of soluble insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-BP/PP12) was measured in the tissue cytosols. Cell membrane preparations of myoma tissue bound significantly more insulin-like growth factor I than did those of adjacent normal myometrium, whereas myoma tissue bound less epidermal growth factor than did the normal myometrium. The differences in both insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor binding were due to changes in receptor concentration rather than to alterations in receptor affinity. Neither myoma nor myometrial tissue contained detectable levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. The changes in epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I binding to the myometrium may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata.

  10. Transcriptional profiling of ectoderm specification to keratinocyte fate in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tadeu, Ana Mafalda Baptista; Lin, Samantha; Hou, Lin; Chung, Lisa; Zhong, Mei; Zhao, Hongyu; Horsley, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shed light into the processes that regulate epidermal specification and homeostasis. We previously showed that a broad-spectrum ?-secretase inhibitor DAPT promoted early keratinocyte specification in human embryonic stem cells triggered to undergo ectoderm specification. Here, we show that DAPT accelerates human embryonic stem cell differentiation and induces expression of the ectoderm protein AP2. Furthermore, we utilize RNA sequencing to identify several candidate regulators of ectoderm specification including those involved in epithelial and epidermal development in human embryonic stem cells. Genes associated with transcriptional regulation and growth factor activity are significantly enriched upon DAPT treatment during specification of human embryonic stem cells to the ectoderm lineage. The human ectoderm cell signature identified in this study contains several genes expressed in ectodermal and epithelial tissues. Importantly, these genes are also associated with skin disorders and ectodermal defects, providing a platform for understanding the biology of human epidermal keratinocyte development under diseased and homeostatic conditions. PMID:25849374

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of Ectoderm Specification to Keratinocyte Fate in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tadeu, Ana Mafalda Baptista; Lin, Samantha; Hou, Lin; Chung, Lisa; Zhong, Mei; Zhao, Hongyu; Horsley, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shed light into the processes that regulate epidermal specification and homeostasis. We previously showed that a broad-spectrum ?secretase inhibitor DAPT promoted early keratinocyte specification in human embryonic stem cells triggered to undergo ectoderm specification. Here, we show that DAPT accelerates human embryonic stem cell differentiation and induces expression of the ectoderm protein AP2. Furthermore, we utilize RNA sequencing to identify several candidate regulators of ectoderm specification including those involved in epithelial and epidermal development in human embryonic stem cells. Genes associated with transcriptional regulation and growth factor activity are significantly enriched upon DAPT treatment during specification of human embryonic stem cells to the ectoderm lineage. The human ectoderm cell signature identified in this study contains several genes expressed in ectodermal and epithelial tissues. Importantly, these genes are also associated with skin disorders and ectodermal defects, providing a platform for understanding the biology of human epidermal keratinocyte development under diseased and homeostatic conditions. PMID:25849374

  12. Vigilant keratinocytes trigger pathogen-associated molecular pattern signaling in response to streptococcal M1 protein.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sandra T; Wilk, Laura; Mörgelin, Matthias; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The human skin exerts many functions in order to maintain its barrier integrity and protect the host from invading microorganisms. One such pathogen is Streptococcus pyogenes, which can cause a variety of superficial skin wounds that may eventually progress into invasive deep soft tissue infections. Here we show that keratinocytes recognize soluble M1 protein, a streptococcal virulence factor, as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern to release alarming inflammatory responses. We found that this interaction initiates an inflammatory intracellular signaling cascade involving the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase and the subsequent induction and mobilization of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. We also determined the imprint of the inflammatory mediators released, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), growth-related oncogene alpha, migration inhibitory factor, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, IL-1α, IL-1 receptor a, and ST2, in response to streptococcal M1 protein. The expression of IL-8 is dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 activity and subsequent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and p38. Notably, this signaling seems to be distinct for IL-8 release, and it is not shared with the other inflammatory mediators. We conclude that keratinocytes participate in a proinflammatory manner in streptococcal pattern recognition and that expression of the chemoattractant IL-8 by keratinocytes constitutes an important protective mechanism against streptococcal M1 protein. PMID:26416902

  13. Future Prospects for Periodontal Bioengineering Using Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Giannobile, William V.; Hollister, Scott J.; Ma, Peter X.

    2015-01-01

    Polypeptide growth factors have demonstrated strong potential to repair defects associated with teeth and dental implants. Over the past two decades, intense research efforts have led to the clinical development of several growth factors or biologic agents, including bone morphogenetic proteins, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, and enamel matrix proteins. Several of these growth factors are now being used clinically for a variety of applications, such as the promotion of periodontal regeneration, sinus floor augmentation, and root coverage procedures. Although clinical results have been promising and growth factors add another dimension to clinical care, optimization of growth factor targeting approaches to periodontal wounds remains a challenge. Enhancement of growth factor local application to improve bioavailability, bioactivity, and allowance of three-dimensional reconstruction of complex anatomic defects is a goal. This article will highlight developments for growth factor delivery to better stimulate the wound healing response for periodontal and bone regeneration in the maxillofacial region. PMID:26500808

  14. Insulin-like growth factor 1: common mediator of multiple enterotrophic hormones and growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Bortvedt, Sarah F.; Lund, P. Kay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent evidence that IGF1 mediates growth effects of multiple trophic factors and discuss clinical relevance. Recent findings Recent reviews and original reports indicate benefits of growth hormone (GH) and long-acting glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) analogues in short bowel syndrome and Crohn’s disease. This review highlights evidence that biomarkers of sustained small intestinal growth or mucosal healing and evaluation of intestinal epithelial stem cell biomarkers may improve clinical measures of intestinal growth or response to trophic hormones. Compelling evidence that IGF1 mediates growth effects of GH and GLP2 on intestine or linear growth in preclinical models of resection or Crohn’s disease is presented, along with a concept that these hormones or IGF1 may enhance sustained growth if given early after bowel resection. Evidence that SOCS protein induction by GH or GLP2 in normal or inflamed intestine, may limit IGF1-induced growth, but protect against risk of dysplasia or fibrosis is reviewed. Whether IGF1 receptor mediates IGF1 action and potential roles of insulin receptors are addressed. Summary IGF1 has a central role in mediating trophic hormone action in small intestine. Better understanding of benefits and risks of IGF1, receptors that mediate IGF1 action, and factors that limit undesirable growth are needed. PMID:22241077

  15. Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Yeon; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Kyeongmee

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the expression of growth factors and the clinicopathological variables of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to evaluate the amplification and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, VEGFR-3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in a tissue microarray of 292 colorectal adenocarcinomas. The expression of EGFR, VEGF, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 was detected in 5.1%, 10.0%, 6.8%, 5.2%, and 57.2%. EGFR expression was associated with angioinvasion (p < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.005). VEGFR-3 expression was higher in the rectum than in the colon (p < 0.05). VEGF expression correlated with VEGF-D (p < 0.05) and VEGFR-3 (p < 0.005) expression, while VEGF-D expression showed no significant association with VEGFR-2 or VEGFR-3. EGFR amplification was present in 10.6% and was not associated with EGFR protein expression. VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression levels were related to poor patient survival. Stage, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors based on a Cox analysis. VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression are markers of a poor prognosis in patients with surgically resected colorectal adenocarcinoma, whereas EGFR has a minor influence. PMID:21635552

  16. Human keratinocyte culture from the peritonsillar mucosa.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, P; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Michel, O; Mahrle, G; Krieg, T; Stennert, E

    1996-01-01

    Tonsillectomy tissue can be used as a routine source for cultures of oropharyngeal keratinocytes. In so doing, a peritonsillar strip of unaltered mucosa was dissected in the upper submucosa. Subsequent trypsinization yielded 7.0 +/- 3.4 x 10(6) keratinocytes per bilateral tonsillectomy. Keratinocyte attachment and growth in primary culture were promoted by sublethally irradiated 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Three subcultures could be performed without a feeder layer and were characterized by a population doubling time of 4.5 days during log growth phase. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis of the third subculture revealed a strong expression of keratin pairs 5/14 and 6/16 as well as keratins 7 and 19, whereas keratins 8/18 were expressed less intensely. The lowest intensity, was found for keratin 13, which is known to be indicative of the differentiated mucosa. The culture technique thus provides an easily available in vitro model for morphological and functional studies on the epithelial compartment of human oropharyngeal mucosa. PMID:8737778

  17. Modelling the interaction of keratinocytes and fibroblasts during normal and abnormal wound healing processes

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Shakti N.; Flegg, Jennifer A.; McCue, Scott W.; Schugart, Richard C.; Dawson, Rebecca A.; McElwain, D. L. Sean

    2012-01-01

    The crosstalk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes is a vital component of the wound healing process, and involves the activity of a number of growth factors and cytokines. In this work, we develop a mathematical model of this crosstalk in order to elucidate the effects of these interactions on the regeneration of collagen in a wound that heals by second intention. We consider the role of four components that strongly affect this process: transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor, interleukin-1 and keratinocyte growth factor. The impact of this network of interactions on the degradation of an initial fibrin clot, as well as its subsequent replacement by a matrix that is mainly composed of collagen, is described through an eight-component system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Numerical results, obtained in a two-dimensional domain, highlight key aspects of this multifarious process, such as re-epithelialization. The model is shown to reproduce many of the important features of normal wound healing. In addition, we use the model to simulate the treatment of two pathological cases: chronic hypoxia, which can lead to chronic wounds; and prolonged inflammation, which has been shown to lead to hypertrophic scarring. We find that our model predictions are qualitatively in agreement with previously reported observations and provide an alternative pathway for gaining insight into this complex biological process. PMID:22628464

  18. Modelling the interaction of keratinocytes and fibroblasts during normal and abnormal wound healing processes.

    PubMed

    Menon, Shakti N; Flegg, Jennifer A; McCue, Scott W; Schugart, Richard C; Dawson, Rebecca A; McElwain, D L Sean

    2012-08-22

    The crosstalk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes is a vital component of the wound healing process, and involves the activity of a number of growth factors and cytokines. In this work, we develop a mathematical model of this crosstalk in order to elucidate the effects of these interactions on the regeneration of collagen in a wound that heals by second intention. We consider the role of four components that strongly affect this process: transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor, interleukin-1 and keratinocyte growth factor. The impact of this network of interactions on the degradation of an initial fibrin clot, as well as its subsequent replacement by a matrix that is mainly composed of collagen, is described through an eight-component system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Numerical results, obtained in a two-dimensional domain, highlight key aspects of this multifarious process, such as re-epithelialization. The model is shown to reproduce many of the important features of normal wound healing. In addition, we use the model to simulate the treatment of two pathological cases: chronic hypoxia, which can lead to chronic wounds; and prolonged inflammation, which has been shown to lead to hypertrophic scarring. We find that our model predictions are qualitatively in agreement with previously reported observations and provide an alternative pathway for gaining insight into this complex biological process. PMID:22628464

  19. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Keratinocyte Progenitor Cell Expansion, Differentiation and Hair Follicle Regression by miR-22

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingyong; Zhao, Yiqiang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hongquan; Xue, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Lengner, Christopher; Yu, Zhengquan

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles (HF) undergo precisely regulated recurrent cycles of growth, cessation, and rest. The transitions from anagen (growth), to catagen (regression), to telogen (rest) involve a physiological involution of the HF. This process is likely coordinated by a variety of mechanisms including apoptosis and loss of growth factor signaling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying follicle involution after hair keratinocyte differentiation and hair shaft assembly remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a highly conserved microRNA, miR-22 is markedly upregulated during catagen and peaks in telogen. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vivo, we find that miR-22 overexpression leads to hair loss by promoting anagen-to-catagen transition of the HF, and that deletion of miR-22 delays entry to catagen and accelerates the transition from telogen to anagen. Ectopic activation of miR-22 results in hair loss due to the repression a hair keratinocyte differentiation program and keratinocyte progenitor expansion, as well as promotion of apoptosis. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that miR-22 directly represses numerous transcription factors upstream of phenotypic keratin genes, including Dlx3, Foxn1, and Hoxc13. We conclude that miR-22 is a critical post-transcriptional regulator of the hair cycle and may represent a novel target for therapeutic modulation of hair growth. PMID:26020521

  20. Impaired keratinocyte function on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) damaged collagen

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Patricia; Deming, Monica OBrien; Warner, Roscoe L.; Aslam, Muhammad N.; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Dame, Michael K.; Voorhees, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Healing of superficial skin wounds depends on the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes at the wound margin. When human epidermal keratinocytes were incubated on polymerized type I collagen, they rapidly attached and spread. The cells underwent a proliferative response and, over the subsequent 6-day period, covered the collagen surface with a monolayer of cells. When keratinocytes were plated on collagen that had been fragmented by exposure to matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, collagenase-1), the cells attached as readily as to intact collagen but spread more slowly and less completely. Growth was reduced by approximately 50%. Instead of covering the collagen surface, the keratinocytes remained localized to the site of attachment. Keratinocytes on fragmented collagen expressed a more differentiated phenotype as indicated by a higher level of surface E-cadherin. Based on these findings, we suggest that damage to the underlying collagenous matrix may impede efficient keratinocyte function and retard wound closure. PMID:19352688

  1. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiogenesis in the Regulation of Cutaneous Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kelly E.; Wilgus, Traci A.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing vessels, is an important aspect of the repair process. Restoration of blood flow to damaged tissues provides oxygen and nutrients required to support the growth and function of reparative cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most potent proangiogenic growth factors in the skin, and the amount of VEGF present in a wound can significantly impact healing. Recent Advances: The activity of VEGF was once considered to be specific for endothelial cells lining the inside of blood vessels, partly because VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression was believed to be restricted to endothelial cells. It is now known, however, that VEGFRs can be expressed by a variety of other cell types involved in wound repair. For example, keratinocytes and macrophages, which both carry out important functions during wound healing, express VEGFRs and are capable of responding directly to VEGF. Critical Issues: The mechanisms by which VEGF promotes angiogenesis are well established. Recent studies, however, indicate that VEGF can directly affect the activity of several nonendothelial cell types present in the skin. The implications of these extra-angiogenic effects of VEGF on wound repair are not yet known, but they suggest that this growth factor may play a more complex role during wound healing than previously believed. Future Directions: Despite the large number of studies focusing on VEGF and wound healing, it is clear that the current knowledge of how VEGF contributes to the repair of skin wounds is incomplete. Further research is needed to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of VEGF activities during the wound healing process. PMID:25302139

  2. Hematopoietic growth factors in acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J M; Liesveld, J L

    1997-03-01

    The hematopoietic growth factors are glycoproteins that can be produced by recombinant DNA technology. They have many potential clinical uses in acute leukemia; several areas have been explored extensively and much data are available from clinical trials. Other areas are of potential interest, but have a paucity of clinical information. The past decade has seen major strides in the development and clinical application of cytokines in acute leukemia and it is expected that this trend will continue over the next decade as further areas are explored and results of clinical trials mature to enable us to determine the precise role of cytokines in the clinical setting. PMID:9067570

  3. Upregulation of miR-203 and miR-210 affect growth and differentiation of keratinocytes after exposure to sulfur mustard in normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Janina; Steinritz, Dirk; Santovito, Donato; Egea, Virginia; Schmidt, Annette; Weber, Christian; Ries, Christian

    2016-02-26

    Exposure of the skin to sulfur mustard (SM) results in long-term complications such as impaired tissue regeneration. Previous own studies in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) treated with SM demonstrated reduced proliferation, premature differentiation and a restricted functionality of hypoxia-mediated signaling in the cells. Here, we investigated the involvement of microRNAs, miR-203 and miR-210, in these mechanisms. SM significantly upregulated the expression of miR-203 in NHEK when cultivated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. SM had no effect on miR-210 under normoxia. However, miR-210 levels were greatly increased in NHEK when grown in hypoxia and further elevated upon exposure of the cells to SM. In normoxia and hypoxia, inhibition of miR-203 by transfection of NHEK with complementary oligonucleotides, anti-miR-203, attenuated the SM-induced impairment of metabolic activity and proliferation, and counteracted SM-promoted keratin-1 expression in these cells. Consistent ameliorating effects on dysregulated metabolic activity, proliferation and keratin-1 expression in SM-treated NHEK were obtained upon inhibition of miR-210 in these cells grown in hypoxia. Our findings provide evidence that miR-203 and miR-210 are key regulators in normal and SM-impaired keratinocyte functionality, and suggest potential usefulness of inhibitors against miR-203 and miR-210 for target-directed therapeutical intervention to improve re-epithelialization of SM-injured skin. PMID:26383628

  4. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.

  5. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor skin toxicity: a matter of topical hydration.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Daris; Codec, Carla; Bocci, Barbara; Crepaldi, Francesca; Violati, Martina; Viale, Giulia; Careri, Carmela; Caldiera, Sarah; Bordin, Veronica; Luciani, Andrea; Zonato, Sabrina; Cassinelli, Gabriela; Foa, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Skin toxicity is a frequent complication of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy, which can be an obstacle in maintaining the dose intensity and may negatively impact on the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Skin lesions depend on the disruption of the keratinocyte development pathways and no treatment is clearly effective in resolving the cutaneous alterations frequently found during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Among systemic treatments, oral tetracycline proved to be useful in preventing skin manifestations. We describe the case of a patient affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, for whom a combination of chemotherapy and cetuximab was used as second-line treatment. The patient developed a symptomatic papulopustular skin rash that disappeared completely after a twice-daily application of a hydrating and moisturizing cream, mainly consisting of a mixture of paraffin, silicone compounds, and macrogol. The marked cutaneous amelioration allowed the patient to continue cetuximab without any further symptoms and was associated with a partial radiological response. PMID:26469836

  6. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or “decorating” collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  7. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jrvinen, Tero A H; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or "decorating" collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  8. Basic fibroblast growth factor in Dupuytren's contracture.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, A. M.; Buscaglia, M.; Fox, R.; Isacchi, A.; Sarmientos, P.; Farris, J.; Ong, M.; Martineau, D.; Lappi, D. A.; Baird, A.

    1992-01-01

    Lesions excised from nine patients undergoing surgery for Dupuytren's contracture (DC) and three normal fascia were examined for the presence of the angiogenic protein basic fibroblast growth factor (basic FGF). Endothelial cell proliferation assays established basic FGF-like activity in extracts of DC. Western blotting confirmed the presence of an 18,000-dalton protein which was localized in the lesions by immunohistochemical staining. All of the cells implicated in the progression of the disease (endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts) contain the growth factor. Endothelial cells within the narrowed or occluded vessels, as well as fibroblasts surrounding these vessels, stained intensely positive. In situ hybridization using an antisense probe for human basic FGF and its receptor's (FGFR-1) mRNA established the major difference between normal and DC tissues: their levels are significantly higher than in the normal tissues. Thus the cells in DC also express both basic FGF and FGFR-1, suggesting a potential autocrine/paracrine role for basic FGF in the pathogenesis of DC. This finding is thus the first description of a nontumoral proliferative disease that can be directly associated with increased basic FGF mRNA. The possibility that therapies can be developed on the basis that basic FGF and its receptor are expressed in DC is discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1325742

  9. The prognostic significance of growth factors and growth factor receptors in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Yeon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Kyeongmee; Shin, Eunah

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated growth factors/receptors expression in gastric adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, VEGFR-3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, TGF-?1, and TGF-?-RII in tissue microarrays of adenocarcinoma, dysplasia, metaplasia, and gastritis. In adenocarcinoma, the expression rates of EGFR, VEGF, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, TGF-?, TGF-?1, and TGF-?-RII were 2.0%, 0%, 10.7%, 4.4%, 11.2%, 26.3%, 9.4%, and 19.5%, respectively. VEGF-D, TGF-?, TGF-?1, and TGF-?-RII expression rate were higher in adenocarcinoma than in other groups. TGF-?-RII expression was correlated with VEGFR-3, VEGF-D, and TGF-? expression in adenocarcinomas. Tumor location, histologic type, stage, lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, angioinvasion, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-2 expressions were associated with patient survival in a log rank test and advanced stage and positive expression of VEGF-D were poor prognostic factors using Cox analysis. VEGF-D expression may be of prognostic value in gastric adenocarcinoma, whereas EGFR and TGF family expression may only have a minor influence. PMID:23030255

  10. Growth factors modulate gonadotropin receptor induction in granulosa cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mondschein, J S; Schomberg, D W

    1981-03-13

    Epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor inhibited follicle-stimulating hormone-dependent induction of luteinizing hormone receptor in cultured ovarian granulosa cells of the rat. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor potentiated the induction of luteinizing hormone receptor by follicle-stimulating hormone. These results indicate that growth factors, well known for their effects on mitosis and DNA synthesis in cultured mammalian cells, are also able to modulate hormone-dependent differentiation in an endocrine target cell. PMID:6258228

  11. Sequential Delivery of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor for Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tengood, Jillian E.; Ridenour, Ryan; Brodsky, Ross; Russell, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    An externally regulated delivery model that permits temporal separation of multiple angiogenic factors was used for the delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). While bFGF plays a significant role in the sprouting of new capillaries, PDGF plays a role in the recruitment of mural cells, which stabilize neovessels. However, these two factors have been shown to inhibit each other, when presented together. Using the externally regulated model, sequential delivery of bFGF and PDGF led to not only increased endothelial cell migration, but also endothelial cell and vascular pericyte colocalization. More importantly, this delivery strategy was able to induce red blood cell-filled neovessels, suggesting integration of angiogenesis with the existing vasculature. PMID:21142700

  12. Reference genes for quantitative real time PCR in UVB irradiated keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Attila; Paragh, Gyrgy; Juhsz, Attila; Kbling, Tams; Trocsik, Dniel; Mik, Edit; Varga, Viktria; Emri, Gabriella; Horkay, Irn; Scholtz, Beta; Remenyik, Eva

    2008-12-11

    Real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive and highly reproducible method often used for determining mRNA levels. To enable proper comparison of gene expression genes expressed at stabile levels within the cells in the studied experimental system need to be identified and used as reference. Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is an exogenous carcinogenic stimulus in keratinocytes, and UVB elicited changes have extensively been studied by qRT-PCR, yet a comparison of commonly used reference genes in UVB treatment is lacking. To find the best genes for compensating slight inter-sample variations in keratinocytes in UVB experiments and to understand the potential effects of improper reference gene (RG) selection we have analyzed the mRNA expression of 10 housekeeping genes in neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) after UVB treatment. The biological effect of the used UVB light source was validated by trypane blue exclusion, MTT and comet assays. 20-40mJ/cm(2) dose was chosen for the experiments. The stability of the 10 RGs was assessed by the GeNorm and Normfinder software tools. Regardless of their slightly different algorithm the programs found succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) to be the best individual RG and SDHA and phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (PGK1) as the most suitable combination. Analysis of the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) found that while the perception of changes in TNF-alpha, a gene undergoing marked upregulation after UVB irradiation is independent of the used RG, changes seen in the more modestly upregulated VEGF are greatly effected by reference gene selection. These findings highlight the importance of reference gene selection in UVB irradiation experiments, and provide evidence that using SDHA or the combination of SDHA and PGK1 as standards could be a reliable method for normalizing qRT-PCR results in keratinocytes after UVB treatment. PMID:18789713

  13. Soluble production and function of vascular endothelial growth factor/basic fibroblast growth factor complex peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Lao, Xuejun; Huang, Jianhua; Zhu, Zhongsong; Pang, Lei; Tang, Yong; Song, Qifang; Huang, Jiangfang; Deng, Jie; Deng, Ning; Yang, Qin; Sengupta, Aditi M; Xiong, Likuan

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are important proangiogenic factors in tumor procession. The autocrine and paracrine bFGF and the VEGF in tumor tissue can promote tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. A VEGF/bFGF Complex Peptide (VBP3) was designed on the basis of epitope peptides from both VEGF and bFGF to elicit in vivo production of anti-bFGF and anti-VEGF antibodies. In this study, we reported on the production of recombinant VBP3 using high cell density fermentation. Fed-batch fermentation for recombinant VBP3 production was conducted, and the production procedure was optimized in a 10-L fermentor. The fraction of soluble VBP3 protein obtained reached 78% of total recombinant protein output under fed-batch fermentation. Purified recombinant VBP3 could inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro and stimulate C57BL/6 mice to produce high titer anti-VEGF and anti-bFGF antibodies in vivo. A melanoma-grafted mouse model and an immunohistochemistry assay showed that tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis were significantly inhibited in VBP3-vaccinated mice. These results demonstrated that soluble recombinant VBP3 could be produced by large-scale fermentation, and the product, with good immunogenicity, elicited production of high-titer anti-bFGF and anti-VEGF antibodies, which could be used as a therapeutic tumor vaccine to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. PMID:25271020

  14. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head: treatment with ancillary growth factors.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Wyles, Cody C; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-09-01

    Osteonecrosis (ON) of the femoral head, also known as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, is a progressive disease that predominantly affects younger patients. During early stage of ON, decompression of the femoral head has been commonly used to improve pain. The decompression has been augmented with nonvascularized or vascularized bone grafts, mesenchymal stems cells, and growth factors. The use of adjuvant growth factors to supplement the core decompression has mainly been limited to animal models in an attempt to regenerate the necrotic lesion of ON. Factors utilized include bone morphogenetic proteins, vascular endothelial growth factors, hepatocyte growth factors, fibroblast growth factors, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, and stem cells factors. In animal models, the use of these factors has been shown to increase bone formation and angiogenesis. Although promising, the use of these growth factors and cell-based therapies clinically remains limited. PMID:25985987

  15. Transforming Growth Factor ? Enhances Epithelial Cell Survival via Akt-dependent Regulation of FKHRL1

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Incheol; Bakin, Andrei V.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Brunet, Anne; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    The Forkhead family of transcription factors participates in the induction of death-related genes. In NMuMG and 4T1 mammary epithelial cells, transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) induced phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of the Forkhead factor FKHRL1, while reducing FHKRL1-dependent transcriptional activity. TGF?-induced FKHRL1 phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion were inhibited by LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. A triple mutant of FKHRL1, in which all three Akt phosphorylation sites have been mutated (TM-FKHRL1), did not translocate to the cytoplasm in response to TGF?. In HaCaT keratinocytes, expression of dominant-negative Akt prevented TGF?-induced 1) reduction of Forkhead-dependent transcription, 2) FKHRL1 phosphorylation, and 3) nuclear exclusion of FKRHL1. Forced expression of either wild-type (WT) or TM-FKHRL1, but not a FKHRL1 mutant with deletion of the transactivation domain, resulted in NMuMG mammary cell apoptosis. Evidence of nuclear fragmentation colocalized to cells with expression of WT- or TM-FKHRL1. The apoptotic effect of WT-FKHRL1 but not TM-FKHRL1 was prevented by exogenous TGF?. Serum starvation-induced apoptosis was also inhibited by TGF? in NMuMG and HaCaT cells. Finally, dominant-negative Akt abrogated the antiapoptotic effect of TGF?. Taken together, these data suggest that TGF? may play a role in epithelial cell survival via Akt-dependent regulation of FKHRL1. PMID:11694570

  16. Keratinocyte Migration and a Hypothetical New Role for Extracellular Heat Shock Protein 90 Alpha in Orchestrating Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, David T.; Wysong, Ashley; DeClerck, Brittany; Chen, Mei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The treatment and care of patients with skin wounds are a major healthcare expenditure. Burn wounds, iatrogenic surgical wounds, venous stasis dermatitis ulcers, diabetic lower limb ulcers, pressure ulcers, and skin wounds from peripheral neuropathies are largely treated with only supportive care. Despite a great deal of research into using growth factors as therapeutic agents, to date, the field has been disappointing. The only biologic agent that is Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved for promoting skin wound healing is recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), but its modest efficacy and expense limit its use clinically. Recent Advances: Acute hypoxia induced by the clotting of dermal blood vessels during the wounding of skin is a major stress factor that leads to the re-programming of basal keratinocytes to initiate re-epithelialization. The laterally migrating keratinocytes secrete extracellular heat shock protein 90 alpha. Heat shock protein 90 alpha (hsp90?) engages low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) cellular receptors and works as an autocrine factor to stimulate keratinocyte migration (re-epithelialization) and as a paracrine factor to stimulate the migration of dermal fibroblasts (fibroplasia) and microvascular endothelial cells (neo-vascularization). Hypoxia-triggered extracellular heat shock protein 90 alpha acts as the master regulator of initial skin wound healing. Critical Issues: It is not yet known how the engagement of hsp90? with the LRP-1 receptor leads to increased motility of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, or microvascular endothelial cells. Understanding the sequence of how an acute skin wound via hypoxic stress leads to cellular events that ultimately induce accelerated wound closure provides numerous targets for new wound-healing therapeutic agents. Future Directions: Developing data for an investigational new drug (IND) application to the FDA for a Phase I study using hsp90? in human skin wounds. Identifying the cellular signaling mechanisms by which hsp90? enhances skin cell migration, leading to accelerated wound closure. PMID:25945283

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition delays wound healing and blocks latent transforming growth factor-β1 promoted myofibroblast formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schnabel, Reinhild; Claes, Juliane; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ågren, Magnus S.; Haaksma, Carol; Tomasek, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regulate wound contraction is critical for wound healing as well as for pathological contractures. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been demonstrated to be obligatory for normal wound healing. This study examined the effect the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor BB-94 has when applied topically to full-thickness skin excisional wounds in rats and its ability to inhibit the promotion of myofibroblast formation and function by latent transforming-growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). BB-94 delayed wound contraction, as well as all other associated aspects of wound healing examined, including myofibroblast formation, stromal cell proliferation, blood vessel formation, and epithelial wound coverage. Interestingly, BB-94 dramatically increased the level of latent and active MMP-9. The increased levels of active MMP-9 may eventually overcome the ability of BB-94 to inhibit this MMP and may explain why wound contraction and other associated events of wound healing were only delayed and not completely inhibited. BB-94 was also found to inhibit the ability of latent TGF-β1 to promote the formation and function of myofibroblasts. These results suggest that BB-94 could delay wound closure through a two-fold mechanism; by blocking keratinocyte migration and thereby blocking necessary keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions needed for myofibroblast formation and by inhibiting the activation of latent TGF-β1. PMID:20409148

  18. Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cell Growth: Focus on Endocrine Resistant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Voudouri, Kallirroi; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Tzardi, Maria; Tzanakakis, George N.; Nikitovic, Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer for women worldwide with a lifetime risk amounting to a staggering total of 10%. It is well established that the endogenous synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) polypeptide growth factors are closely correlated to malignant transformation and all the steps of the breast cancer metastatic cascade. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both estrogens and growth factors stimulate the proliferation of steroid-dependent tumor cells, and that the interaction between these signaling pathways occurs at several levels. Importantly, the majority of breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor- (ER-) positive which have a more favorable prognosis and pattern of recurrence with endocrine therapy being the backbone of treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of patients progress to endocrine therapy resistant disease (acquired resistance) whereas a proportion of patients may fail to respond to initial therapy (de novo resistance). The IGF-I and EGF downstream signaling pathways are closely involved in the process of progression to therapy resistant disease. Modifications in the bioavailability of these growth factors contribute critically to disease progression. In the present review therefore, we will discuss in depth how IGF and EGF signaling participate in breast cancer pathogenesis and progression to endocrine resistant disease. PMID:26258011

  19. Neuropeptides as lung cancer growth factors.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Moreno, Paola; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript is written in honor of the Festschrift for Abba Kastin. I met Abba at a Society for Neuroscience meeting and learned that he was Editor-in-Chief of the Journal Peptides. I submitted manuscripts to the journal on "Neuropeptides as Growth Factors in Cancer" and subsequently was named to the Editorial Advisory Board. Over the past 30 years I have published dozens of manuscripts in Peptides and reviewed hundreds of submitted manuscripts. It was always rewarding to interact with Abba, a consummate professional. When I attended meetings in New Orleans I would sometimes go out to dinner with him at the restaurant "Commanders Palace". When I chaired the Summer Neuropeptide Conference we were honored to have him receive the Fleur Strand Award one year in Israel. I think that his biggest editorial contribution has been the "Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides." I served as a Section Editor on "Cancer/Anticancer Peptides" and again found that it was a pleasure working with him. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which bombesin-like peptides, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide regulate the growth of lung cancer. PMID:25836991

  20. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25772309

  1. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLC?, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:25772309

  2. Exogenous Addition of a C-Xylopyranoside Derivative Stimulates Keratinocyte Dermatan Sulfate Synthesis and Promotes Migration

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Jun; Naidu, Nandita Natasha; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Pineau, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    As C-Xyloside has been suggested to be an initiator of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, and GAGs such as Dermatan sulfate (DS) are potent enhancers of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) - 10 action, we investigated if a C-Xylopyranoside derivative, (C-?-D-xylopyranoside-2-hydroxy-propane, C-Xyloside), could promote DS production by cultured normal human keratinocytes, how this occurs and if C-Xyloside could also stimulate FGF-dependent cell migration and proliferation. C-Xyloside-treated keratinocytes greatly increased secretion of total sulfated GAGs. Majority of the induced GAG was chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) of which the major secreted GAG was DS. Cells lacking xylosyltransferase enzymatic activity demonstrated that C-Xyloside was able to stimulate GAG synthesis without addition to core proteins. Consistent with the observed increase in DS, keratinocytes treated with C-Xyloside showed enhanced migration in response to FGF-10 and secreted into their culture media GAGs that promoted FGF-10-dependent cellular proliferation. These results indicate that C-Xyloside may enhance epithelial repair by serving as an initiator of DS synthesis. PMID:21998662

  3. Design of Growth Factor Sequestering Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Belair, David G.; Le, Ngoc Nhi; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factors (GFs) are major regulatory proteins that can govern cell fate, migration, and organization. Numerous aspects of the cell milieu can modulate cell responses to GFs, and GF regulation is often achieved by the native extracellular matrix (ECM). For example, the ECM can sequester GFs and thereby control GF bioavailability. In addition, GFs can exert distinct effects depending on whether they are sequestered in solution, at two-dimensional interfaces, or within three-dimensional matrices. Understanding how the context of GF sequestering impacts cell function in the native ECM can instruct the design of soluble or insoluble GF sequestering moieties, which can then be used in a variety of bioengineering applications. This Feature Article provides an overview of the natural mechanisms of GF sequestering in the cell milieu, and reviews the recent bioengineering approaches that have sequestered GFs to modulate cell function. Results to date demonstrate that the cell response to GF sequestering depends on the affinity of the sequestering interaction, the spatial proximity of sequestering in relation to cells, the source of the GF (supplemented or endogenous), and the phase of the sequestering moiety (soluble or insoluble). We highlight the importance of context for the future design of biomaterials that can leverage endogenous molecules in the cell milieu and mitigate the need for supplemented factors. PMID:25182455

  4. Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-4 Differentially Inhibits Growth Factor-induced Angiogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Contois, Liangru W.; Nugent, Desiree P.; Caron, Jennifer M.; Cretu, Alexandra; Tweedie, Eric; Akalu, Abebe; Liebes, Leonard; Friesel, Robert; Rosen, Clifford; Vary, Calvin; Brooks, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of the molecular and cellular complexity of angiogenesis continues to advance as new stimulators and inhibitors of blood vessel formation are uncovered. Gaining a more complete understanding of the response of blood vessels to both stimulatory and inhibitory molecules will likely contribute to more effective strategies to control pathological angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that endothelial cell interactions with structurally altered collagen type IV may suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), a well documented inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling axis. We report for the first time that IGFBP-4 differentially inhibits angiogenesis induced by distinct growth factor signaling pathways as IGFBP-4 inhibited FGF-2- and IGF-1-stimulated angiogenesis but failed to inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The resistance of VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis to IGFBP-4 inhibition appears to depend on sustained activation of p38 MAPK as blocking its activity restored the anti-angiogenic effects of IGFBP-4 on VEGF-induced blood vessel growth in vivo. These novel findings provide new insight into how blood vessels respond to endogenous inhibitors during angiogenesis stimulated by distinct growth factor signaling pathways. PMID:22134921

  5. UVC modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor number in HeLa S3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ley, K D; Ellem, K A

    1992-02-01

    Induction of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in human cell lines by 254 nm ultraviolet radiation (UVC) suggests that TGF alpha may have an autocrine role in UV-induced tumorigenesis. Binding of TGF alpha to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important initial step in transducing the signal for cell division. Experiments reported herein were designed to determine whether, in addition to inducing TGF alpha, UVC might also induce changes in the levels of EGFR on HeLa S3 cells [125I]EGF binding to HeLa S3 cells was inhibited 8 h after exposure to 7 J/m2 UVC radiation followed by increased [125I]EGF binding 16-32 h after irradiation. Scatchard analysis of EGF binding at 28 h indicated that irradiated cells had 60% more receptors with no differences in apparent binding affinities (56,300 +/- 5494 receptors versus 34,900 +/- 1899 receptors in sham-irradiated cells). Cell cycle analysis at 8 h post-UVC indicated that cells had slowed traverse of S-phase, but by 24 and 48 h, times at which increases in [125I]EGF were evident, cell cycle distributions were essentially back to normal. These results indicate that UVC modulates EGFR numbers in HeLa S3 cells and suggest that solar radiation may modulate EGFR numbers in keratinocytes or other cells in the skin. The presence of UV-induced growth factors such as TGF alpha and increased levels of EGFR may result in sustained cell proliferation by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. These populations of cycling cells would then be at risk for subsequent mutational events that result in transformation to a tumorigenic state. PMID:1740007

  6. Autologous keratinocyte suspension in platelet concentrate accelerates and enhances wound healing – a prospective randomized clinical trial on skin graft donor sites: platelet concentrate and keratinocytes on donor sites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wound healing involves complex mechanisms, which, if properly chaperoned, can enhance patient recovery. The abilities of platelets and keratinocytes may be harnessed in order to stimulate wound healing through the formation of platelet clots, the release of several growth factors and cytokines, and cell proliferation. The aim of the study was to test whether autologous keratinocyte suspensions in platelet concentrate would improve wound healing. The study was conducted at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland in 45 patients, randomized to three different topical treatment groups: standard treatment serving as control, autologous platelet concentrate (PC) and keratinocytes suspended in autologous platelet concentrate (PC + K). Split thickness skin graft donor sites were chosen on the anterolateral thighs of patients undergoing plastic surgery for a variety of defects. Wound healing was assessed by the duration and quality of the healing process. Pain intensity was evaluated at day five. Results Healing time was reduced from 13.9 ± 0.5 days (mean ± SEM) in the control group to 7.2 ± 0.2 days in the PC group (P < 0.01). An addition of keratinocytes in suspension further reduced the healing time to 5.7 ± 0.2 days. Pain was reduced in both the PC and PC + K groups. Data showed a statistically detectable advantage of using PC + K over PC alone (P < 0.01). Conclusion The results demonstrate the positive contribution of autologous platelets combined with keratinocytes in stimulating wound healing and reducing pain. This strikingly simple approach could have a significant impact on patient care, especially critically burned victims for whom time is of the essence. Clinical trial registry information Protocol Record Identification Number: 132/03 Registry URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23570605

  7. A decorin-deficient matrix affects skin chondroitin/dermatan sulfate levels and keratinocyte function.

    PubMed

    Nikolovska, Katerina; Renke, Jana K; Jungmann, Oliver; Grobe, Kay; Iozzo, Renato V; Zamfir, Alina D; Seidler, Daniela G

    2014-04-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan harboring a single glycosaminoglycan chain, which, in skin, is mainly composed of dermatan sulfate (DS). Mutant mice with targeted disruption of the decorin gene (Dcn(-/-)) exhibit an abnormal collagen architecture in the dermis and reduced tensile strength, collectively leading to a skin fragility phenotype. Notably, Ehlers-Danlos patients with mutations in enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of DS display a similar phenotype, and recent studies indicate that DS is involved in growth factor binding and signaling. To determine the impact of the loss of DS-decorin in the dermis, we analyzed the glycosaminoglycan content of Dcn(-/-) and wild-type mouse skin. The total amount of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) was increased in the Dcn(-/-) skin, but was overall less sulfated with a significant reduction in bisulfated ?DiS2,X (X=4 or 6) disaccharide units, due to the reduced expression of uronyl 2-O sulfotransferase (Ust). With increasing age, sulfation declined; however, Dcn(-/-) CS/DS was constantly undersulfated vis--vis wild-type. Functionally, we found altered fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-7 and -2 binding due to changes in the micro-heterogeneity of skin Dcn(-/-) CS/DS. To better delineate the role of decorin, we used a 3D Dcn(-/-) fibroblast cell culture model. We found that the CS/DS extracts of wild-type and Dcn(-/-) fibroblasts were similar to the skin sugars, and this correlated with the lack of uronyl 2-O sulfotransferase in the Dcn(-/-) fibroblasts. Moreover, Ffg7 binding to total CS/DS was attenuated in the Dcn(-/-) samples. Surprisingly, wild-type CS/DS significantly reduced the binding of Fgf7 to keratinocytes in a concentration dependent manner unlike the Dcn(-/-) CS/DS that only affected the binding at higher concentrations. Although binding to cell-surfaces was quite similar at higher concentrations, keratinocyte proliferation was differentially affected. Higher concentration of Dcn(-/-) CS/DS induced proliferation in contrast to wild-type CS/DS. 3D co-cultures of fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that, unlike Dcn(-/-) CS/DS, wild-type CS/DS promoted differentiation of keratinocytes. Collectively, our results provide novel mechanistic explanations for the reported defects in wound healing in Dcn(-/-) mice and possibly Ehlers-Danlos patients. Moreover, the lack of decorin-derived DS and an altered CS/DS composition differentially influence keratinocyte behavior. PMID:24447999

  8. Endorsement of Growth Factors in Experiential Training Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiweewa, John; Gilbride, Dennis; Luke, Melissa; Seward, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify student growth factors during a semester long Master's level group counseling class. Results indicated that 12 growth factors accounted for 86% of the total number of critical incidents that participants reported as influencing their personal growth and awareness during the group experience. Two other

  9. Gene Expression of Growth Factors and Growth Factor Receptors for Potential Targeted Therapy of Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    IIDA, Gentoku; ASANO, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; SAKAI, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; ISHIGAKI, Kumiko; KAGAWA, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; WATARI, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transforming growth factor-α, epidermal growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were found to be differentially expressed in HCC compared with NH and the surrounding non-cancerous and healthy control liver tissues. PDGF-B is suggested to have the potential to become a valuable ancillary target for the treatment of canine HCC. PMID:24189579

  10. The role of the tetraspanin CD151 in primary keratinocyte and fibroblast functions: Implications for wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, Sean M.; Cowin, Allison J.; Copeland, Ben; Baleato, Rosa M.; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Ashman, Leonie K.

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies showed that CD151-null mice have a skin wound healing deficit. To gain an understanding of the role of CD151 in re-epithelialisation and dermal contraction, keratinocyte and fibroblast functions were assayed. Primary CD151-null keratinocytes displayed defective migration on Matrigel (a basement membrane equivalent) and laminin-332, the primary adhesion component of basement membranes, but not on collagen-I. Adhesion, spreading and proliferation were also deficient on laminin-332, but not collagen-I. The data suggest that loss of CD151 impairs the function of its primary interaction partners, integrin {alpha}3{beta}1- and/or {alpha}6{beta}4 which bind to laminin-332. Skin fibroblasts also produce CD151 mRNA. CD151-null fibroblasts migrated significantly faster on collagen I than wild type fibroblasts, confirming that they possess functional collagen receptors. However, no significant decrease in the ability of CD151-null fibroblasts to cause contraction in floating collagen gel assays in response to transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-{beta}1) or platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) was observed, nor was there an effect on fibroblast adhesion or proliferation on collagen-I. The data implicate CD151 as a facilitator of laminin-332-mediated keratinocyte functions that impact on the re-epithelialisation process intrinsic to wound healing and further suggest a potential novel role for CD151 in fibroblast migration.

  11. Effect of Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor (rHuKGF, Palifermin) on Radiation-Induced Mouse Urinary Bladder Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Jaal, Jana Doerr, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of Palifermin (rHuKGF) on acute and late radiation effects in mouse urinary bladder. Methods and Materials: Graded radiation doses were applied on day 0. Single subcutaneous injections of Palifermin (15 mg/kg) were given on day -2 or day +2. Changes in bladder function (i.e., a reduction in bladder volume by {>=}50% of the individual preirradiation value) were assessed by cystometry. Results: Early changes in mouse bladder after irradiation occur in two phases. In the first early phase, a single injection of Palifermin on day -2 increased the ED{sub 50} (dose associated with a positive bladder response in 50% of the mice) from 20.0 {+-} 3.3 Gy to 27.1 {+-} 6.9 Gy (p < .0051). Palifermin given on day +2 was not beneficial. No significant effects of Palifermin were seen in the second early phase. However, Palifermin administration before, but not after, irradiation, also modified late radiation effects, with an ED{sub 50} of 22.2 {+-} 4.8 Gy compared with 16.2 {+-} 4.9 Gy in control animals (p < .0187). Conclusions: Initial early functional changes in the mouse urinary bladder after irradiation as well as late effects can be significantly reduced by a single administration of Palifermin before irradiation.

  12. Growth factor responsiveness of human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Leschey, K H; Hackett, S F; Singer, J H; Campochiaro, P A

    1990-05-01

    Growth factor effects on DNA synthesis in density-arrested human retinal pigment epithelial cells were assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor were potent stimulators, whereas platelet-derived growth factor, insulinlike growth factor-1, and insulin were weak or modest stimulators when used alone. When used in combination, each of the above growth factors caused a significant enhancement of [3H]-thymidine incorporation regardless of its effect when used alone. The combination of all four growth factors was significantly more effective than all other combinations, demonstrating synergism in their action. Similar results were found in cell proliferation assays. In contrast to this, transforming growth factor-beta inhibited the ability of each of the other growth factors and serum-containing media to stimulate [3H]-thymidine incorporation. These data suggest that DNA synthesis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells can be modulated by several growth factors, some in a stimulatory or synergistic manner and at least one in an inhibitory manner. A better understanding of these complex interactions may provide insights relevant to normal and abnormal ocular wound healing. PMID:2186011

  13. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman W.

    1987-01-01

    New muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow embryonic skeletal myofibers which are able to differentiate into more adultlike myofibers. Studies on mechanical simulation of cultured muscle cell growth will now be more directly applicable to mechanically-induced growth in adult muscle, and lead to better models for understanding muscle tissue atrophy caused by disuse in the microgravity of space.

  14. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. PMID:25433777

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor measurement in AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Julie; Desport, Estelle; Rigaud, Charlotte; Marin, Benoit; Bender, Sbastien; Lacombe, Corinne; Moreau, Stphane; Yagoubi, Fatima; Bordessoule, Dominique; Lavergne, David; Bridoux, Frank; Jaccard, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pro-angiogenic cytokine activated by tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) that might play a role in the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Preliminary studies indicated that serum HGF levels were higher in patients with AL amyloidosis (AL) compared to those with MM. The aim of the present study was to determine whether HGF is a relevant marker of diagnosis and prognosis in AL. HGF serum levels were measured at diagnosis in patients with monoclonal gammopathy (MG) without AL (76 controls), or with biopsy-proven systemic AL (69 patients). HGF serum levels were significantly higher in patients with AL compared to controls, respectively, 11.2?ng/mL [min: 0.95-max: 200.4] versus 1.4?ng/mL [min: 0.82-max: 6.2] (p?

  16. Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors. PMID:23259759

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Penn, J.S.; Madan, A.; Caldwell, R.B.; Bartoli, M.; Caldwell, R.W.; Hartnett, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Collectively, angiogenic ocular conditions represent the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. In the U.S., for example, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the principal causes of blindness in the infant, working age and elderly populations, respectively. Evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a 40 kDa dimeric glycoprotein, promotes angiogenesis in each of these conditions, making it a highly significant therapeutic target. However, VEGF is pleiotropic, affecting a broad spectrum of endothelial, neuronal and glial behaviors, and confounding the validity of anti-VEGF strategies, particularly under chronic disease conditions. In fact, among other functions VEGF can influence cell proliferation, cell migration, proteolysis, cell survival and vessel permeability in a wide variety of biological contexts. This article will describe the roles played by VEGF in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The potential disadvantages of inhibiting VEGF will be discussed, as will the rationales for targeting other VEGF-related modulators of angiogenesis. PMID:18653375

  18. Direct binding of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to CD44v6.

    PubMed

    Volz, Yvonne; Koschut, David; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Dietz, Marina S; Karathanasis, Christos; Richert, Ludovic; Wagner, Moritz G; Mly, Yves; Heilemann, Mike; Niemann, Hartmut H; Orian-Rousseau, Vronique

    2015-01-01

    CD44v6, a member of the CD44 family of transmembrane glycoproteins is a co-receptor for two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Met and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2). CD44v6 is not only required for the activation of these RTKs but also for signalling. In order to understand the role of CD44v6in Met and VEGFR-2 activation and signalling we tested whether CD44v6 binds to their ligands, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), respectively. FACS analysis and cellular ELISA showed binding of HGF and VEGF only to cells expressing CD44v6. Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays and the binding affinities were determined using MicroScale Thermophoresis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy. The binding affinity of CD44v6 to HGF is in the micromolar range in contrast with the high-affinity binding measured in the case of VEGF and CD44v6, which is in the nanomolar range. These data reveal a heparan sulfate-independent direct binding of CD44v6 to the ligands of Met and VEGFR-2 and suggest different roles of CD44v6 for these RTKs. PMID:26181364

  19. Direct binding of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to CD44v6

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Yvonne; Koschut, David; Matzke-Ogi, Alexandra; Dietz, Marina S.; Karathanasis, Christos; Richert, Ludovic; Wagner, Moritz G.; Mély, Yves; Heilemann, Mike; Niemann, Hartmut H.; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CD44v6, a member of the CD44 family of transmembrane glycoproteins is a co-receptor for two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Met and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2). CD44v6 is not only required for the activation of these RTKs but also for signalling. In order to understand the role of CD44v6 in Met and VEGFR-2 activation and signalling we tested whether CD44v6 binds to their ligands, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), respectively. FACS analysis and cellular ELISA showed binding of HGF and VEGF only to cells expressing CD44v6. Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays and the binding affinities were determined using MicroScale Thermophoresis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy. The binding affinity of CD44v6 to HGF is in the micromolar range in contrast with the high-affinity binding measured in the case of VEGF and CD44v6, which is in the nanomolar range. These data reveal a heparan sulfate-independent direct binding of CD44v6 to the ligands of Met and VEGFR-2 and suggest different roles of CD44v6 for these RTKs. PMID:26181364

  20. The role of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and amphiregulin in the epidermal proliferation of psoriasis in cooperation with TNFalpha.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Aki; Kanno, Hiroyuki; Watabe, Daisuke; Akasaka, Toshihide; Sawai, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AREG) are the members of EGF family that bind to common EGF receptor (EGFR) in the epidermis. However, the role of these two growth factors in epidermal hyperplasia of psoriasis has not been established. On the other hand, CD4+ T cells are responsible for the development of the psoriatic plaques. However, inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IFNgamma, inhibit the growth of human keratinocytes in vitro. The expression of HB-EGF, AREG and EGFR proteins in normal (n = 22) and psoriatic (n = 34) skin tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. Then, the effects of HB-EGF and AREG on the growth of cultured adult normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK-AD) with or without TH1 cytokines, such as TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IFNgamma, were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effects of these cytokines on the expression of EGFR mRNA in NHEK-AD were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of HB-EGF and AREG in the epidermis was not specific to psoriatic plaques, but the distribution of positive cells throughout the epidermis was different between normal skins and psoriatic plaques. On the other hand, in the dermis and the papillary dermis, most of vascular endothelial cells and infiltrating mononuclear cells expressed both HB-EGF and AREG in normal skins and psoriatic plaques, and these positive cells were more frequent in psoriasis compared to normal skin. In the in vitro growth assay, HB-EGF, not AREG, stimulated the proliferation of NHEK-AD at the optimal concentration of 1 ng/ml. Furthermore, HB-EGF compensated the growth-suppressing effects of TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IFNgamma on NHEK-AD, and TNFalpha promoted the growth of NHEK-AD at the concentration of 2 and 20 U/ml in combination with HB-EGF and, in lesser extent, with AREG. However, TNFalpha did not affect the expression of EGFR mRNA in NHEK-AD. Growth factors and inflammatory cytokines produced in the dermis would be important for the epidermal proliferation in psoriatic plaques and TNFalpha may play a key role in cooperation with HB-EGF and AREG in the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes at the psoriatic skin lesions. PMID:17960400

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factors and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Promote Cardiac Reprogramming under Defined Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hiroyuki; Muraoka, Naoto; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Sadahiro, Taketaro; Isomi, Mari; Haginiwa, Sho; Kojima, Hidenori; Umei, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Mizuha; Kuishi, Yuki; Kurokawa, Junko; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Fukuda, Keiichi; Ieda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) by overexpression of cardiac transcription factors, including Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5; however, this process is inefficient under serum-based culture conditions, in which conversion of partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed functional iCMs has been a major hurdle. Here, we report that a combination of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2, FGF10, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), termed FFV, promoted cardiac reprogramming under defined serum-free conditions, increasing spontaneously beating iCMs by 100-fold compared with those under conventional serum-based conditions. Mechanistically, FFV activated multiple cardiac transcriptional regulators and converted partially reprogrammed cells into functional iCMs through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathways. Moreover, FFV enabled cardiac reprogramming with only Mef2c and Tbx5 through the induction of cardiac reprogramming factors, including Gata4. Thus, defined culture conditions promoted the quality of cardiac reprogramming, and this finding provides new insight into the mechanism of cardiac reprogramming. PMID:26626177

  2. Hepatocyte growth factor twenty years on: Much more than a growth factor.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Sakai, Katsuya; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Matsumoto, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Liver regeneration depends on the proliferation of mature hepatocytes. In the 1980s, the method for the cultivation of mature hepatocytes provided an opportunity for the discovery of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as a protein that is structurally and functionally different from other growth factors. In 1991, the scatter factor, tumor cytotoxic factor, and 3-D epithelial morphogen were identified as HGF, and Met tyrosine kinase was identified as the receptor for HGF. Thus, the connection of apparently unrelated research projects rapidly enriched the research on HGF in different fields. The HGF-Met pathway plays important roles in the embryonic development of the liver and the placenta, in the migration of myogenic precursor cells, and in epithelial morphogenesis. The use of tissue-specific knockout mice demonstrated that in mature tissues the HGF-Met pathway plays a critical role in tissue protection and regeneration, and in providing less susceptibility to chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In various injury and disease models, HGF promotes cell survival, regeneration of tissues, and suppresses and improves chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Drug development using HGF has been challenging, but extensive preclinical studies to address its therapeutic effects have provided significant results sufficient for the development of HGF as a biological drug in the regeneration-based therapy of diseases. Clinical trials using recombinant human HGF protein, or HGF genes, are in progress for the treatment of diseases. PMID:21199531

  3. Cholinergic Transactivation of the EGFR in HaCaT Keratinocytes Stimulates a Flotillin-1 Dependent MAPK-Mediated Transcriptional Response

    PubMed Central

    Khne, Sina; Ockenga, Wymke; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine and its receptors regulate numerous cellular processes in keratinocytes and other non-neuronal cells. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are capable of transactivating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and, downstream thereof, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which in turn regulates transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation and migration. We here show that cholinergic stimulation of human HaCaT keratinocytes results in increased transcription of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-3 as well as several ligands of the epidermal growth factor family. Since both metalloproteinases and the said ligands are involved in the transactivation of the EGFR, this transcriptional upregulation may provide a positive feed-forward loop for EGFR/MAPK activation. We here also show that the cholinergic EGFR and MAPK activation and the upregulation of MMP-3 and EGF-like ligands are dependent on the expression of flotillin-1 which we have previously shown to be a regulator of MAPK signaling. PMID:25803106

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Vera J. M.; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T.; Atkins, Annette R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Jonker, Johan W.; Downes, Michael Robert

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions. PMID:26834701

  5. Pigment-independent cAMP-mediated epidermal thickening protects against cutaneous UV injury by keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Timothy L; Christian, Perry A; Kesler, Melissa V; Donohue, Kevin M; Shelton, Brent; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D'Orazio, John

    2012-10-01

    The epidermis increases pigmentation and epidermal thickness in response to ultraviolet exposure to protect against UV-associated carcinogenesis; however, the contribution of epidermal thickness has been debated. In a humanized skin mouse model that maintains interfollicular epidermal melanocytes, we found that forskolin, a small molecule that directly activates adenylyl cyclase and promotes cAMP generation, up-regulated epidermal eumelanin accumulation in fair-skinned melanocortin-1-receptor (Mc1r)-defective animals. Forskolin-induced pigmentation was associated with a reproducible expansion of epidermal thickness irrespective of melanization or the presence of epidermal melanocytes. Rather, forskolin-enhanced epidermal thickening was mediated through increased keratinocyte proliferation, indirectly through secreted factor(s) from cutaneous fibroblasts. We identified keratinocyte growth factor (Kgf) as a forskolin-induced fibroblast-derived cytokine that promoted keratinocyte proliferation, as forskolin induced Kgf expression both in the skin and in primary fibroblasts. Lastly, we found that even in the absence of pigmentation, forskolin-induced epidermal thickening significantly diminished the amount of UV-A and UV-B that passed through whole skin and reduced the amount of UV-B-associated epidermal sunburn cells. These findings suggest the possibility of pharmacologic-induced epidermal thickening as a novel UV-protective therapeutic intervention, particularly for individuals with defects in pigmentation and adaptive melanization. PMID:23078399

  6. Pigment-independent cAMP-mediated epidermal thickening protects against cutaneous UV injury by keratinocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Timothy L.; Christian, P.A.; Kesler, M.; Donohue, Kevin M.; Shelton, Brent; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; DOrazio, John

    2012-01-01

    The epidermis increases pigmentation and epidermal thickness in response to ultraviolet exposure to protect against UV-associated carcinogenesis; however, the contribution of epidermal thickness has been debated. In a humanized skin mouse model that maintains interfollicular epidermal melanocytes, we found that forskolin, a small molecule that directly activates adenylyl cyclase and promotes cAMP generation, up-regulated epidermal eumelanin accumulation in fair-skinned melanocortin-1-receptor (Mc1r)-defective animals. Forskolin-induced pigmentation was associated with a reproducible expansion of epidermal thickness irrespective of melanization or the presence of epidermal melanocytes. Rather, forskolin-enhanced epidermal thickening was mediated through increased keratinocyte proliferation, indirectly through secreted factor(s) from cutaneous fibroblasts. We identified keratinocyte growth factor (Kgf) as a forskolin-induced fibroblast-derived cytokine that promoted keratinocyte proliferation, as forskolin induced Kgf expression both in the skin and in primary fibroblasts. Lastly, we found that even in the absence of pigmentation, forskolin-induced epidermal thickening significantly diminished the amount of UVA and UVB that passed through whole skin and reduced the amount of UVB-associated epidermal sunburn cells. These findings suggest the possibility of pharmacologic-induced epidermal thickening as a novel UV-protective therapeutic intervention, particularly for individuals with defects in pigmentation and adaptive melanization. PMID:23078399

  7. Human melanocytes mitigate keratinocyte-dependent contraction in an in vitro collagen contraction assay.

    PubMed

    Rakar, Jonathan; Krammer, Markus P; Kratz, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    Scarring is an extensive problem in burn care, and treatment can be especially complicated in cases of hypertrophic scarring. Contraction is an important factor in scarring but the contribution of different cell types remains unclear. We have investigated the contractile behavior of keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts by using an in vitro collagen gel assay aimed at identifying a modulating role of melanocytes in keratinocyte-mediated contraction. Cells were seeded on a collagen type I gel substrate and the change in gel dimensions were measured over time. Hematoxylin & Eosin-staining and immunohistochemistry against pan-cytokeratin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor showed that melanocytes integrated between keratinocytes and remained there throughout the experiments. Keratinocyte- and fibroblast-seeded gels contracted significantly over time, whereas melanocyte-seeded gels did not. Co-culture assays showed that melanocytes mitigate the keratinocyte-dependent contraction (significantly slower and 18-32% less). Fibroblasts augmented the contraction in most assays (approximately 6% more). Non-contact co-cultures showed some influence on the keratinocyte-dependent contraction. Results show that mechanisms attributable to melanocytes, but not fibroblasts, can mitigate keratinocyte contractile behavior. Contact-dependent mechanisms are stronger modulators than non-contact dependent mechanisms, but both modes carry significance to the contraction modulation of keratinocytes. Further investigations are required to determine the mechanisms involved and to determine the utility of melanocytes beyond hypopigmentation in improved clinical regimes of burn wounds and wound healing. PMID:25466959

  8. [A transforming growth factor-beta like growth factor in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Shi, W K; Yao, Z

    1989-06-01

    Our previous study indicated that polypeptides isolated from acid/ethanol extracts of solid tumors of a cloned F9-3 embryonal carcinoma cells by Bio-Gel P60 column chromatography were found to be able to stimulate anchorage independent growth of either NIH 3T3 cells or NRK 49 F cells in soft agar. The major peak of active elute had a molecular weight of about 15 kDa as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the present report we further isolated and purified the active compound corresponding to molecular weight of 15 kDa by gel filteration on Bio-Gel P10 column (Fig. 1) and then by high pressure liquid chromatography (Fig. 2). It was found that the purified 15 kDa molecules showed some properties similar to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta): 1. Colony-stimulating activity in soft agar can be induced in NRK 49 F cells only in the presence of mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) (Plate I); 2. Increase in relative uptake of 3H-thymidine in NRK 49 F cells occurred in the presence of EGF, but with the same amount of EGF, not much change in 3H-thymidine incorporation could be found with further increasing amounts of purified 15 kDa molecules (Fig. 3); 3. Like human blood platelets derived TGF-beta, inhibition effect on the growth of mink lung epithelial cells (CCL/64) can also be exhibited by purified 15 kDa molecules (Fig. 4). In addition, using ELISA procedure, we have also demonstrated that the 15 kDa molecules had immunological reactivity with the antibody raised against a synthetic oligopeptide identical to the N-terminal residues 1-29 of TGF-beta 1 from human blood platelets (Fig.5). Thus, the 15 kDa molecules isolated from mouse F9-3 embryonal carcinoma cells appeared to share some common antigenic determinants with human TGF-beta 1 molecule. These results taken together provide strong support for the existence of TGF-beta like growth factor in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. PMID:2800839

  9. Growth Factors Can Influence Cell Growth and Survival through Effects on Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Plas, David R.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.; Fox, Casey J.; Harris, Marian H.; Thompson, Craig B.

    2001-01-01

    Cells from multicellular organisms are dependent upon exogenous signals for survival, growth, and proliferation. The relationship among these three processes was examined using an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line. No fixed dose of IL-3 determined the threshold below which cells underwent apoptosis. Instead, increasing growth factor concentrations resulted in progressive shortening of the G1 phase of the cell cycle and more rapid proliferative expansion. Increased growth factor concentrations also resulted in proportional increases in glycolytic rates. Paradoxically, cells growing in high concentrations of growth factor had an increased susceptibility to cell death upon growth factor withdrawal. This susceptibility correlated with the magnitude of the change in the glycolytic rate following growth factor withdrawal. To investigate whether changes in the availability of glycolytic products influence mitochondrion-initiated apoptosis, we artificially limited glycolysis by manipulating the glucose levels in the medium. Like growth factor withdrawal, glucose limitation resulted in Bax translocation, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c redistribution to the cytosol. In contrast, increasing cell autonomous glucose uptake by overexpression of Glut1 significantly delayed apoptosis following growth factor withdrawal. These data suggest that a primary function of growth factors is to regulate glucose uptake and metabolism and thus maintain mitochondrial homeostasis and enable anabolic pathways required for cell growth. Consistent with this hypothesis, expression of the three genes involved in glucose uptake and glycolytic commitment, those for Glut1, hexokinase 2, and phosphofructokinase 1, was found to rapidly decline to nearly undetectable levels following growth factor withdrawal. PMID:11486029

  10. MMP-13 Plays a Role in Keratinocyte Migration, Angiogenesis, and Contraction in Mouse Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Noriko; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Kishi, Kazuo; Nakajima, Tatsuo; Takaishi, Hironari; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Okada, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in wound healing. To analyze the roles of MMP-9 and MMP-13 in wound healing, we generated full-thickness cutaneous wounds in MMP-9 knockout (KO), MMP-13 KO, MMP-9/13 double KO, and wild-type mice. Macroscopic wound closure was delayed in all of the KO mice, as compared with wild-type mice. The rate of re-epithelialization was significantly delayed in MMP-9 KO and MMP-13 KO mice and remarkably delayed in MMP-9/13 double KO mice, as compared with wild-type mice. Both MMP-9 and MMP-13 were expressed by the leading edges of epidermal cells in wild-type mice, and the migration of keratinocytes was suppressed by treatment with an MMP inhibitor or transfection of small interfering RNAs for MMP-9 or MMP-13, as compared with controls. The vascular density in wound granulation was significantly lower in both MMP-13 KO and MMP-9/13 double KO mice than in wild-type mice. Degradation of connective tissue growth factor in wound tissue was transiently prevented in MMP-13 KO mice. Morphometric analyses demonstrated a reduction in both wound contraction and myofibroblast formation in both MMP-13 KO and MMP-9/13 double KO mice. Proliferation and transforming growth factor-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts from MMP-13 KO mice were decreased, as compared with wild-type dermal fibroblasts. These data suggest that MMP-13 plays a role in keratinocyte migration, angiogenesis, and contraction in wound healing, while MMP-9 functions in keratinocyte migration. PMID:19590036

  11. Spatiotemporal control over growth factor signaling for therapeutic neovascularization ?

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lan; Mooney, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Many of the qualitative roles of growth factors involved in neovascularization have been delineated, but it is unclear yet from an engineering perspective how to use these factors as therapies. We propose that an approach that integrates quantitative spatiotemporal measurements of growth factor signaling using 3-D in vitro and in vivo models, mathematic modeling of factor tissue distribution, and new delivery technologies may provide an opportunity to engineer neovascularization on demand. PMID:17868951

  12. A keratinocyte's course of life.

    PubMed

    Houben, E; De Paepe, K; Rogiers, V

    2007-01-01

    An adequate permeability barrier function of the mammalian epidermis is guaranteed by the characteristic architecture of the stratum corneum. This uppermost layer consists of a highly organized extracellular lipid compartment which is tightly joined to the corneocytes. The generation of the extracellular lipid compartment and the transformation of the keratinocytes into corneocytes are the main features of epidermal differentiation. However, equally important is the continuous renewal of the stratum corneum, which is insured by a careful balance between the replenishment of new keratinocytes from the proliferating basal layer, and the well-orchestrated loss of the most superficial cells after the so-called 'epidermal programmed cell death'. In this overview, the complete life of keratinocytes is described, from the proliferative organization to the process of desquamation. PMID:17191035

  13. Clinical Application of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of non-healing wounds (e.g. pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted a nonline search of Medline and Pub Medical and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies and future research possibilities. In this review we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. PMID:24942811

  14. Directed random walks and constraint programming reveal active pathways in hepatocyte growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kittas, Aristotelis; Delobelle, Aurlien; Schmitt, Sabrina; Breuhahn, Kai; Guziolowski, Carito; Grabe, Niels

    2016-01-01

    An effective means to analyze mRNA expression data is to take advantage of established knowledge from pathway databases, using methods such as pathway-enrichment analyses. However, pathway databases are not case-specific and expression data could be used to infer gene-regulation patterns in the context of specific pathways. In addition, canonical pathways may not always describe the signaling mechanisms properly, because interactions can frequently occur between genes in different pathways. Relatively few methods have been proposed to date for generating and analyzing such networks, preserving the causality between gene interactions and reasoning over the qualitative logic of regulatory effects. We present an algorithm (MCWalk) integrated with a logic programming approach, to discover subgraphs in large-scale signaling networks by random walks in a fully automated pipeline. As an exemplary application, we uncover the signal transduction mechanisms in a gene interaction network describing hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated cell migration and proliferation from gene-expression measured with microarray and RT-qPCR using in-house perturbation experiments in a keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. The resulting subgraphs illustrate possible associations of hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met nodes, differentially expressed genes and cellular states. Using perturbation experiments and Answer Set programming, we are able to select those which are more consistent with the experimental data. We discover key regulator nodes by measuring the frequency with which they are traversed when connecting signaling between receptors and significantly regulated genes and predict their expression-shift consistently with the measured data. The Java implementation of MCWalk is publicly available under the MIT license at: https://bitbucket.org/akittas/biosubg. PMID:26518250

  15. Induction of Hair Growth by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in 1,763 MHz Radiofrequency-Irradiated Hair Follicle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Cho, A-Ri; Jeon, Soon-Ik; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Kyu Han; Park, Gun-Sik; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Oh Sang; Park, Woong-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) radiation does not transfer high energy to break the covalent bonds of macromolecules, but these low energy stimuli might be sufficient to induce molecular responses in a specific manner. We monitored the effect of 1,763 MHz RF radiation on cultured human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) by evaluating changes in the expression of cytokines related to hair growth. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hDPCs was significantly induced upon RF radiation at the specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg, which resulted in increased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) proteins and increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein. Exposure to 10 W/kg RF radiation 1 h per day for 7 days significantly enhanced hair shaft elongation in ex vivo hair organ cultures. In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs. PMID:22164296

  16. Staphylococcus aureus activation of caspase 1/calpain signaling mediates invasion through human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Soong, Grace; Chun, Jarin; Parker, Dane; Prince, Alice

    2012-05-15

    The USA300 strains of Staphylococcus aureus are the major cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the United States. Invasive USA300 infection has been attributed to several virulence factors, including protein A and the ?-hemolysin (Hla), which cause pathology by activating host signaling cascades. Here we show that S. aureus exploits the proinflammatory bias of human keratinocytes to activate pyroptosis, a caspase 1-dependent form of inflammatory cell death, which was required for staphylococci to penetrate across a keratinocyte barrier. Keratinocyte necrosis was mediated by calpains, Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases whose endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, is targeted by Hla-induced caspase 1. Neither Panton-Valentine leukocidin nor protein A expression was essential, but inhibition of either calpain or caspase 1 activity was sufficient to prevent staphylococcal invasion across the keratinocytes. These studies suggest that pharmacological interruption of specific keratinocyte signaling cascades as well as targeting the Hla might prevent invasive skin infection by staphylococci. PMID:22457275

  17. Targeting the opioid growth factor: opioid growth factor receptor axis for treatment of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zagon, Ian S; Donahue, Renee; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2013-05-01

    The opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis is a biological pathway that is present in human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. OGF, chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is an endogenous opioid peptide that interfaces with OGFr to delay cells moving through the cell cycle by upregulation of cyclin-dependent inhibitory kinase pathways. OGF inhibitory activity is dose dependent, receptor mediated, reversible, protein and RNA dependent, but not related to apoptosis or necrosis. The OGF-OGFr axis can be targeted for treatment of human ovarian cancer by (i) administration of exogenous OGF, (ii) genetic manipulation to over-express OGFr and (iii) use of low dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, which stimulates production of OGF and OGFr for subsequent interaction following blockade of the receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis may be a feasible target for treatment of cancer of the ovary (i) in a prophylactic fashion, (ii) following cytoreduction or (iii) in conjunction with standard chemotherapy for additive effectiveness. In summary, preclinical data support the transition of these novel therapies for treatment of human ovarian cancer from the bench to bedside to provide additional targets for treatment of this devastating disease. PMID:23856908

  18. UV-A1 cytotoxicity and antioxidant defence in keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leccia, M T; Richard, M J; Joanny-Crisci, F; Beani, J C

    1998-01-01

    The levels of antioxidant molecules and lipid peroxidation, under basal conditions, were measured in normal, human cutaneous keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutases are significantly higher in normal keratinocytes compared to normal fibroblasts (respectively +248%, +193% and +155%). Under the same conditions, lipid peroxidation is significantly lower in basal keratinocytes compared to fibroblasts. UV-A1 cytotoxicity was investigated in both cutaneous cell types showing that diploid keratinocytes are more resistant to UV-A1 oxidative stress than fibroblasts (by a factor of around 8). We studied the same parameters in two keratinocyte cell lines, NCTC2544 and HaCaT cells, and in MRC5 fibroblasts. Antioxidant content and lipid peroxidation under basal conditions are quite different in these cell lines compared to those of the normal corresponding cells. Furthermore, NCTC2544 keratinocytes are more sensitive to UV-A1 radiation than normal keratinocytes whereas HaCaT keratinocytes are more resistant, and MRC5 fibroblasts are more resistant than normal cutaneous fibroblasts. These findings suggest that (i) cultured epidermal and dermal cells have different sensitivities to UV-A1 radiation that may be linked to different antioxidant capacities and (ii) cell line response to UV-A1 radiation may differ from that of normal cells. PMID:9854158

  19. Extracellular matrix and growth factors in branching morphogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    The unifying hypothesis of the NSCORT in gravitational biology postulates that the ECM and growth factors are key interrelated components of a macromolecular regulatory system. The ECM is known to be important in growth and branching morphogenesis of embryonic organs. Growth factors have been detected in the developing embryo, and often the pattern of localization is associated with areas undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Causal relationships between these components may be of fundamental importance in control of branching morphogenesis.

  20. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Secreted Angiogenic Mitogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, David W.; Cachianes, George; Kuang, Wun-Jing; Goeddel, David V.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    1989-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was purified from media conditioned by bovine pituitary folliculostellate cells (FC). VEGF is a heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells that is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. Complementary DNA clones for bovine and human VEGF were isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from FC and HL60 leukemia cells, respectively. These cDNAs encode hydrophilic proteins with sequences related to those of the A and B chains of platelet-derived growth factor. DNA sequencing suggests the existence of several molecular species of VEGF. VEGFs are secreted proteins, in contrast to other endothelial cell mitogens such as acidic or basic fibroblast growth factors and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. Human 293 cells transfected with an expression vector containing a bovine or human VEGF cDNA insert secrete an endothelial cell mitogen that behaves like native VEGF.

  1. Growth factor-eluting technologies for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Ethan; Holmes, Christina; Witham, Timothy; Grayson, Warren L

    2016-04-01

    Growth factors are essential orchestrators of the normal bone fracture healing response. For non-union defects, delivery of exogenous growth factors to the injured site significantly improves healing outcomes. However, current clinical methods for scaffold-based growth factor delivery are fairly rudimentary, and there is a need for greater spatial and temporal regulation to increase their in vivo efficacy. Various approaches used to provide spatiotemporal control of growth factor delivery from bone tissue engineering scaffolds include physical entrapment, chemical binding, surface modifications, biomineralization, micro- and nanoparticle encapsulation, and genetically engineered cells. Here, we provide a brief review of these technologies, describing the fundamental mechanisms used to regulate release kinetics. Examples of their use in pre-clinical studies are discussed, and their capacities to provide tunable, growth factor delivery are compared. These advanced scaffold systems have the potential to provide safer, more effective therapies for bone regeneration than the systems currently employed in the clinic. PMID:25967594

  2. Factors contributing to posttraumatic growth: a proposed structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Cadell, Susan; Regehr, Cheryl; Hemsworth, David

    2003-07-01

    With the current shift to include positive outcomes of trauma, this research was designed to explore factors that allow growth to occur. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model for understanding posttraumatic growth. A sample (N = 174) of bereaved HIV/AIDS caregivers completed questionnaires. Spirituality, social support, and stressors were found to have a positive relationship with growth. Facilitation of posttraumatic growth is crucial to all helping professions. PMID:12921208

  3. Material factors influencing metallic whisker growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodekohr, Chad L.

    Whiskering refers to the formation of slender, long, metallic filaments, much thinner than a human hair, that grow on a metallic thin film surface. They are readily observed for pure and alloyed zinc (Zn), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), indium (In), and tin (Sn) surfaces. The longest reported whisker length is 4.5 mm long but most high-aspect ratio whiskers range from 1-500 mum. The focus of this research is upon Sn whiskers. Sn whiskers pose serious reliability problems for the electronics industry and are known to be the source of failure in a wide range of electronic devices, such as nuclear power facilities, heart pacemakers, commercial satellites, aviation radar, telecommunication equipment, and desktop computers. The problem with whiskering has been recently exacerbated by the worldwide shift to lead (Pb) free electronics and the continuing reduction in electrical contact pitches. A thorough understanding of the growth mechanism of Sn whiskers is urgently needed. Currently, there is no universally accepted model that explains the broad range of observations on whiskering. The goals of this research are: (1) to develop a more detailed understanding of the physical mechanisms leading to the initiation and growth of Sn whiskers and (2) to outline reasonable mitigation strategies that could be followed to reduce or eliminate the problem of Sn whiskers. The major contributions of this work are: (1) A reliable method for growing Sn whiskers with predictable incubation times has been developed and tested. (2) A surface oxide is not necessary for whisker growth. (3) Intermetallic compounds (IMC) are not necessary for whisker growth. (4) Smoother, not rougher, substrate surfaces promote whisker growth. (5) Whiskers grow under both compressive and tensile thin film stress states. (6) Whisker growth increases with externally applied compression and tension forces. (7) Sn whiskers are composed of pure Sn except for the expected thin, native Sn oxide on their surface. (8) For Sn on brass, the atom feedstock for whiskers lies within the film exclusively; the brass substrate does not contribute to whisker production. (9) The volume of film consumed by a metallic whisker is a simple volumetric calculation. (10) There are likely to be multiple mechanisms of whisker growth depending on the substrate - thin film system. (11) In general, the thickness of a metallic film does not have an effect on whisker growth qualities.

  4. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Robertson, L.W.; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA ; Ludewig, G.

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and telomerase activity was found in NFK. ► Increased intracellular superoxide levels and reduced cell growth was seen in both. ► PCB153 may damage telomerase expressing cells like stem cells.

  5. S100A8/A9 Stimulates Keratinocyte Proliferation in the Development of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin via the Receptor for Advanced Glycation-End Products

    PubMed Central

    Iotzova-Weiss, Guergana; Dziunycz, Piotr J.; Freiberger, Sandra N.; Luchli, Severin; Hafner, Jrg; Vogl, Thomas; French, Lars E.; Hofbauer, Gnther F. L.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTR) on long-term immunosuppression and occurs 60- to 100-fold more frequently than in the general population. Here, we present the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and S100A8/A9 as important factors driving normal and tumor keratinocyte proliferation. RAGE and S100A8/A9 were transcriptionally upregulated in SCC compared to normal epidermis, as well as in OTR compared to immunocompetent patients (IC) with SCC. The proliferation of normal and SCC keratinocytes was induced by exposure to exogenous S100A8/A9 which in turn was abolished by blocking of RAGE. The migratory activities of normal and SCC keratinocytes were also increased upon exposure to S100A8/A9. We demonstrated that exogenous S100A8/A9 induces phosphorylation of p38 and SAPK/JNK followed by activation of ERK1/2. We hypothesize that RAGE and S100A8/A9 contribute to the development of human SCC by modulating keratinocyte growth and migration. These processes do not seem to be impaired by profound drug-mediated immunosuppression in OTR. PMID:25811984

  6. EDUCATION AS A FACTOR IN ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACKERTICH, ALEX

    THE VALUE OF AN EDUCATION IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF AN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY (INDIA) WAS INVESTIGATED USING THE CASE STUDY APPROACH. DATA WERE GATHERED AT BOTH THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND VILLAGE LEVELS THROUGH INTERVIEWS WITH INDIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND FROM OFFICIAL GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CONCERNING THE NATION'S EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS, AS

  7. Phenylpropanoic Acid: Growth Factor for Ruminococcus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hungate, R. E.; Stack, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    Phenylpropanoic acid accounted for part of the stimulatory effect of rumen fluid on the rate of growth and of cellulose digestion by cultures of Ruminococcus albus strain 8 grown on a chemically defined medium. As little as 3 ?M concentration gave maximum response. PMID:16346069

  8. Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-β1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-β1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-β1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-β1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. PMID:24105960

  9. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  10. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  11. Regulative and adaptive factors in craniofacial growth.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, G H

    1999-01-01

    Generally speaking, the animal experimental models described here are of theoretical importance. They fall naturally into the area of formulating general trends. Following elucidation of a series of concerns in the future, theoretical growth research will be able to provide more directly clinically applicable tools. Since no experimental animals of the masticatory type analogous to humans exist, results from animal experiments should be considered as statements on the biological reactions of analogous biological systems. Last but not least, biomechanical model representations point to the growth controlling functions of the bony and muscular head system components. These may provide an example for the analysis of degenerative changes in other parts of the body and serve as a theoretical basis for targeted therapeutic measures. PMID:10081551

  12. Non-thermal plasma activates human keratinocytes by stimulation of antioxidant and phase II pathways.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-03-13

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  13. Mechanism of Macrophage-Derived Chemokine/CCL22 Production by HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Chizuko; Komine, Mayumi; Kagami, Shinji; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    Background CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) and CCL22 are the functional ligands for CCR4. We previously reported that inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), but not of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?- and interferon (IFN)-?-induced production of CCL17 by the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Further, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) enhanced the CCL17 production by these keratinocytes. Objective To identify the mechanism underlying CCL22 production by HaCaT cells. Methods We investigated the signal transduction pathways by which TNF-? and IFN-? stimulate HaCaT cells to produce CCL22 by adding various inhibitors. Results TNF-?- and IFN-?-induced CCL22 production was inhibited by PD98059, PD153035, Bay 11-7085, SB202190, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor II, and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor 1. Conclusion Our results indicate that CCL22 production in HaCaT cells is dependent on ERK, EGFR, p38 MAPK, JNK, and JAK and is mediated by different signal pathways from those regulating CCL17 production. Altogether, our previous and present results suggest that EGFR activation represses CCL17 but enhances CCL22 production by these cells. PMID:25834353

  14. Non-thermal Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  15. Wounding enhances epidermal tumorigenesis by recruiting hair follicle keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Maria; Jaks, Viljar; Are, Alexandra; Bergstrm, sa; Schwger, Anja; Svrd, Jessica; Teglund, Stephan; Barker, Nick; Toftgrd, Rune

    2011-03-01

    Chronic wounds and acute trauma constitute well-established risk factors for development of epithelial-derived skin tumors, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are the most common skin cancers displaying a number of features reminiscent of hair follicle (HF)-derived cells and are dependent on deregulated Hedgehog (Hh)/GLI signaling. Here we show, in a mouse model conditionally expressing GLI1 and in a model with homozygous inactivation of Ptch1, mimicking the situation in human BCCs, that the wound environment accelerates the initiation frequency and growth of BCC-like lesions. Lineage tracing reveals that both oncogene activation and wounding induce emigration of keratinocytes residing in the lower bulge and the nonpermanent part of the HFs toward the interfollicular epidermis (IFE). However, only oncogene activation in combination with a wound environment enables the participation of such cells in the initiation of BCC-like lesions at the HF openings and in the IFE. We conclude that, in addition to the direct enhancement of BCC growth, the tumor-promoting effect of the wound environment is due to recruitment of tumor-initiating cells originating from the neighboring HFs, establishing a link between epidermal wounds and skin cancer risk. PMID:21321199

  16. The contribution of transforming growth factor-beta and epidermal growth factor signalling to airway remodelling in chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Boxall, C; Holgate, S T; Davies, D E

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is increasing in prevalence in the developing world, affecting approximately 10% of the world's population. It is characterised by chronic lung inflammation and airway remodelling associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, acute bronchial hyperresponsiveness to a variety of innocuous stimuli and a more rapid decline in lung function over time. Airway remodelling, involving proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells, particularly myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, is generally refractory to corticosteroids and makes a major contribution to disease chronicity. Transforming growth factor-beta is a potent profibrogenic factor whose expression is increased in the asthmatic airways and is a prime candidate for the initiation and persistence of airway remodelling in asthma. This review highlights the role of transforming growth factor-beta in the asthmatic lung, incorporating biosynthesis, signalling pathways and functional outcome. In vivo, however, it is the balance between transforming growth factor-beta and other growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor, which will determine the extent of fibrosis in the airways. A fuller comprehension of the actions of transforming growth factor-beta, and its interaction with other signalling pathways, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor signalling cascade, may enable development of therapies that control airway remodelling where there is an unmet clinical need. PMID:16387953

  17. The Antipsoriatic Agent Monomethylfumarate Has Antiproliferative, Prodifferentiative, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Helwa, Inas; Patel, Ravi; Karempelis, Peter; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Choudhary, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Monomethylfumarate (MMF) is thought to be the bioactive ingredient of the drug Fumaderm (Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA), licensed in Germany since 1994 for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Psoriasis is a common inflammatory hyperproliferative skin disorder that involves cross-talk between different cell types, including immune cells and keratinocytes. Psoriatic lesions are characterized by hyperproliferation, aberrant differentiation, and inflammation, with the psoriatic cytokine network maintained by communication between immune cells and keratinocytes. Recently, there is increasing evidence regarding the pivotal role of keratinocytes in mediating the disease process, and these cells can be regarded as safe therapeutic targets. From the data available on human subjects treated with Fumaderm, MMF is an effective antipsoriatic agent with known effects on immune cells. However, little is known about its direct effects on keratinocytes. We hypothesized that MMF has direct antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, and anti-inflammatory effects on keratinocytes. Indeed, MMF dose-dependently inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, indicating a direct antiproliferative action on keratinocytes. MMF significantly increased the protein level of keratin 10, the early keratinocyte differentiation marker, and the activity of transglutaminase, a late differentiation marker. These results are consistent with an ability of MMF to promote keratinocyte differentiation and inhibit proliferation, thereby improving psoriatic lesions. In 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)induced keratinocytes, MMF significantly inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1? as well as the production of TNF?. Our results support the notion that MMF has direct antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, and anti-inflammatory effects on keratinocytes, highlighting its potential use as a multifactorial antipsoriatic agent. PMID:25332455

  18. Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ≈ 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

  19. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids. PMID:19152442

  20. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2012-04-24

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  1. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2009-10-06

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  2. Structural evidence that endothelial cell growth factor beta is the precursor of both endothelial cell growth factor alpha and acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, W H; Mehlman, T; Marshak, D R; Fraser, B A; Maciag, T

    1986-01-01

    Two endothelial cell growth factors (ECGF) have been purified from bovine brain and termed alpha- and beta-ECGF [Burgess, W. H., Mehlman, T., Friesel, R., Johnson, W. V. & Maciag, T. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11389-11392]. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that beta-ECGF represents a 20 amino acid amino-terminal extension of alpha-ECGF and a 14 amino acid amino-terminal extension of acidic fibroblast growth factor. These data indicate that both alpha-ECGF and acidic fibroblast growth factor may be derived from beta-ECGF by posttranslational processing. Analysis of the amino-terminal 14 residues of beta-ECGF by fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry established the amino acid sequence of this region and the identity of the blocking group at the amino terminus (acetyl). PMID:3532107

  3. Stromal interaction essential for vascular endothelial growth factor A-induced tumour growth via transforming growth factor-? signalling

    PubMed Central

    Weidenaar, A C; ter Elst, A; Kampen, K R; Meeuwsen-de Boer, T G J; de Jonge, H J M; Scherpen, F J G; den Dunnen, W F A; Kamps, W A; de Bont, E S J M

    2011-01-01

    Background: High vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) levels at the time of diagnosis confer a worse prognosis to multiple malignancies. Our aim was to investigate the role of VEGFA in promoting tumour growth through interaction with its environment. Methods: HL-60 cells were transduced with VEGFA165 or control vector using retroviral constructs. Control cells (n=7) or VEGFA165 cells (n=7) were subcutaneously injected into NOD/SCID mice. Immunohistochemistry of markers for angiogenesis (CD31) and cell proliferation (Ki67) and gene expression profiling of tumours were performed. Paracrine effects were investigated by mouse-specific cytokine arrays. Results: In vivo we observed a twofold increase in tumour weight when VEGFA165 was overexpressed (P=0.001), combined with increased angiogenesis (P=0.002) and enhanced tumour cell proliferation (P=0.001). Gene expression profiling revealed human genes involved in TGF-? signalling differentially expressed between both tumour groups, that is, TGFBR2 and SMAD5 were lower expressed whereas the inhibitory SMAD7 was higher expressed with VEGFA165. An increased expression of mouse-derived cytokines IFNG and interleukin 7 was found in VEGFA165 tumours, both described to induce SMAD7 expression. Conclusion: These results suggest a role for VEGFA-driven tumour growth by TGF-? signalling inhibition via paracrine mechanisms in vivo, and underscore the importance of stromal interaction in the VEGFA-induced phenotype. PMID:22045186

  4. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E.

    2013-09-15

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-?. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-? treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-?-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer. - Highlights: Ski oncoprotein levels increase during progression of HPV16-transformed cells. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent. Ski knock-down in HPV16-transformed keratinocytes inhibited cell proliferation. Cervical cancer samples overexpress Ski.

  5. Epiprofin orchestrates epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Yoshitomi, Yasuo; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Patel, Vyomesh; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2014-12-15

    The basal layer of the epidermis contains stem cells and transit amplifying cells that rapidly proliferate and differentiate further into the upper layers of the epidermis. A number of molecules have been identified as regulators of this process, including p63 (also known as tumor protein 63) and Notch1. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the transitions from stem cell to proliferating or differentiating transit amplifying cell. Here, we demonstrate that epiprofin (Epfn, also known as Sp6) plays crucial distinct roles in these transition stages as a cell cycle regulator and a transcription factor. Epfn knockout mice have a thickened epidermis, in which p63-expressing basal cells form multiple layers owing to the accumulation of premature transit amplifying cells with reduced proliferation and a reduction in the number of differentiating keratinocytes expressing Notch1. We found that low levels of Epfn expression increased the proliferation of human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells by increasing EGF responsiveness and superphosphorylation of Rb. By contrast, high levels of Epfn expression promoted cell cycle exit and differentiation, by reducing E2F transactivation and inducing Notch1 expression. Our findings identify multiple novel functions of Epfn in epidermal development. PMID:25344255

  6. Comparison of vascular growth factors in the murine brain reveals placenta growth factor as prime candidate for CNS revascularization.

    PubMed

    Gal, Emlia Ilona; Tammela, Tuomas; Anisimov, Andrey; Marbacher, Serge; Honkanen, Petri; Zarkada, Georgia; Leppnen, Veli-Matti; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemel, Mika; Alitalo, Kari

    2013-08-01

    Vascular bypass procedures in the central nervous system (CNS) remain technically challenging, hindered by complications and often failing to prevent adverse outcome such as stroke. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for a safe and effective CNS revascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are promising candidates for revascularization; however, their effects appear to be tissue-specific and their potential in the CNS has not been fully explored. To test growth factors for angiogenesis in the CNS, we characterized the effects of endothelium-specific growth factors on the brain vasculature and parenchyma. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding the growth factors were injected transcranially to the frontoparietal cerebrum of mice. Angiogenesis, mural cell investment, leukocyte recruitment, vascular permeability, reactive gliosis and neuronal patterning were evaluated by 3-dimensional immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, optical projection tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Placenta growth factor (PlGF) stimulated robust angiogenesis and arteriogenesis without significant side effects, whereas VEGF and VEGF-C incited growth of aberrant vessels, severe edema, and inflammation. VEGF-B, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and a VEGF/angiopoietin-1 chimera had minimal effects on the brain vessels or parenchyma. Of the growth factors tested, PlGF emerged as the most efficient and safe angiogenic factor, hence making it a candidate for therapeutic CNS revascularization. PMID:23803710

  7. Comparison of the enzymatic and explant methods for the culture of keratinocytes isolated from human foreskin

    PubMed Central

    ORAZIZADEH, MAHMOUD; HASHEMITABAR, MAHMOUD; BAHRAMZADEH, SOMAYEH; DEHBASHI, FRESHTEH NEJAD; SAREMY, SADEGH

    2015-01-01

    Currently, culture and growth keratinocytes are important stages in achieving a reliable and reproducible skin tissue. In the present study, two different methods, enzymatic and explant methods, for keratinocytes isolation from human foreskin were compared. Foreskins were cut into 2–3 mm pieces and placed in trypsin at 4°C overnight for separation of the epidermis from the dermis. Subsequently, these samples were divided into two groups: i) Keratinocytes separated from the epidermis by trypsin and ii) by the explant method. These keratinocytes were divided into two groups: i) With no feeder layer and ii) onto a type I collagen scaffold. The cells were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and 4′,6-diamidine-2′-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. In the enzymatic treatment, after 7–10 days no attached cells were found in the cell culture dishes. In the explant method, keratinocytes were separated after ~24 h, attached rapidly and formed big colonies into a collagen scaffold. In the absence of a feeder layer, small colonies were developed with rapid loss of proliferation within 2–3 days. Keratinocytes showed positive immunoreactivity for the pan-cytokeratin marker and keratinocytes' nuclei were clearly observed. This method could be applied and developed as a component of skin substitutes to treat burns and wounds and also in laboratory testing. PMID:26137227

  8. CRITICAL FACTORS CONTROLLING VEGETATION GROWTH ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study identifies some of the critical factors that affect tree and shrub growth on reclaimed sanitary landfill sites and determines which woody species are adaptable to the adverse growth conditions of such sites. Trees planted at the Edgeboro Landfill, East Brunswick, New J...

  9. Local Delivery of Growth Factors Using Coated Suture Material

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, T. F.; Surke, C.; Stange, R.; Quandte, S.; Wildemann, B.; Raschke, M. J.; Schmidmaier, G.

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of healing processes in a wide range of tissues represents a central point for surgical research. One approach is to stimulate healing processes with growth factors. These substances have a short half-life and therefore it seems useful to administer these substances locally rather than systemically. One possible method of local delivery is to incorporate growth factors into a bioabsorbable poly (D, L-lactide) suspension (PDLLA) and coat suture material. The aim of the present study was to establish a procedure for the local delivery of growth factors using coated suture material. Sutures coated with growth factors were tested in an animal model. Anastomoses of the colon were created in a rat model using monofilament sutures. These were either untreated or coated with PDLLA coating alone or coated with PDLLA incorporating insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I). The anastomoses were subjected to biomechanical, histological, and immunohistochemical examination. After 3 days the treated groups showed a significantly greater capacity to withstand biomechanical stress than the control groups. This finding was supported by the results of the histomorphometric. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to deliver bioactive growth factors locally using PDLLA coated suture material. Healing processes can thus be stimulated locally without subjecting the whole organism to potentially damaging high systemic doses. PMID:22666088

  10. Lysosomotropic amines inhibit mitogenesis induced by growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    King, A C; Hernaez-Davis, L; Cuatrecasas, P

    1981-01-01

    The stimulation of DNA synthesis by epidermal growth factor, insulin, and serum is inhibited by a variety of alkylamines when present for the duration of the stimulatory preincubation (20-24 hr). These results contradict an earlier report [Maxfield, F. R., Davies, P. J. A., Klempner, L., Willingham, M. C. & Pastan, I. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 5731-5735] and can be explained by differences in incubation conditions. The most straightforward interpretation of our results is that the mitogenic activities of growth factors are blocked by agents that inhibit the intracellular processing of hormone-receptor complexes. Therefore, the continued internalization and degradation of growth factors or their receptors within cells may play an important role in inducing mitogenesis in cultured human fibroblasts and may explain the prolonged requirement for epidermal growth factor in the culture medium (8 hr) to elicit a mitogenic response. We also found that bacitracin, a potent inhibitor of the enzyme transglutaminase, neither prevents receptor internalization or degradation in human fibroblasts nor inhibits the mitogenic activity of epidermal growth factor. These results suggest that transglutaminase activity may not be relevant to the mechanisms of growth-factor-induced receptor internalization or mitogenesis. PMID:6262764

  11. Activation of Nrf2 in keratinocytes causes chloracne (MADISH)-like skin disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Matthias; Willrodt, Ann-Helen; Kurinna, Svitlana; Link, Andrea S; Farwanah, Hany; Geusau, Alexandra; Gruber, Florian; Sorg, Olivier; Huebner, Aaron J; Roop, Dennis R; Sandhoff, Konrad; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Tschachler, Erwin; Schneider, Marlon R; Langbein, Lutz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Werner, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging. Upregulation of epigen, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi), and small proline-rich protein 2d (Sprr2d) in hair follicles was identified as the likely cause of infundibular acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cyst formation. These alterations were highly reminiscent to the phenotype of chloracne/“metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas” (MADISH) patients. Indeed, SLPI, SPRR2, and epigen were strongly expressed in cysts of MADISH patients and upregulated by dioxin in human keratinocytes in an NRF2-dependent manner. These results identify novel Nrf2 activities in the pilosebaceous unit and point to a role of NRF2 in MADISH pathogenesis. PMID:24503019

  12. Activation of Nrf2 in keratinocytes causes chloracne (MADISH)-like skin disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Schfer, Matthias; Willrodt, Ann-Helen; Kurinna, Svitlana; Link, Andrea S; Farwanah, Hany; Geusau, Alexandra; Gruber, Florian; Sorg, Olivier; Huebner, Aaron J; Roop, Dennis R; Sandhoff, Konrad; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Tschachler, Erwin; Schneider, Marlon R; Langbein, Lutz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Werner, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging. Upregulation of epigen, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi), and small proline-rich protein 2d (Sprr2d) in hair follicles was identified as the likely cause of infundibular acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cyst formation. These alterations were highly reminiscent to the phenotype of chloracne/"metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas" (MADISH) patients. Indeed, SLPI, SPRR2, and epigen were strongly expressed in cysts of MADISH patients and upregulated by dioxin in human keratinocytes in an NRF2-dependent manner. These results identify novel Nrf2 activities in the pilosebaceous unit and point to a role of NRF2 in MADISH pathogenesis. PMID:24503019

  13. Calcium regulation of keratinocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bikle, Daniel D; Xie, Zhongjian; Tu, Chia-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Calcium is the major regulator of keratinocyte differentiation in vivo and in vitro. A calcium gradient within the epidermis promotes the sequential differentiation of keratinocytes as they traverse the different layers of the epidermis to form the permeability barrier of the stratum corneum. Calcium promotes differentiation by both outsidein and insideout signaling. A number of signaling pathways involved with differentiation are regulated by calcium, including the formation of desmosomes, adherens junctions and tight junctions, which maintain cellcell adhesion and play an important intracellular signaling role through their activation of various kinases and phospholipases that produce second messengers that regulate intracellular free calcium and PKC activity, critical for the differentiation process. The calcium receptor plays a central role by initiating the intracellular signaling events that drive differentiation in response to extracellular calcium. This review will discuss these mechanisms. PMID:23144648

  14. Neutrophil biology and the next generation of myeloid growth factors.

    PubMed

    Dale, David C

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are the body's critical phagocytic cells for defense against bacterial and fungal infections; bone marrow must produce approximately 10 x 10(9) neutrophils/kg/d to maintain normal blood neutrophil counts. Production of neutrophils depends on myeloid growth factors, particularly granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). After the original phase of development, researchers modified these growth factors to increase their size and delay renal clearance, increase their biologic potency, and create unique molecules for business purposes. Pegylated G-CSF is a successful product of these efforts. Researchers have also tried to identify small molecules to serve as oral agents that mimic the parent molecules, but these programs have been less successful. In 2006, the European Medicines Agency established guidelines for the introduction of new biologic medicinal products claimed to be similar to reference products that had previously been granted marketing authorization in the European community, called bio-similars. Globally, new and copied versions of G-CSF and other myeloid growth factors are now appearing. Some properties of the myeloid growth factors are similar to other agents, offering opportunities for the development of alternative drugs and treatments. For example, recent research shows that hematopoietic progenitor cells can be mobilized with a chemokine receptor antagonist, chemotherapy, G-CSF, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Advances in neutrophil biology coupled with better understanding and development of myeloid growth factors offer great promise for improving the care of patients with cancer and many other disorders. PMID:19176209

  15. Dental metal-induced innate reactivity in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Buskermolen, Jeroen K; Scheper, Rik J; Gibbs, Susan; von Blomberg, B Mary E; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2015-12-25

    Gold, nickel, copper and mercury, i.e. four metals frequently used in dental applications, were explored for their capacity to induce innate immune activation in keratinocytes (KC). Due to their anatomical location the latter epithelial cells are key in primary local irritative responses of skin and mucosa. Fresh foreskin-derived keratinocytes and skin and gingiva KC cell lines were studied for IL-8 release as a most sensitive parameter for NF-kB activation. First, we verified that viral-defense mediating TLR3 is a key innate immune receptor in both skin- and mucosa derived keratinocytes. Second, we found that, in line with our earlier finding that ionized gold can mimic viral dsRNA in triggering TLR3, gold is very effective in KC activation. It would appear that epithelial TLR3 can play a key role in both skin- and mucosa localized irritation reactivities to gold. Subsequently we found that not only gold, but also nickel, copper and mercury salts can activate innate immune reactivity in keratinocytes, although the pathways involved remain unclear. Although current alloys have been optimized for minimal leakage of metal ions, secondary factors such as mechanical friction and acidity may still facilitate such leakage. Subsequently, these metal ions may create local irritation, itching and swelling by triggering innate immune reactions, potentially also facilitating the development of metal specific adaptive immunity. PMID:26456670

  16. An Effect of Nerve Growth Factor on Parasympathetic Neurite Outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Frank; Dawson, Andrea

    1983-04-01

    Addition of nerve growth factor (NGF) to dissociated parasympathetic ciliary ganglion neurons resulted, within 60 min of its addition, in a 2-fold increase in average neurite length and an accompanying enlargement and spreading of neuronal growth cones. These effects occurred over a concentration range of NGF of 0.1-10 ng/ml and were blocked by affinity-purified antibody to NGF. Epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and angiotensin did not have these effects, although insulin at high concentrations was able to induce a response similar to that of NGF. Dissociated sympathetic chain neurons also responded to NGF with increased neurite lengths, and, in addition, NGF considerably extended the survival time of these neurons in culture. However, the effect of NGF on ciliary ganglion neurons was limited to neurite outgrowth, and NGF did not promote the survival of these parasympathetic neurons.

  17. Comparison of daunomycin effects on human keratinocytes and melanoma HTB 1410 cells. Image cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Drukala, Justyna; Rajwa, Bartlomiej; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Korohoda, Wlodzimierz

    2003-01-01

    Interacting melanocytes and keratinocytes in the epidermis create a unique structure in which keratinocytes regulate the growth of melanocytes and the expression of cell surface molecules. The critical role of communication between these cells means that any anti-melanoma drug should be studied in the context of its possible influence on keratinocytes. For that reason, this study focused on comparing the influence of daunomycin on human melanoma cells and on keratinocytes in vitro. The effects were studied by cytochemical methods (TUNEL, FITC-Annexin V labelling, endocytosis activity assay, measurements of DNA content) and morphological methods (measurements of cell surface area, perimeter, extension, dispersion and elongation) to verify the hypothesis of differential response. The results of our research demonstrate that keratinocytes are less susceptible than melanoma cells to daunomycin treatment in vitro. Keratinocytes are also able to resume growth when the drug is removed from the medium, whereas melanoma cells have not demonstrated this capacity. Apoptosis was identified as the mechanism by which the drug exerts its cytostatic effects. PMID:12680242

  18. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in human fetal growth cartilage.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ramirez, M; Toran, N; Andaluz, P; Carrascosa, A; Audi, L

    2000-03-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial event in endochondral ossification. Chemoattractants and mitogens for endothelial cells (such as basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-beta]), which act as local regulators of the process, are synthesized by chondrocytes under several stimuli and in relation to the differentiation stage of the cartilage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a 44-kDa protein well known as a potent angiogenic molecule owing to its mitogenic and permeability-causing properties. In this work, VEGF was located by immunohistochemistry in growth plate cartilage of human fetuses (20-22 weeks old) and its expression was demonstrated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Primary culture of human fetal epiphyseal chondrocytes (HFEC) maintained VEGF expression at protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and this expression was stimulated by cartilage-promoting growth factors incorporated into the culture media (rFGF-b, rTGF-beta1, and insulin-like growth factor [rFGF-b] at 50 ng/ml). The conditioned medium (CM) of HFEC stimulated the proliferation of endothelial cells, and this was partially blocked by anti-VEGF antibody. These studies showed VEGF production by chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth cartilage and suggested a role of this factor in cartilage physiology and the angiogenic process. PMID:10750568

  20. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis suppresses tumour growth in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. Jin; Li, Bing; Winer, Jane; Armanini, Mark; Gillett, Nancy; Phillips, Heidi S.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    1993-04-01

    THE development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis, wound healing and corpus luteum formation1,2. Blood vessel neoformation is also important in the pathogenesis of many disorders1-5, particularly rapid growth and metastasis of solid tumours3-5. There are several potential mediators of tumour angiogenesis, including basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors, tumour necrosis factor-? and transforming factors-? and -? 1,2. But it is unclear whether any of these agents actually mediates angiogenesis and tumour growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and an angiogenesis inducer released by a variety of tumour cells and expressed in human tumours in situ. To test whether VEGF may be a tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo, we injected human rhabdomyosar-coma, glioblastoma multiforme or leiomyosarcoma cell lines into nude mice. We report here that treatment with a monoclonal antibody specific for VEGF inhibited the growth of the tumours, but had no effect on the growth rate of the tumour cells In vitro. The density of vessels was decreased in the antibody-treated tumours. These findings demonstrate that inhibition of the action of an angiogenic factor spontaneously produced by tumour cells may suppress tumour growth in vivo.

  1. Tumour endothelial marker-8 in wound healing and its impact on the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheila C; Ye, Lin; Sanders, Andrew J; Ruge, Fiona; Harding, Keith G; Jiang, Wen G

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wound management represents a significant burden on healthcare systems and negatively impacts on the quality of patient life. New strategies to understand and identify wounds that will not heal in a normal manner are required. Tumour endothelial marker?8 (TEM?8) has been implicated in the wound healing and angiogenesis processes. TEM?8 expression was examined at the transcript level in a cohort of acute (n=10) and chronic (n=14) wounds and in normal skin (n=10). Protein analysis of TEM?8 was also undertaken for this cohort using immunohistochemistry (IHC). TEM?8 impact on keratinocyte cell growth and migration was assessed following TEM?8 ribozyme transgene transfection of human HaCaT keratinocytes using cell growth and electric cell?substrate impedance sensing (ECIS)?based assays. Expression of TEM?8 was observed to be increased in acute wounds compared to chronic wounds and normal skin using quantitative polymerase chain reaction transcript analysis and IHC staining of wound tissues. Knockdown of TEM?8 in HaCaT cells, using two independent ribozyme transgenes, resulted in significant decreases in cell growth as well as reductions in the rate of migration assessed using an ECIS?based system. TEM?8 may be differentially expressed between wound types and loss of this molecule impacts HaCaT growth and migration, potentially implicating this molecule as a factor involved in successful progression of wound healing. PMID:26677171

  2. Tumour endothelial marker-8 in wound healing and its impact on the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHEILA C.; YE, LIN; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; RUGE, FIONA; HARDING, KEITH G.; JIANG, WEN G.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wound management represents a significant burden on healthcare systems and negatively impacts on the quality of patient life. New strategies to understand and identify wounds that will not heal in a normal manner are required. Tumour endothelial marker-8 (TEM-8) has been implicated in the wound healing and angiogenesis processes. TEM-8 expression was examined at the transcript level in a cohort of acute (n=10) and chronic (n=14) wounds and in normal skin (n=10). Protein analysis of TEM-8 was also undertaken for this cohort using immunohistochemistry (IHC). TEM-8 impact on keratinocyte cell growth and migration was assessed following TEM-8 ribozyme transgene transfection of human HaCaT keratinocytes using cell growth and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS)-based assays. Expression of TEM-8 was observed to be increased in acute wounds compared to chronic wounds and normal skin using quantitative polymerase chain reaction transcript analysis and IHC staining of wound tissues. Knockdown of TEM-8 in HaCaT cells, using two independent ribozyme transgenes, resulted in significant decreases in cell growth as well as reductions in the rate of migration assessed using an ECIS-based system. TEM-8 may be differentially expressed between wound types and loss of this molecule impacts HaCaT growth and migration, potentially implicating this molecule as a factor involved in successful progression of wound healing. PMID:26677171

  3. Endothelin-1 is a transcriptional target of p53 in epidermal keratinocytes and regulates UV induced melanocyte homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hyter, Stephen; Coleman, Daniel J.; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Merrill, Gary F.; Ma, Steven; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Indra, Arup K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Keratinocytes contribute to melanocyte activity by influencing their microenvironment, in part, through secretion of paracrine factors. Here we discovered that p53 directly regulates Edn1 expression in epidermal keratinocytes and controls UV-induced melanocyte homeostasis. Selective ablation of EDN1 in murine epidermis (EDN1ep?/?) does not alter melanocyte homeostasis in newborn skin but decreases dermal melanocytes in adult skin. Results showed that keratinocytic EDN1 in a non-cell autonomous manner controls melanocyte proliferation, migration, DNA damage and apoptosis after UVB irradiation. Expression of other keratinocyte derived paracrine factors did not compensate for the loss of EDN1. Topical treatment with EDN1 receptor (EDNRB) antagonist BQ788 abrogated UV induced melanocyte activation and recapitulated the phenotype seen in EDN1ep?/? mice. Altogether, present studies establish an essential role of EDN1 in epidermal keratinocytes to mediate UV induced melanocyte homeostasis in vivo. PMID:23279852

  4. Endothelin-1 is a transcriptional target of p53 in epidermal keratinocytes and regulates ultraviolet-induced melanocyte homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hyter, Stephen; Coleman, Daniel J; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Merrill, Gary F; Ma, Steven; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Indra, Arup K

    2013-03-01

    Keratinocytes contribute to melanocyte activity by influencing their microenvironment, in part, through secretion of paracrine factors. Here, we discovered that p53 directly regulates Edn1 expression in epidermal keratinocytes and controls UV-induced melanocyte homeostasis. Selective ablation of endothelin-1 (EDN1) in murine epidermis (EDN1(ep-/-) ) does not alter melanocyte homeostasis in newborn skin but decreases dermal melanocytes in adult skin. Results showed that keratinocytic EDN1 in a non-cell autonomous manner controls melanocyte proliferation, migration, DNA damage, and apoptosis after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Expression of other keratinocyte-derived paracrine factors did not compensate for the loss of EDN1. Topical treatment with EDN1 receptor (EDNRB) antagonist BQ788 abrogated UV-induced melanocyte activation and recapitulated the phenotype seen in EDN1(ep-/-) mice. Altogether, the present studies establish an essential role of EDN1 in epidermal keratinocytes to mediate UV-induced melanocyte homeostasis in vivo. PMID:23279852

  5. Nutrients versus growth factors in mTORC1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Efeyan, Alejo; Sabatini, David M

    2013-01-01

    Growth factors and nutrients regulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by different mechanisms. The players that link growth factors and mTORC1 activation have been known for several years and mouse models have validated its relevance for human physiology and disease. In contrast to the picture for growth factor signaling, the means by which nutrient availability leads to mTORC1 activation have remained elusive until recently, with the discovery of the Rag GTPases upstream of mTORC1. The Rag GTPases recruit mTORC1 to the outer lysosomal surface, where growth factor signaling and nutrient signaling converge on mTORC1 activation. A mouse model of constitutive RagA activity has revealed qualitative differences between growth factor- and nutrient dependent regulation of mTORC1. Regulation of mTORC1 activity by the Rag GTPases in vivo is key for enduring early neonatal fasting, showing its importance for mammalian physiology. PMID:23863153

  6. Beclin 1 regulates growth factor receptor signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, R A; Janusis, J; Leonard, D; Bellvé, K D; Fogarty, K E; Baehrecke, E H; Corvera, S; Shaw, L M

    2015-10-16

    Beclin 1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that is decreased in many human tumors. The function of beclin 1 in cancer has been attributed primarily to its role in the degradative process of macroautophagy. However, beclin 1 is a core component of the vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34)/class III phosphatidylinositoI-3 kinase (PI3KC3) and Vps15/p150 complex that regulates multiple membrane-trafficking events. In the current study, we describe an alternative mechanism of action for beclin 1 in breast cancer involving its control of growth factor receptor signaling. We identify a specific stage of early endosome maturation that is regulated by beclin 1, the transition of APPL1-containing phosphatidyIinositol 3-phosphate-negative (PI3P(-)) endosomes to PI3P(+) endosomes. Beclin 1 regulates PI3P production in response to growth factor stimulation to control the residency time of growth factor receptors in the PI3P(-)/APPL(+)-signaling-competent compartment. As a result, suppression of BECN1 sustains growth factor-stimulated AKT and ERK activation resulting in increased breast carcinoma cell invasion. In human breast tumors, beclin 1 expression is inversely correlated with AKT and ERK phosphorylation. Our data identify a novel role for beclin 1 in regulating growth factor signaling and reveal a mechanism by which loss of beclin 1 expression would enhance breast cancer progression. PMID:25639875

  7. Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Gaber, M. Waleed

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-{gamma}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-{alpha}) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and tumor control.

  8. The Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Gene Therapy and Cell Transplantation on Rat Acute Wound Model

    PubMed Central

    Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Fadaei Fathabadi, Fatemeh; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz; Piryae, Abbas; Ghasemi, Azar; Khalilian, Alireza; Yeganeh, Farshid; Mosaffa, Nariman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wound healing is a complex process. Different types of skin cells, extracellular matrix and variety of growth factors are involved in wound healing. The use of recombinant growth factors in researches and production of skin substitutes are still a challenge. Objectives: Much research has been done on the effects of gene therapy and cell therapy on wound healing. In this experimental study, the effect of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene transfer in fibroblast cells was assessed on acute dermal wound healing. Materials and Methods: Fibroblasts were cultured and transfected with IGF-1. Lipofectamine 2000 was used as a reagent of transfection. Transgene expression levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To study in vivo, rats (weighing 170-200 g) were randomly divided into three groups (five/group) and full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum region. Suspensions of transfected fibroblast cells were injected into the wound and were compared with wounds treated with native fibroblast cells and normal saline. For the microscopic examination, biopsy was performed on day seven. Results: In vitro, the maximum expression of IGF1 (96.95 pg/mL) in transfected fibroblast cells was 24 hours after gene transfer. In vivo, it was clear that IGF-1 gene therapy caused an increase in the number of keratinocyte cells during the wound healing process (mean of group A vs. group B with P value = 0.01, mean of group A vs. group C with P value = 0.000). Granulation of tissue formation in the transfected fibroblast group was more organized when compared with the normal saline group and native fibroblast cells. Conclusions: This study indicated that the optimization of gene transfer increases the expression of IGF-1. High concentrations of IGF-1, in combination with cell therapy, have a significant effect on wound healing. PMID:25558384

  9. Investigation of the insulin-like growth factor system in the avian epiphyseal growth plate.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were investigated in chondrocytes isolated from the avian growth plate. The genes for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF receptor (IGFR), IGF binding protein-2 (IGF BP-2) and IGF BP-5 were found to be expressed in both proliferative and hypertrophic chondro...

  10. Growth factors regulate immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor-I production by cultured porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mondschein, J S; Hammond, J M

    1988-07-01

    The effects of various growth factors on the production of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor I (iIGF-I) in short term (3-day) cultures of porcine granulosa cells was investigated. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was shown to be a potent dose-dependent stimulator of iIGF-I production, achieving a 3.6-fold stimulation at a dose of 10 ng/ml. Transforming growth factor-alpha (10 ng EGF equivalents/ml) was also stimulatory. Platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/ml) had no effect of its own, but enhanced EGF-stimulated iIGF-I production. The acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (100 ng/ml) had no effect alone or in combination with EGF. Transforming growth factor-beta (10 ng/ml) had no effect of its own, but inhibited EGF-stimulated iIGF-I production. The interactive effects of EGF and FSH (200 ng/ml) on iIGF-I production were investigated in short term and longer term (7-day) cultures. In short term cultures under conditions optimized for EGF-dependent iIGF-I production, FSH had no effect of its own and inhibited EGF action. Conversely, in longer term cultures optimized for FSH-dependent iIGF-I production, EGF had no effect of its own and inhibited FSH action. Thus IGF production by cultured porcine granulosa cells is regulated in a complex manner and is highly dependent on the culture conditions. Our results suggest that IGF production in the ovary may also be regulated in a complex manner which is dependent on the developmental state of the follicle. PMID:3133199

  11. Advances in pubertal growth and factors influencing it: Can we increase pubertal growth?

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a period of development characterized by partially concurrent changes which includes growth acceleration, alteration in body composition and appearance of secondary sex characteristics. Puberty is characterized by an acceleration and then deceleration in skeletal growth. The initiation, duration and amount of growth vary considerably during the growth spurt. Pubertal growth and biological maturation are dynamic processes regulated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Changes in skeletal maturation and bone mineral accretion concomitant with the stage of pubertal development constitute essential components in the evaluation of growth during this pubertal period. Genetic, endocrine and nutritional factors and ethnicity contribute variably to the amount of growth gained during this important period of rapid changes. Many studies investigated the possibility of increasing pubertal growth to gain taller final adult height in adolescents with idiopathic short stature (ISS). The pattern of pubertal growth, its relation to sex maturity rating and factors affecting them has been addressed in this review. The results of different trials to increase final adult height of adolescents using different hormones have been summarized. These data enables Endocrinologists to give in-depth explanations to patients and families about the efficacy and clinical significance as well as the safety of using these therapies in the treatment of adolescents with ISS. PMID:25538878

  12. Insulin-like growth factor I acts as an angiogenic agent in rabbit cornea and retina: comparative studies with basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Grant, M B; Mames, R N; Fitzgerald, C; Ellis, E A; Aboufriekha, M; Guy, J

    1993-04-01

    The release of growth factors from ischaemic retina has been hypothesized as the central stimulus for retinal neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Two of the growth factors implicated are insulin-like growth factor-I and basic fibroblast growth factor. We examined the effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on in vivo neovascularization using the established angiogenic model of the rabbit cornea (n = 30), and also compared the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I and basic fibroblast growth factor using two new in vivo systems. Either supraphysiologic concentrations of each growth factor (600 micrograms) were injected intravitreally into pigmented rabbits (n = 21) or porous polyfluorotetraethylene chambers filled with an emulsion containing collagen and growth factor (500 ng) were placed on the retina surface (n = 8). Our results demonstrate that when insulin-like growth factor-I was implanted together with a slow release carrier into the pocket of the normally avascular cornea, insulin-like growth factor-I (10 micrograms/pellet) induced angiogenesis in all rabbits. This degree of angiogenesis was comparable to that previously shown for basic fibroblast growth factor. For the intravitreal studies, the fibrotic component was greater in the basic fibroblast growth factor injected eyes, whereas the vascular component was accentuated in the eyes injected with insulin-like growth factor-I. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated areas of vascular proliferation in both groups. Porous polyfluorotetraethylene chamber studies with insulin-like growth factor-I and basic fibroblast growth factor demonstrated vascular proliferation in the vicinity of the chamber similar to the intravitreal injected eyes, but to a lesser degree than the injected eyes. Our experiments overall support the angiogenic potential of both insulin-like growth factor-I and basic fibroblast growth factor and support distinct but complimentary roles for each growth factor in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID:7682976

  13. EMILIN1?4/?9 integrin interaction inhibits dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Danussi, Carla; Petrucco, Alessandra; Wassermann, Bruna; Pivetta, Eliana; Modica, Teresa Maria Elisa; Belluz, Lisa Del Bel; Spessotto, Paola

    2011-01-01

    EMILIN1 promotes ?4?1 integrindependent cell adhesion and migration and reduces protransforming growth factor? processing. A knockout mouse model was used to unravel EMILIN1 functions in skin where the protein was abundantly expressed in the dermal stroma and where EMILIN1-positive fibrils reached the basal keratinocyte layer. Loss of EMILIN1 caused dermal and epidermal hyperproliferation and accelerated wound closure. We identified the direct engagement of EMILIN1 to ?4?1 and ?9?1 integrins as the mechanism underlying the homeostatic role exerted by EMILIN1. The lack of EMILIN1?4/?9 integrin interaction was accompanied by activation of PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 pathways as a result of the reduction of PTEN. The down-regulation of PTEN empowered Erk1/2 phosphorylation that in turn inhibited Smad2 signaling by phosphorylation of residues Ser245/250/255. These results highlight the important regulatory role of an extracellular matrix component in skin proliferation. In addition, EMILIN1 is identified as a novel ligand for keratinocyte ?9?1 integrin, suggesting prospective roles for this receptorligand pair in skin homeostasis. PMID:21949412

  14. Inhibition of Akt signaling by exclusion from lipid rafts in normal and transformed epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Calay, Damien; Vind-Kezunovic, Dina; Frankart, Aurelie; Lambert, Sylviane; Poumay, Yves; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich plasma membrane domains that regulate signal transduction. Because our earlier work indicated that raft disruption inhibited proliferation and caused cell death, we investigated here the role of membrane cholesterol, the crucial raft constituent, in the regulation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Raft disruption was achieved in normal human keratinocytes and precancerous (HaCaT) or transformed (A431) keratinocytes by cholesterol extraction or inactivation with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, filipin III, or 5-cholestene-5-beta-ol. Lipid raft disruption did not affect PI3K binding to its main target, the epidermal growth factor receptor, nor its ability to convert phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate but impaired Akt phosphorylation at the regulatory sites Thr(308) and Ser(473). Diminished Akt activity resulted in deactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin, activation of FoxO3a, and increased sensitivity to apoptosis stimuli. Lipid raft disruption abrogated the binding of Akt and the major Akt kinase, phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase 1, to the membrane by pleckstrin-homology domains. Thus, the integrity of lipid rafts is required for the activity of Akt and cell survival and may serve as a potential pharmacological target in the treatment of epidermal cancers. PMID:20054340

  15. Increased capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in skin nerve fibres and related vanilloid receptors TRPV3 and TRPV4 in keratinocytes in human breast pain.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Preethi; Wan, Elaine; Holdcroft, Anita; Facer, Paul; Davis, John B; Smith, Graham D; Bountra, Chas; Anand, Praveen

    2005-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast pain and tenderness affects 70% of women at some time. These symptoms have been attributed to stretching of the nerves with increase in breast size, but tissue mechanisms are poorly understood. METHODS: Eighteen patients (n = 12 breast reduction and n = 6 breast reconstruction) were recruited and assessed for breast pain by clinical questionnaire. Breast skin biopsies from each patient were examined using immunohistological methods with specific antibodies to the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, related vanilloid thermoreceptors TRPV3 and TRPV4, and nerve growth factor (NGF). RESULTS: TRPV1-positive intra-epidermal nerve fibres were significantly increased in patients with breast pain and tenderness (TRPV1 fibres / mm epidermis, median [range] - no pain group, n = 8, 0.69 [0-1.27]; pain group, n = 10, 2.15 [0.77-4.38]; p = 0.0009). Nerve Growth Factor, which up-regulates TRPV1 and induces nerve sprouting, was present basal keratinocytes: some breast pain specimens also showed NGF staining in supra-basal keratinocytes. TRPV4-immunoreactive fibres were present in sub-epidermis but not significantly changed in painful breast tissue. Both TRPV3 and TRPV4 were significantly increased in keratinocytes in breast pain tissues; TRPV3, median [range] - no pain group, n = 6, 0.75 [0-2]; pain group, n = 11, 2 123, p = 0.008; TRPV4, median [range] - no pain group, n = 6, [0-1]; pain group, n = 11, 1 [0.5-2], p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Increased TRPV1 intra-epidermal nerve fibres could represent collateral sprouts, or re-innervation following nerve stretch and damage by polymodal nociceptors. Selective TRPV1-blockers may provide new therapy in breast pain. The role of TRPV3 and TRPV4 changes in keratinocytes deserve further study. PMID:15755319

  16. Stimulatory effect of luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and epidermal growth factor on vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Babitha, V; Verma, M R; Bag, S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal (24, 48, and 72 hours) and dose-dependent (0, 5, 10, and 100 ng/mL of LH, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], and EGF) in vitro expression and secretion patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in luteal cell culture during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes. Corpus luteum samples from ovaries of early luteal phase (ELP; Days 1-4), midluteal phase (Days 5-10), and late luteal phase (Days 11-16) were collected from a local slaughterhouse. The samples were then processed and cultured in (serum containing) appropriate cell culture medium and incubated separately with three factors (LH, IGF-1, or EGF) at the previously mentioned three dose-duration combinations. At the end of the respective incubation periods, VEGF was assayed in the spent culture medium by ELISA, whereas the cultured cells were used for VEGF mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results of the present study disclosed dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effects of LH, IGF-1, and EGF on VEGF production in bubaline luteal cells. The VEGF expression and secretion from the cultured luteal cells were highest during the ELP, intermediate in the midluteal phase, and lowest in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle for all the three tested factors. Comparison of the results of the three treatments depicted EGF as the most potent stimulating factor followed by IGF-1 and LH. Immunocytochemistry findings in luteal cell culture of ELP agreed with the VEGF expression and secretion. In conclusion, mRNA expression, protein secretion, and immunolocalization of VEGF data clearly indicated for the first time that LH, IGF-1, and EGF play an important role in stimulating luteal angiogenesis in buffalo CL. The highest expression and secretion of VEGF in the ELP might be associated with the development of blood vessels in early growth of CL, which in turn gets augmented by the aforementioned factors emphasizing their regulatory role in luteal angiogenesis. Further studies are however necessary to divulge more information on other factors which regulate VEGF secretion in bubaline CL and the synergistic effects existing among such growth factors. PMID:26242566

  17. Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerman, D.; Taylor, S.; Kirschenbaum, I.; Klagsbrun, M.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Thomas, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint.

  18. Epidermal growth factor, from gene organization to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fenghua; Harris, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    In 1962, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was discovered by Dr. Stanley Cohen while studying nerve growth factor (NGF). It was soon recognized that EGF is the prototypical member of a family of peptide growth factors that activate the EGF receptors, and that the EGF/EGF receptor signaling pathway plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation and migration of a variety of cell types, especially in epithelial cells. After the basic characterization of EGF function in the first decade or so after its discovery, the studies related to EGF and its signaling pathway have extended to a broad range of investigations concerning its biological and pathophysiological roles in development and in human diseases. In this review, we briefly describe the gene organization and tissue distribution of EGF, with emphasis on its biological and pathological roles in human diseases. PMID:24513230

  19. Effects of Growth Factors on Dental Stem/ProgenitorCells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sahng G.; Solomon, Charles; Zheng, Ying; Suzuki, Takahiro; Mo, Chen; Song, Songhee; Jiang, Nan; Cho, Shoko; Zhou, Jian; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The primary goal of regenerative endodontics is to restore the vitality and functions of the dentin-pulp complex, as opposed to filing of the root canal with bioinert materials. Structural restoration is also important but is likely secondary to vitality and functions. Myriads growth factors regulate multiple cellular functions including migration, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of several cell types that are intimately involved in dentin-pulp regeneration: odontoblasts, interstitial fibroblasts, vascular-endothelial cells and sprouting nerve fibers. Recent work showing that growth factor delivery, without cell transplantation, can yield pulp-dentin like tissues in vivo provides one of the tangible pathways for regenerative endodontics. This review synthesizes our knowledge on a multitude of growth factors that are known or anticipated to be efficacious in dental pulp-dentin regeneration. PMID:22835538

  20. Overexpression of Epigen during Embryonic Development Induces Reversible, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Sebaceous Gland Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dahlhoff, Maik; Frances, Daniela; Kloepper, Jennifer E.; Paus, Ralf; Schfer, Matthias; Niemann, Catherin

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system is a key regulator of epithelial development and homeostasis. Its functions in the sebaceous gland (SG), however, remain poorly characterized. In this study, using a transgenic mouse line with tissue-specific and inducible expression of the EGFR ligand epigen, we showed that increased activation of the EGFR in skin keratinocytes results in enlarged SGs and increased sebum production. The phenotype can be reverted by interrupting transgene expression and is EGFR dependent, as gland size and sebum levels return to normal values after crossing to the EGFR-impaired mouse line Wa5. Intriguingly, however, the SG enlargement appears only if EGFR activation occurs before birth. Importantly, the enlarged sebaceous glands are associated with an increased expression of the transcription factor MYC and of the transmembrane proteins LRIG1, an established negative-feedback regulator of the EGFR/ERBB tyrosine kinase receptors and a stem cell marker. Our findings identify EGFR signaling as a major pathway determining SG activity and suggest a functional relationship between the EGFR/ERBB system and MYC/LRIG1 in the commitment of stem cells toward specific progenitor cell types, with implications for our understanding of their role in tissue development, homeostasis, and disease. PMID:24891618

  1. Overexpression of epigen during embryonic development induces reversible, epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent sebaceous gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Dahlhoff, Maik; Frances, Daniela; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf; Schfer, Matthias; Niemann, Catherin; Schneider, Marlon R

    2014-08-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system is a key regulator of epithelial development and homeostasis. Its functions in the sebaceous gland (SG), however, remain poorly characterized. In this study, using a transgenic mouse line with tissue-specific and inducible expression of the EGFR ligand epigen, we showed that increased activation of the EGFR in skin keratinocytes results in enlarged SGs and increased sebum production. The phenotype can be reverted by interrupting transgene expression and is EGFR dependent, as gland size and sebum levels return to normal values after crossing to the EGFR-impaired mouse line Wa5. Intriguingly, however, the SG enlargement appears only if EGFR activation occurs before birth. Importantly, the enlarged sebaceous glands are associated with an increased expression of the transcription factor MYC and of the transmembrane proteins LRIG1, an established negative-feedback regulator of the EGFR/ERBB tyrosine kinase receptors and a stem cell marker. Our findings identify EGFR signaling as a major pathway determining SG activity and suggest a functional relationship between the EGFR/ERBB system and MYC/LRIG1 in the commitment of stem cells toward specific progenitor cell types, with implications for our understanding of their role in tissue development, homeostasis, and disease. PMID:24891618

  2. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from plant cell cultures induce heme oxygenase 1 gene expression in a human keratinocyte cell line by affecting the balance of NRF2 and BACH1 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sgarbossa, Anna; Dal Bosco, Martina; Pressi, Giovanna; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Dal Toso, Roberto; Menegazzi, Marta

    2012-08-30

    Phenylpropanoids have several highly significant biological properties in both plants and animals. Four phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs), verbascoside (VB), forsythoside B (FB), echinacoside (EC) and campneoside I (CP), were purified and tested for their capability to activate NRF2 and induce phase II cytoprotective enzymes in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). All four substances showed similar strong antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities as determined by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Furthermore, in HaCaT cells, FB and EC are strong activators of NRF2, the nuclear transcription factor regulating many phase II detoxifying and cytoprotective enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1). In HaCaT cells, FB and EC (200 ?M) induced nuclear translocation of NRF2 protein after 24 h and reduced nuclear protein levels of BACH1, a repressor of the antioxidant response element. FB and EC greatly HMOX1 mRNA levels by more than 40-fold in 72 h. Cytoplasmic HMOX1 protein levels were also increased at 48 h after treatment. VB was less active compared to FB and EC, and CP was slightly active only at later times of treatment. We suggest that hydroxytyrosol (HYD) could be a potential bioactive metabolite of PPGs since HYD, in equimolar amounts to PGGs, is able to both activate HO-1 transcription and modify Nrf2/Bach1 nuclear protein levels. This is in agreement with the poor activity of CP, which contains a HYD moiety modified by an O-methyl group. In conclusion, FB and EC from plant cell cultures may provide long-lasting skin protection by induction of phase II cytoprotective capabilities. PMID:22735309

  3. Cultured human foreskin fibroblasts produce a factor that stimulates their growth with properties similar to basic fibroblast growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Story, M.T. )

    1989-05-01

    To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue.

  4. Dendrimer-epidermal growth factor conjugate displays superagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thommey P; Shukla, Rameshwer; Kotlyar, Alina; Liang, Bradley; Ye, Jing Yong; Norris, Theodore B; Baker, James R

    2008-02-01

    Binding of ligands on to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can stimulate cell growth; therefore, any application employing EGF as a targeting ligand for a "drug carrier" must evaluate the effect of the conjugate on cell growth. We report the synthesis and in vitro biological activity of EGF molecules coupled to a fluorescein-labeled polyamidoamine dendrimer. The conjugate bound and internalized into several EGFR-expressing cell lines in a receptor-specific fashion. The conjugate effectively induced EGFR phosphorylation and acted as a superagonist by stimulating cell growth to a greater degree than free EGF. Concomitant administration of the chemotherapeutic drug methotrexate completely inhibited cell growth to a degree similar to its effect in the absence of the conjugate. Thus, dendrimer-EGF conjugates serve as EGFR superagonists, but this activity can be overcome by chemotherapeutic drugs. The agonist activity of these materials must be taken into consideration when using EGF conjugates for imaging applications. PMID:18193839

  5. Expression and localization of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α and epidermal growth factor receptor in the canine testis

    PubMed Central

    TAMADA, Hiromichi; TAKEMOTO, Kohei; TOMINAGA, Masato; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; HATOYA, Shingo; MATSUYAMA, Satoshi; INABA, Toshio; SAWADA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and EGF receptor (EGF-R) and the localization of the corresponding proteins in the canine testis were studied. Levels of mRNA expressions were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the testes of the peripubertal (4–6 months), young adult (3–4 years), advanced adult (7–8 years) and senescent (11–16 years) groups. The EGF-R mRNA level in the testes of the peripubertal group was significantly higher than those in the other groups, whereas there was no difference in EGF and TGF-α mRNA levels among groups. Immunohistochemical stainings for EGF, TGF-α and EGF-R in the testis revealed that immunoreactivity in the seminiferous epithelium and Sertoli cell was weak and nonspecific for the stage of spermatogenesis, and distinct staining was found in Leydig cells. These results suggest that the EGF family of growth factors may be involved in testicular maturation and function in the dog. PMID:26498203

  6. Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-?1 expression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Jamil; Sung, Chang Keun

    2015-02-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E.alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E.alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E.alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-?1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E.alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia. PMID:25484129

  7. Stimulation of amniotic fluid cells by fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Chettur, L; Christensen, E; Philip, J

    1978-10-01

    Amniotic fluid cells were grown in modified Dulbecco's medium with and without the following additives in different combinations: fibroblast growth factor (FGF), dexamethasone (DME), insulin and cyclic GMP under controlled conditions. Experiments were also conducted with varying amounts of foetal calf serum and FGF to establish optimum levels. Comparative growth, determined by measuring 3H-thymidine uptake, showed that the combination of FGF, DME and insulin in medium with 20% foetal calf serum produced the highest growth rate. These experiments indicate that the culture time of amniotic fluid cells for chromosome studies could be reduced by 25%. FGF did not have any deleterious effect on the chromosomes. PMID:212239

  8. Oligonucleotide-Based Mimetics of Hepatocyte Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Ryosuke; Ueki, Ayaka; Kanda, Naoto; Sando, Shinsuke

    2016-01-11

    Oligonucleotide-based hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mimetics are described. A DNA aptamer to Met, a cognate receptor for HGF, was shown to induce Met activation when used in dimer form. The most potent aptamer dimer, ss-0, which was composed solely of 100-mer single-stranded DNA, exhibited nanomolar potency. Aptamer ss-0 reproduced HGF-induced cellular behaviors, including migration and proliferation. The present work sheds light on oligonucleotides as a novel chemical entity for the design of growth factor mimetics. PMID:26592704

  9. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  10. Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor and insulin-like growth factor on cultured cartilage cells from skate Raja porasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tingjun; Jin, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2003-12-01

    Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) on cartilage cells from proboscis of skate, Raja porasa Gnther, were investigated in this study. The cartilage cells were cultured in 20% FBS-supplemented MEM medium at 24C. Twelve hours after culture initiation, the cartilage cells were treated with bFGF and IGF-II at different concentration combinations. It was found that 20 ng/ml of bFGF or 80 ng/ml of IGF-II was enough to have obvious stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. Test of bFGF and IGF-II together, revealed that 20 ng/ml of bFGF and 80 ng/ml of IGF-II together had the best stimulating effect on the growth and division of skate cartilage cells. The cartilage cells cultured could form a monolayer at day 7.

  11. Coexpression of transforming growth factor-alpha and pidermal growth factor receptor in capillary hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Reifenberger, G.; Reifenberger, J.; Bilzer, T.; Wechsler, W.; Collins, V. P.

    1995-01-01

    The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the pre-pro form of one of its ligands, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), was studied by Northern blotting in a series of 14 capillary hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system. A constant coexpression of EGFR and pre-pro-TGF-alpha mRNAs was found. Immunocytochemical investigation of an extended series of 51 capillary hemangioblastomas revealed that the stromal cells in these tumors showed immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies to EGFR and TGF-alpha. Analysis of gene dosage by Southern blotting in 20 tumors indicated a normal gene copy number of EGFR and TGF alpha in all cases. Our findings suggest that autocrine and/or juxtacrine growth stimulation via the EGFR may contribute to tumor growth in capillary hemangioblastomas. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7639324

  12. [Betacellulin: a new growth factor for vascular smooth muscle cells].

    PubMed

    Sasada, R; Igarashi, K

    1993-12-01

    Betacellulin, a new member of the epidermal growth factor family, has been purified from the conditioned media of mouse pancreatic beta tumor cells. Purified betacellulin is a single chain glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 32K. This factor is a potent mitogen for retinal pigment epithelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Molecular cloning of the mouse and human cDNAs reveals that the mature form of this factor, composed of 80 amino acid residues, appears to be processed from a larger transmembrane precursor by proteolytic cleavage. Seventy nine % amino acid similarity is present between mouse and human precursor proteins. The carboxyl-terminal domains of both mouse and human betacellulins have a 50% sequence similarity with that of rat transforming growth factor alpha. The betacellulin gene is found to be expressed in several mouse tissues, including kidney, liver and pancreatic beta cells. PMID:8283650

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factors: A comparison between invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to summarize recent data concerning the structure and role of the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) families in the context of early development, organogenesis and regeneration, with a particular emphasis on the role of these factors in the development of invertebrates. Homologs of VEGF and/or VEGFR have been found in all Eumetazoa, in both Radiata and Bilateria, where they are expressed in the descendants of different germ layers and play a pivotal role in the development of animals with and without a vascular system. VEGF is a well-known angiogenesis regulator, but this factor also control cell migration during neurogenesis and the development of branching organs (the trachea) in invertebrate and vertebrate species. A possible explanation for the origin of Vegf/Vegfr in the animal kingdom and a pathway of Vegf/Vegfr evolution are discussed. PMID:26066416

  14. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    PubMed

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  15. Growth suppressing factor for endothelial cells exhibits tumor regressing activity.

    PubMed

    Usui, S; Matsunaga, T; Ukai, S; Kiho, T; Hirano, K

    1999-04-01

    Endothelium growth suppressing and tumor-regressing activities were copurified from the conditioned medium of P388D1 culture in the presence of 100 microg/ml carboxymethylated curdlan by a procedure including ammonium sulfate fractionation and six column chromatographies of Ceramic hydroxyapatite, Q-Sepharose, Sephacryl S-300 HR, Matrex PBA-30, PBE94, and anti-bovine serum albumin (anti-BSA) agarose. The intravenous administration of the purified growth suppressing factor for endothelial cells to sarcoma 180-bearing mouse caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable tumor cells in tumor lumps within 16 h. Immunohistochemical study showed that the intravenous injection of the purified factor to sarcoma 180-bearing mouse resulted in hemorrhagic disorder all over the tissue in the tumor lamp. Thus, the purified factor exhibited not only growth suppressing activity for endothelial cells but also tumor regressing activity at a concentration as low as about 15 ng/mouse. The purified factor significantly inhibited in vitro tubulogenesis of bovine artery, human umbilical vein, and adult human darmal microvascular endothelial cells on collagen gel at a concentration of about 5 ng/ml. After the tube formation of endothelial cells was completed on a collagen gel, the purified factor disrupted the tubes at a concentration of about 5 ng/ml within 48 h. These findings demonstrate that endothelium growth suppressing factor is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis as well as the growth of endothelial cells, and may bring about the regression of a solid tumor by inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:10328553

  16. Constitution of Fibrin-Based Niche for In Vitro Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Jayakumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Epithelialization of chronic cutaneous wound is troublesome and may require use of skin/cell substitutes. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have immense potential as autologous cell source for treating wounds; they can cross the germ layer boundary of differentiation and regenerate skin. When multipotent adult stem cells are considered for skin regeneration, lineage committed keratinocytes may be beneficial to prevent undesirable post-transplantation outcome. This study hypothesized that ADMSCs may be directed to epidermal lineage in vitro on a specifically designed biomimetic and biodegradable niche. Cells were seeded on the test niche constituted with fibrin, fibronectin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, laminin V, platelet growth factor, and epidermal growth factor in the presence of cell-specific differentiation medium (DM). The ADMSCs grown on bare tissue culture polystyrene surface in DM is designated DM-control and those grown in basal medium (BM) is the BM-control. Lineage commitment was monitored with keratinocyte-specific markers such as cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 5, cytokeratin 19, and integrin ?6 at the transcriptional/translational level. The in vitro designed biomimetic fibrin composite matrix may have potential application as cell transplantation vehicle. PMID:25469318

  17. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1) Ec/Mechano Growth Factor A Splice Variant of IGF-1 within the Growth Plate

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Werner; Raimann, Adalbert; Halbauer, Daniel; Scharmer, Daniela; Sagmeister, Susanne; Wessner, Barbara; Helmreich, Magdalena; Haeusler, Gabriele; Egerbacher, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor 1 Ec (IGF-1Ec), also called mechano growth factor (MGF), is a splice variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which has been shown in vitro as well as in vivo to induce growth and hypertrophy in mechanically stimulated or damaged muscle. Growth, hypertrophy and responses to mechanical stimulation are important reactions of cartilaginous tissues, especially those in growth plates. Therefore, we wanted to ascertain if MGF is expressed in growth plate cartilage and if it influences proliferation of chondrocytes, as it does in musculoskeletal tissues. MGF expression was analyzed in growth plate and control tissue samples from piglets aged 3 to 6 weeks. Furthermore, growth plate chondrocyte cell culture was used to evaluate the effects of the MGF peptide on proliferation. We showed that MGF is expressed in considerable amounts in the tissues evaluated. We found the MGF peptide to be primarily located in the cytoplasm, and in some instances, it was also found in the nucleus of the cells. Addition of MGF peptides was not associated with growth plate chondrocyte proliferation. PMID:24146828

  18. Assessing the Factors of Regional Growth Decline of Sugar Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, D. A.; Beier, C. M.; Pederson, N.; Lawrence, G. B.; Stella, J. C.; Sullivan, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is among the most ecologically, economically and culturally important trees in North America, but has experienced a decline disease across much of its range. We investigated the climatic and edaphic factors associated with A. saccharum growth in the Adirondack Mountains (USA) using a well-replicated tree-ring network incorporating a range of soil fertility (base cation availability). We found that nearly 3 in 4 A. saccharum trees exhibited declining growth rates during the last several decades, regardless of tree age or size. Although diameter growth was consistently higher on base-rich soils, the negative trends in growth were largely consistent across the soil chemistry gradient. Sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic variability was overall weaker than expected, but were also non-stationary during the 20th century. We observed increasingly positive responses to late-winter precipitation, increasingly negative responses to growing season temperatures, and strong positive responses to moisture availability during the 1960s drought that became much weaker during the recent pluvial. Further study is needed of these factors and their interactions as potential mechanisms for sugar maple growth decline.

  19. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor/Diphtheria Toxin Receptor in Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Vinante, Fabrizio; Rigo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) belongs to the EGF family of growth factors. It is biologically active either as a molecule anchored to the membrane or as a soluble form released by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. HB-EGF is involved in relevant physiological and pathological processes spanning from proliferation and apoptosis to morphogenesis. We outline here the main activities of HB-EGF in connection with normal or neoplastic differentiative or proliferative events taking place primitively in the hematopoietic microenvironment. PMID:23888518

  20. Newly discovered olfactory receptors in epidermal keratinocytes are associated with proliferation, migration, and re-epithelialization of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Skin contains receptors for various environmental factors. In this issue of the Journal, Busse et al. cloned a new olfactory receptor, OR2AT4, in keratinocytes. They show that the activation of OR2AT4 induces phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and that it accelerates wound healing. OR2AT4 may be a promising candidate as a target in clinical drug development. PMID:25318430

  1. Growth factor delivery for oral and periodontal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kaigler, Darnell; Cirelli, Joni A; Giannobile, William V

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of oral and periodontal diseases and associated anomalies accounts for a significant proportion of the healthcare burden, with the manifestations of these conditions being functionally and psychologically debilitating. Growth factors are critical to the development, maturation, maintenance and repair of craniofacial tissues, as they establish an extracellular environment that is conducive to cell and tissue growth. Tissue-engineering principles aim to exploit these properties in the development of biomimetic materials that can provide an appropriate microenvironment for tissue development. These materials have been constructed into devices that can be used as vehicles for delivery of cells, growth factors and DNA. In this review, different mechanisms of drug delivery are addressed in the context of novel approaches to reconstruct and engineer oral- and tooth-supporting structures, namely the periodontium and alveolar bone. PMID:16948560

  2. NEUROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLCHICINE: MODULATION BY NERVE GROWTH FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study the effects of exogenously applied nerve growth factor (NGF) on colchicine-induced neurodegeneration in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal formation, male Fischer 344 rats (n=75) weighing 275-325 grams received colchicine [COLCH; 2.5 ug/site in 0.5 ul of artificial...

  3. Hyperglycemia to nephropathy via transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Garud, Mayuresh Sudamrao; Kulkarni, Yogesh Anant

    2014-05-01

    Nephropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes which further directs to end stage renal disease. Extensive work has been done to find out the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of the DN. Now, many researchers have been convinced that almost all of the molecular mediators and intracellular signaling pathways involved in progression of diabetic nephropathy have involvement in transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β) at some stage. In DN, hyperglycemia causes increase in the expression of TGF- β genes, TGF- β proteins and their receptors. Increased glucose level mediates these effects through activation of polyol pathway, protein kinase C pathway, hexosamine pathway, increases advanced glycation end products (AGE) and increases oxidative stress. Hyperglycemia also activates the TGF- β via activation of glucose transporters (GLUT), angiotensine II and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Activated TGF-β further leads to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and glomerulosclerosis through activation of connective tissue growth factor (CDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We have discussed the progression of hyperglycemia to DN via TGF- β, whose schematic presentation may serve as an effective way to understand the mechanisms and to find out an effective way for the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24919657

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,

  5. Controlled growth factor release from synthetic extracellular matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Peters, Martin C.; Anderson, Kenneth W.; Mooney, David J.

    2000-12-01

    Polymeric matrices can be used to grow new tissues and organs, and the delivery of growth factors from these matrices is one method to regenerate tissues. A problem with engineering tissues that exist in a mechanically dynamic environment, such as bone, muscle and blood vessels, is that most drug delivery systems have been designed to operate under static conditions. We thought that polymeric matrices, which release growth factors in response to mechanical signals, might provide a new approach to guide tissue formation in mechanically stressed environments. Critical design features for this type of system include the ability to undergo repeated deformation, and a reversible binding of the protein growth factors to polymeric matrices to allow for responses to repeated stimuli. Here we report a model delivery system that can respond to mechanical signalling and upregulate the release of a growth factor to promote blood vessel formation. This approach may find a number of applications, including regeneration and engineering of new tissues and more general drug-delivery applications.

  6. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,…

  7. Regulation of liver regeneration by growth factors and cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Bhm, Friederike; Khler, Ulrike A; Speicher, Tobias; Werner, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The capability of the liver to fully regenerate after injury is a unique phenomenon essential for the maintenance of its important functions in the control of metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The regeneration process is histologically well described, but the genes that orchestrate liver regeneration have been only partially characterized. Of particular interest are cytokines and growth factors, which control different phases of liver regeneration. Historically, their potential functions in this process were addressed by analyzing their expression in the regenerating liver of rodents. Some of the predicted roles were confirmed using functional studies, including systemic delivery of recombinant growth factors, neutralizing antibodies or siRNAs prior to liver injury or during liver regeneration. In particular, the availability of genetically modified mice and their use in liver regeneration studies has unraveled novel and often unexpected functions of growth factors, cytokines and their downstream signalling targets in liver regeneration. This review summarizes the results obtained by functional studies that have addressed the roles and mechanisms of action of growth factors and cytokines in liver regeneration after acute injury to this organ. PMID:20652897

  8. The Study of the Enrollment Growth Factor. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Terry N.; And Others

    This paper presents findings of a study that examined the New Mexico school-finance formula. Specifically, the study assessed the adequacy of the enrollment growth factor (EGF) and its differential impact on New Mexico school districts that grow at different rates. An EGF refers to some type of weighting in a state's basic aid formula to reflect

  9. Immunocytochemical expression of growth factors by odontogenic jaw cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T.; Browne, R. M.; Matthews, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine the immunocytochemical pattern of expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and TGF beta in the three most common types of odontogenic jaw cyst. METHODS: Growth factor expression was detected in paraffin wax sections of odontogenic cysts (27 odontogenic keratocysts, 10 dentigerous cysts, and 10 radicular cysts) using a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase technique with monoclonal antibodies directed against TGF alpha (clone 213-4.4) and TGF beta (clone TB21) and a polyclonal antibody directed against EGF (Z-12). RESULTS: The epithelial linings of all cysts showed reactivity for TGF alpha which was mainly localised to basal and suprabasal layers. Odontogenic keratocyst linings expressed higher levels of TGF alpha than those of dentigerous and radicular cysts, with 89% (24/27) of odontogenic keratocysts exhibiting a strong positive reaction compared with 50% (five of 10) of dentigerous and radicular cysts, respectively. EGF reactivity was similar in all cyst groups, weaker than that for TGF alpha and predominantly suprabasal. TGF alpha and EGF were also detected in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells within the cyst walls. The most intense TGF beta staining in odontogenic cysts was extracellular within the fibrous tissue capsules, irrespective of cyst type. CONCLUSIONS: These results, together with previous studies of EGF receptor, indicate differential expression of TGF alpha, EGF and their common receptor between the different types of odontogenic cyst, suggesting that these growth factors (via autocrine or paracrine, or both, pathways) may be involved in their pathogenesis. Images PMID:9208810

  10. Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor, microvascular hyperpermeability, and angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, H. F.; Brown, L. F.; Detmar, M.; Dvorak, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    VPF/VEGF is a multifunctional cytokine that contributes to angiogenesis by both direct and indirect mechanisms. On the one hand, VPF/VEGF stimulates the ECs lining nearby microvessels to proliferate, to migrate, and to alter their pattern of gene expression. On the other hand, VPF/VEGF renders these same microvascular ECs hyperpermeable so that they spill plasma proteins into the extravascular space, leading to the clotting of extravasated fibrinogen with deposition of a fibrin gel. Extravascular fibrin serves as a provisional matrix that favors and supports the ingrowth of new blood vessels and other mesenchymal cells that generate mature, vascularized stroma. These same principles apply in tumors, in several examples of non-neoplastic pathology, and in physiological processes that involve angiogenesis and new stroma generation. In all of these examples, microvascular hyperpermeability and the introduction of a provisional, plasma-derived matrix precede and accompany the onset of EC division and new blood vessel formation. It would seem, therefore, that tumors have "borrowed" fundamental mechanisms that developed in multicellular organisms for purposes of tissue defense, renewal, and repair. VPF/VEGF, therefore has taught us something new about angiogenesis; namely, that vascular hyperpermeability and consequent plasma protein extravasation are important, perhaps essential, elements in its generation. However, this finding raises a paradox. While VPF/VEGF induces vascular hyperpermeability, other potent angiogenic factors apparently do not, at least in subtoxic concentrations that are more than sufficient to induce angiogenesis. Nonetheless, wherever angiogenesis has been studied, the newly generated vessels have been found to be hyperpermeable. How, therefore, do angiogenic factors other than VPF/VEGF lead to the formation of new and leaky blood vessels? We do not as yet have a complete answer to this question. One possibility is that at least some angiogenic factors mediate their effect by inducing or stimulating the expression of VPF/VEGF. In fact, there is already one clear example of this. TGF-alpha is a potent angiogenic factor but does not itself increase microvascular permeability. However, TGF-alpha strikingly upregulates VPF/VEGF expression in cultured keratinocytes and is thought to be responsible, at least in part, for the overexpression of VPF/VEGF in psoriasis. Moreover, overexpression of TGF-alpha, along with that of the EGF receptor with which it interacts, is characteristic of many malignant tumors, raising the possibility that TGF-alpha acts to stimulate VPF/VEGF expression in other types of epithelial cells and in this manner induces angiogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7538264

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) Inhibits Chondrocyte Function and Growth Hormone Action Directly at the Growth Plate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shufang; Levenson, Amy; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; De Luca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) modulates glucose and lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, previous evidence indicates that increased expression of FGF21 during chronic food restriction is associated with reduced bone growth and growth hormone (GH) insensitivity. In light of the inhibitory effects on growth plate chondrogenesis mediated by other FGFs, we hypothesized that FGF21 causes growth inhibition by acting directly at the long bones' growth plate. We first demonstrated the expression of FGF21, FGFR1 and FGFR3 (two receptors known to be activated by FGF21) and β-klotho (a co-receptor required for the FGF21-mediated receptor binding and activation) in fetal and 3-week-old mouse growth plate chondrocytes. We then cultured mouse growth plate chondrocytes in the presence of graded concentrations of rhFGF21 (0.01–10 μg/ml). Higher concentrations of FGF21 (5 and 10 μg/ml) inhibited chondrocyte thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression. 10 ng/ml GH stimulated chondrocyte thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression, with both effects prevented by the addition in the culture medium of FGF21 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGF21 reduced GH binding in cultured chondrocytes. In cells transfected with FGFR1 siRNA or ERK 1 siRNA, the antagonistic effects of FGF21 on GH action were all prevented, supporting a specific effect of this growth factor in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that increased expression of FGF21 during food restriction causes growth attenuation by antagonizing the GH stimulatory effects on chondrogenesis directly at the growth plate. In addition, high concentrations of FGF21 may directly suppress growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. PMID:22696219

  12. Gelatin Methacrylate Microspheres for Growth Factor Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh H.; McKinney, Jay; Miller, Tobias; Bongiorno, Tom; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin has been commonly used as a delivery vehicle for various biomolecules for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications due to its simple fabrication methods, inherent electrostatic binding properties, and proteolytic degradability. Compared to traditional chemical cross-linking methods, such as the use of glutaraldehyde (GA), methacrylate modification of gelatin offers an alternative method to better control the extent of hydrogel cross-linking. Here we examined the physical properties and growth factor delivery of gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles formulated with a wide range of different cross-linking densities (1590%). Less methacrylated MPs had decreased elastic moduli and larger mesh sizes compared to GA MPs, with increasing methacrylation correlating to greater moduli and smaller mesh sizes. As expected, an inverse correlation between microparticle cross-linking density and degradation was observed, with the lowest cross-linked GMA MPs degrading at the fastest rate, comparable to GA MPs. Interestingly, GMA MPs at lower cross-linking densities could be loaded with up to a 10-fold higher relative amount of growth factor over conventional GA cross-linked MPs, despite an order of magnitude greater gelatin content of GA MPs. Moreover, a reduced GMA cross-linking density resulted in more complete release of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and accelerated release rate with collagenase treatment. These studies demonstrate that GMA MPs provide a more flexible platform for growth factor delivery by enhancing the relative binding capacity and permitting proteolytic degradation tunability, thereby offering a more potent controlled release system for growth factor delivery. PMID:25463489

  13. 20-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, enhances the production of hyaluronic acid through the activation of ERK and Akt mediated by Src tyrosin kinase in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae-Gyu; Jeon, Ae Ji; Yoon, Ji Hye; Song, Dasom; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kang, Nam Joo; Park, Jun-Seong; Yeom, Myeong Hun; Oh, Deok-Kun; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Charles C; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms through which 20-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (20GPPD) promotes the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) in human keratinocytes. 20GPPD is the primary bioactive metabolite of Rb1, a major ginsenoside found in ginseng (Panax ginseng). We sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the 20GPPD-induced production of HA. We found that 20GPPD induced an increase in HA production by elevating hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression in human keratinocytes. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt was also enhanced by 20GPPD in a dose-dependent manner. The pharmacological inhibition of ERK (using U0126) or Akt (using LY294002) suppressed the 20GPPD-induced expression of HAS2, whereas treatment with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor (AG1478) or an intracellular Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA/AM) did not exert any observable effects. The increased Src phosphorylation was also confirmed following treatment with 20GPPD in the human keratinocytes. Following pre-treatment with the Src inhibitor, PP2, both HA production and HAS2 expression were attenuated. Furthermore, the 20GPPD-enhanced ERK and Akt signaling decreased following treatment with PP2. Taken together, our results suggest that Src kinase plays a critical role in the 20GPPD-induced production of HA by acting as an upstream modulator of ERK and Akt activity in human keratinocytes. PMID:25738334

  14. Induction of nerve growth factor receptors on cultured human melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Peacocke, M; Yaar, M; Mansur, C P; Chao, M V; Gilchrest, B A

    1988-01-01

    Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human melanocytes involve a complex series of interactions during which both genetic and environmental factors play roles. At present, the regulation of these processes is poorly understood. We have induced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on cultured human melanocytes with phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate and have correlated this event with the appearance of a more differentiated, dendritic morphology. Criteria for NGF receptor expression included protein accumulation and cell-surface immunofluorescent staining with a monoclonal antibody directed against the human receptor and induction of the messenger RNA species as determined by blot-hybridization studies. The presence of the receptor could also be induced by UV irradiation or growth factor deprivation. The NGF receptor is inducible in cultured human melanocytes, and we suggest that NGF may modulate the behavior of this neural crest-derived cell in the skin. Images PMID:2839841

  15. Induction of nerve growth factor receptors on cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peacocke, M.; Yaar, M.; Mansur, C.P.; Chao, M.V.; Gilchrest, B.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human melanocytes involve a complex series of interactions during which both genetic and environmental factors play roles. At present, the regulation of these processes is poorly understood. The authors have induced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on cultured human melanocytes with phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate and have correlated this event with the appearance of a more differentiated, dendritic morphology. Criteria for NGF receptor expression included protein accumulation and cell-surface immunofluorescent staining with a monoclonal antibody directed against the human receptor and induction of the messenger RNA species as determined by blot-hybridization studies. The presence of the receptor could also be induced by UV irradiation or growth factor deprivation. The NGF receptor is inducible in cultured human melanocytes, and they suggest that NGF may modulate the behavior of this neural crest-derived cell in the skin.

  16. Vascular Endothelial growth factor signaling in hypoxia and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Anand, Vidhu; Roy, Sabita

    2014-01-01

    Infection, cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the major causes for morbidity and mortality in the United States according to the Center for Disease Control. The underlying etiology that contributes to the severity of these diseases is either hypoxia induced inflammation or inflammation resulting in hypoxia. Therefore, molecular mechanisms that regulate hypoxia-induced adaptive responses in cells are important areas of investigation. Oxygen availability is sensed by molecular switches which regulate synthesis and secretion of growth factors and inflammatory mediators. As a consequence, tissue microenvironment is altered by reprogramming metabolic pathways, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, pH homeostasis to facilitate tissue remodeling. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is the central mediator of hypoxic response. HIF regulates several hundred genes and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the primary target genes. Understanding the regulation of HIF and its influence on inflammatory response offers unique opportunities for drug development to modulate inflammation and ischemia in pathological conditions. PMID:24610033

  17. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  18. The importance of neuronal growth factors in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Streiter, S; Fisch, B; Sabbah, B; Ao, A; Abir, R

    2016-01-01

    The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT4/5), in addition to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the neuronal growth factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vasointestinal peptide (VIP). Although there are a few literature reviews, mainly of animal studies, on the importance of neurotrophins in the ovary, we aimed to provide a complete review of neurotrophins as well as neuronal growth factors and their important roles in normal and pathological processes in the ovary. Follicular assembly is probably stimulated by complementary effects of NGF, NT4/5 and BDNF and their receptors. The neurotrophins, GDNF and VIP and their receptors have all been identified in preantral and antral follicles of mammalian species, including humans. Transgenic mice with mutations in the genes encoding for Ngf, Nt4/5 and Bdnf and their tropomyosin-related kinase ? receptor showed a reduction in preantral follicles and an abnormal ovarian morphology, whereas NGF, NT3, GDNF and VIP increased the in vitro activation of primordial follicles in rats and goats. Additionally, NGF, NT3 and GDNF promoted follicular cell proliferation; NGF, BDNF and VIP were shown to be involved in ovulation; VIP inhibited follicular apoptosis; NT4/5, BDNF and GDNF promoted oocyte maturation and NGF, NT3 and VIP stimulated steroidogenesis. NGF may also exert a stimulatory effect in ovarian cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low levels of NGF and BDNF in follicular fluid may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve and high levels with endometriosis. More knowledge of the roles of neuronal growth factors in the ovary has important implications for the development of new therapeutic drugs (such as anti-NGF agents) for ovarian cancer and PCOS as well as various infertility problems, warranting further research. PMID:26487421

  19. Osteoinductive small molecules: growth factor alternatives for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Aravamudhan, Aja; Ramos, Daisy M; Nip, Jonathan; Subramanian, Aditi; James, Roshan; Harmon, Matthew D; Yu, Xiaojun; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to repair, restore, and regenerate lost or damaged tissues by using biomaterials, cells, mechanical forces and factors (chemical and biological) alone or in combination. Growth factors are routinely used in the tissue engineering approach to expedite the process of regeneration. The growth factor approach has been hampered by several complications including high dose requirements, lower half-life, protein instability, higher costs and undesired side effects. Recently a variety of alternative small molecules of both natural and synthetic origin have been explored as alternatives to growth factors for tissue regeneration applications. Small molecules are simple biochemical components that elicit certain cellular responses through signaling cascades. Small molecules present a viable alternative to biological factors. Small molecule strategies can reduce various side effects, maintain bioactivity in a biological environment and minimize cost issues associated with complex biological growth factors. This manuscript focuses on three-osteoinductive small molecules, namely melatonin, resveratrol (from natural sources) and purmorphamine (synthetically designed) as inducers of bone formation and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Efforts have been made to summarize possible biological pathways involved in the action of each of these drugs. Melatonin is known to affect Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase, Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and canonical wnt signaling. Resveratrol is known to activate cascades involving Wnt and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1). Purmorphamine is a Hedgehog (Hh) pathway agonist as it acts on Smoothened (Smo) receptors. These mechanisms and the way they are affected by the respective small molecules will also be discussed in the manuscript. PMID:23432678

  20. Candida albicans-induced inflammatory response in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Knkel, W; Bulling, L; Fnfstck, C; Knll, B; Vennewald, I; Hipler, U-C

    2004-06-01

    Candida albicans strains 3153a, ATCC 48867, CBS 2730, DSM 70014, and Vir 13 were cultivated and sterile C. albicans filtrates were produced. The interaction of soluble Candida factors of these infiltrates with human HaCaT keratinocytes was assayed in vitro. The following parameters were analyzed: cell proliferation, protein synthesis, nuclear matrix protein (NMP) 41 release, cytokine release (IL-1beta, soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-6, and IL-8), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell counts at 1, 12, and 24 h were significantly lower for C. albicans strains CBS 2730 and VIR 13 (P < 0.05). There was no significant change for the remaining strains. Neither the protein synthesis nor the NMP-41 release was significantly affected. IL-6 and IL-8 were stimulated by C. albicans filtrates to different amounts with higher levels in strains of low virulence. There was no effect on the other cytokines. The production of ROS by HaCaT keratinocytes was suppressed. The induction of an inflammatory keratinocyte response by soluble C. albicans factors may play a role among the host-yeast interactions. PMID:15189182

  1. ZIP2 Protein, a Zinc Transporter, Is Associated with Keratinocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yu; Hasegawa, Seiji; Ban, Sadanori; Yamada, Takaaki; Date, Yasushi; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Tanaka, Masahiko; Hirashima, Naohide

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is essential for the proper functioning of various enzymes and transcription factors, and its homeostasis is rigorously controlled by zinc transporters (SLC39/ZIP, importers; SLC30/ZnT, exporters). Skin disease is commonly caused by a zinc deficiency. Dietary and inherited zinc deficiencies are known to cause alopecia and the development of vesicular or pustular dermatitis. A previous study demonstrated that zinc played crucial roles in the survival of keratinocytes and their unique functions. High levels of zinc have been detected in the epidermis. Epidermal layers are considered to use a mechanism that preferentially takes in zinc, which is involved with the unique functions of keratinocytes. However, few studies have investigated the ZIP (Zrt- and Irt-like protein) proteins specifically expressed in keratinocytes and their functions. We explored the ZIP proteins specifically expressed in the epidermis and analyzed their functions. Gene expression analysis showed that the expression of ZIP2 was consistently higher in the epidermis than in the dermis. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the expression of ZIP2 in differentiating keratinocytes. The expression of ZIP2 was found to be up-regulated by the differentiation induction of cultured keratinocytes. Intracellular zinc levels were decreased in keratinocytes when ZIP2 was knocked down by siRNA, and this subsequently inhibited the differentiation of keratinocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZIP2 knockdown inhibited the normal formation of a three-dimensional cultured epidermis. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ZIP2, a zinc transporter expressed specifically in the epidermis, and zinc taken up by ZIP2 are necessary for the differentiation of keratinocytes. PMID:24936057

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through ?-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-hong; Xiang, Li-Jun; Shi, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Li-ping; Cai, Ping-tao; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Lin, Bei-Bei; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Guo, Ding-Jiong; Li, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Xiao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of FGFs induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to the control group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of ?-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles of the FGFs-treated group. These results suggest that FGFs promote hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might be a potential hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:25685806

  3. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  4. Transforming Growth Factor-?Independent Role of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in the Development of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Keiko; Jawaid, Safdar; Sasaki, Takako; Bou-Gharios, George; Sakai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling as a fibronectin-independent mechanism of type I collagen fibrillogenesis following adult liver injury. To address the contribution of TGF-? signaling during the development of liver fibrosis, we generated adult mice lacking TGF-? type II receptor (TGF-?IIR) from the liver. TGF-?IIR knockout livers indeed showed a dominant effect in reducing fibrosis, but fibrosis still remained approximately 45% compared with control and fibronectin knockout livers. Unexpectedly, this was accompanied by significant up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor mRNA levels. Organized type I collagen networks in TGF-?IIR knockout livers colocalized well with fibronectin. We provide evidence that elimination of TGF-?IIR is not sufficient to completely prevent liver fibrosis. Our results indicate a TGF-?independent mechanism of type I collagen production and suggest connective tissue growth factor as its potent mediator. We advocate combined elimination of TGF-? signaling and connective tissue growth factor as a potential therapeutic target bywhich to attenuate liver fibrosis. PMID:25108224

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Acts Primarily via Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor ? to Promote Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pennock, Steven; Haddock, Luis J.; Mukai, Shizuo; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a nonneovascular blinding disease and the leading cause for failure in surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Once formed, PVR is difficult to treat. Hence, there is an acute interest in developing approaches to prevent PVR. Of the many growth factors and cytokines that accumulate in vitreous as PVR develops, neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A has recently been found to prevent PVR in at least one animal model. The goal of this study was to test if Food and Drug Administrationapproved agents could protect the eye from PVR in multiple animal models and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Neutralizing VEGF with aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) safely and effectively protected rabbits from PVR in multiple models of disease. Furthermore, aflibercept reduced the bioactivity of both experimental and clinical PVR vitreous. Finally, although VEGF could promote some PVR-associated cellular responses via VEGF receptors expressed on the retinal pigment epithelial cells that drive this disease, VEGF's major contribution to vitreal bioactivity occurred via platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. Thus, VEGF promotes PVR by a noncanonical ability to engage platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. These findings indicate that VEGF contributes to nonangiogenic diseases and that antiVEGF-based therapies may be effective on a wider spectrum of diseases than previously appreciated. PMID:25261788

  6. Vascular growth factors and receptors in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Bhling, T.; Jskelinen, J.; Persico, M. G.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas are highly vascular central nervous system tumors of controversial origin. Of interest in their pathogenesis are mechanisms regulating endothelial cell growth. The endothelial cell mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis, and together with its two receptor tyrosine kinases VEGFR-1(FLT1) and VEGFR-2(KDR), is up-regulated during the malignant progression of gliomas. We have analyzed the expression of VEGF and its receptors, the related placental growth factor (PlGF) and the endothelial receptors FLT4 and Tie by in situ hybridization in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in all of the hemangiopericytomas studied and highly expressed in the stromal cells of hemangioblastomas. In addition, some hemangioblastoma tumor cells expressed high levels of PlGF. Significantly elevated levels of Tie mRNA, Tie protein, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 but not FLT4 mRNAs were observed in the endothelia of both tumor types. In hemangioblastomas, however, the receptors were also highly expressed by a subpopulation of stromal cells. Consistent results were obtained for a human hemangioblastoma cell line in culture. Up-regulation of the endothelial growth factors and receptors may result in autocrine or paracrine stimulation of endothelial cells and their precursors involved in the genesis of these two vascular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8774132

  7. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo ); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi ); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  8. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Inhibits the Toxic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus on Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mohammedsaeed, Walaa; McBain, Andrew J.; Cruickshank, Sheena M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the potential benefits of the topical application of probiotic bacteria or material derived from them. We have investigated whether a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection of human primary keratinocytes in culture. When primary human keratinocytes were exposed to S. aureus, only 25% of the keratinocytes remained viable following 24 h of incubation. However, in the presence of 108 CFU/ml of live L. rhamnosus GG, the viability of the infected keratinocytes increased to 57% (P = 0.01). L. rhamnosus GG lysates and spent culture fluid also provided significant protection to keratinocytes, with 65% (P = 0.006) and 57% (P = 0.01) of cells, respectively, being viable following 24 h of incubation. Keratinocyte survival was significantly enhanced regardless of whether the probiotic was applied in the viable form or as cell lysates 2 h before or simultaneously with (P = 0.005) or 12 h after (P = 0.01) S. aureus infection. However, spent culture fluid was protective only if added before or simultaneously with S. aureus. With respect to mechanism, both L. rhamnosus GG lysate and spent culture fluid apparently inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion, but only viable bacteria or the lysate could displace S. aureus (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, growth of S. aureus was inhibited by either live bacteria or lysate but not spent culture fluid. Together, these data suggest at least two separate activities involved in the protective effects of L. rhamnosus GG against S. aureus, growth inhibition and reduction of bacterial adhesion. PMID:25015889

  9. The adaptation of the blood-brain barrier to vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Schreurs, Malou P. H.; Houston, Emily M.; May, Victor; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PLGF) are increased in the maternal circulation during pregnancy. These factors may increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, yet brain edema does not normally occur during pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that in pregnancy, the BBB adapts to high levels of these permeability factors. We investigated the influence of pregnancy-related circulating factors on VEGF-induced BBB permeability by perfusing cerebral veins with plasma from nonpregnant (NP) or late-pregnant (LP) rats (n=6/group) and measuring permeability in response to VEGF. The effect of VEGF, PLGF, and VEGF-receptor (VEGFR) activation on BBB permeability was also determined. Results showed that VEGF significantly increased permeability (×107 μm3/min) from 9.7 ± 3.5 to 21.0 ± 1.5 (P<0.05) in NP veins exposed to NP plasma, that was prevented when LP veins were exposed to LP plasma; (9.7±3.8; P>0.05). Both LP plasma and soluble FMS-like tyrosine-kinase 1 (sFlt1) in NP plasma abolished VEGF-induced BBB permeability in NP veins (9.5±2.9 and 12±2.6; P>0.05). PLGF significantly increased BBB permeability in NP plasma (18±1.4; P<0.05), and required only VEGFR1 activation, whereas VEGF-induced BBB permeability required both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Our findings suggest that VEGF and PLGF enhance BBB permeability through different VEGFR pathways and that circulating sFlt1 prevents VEGF- and PLGF-induced BBB permeability during pregnancy. —Schreurs, M. P. H., Houston, E. M., May, V., Cipolla, M. J. The adaptation of the blood-brain barrier to vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor during pregnancy. PMID:21911594

  10. Lifetime growth in wild meerkats: incorporating life history and environmental factors into a standard growth model.

    PubMed

    English, Sinad; Bateman, Andrew W; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2012-05-01

    Lifetime records of changes in individual size or mass in wild animals are scarce and, as such, few studies have attempted to model variation in these traits across the lifespan or to assess the factors that affect them. However, quantifying lifetime growth is essential for understanding trade-offs between growth and other life history parameters, such as reproductive performance or survival. Here, we used model selection based on information theory to measure changes in body mass over the lifespan of wild meerkats, and compared the relative fits of several standard growth models (monomolecular, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and Richards). We found that meerkats exhibit monomolecular growth, with the best model incorporating separate growth rates before and after nutritional independence, as well as effects of season and total rainfall in the previous nine months. Our study demonstrates how simple growth curves may be improved by considering life history and environmental factors, which may be particularly relevant when quantifying growth patterns in wild populations. PMID:22108854

  11. Vasopressin induces human mesangial cell growth via induction of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Atsuo; Tsukada, Junko; Tomura, Yuichi; Yatsu, Takeyuki; Shibasaki, Masayuki

    2011-04-01

    Vasoactive hormones, growth factors, and cytokines are important in promoting mesangial cell growth, a characteristic feature of many glomerular diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial mitogen and promoter of vascular permeability that is constitutively expressed in human glomeruli, but its role in the kidney is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ability of vasopressin (AVP) to stimulate VEGF secretion by and correlation with AVP-induced cell growth in human mesangial cells. AVP caused time- and concentration-dependent increases in VEGF secretion from human mesangial cells, which was in turn potently inhibited by a V(1A) receptor-selective antagonist, confirming that this secretion is a V(1A) receptor-mediated event. VEGF also induced mesangial cell growth which was completely inhibited on administration of an anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody. Further, AVP-induced mesangial cell growth was completely abolished by the V(1A) receptor-selective antagonist and partially inhibited by an anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that AVP stimulates VEGF secretion by human mesangial cells via V(1A) receptors. This secreted VEGF may function as an autocrine hormone to regulate mesangial cell growth, a mechanism by which AVP might contribute to progressive glomerular diseases such as diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21196048

  12. 47 CFR 36.604 - Calculation of the rural growth factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculation of the rural growth factor. 36.604... 36.604 Calculation of the rural growth factor. (a) Until July 30, 2012, the Rural Growth Factor (RGF... Growth Factor shall not include price cap carrier working loops and rate-of-return local exchange...

  13. 47 CFR 54.1303 - Calculation of the rural growth factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calculation of the rural growth factor. 54.1303... rural growth factor. (a) The Rural Growth Factor (RGF) is equal to the sum of the annual percentage... calculation of the Rural Growth Factor shall not include price cap carrier working loops and...

  14. 47 CFR 36.604 - Calculation of the rural growth factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of the rural growth factor. 36.604... 36.604 Calculation of the rural growth factor. (a) Until July 30, 2012, the Rural Growth Factor (RGF... Growth Factor shall not include price cap carrier working loops and rate-of-return local exchange...

  15. Factor VII Deficiency Impairs Cutaneous Wound Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi; Xu, Haifeng; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    Skin keratinocytes express tissue factor (TF) and are highly associated with skin wound healing. Although it has been demonstrated that perivascular TF expression in granulation tissue formed after dermal injury is downregulated during healing, studies of the mechanism of factor (F) VII, a TF ligand, in skin wound healing are lacking. We reported the use of a dermal punch model to demonstrate that low-expressing FVII mice (~1% of wild type [WT]) exhibited impaired skin wound healing compared with WT controls. These low-FVII mice showed defective reepithelialization and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration at wound sites. This attenuated reepithelialization was associated with diminished expression of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1). In vitro, Egr-1 was shown to be essential for the FVIIa-induced regulation of keratinocyte migration and inflammation. Both Egr-1 upregulation and downstream inflammatory cytokine appearance in keratinocytes depended on FVIIa/TF/protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2)-induced signaling and did not require subsequent generation of FXa and thrombin. The participation of Egr-1 in FVIIa-mediated regulation of keratinocyte function was confirmed by use of Egr-1deficient mice, wherein a significant delay in skin wound healing after injury was observed, relative to WT mice. The results from these studies demonstrate an in vivo mechanistic relationship between FVIIa, Egr-1 and the inflammatory response in keratinocyte function during the wound healing process. PMID:20454518

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factors: New Roles in Neuronal Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Pablo, Juan L; Pitt, Geoffrey S

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) are a noncanonical subset of intracellular fibroblast growth factors that have been implicated in a variety of neurobiological processes and in disease. They are most prominently regulators of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaVs). In this review, we discuss new insights into how FHFs modulate NaVs. This is followed by a summary of a growing body of evidence that FHFs operate in much broader fashion. Finally, we highlight unknown aspects of FHF function as areas of future interest. PMID:25492945

  17. Intrinsic Differences between Oral and Skin Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; Chung, Allison Yen; Chen, Lin; Dai, Yang; Marucha, Phillip T.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles. PMID:25198578

  18. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Alessandra Lo; Delevoye, Cdric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Gur, Christelle; Andr, Nathalie; Vi, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graa

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:26103923

  19. Expression of neu protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, and transforming growth factor alpha in breast cancer. Correlation with clinicopathologic parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Lundy, J.; Schuss, A.; Stanick, D.; McCormack, E. S.; Kramer, S.; Sorvillo, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were twofold: to determine 1) if growth factors or growth factor receptors were expressed similarly or differently in a clinically well-characterized group of breast cancer patients and 2) if these phenotypic characteristics were associated with any of the commonly used prognostic parameters. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue from 51 node-positive breast cancer patients were analyzed for the expression of neu, epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) using immunoperoxidase staining. Positive membranous staining for neu was observed in 15 (29%) tumors. Over-expression of neu was observed in high-grade, estrogen-receptor-negative tumors (P less than 0.05). Epidermal growth factor receptor was expressed in 22 (43%) of the tumors analyzed and found to a greater degree in estrogen-receptor-negative and high-grade tumors (P less than 0.025). A significant correlation between neu and EGF-R expression was also noted. Tumors expressing membranous staining of neu had a greater than 70% chance of expressing EGF-R (P less than 0.01). Expression of TGF alpha was found in 68% of tumors and TGF alpha was detected in grade 1 and 2 tumor to a greater degree than EGF-R. The authors conclude that assaying tumors for these antigens may give additional phenotypic characteristics that can give further insight into the biology of breast cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1711294

  20. Growth factor choice is critical for successful functionalization of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pinkernelle, Josephine; Raffa, Vittoria; Calatayud, Maria P.; Goya, Gerado F.; Riggio, Cristina; Keilhoff, Gerburg

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) show new characteristics compared to the corresponding bulk material. These nanoscale properties make them interesting for various applications in biomedicine and life sciences. One field of application is the use of magnetic NPs to support regeneration in the nervous system. Drug delivery requires a functionalization of NPs with bio-functional molecules. In our study, we functionalized self-made PEI-coated iron oxide NPs with nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Next, we tested the bio-functionality of NGF in a rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) and the bio-functionality of GDNF in an organotypic spinal cord culture. Covalent binding of NGF to PEI-NPs impaired bio-functionality of NGF, but non-covalent approach differentiated PC12 cells reliably. Non-covalent binding of GDNF showed a satisfying bio-functionality of GDNF:PEI-NPs, but turned out to be unstable in conjugation to the PEI-NPs. Taken together, our study showed the importance of assessing bio-functionality and binding stability of functionalized growth factors using proper biological models. It also shows that successful functionalization of magnetic NPs with growth factors is dependent on the used binding chemistry and that it is hardly predictable. For use as therapeutics, functionalization strategies have to be reproducible and future studies are needed. PMID:26388717

  1. Critical growth factors and signalling pathways controlling human trophoblast invasion

    PubMed Central

    KNFLER, MARTIN

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of placental trophoblasts into uterine tissue and vessels is an essential process of human pregnancy and fetal development. Due to their remarkable plasticity invasive trophoblasts fulfil numerous functions, i.e. anchorage of the placenta, secretion of hormones, modulation of decidual angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis and remodelling of maternal spiral arteries. The latter is required to increase blood flow to the placenta, thereby ensuring appropriate transfer of nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus. Since failures in vascular changes of the placental bed are associated with pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction, basic research in this particular field focuses on molecular mechanisms controlling trophoblast invasion under physiological and pathological conditions. Throughout the years, an increasing number of growth factors, cytokines and angiogenic molecules controlling trophoblast motility have been identified. These factors are secreted from numerous cells such as trophoblast, maternal epithelial and stromal cells, as well as uterine NK cells and macrophages, suggesting that a complex network of cell types, mediators and signalling pathways regulates trophoblast invasiveness. Whereas essential features of the invasive trophoblast such as expression of critical proteases and adhesion molecules have been well characterised, the interplay between different cell types and growth factors and the cross-talk between distinct signalling cascades remain largely elusive. Similarly, key-regulatory transcription factors committing and differentiating invasive trophoblasts are mostly unknown. This review will summarise our current understanding of growth factors and signal transduction pathways regulating human trophoblast invasion/migration, as well as give insights into novel mechanisms involved in the particular differentiation process. PMID:19876833

  2. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Sanctis, Vincenzo De; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report. PMID:25729686

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4 act as "epitheliotrophins" in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Botchkarev, V A; Metz, M; Botchkareva, N V; Welker, P; Lommatzsch, M; Renz, H; Paus, R

    1999-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced by keratinocytes and modulates their proliferation and apoptosis. However, it is as yet unknown whether other members of the NGF family of neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), also modulate keratinocyte proliferation in situ. We determined by ELISA and reverse transcriptase-PCR that BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 are expressed in C57BL/6 mouse skin. By immunofluorescence, the subcutaneous panniculus carnosus muscle and arrector pili muscle showed strong NT-3 immunoreactivity, whereas BDNF-IR was found only in skin nerve bundles. NT-4 immunoreactivity was noted in single epidermal keratinocytes. The high affinity receptor for both BDNF and NT-4, TrkB, was detected in basal and suprabasal epidermal keratinocytes, whereas the high affinity NT-3 receptor, TrkC, was observed in skin nerve bundles. Compared with the corresponding age-matched wild-type mice, BDNF or NT-3-overexpressing transgenic mice showed a significantly increased epidermal thickness and enhanced number of Ki-67-positive (ie, proliferating) epidermal keratinocytes in vivo, whereas the number of these cells was substantially reduced in BDNF knockout mice. In skin organ culture of C57BL/6 mice, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 all significantly increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into epidermal keratinocytes. Co-administration of NGF neutralizing antibody failed to abrogate the stimulatory effect of NT-3 on keratinocyte proliferation in skin organ culture. This demonstrates that normal murine epidermal keratinocytes in situ are direct or indirect target cells for these neurotrophins. Therefore, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 can also act as "epitheliotrophins" and may thus be intimately involved in the control of epidermal homeostasis. PMID:10334567

  4. Cell type-dependent modulation of the gene encoding heat shock protein HSPA2 by hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1: Down-regulation in keratinocytes and up-regulation in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Habryka, Anna; Gogler-Pig?owska, Agnieszka; Sojka, Damian; Kryj, Mariusz; Krawczyk, Zdzis?aw; Scieglinska, Dorota

    2015-09-01

    HSPA2 belongs to the multigene HSPA family, whose members encode chaperone proteins. Although expression and function of HSPA2 is mainly associated with spermatogenesis, recent studies demonstrated that in humans, the gene is active in various cancers, as well as in normal tissues, albeit in a cell type-specific manner. In the epidermis, HSPA2 is expressed in keratinocytes in the basal layer. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of HSPA2 expression remain unknown. This study was aimed at determining whether HIF-1 and its binding site, the hypoxia-response element (HRE) located in the HSPA2 promoter, are involved in HSPA2 regulation. As a model system, we used an immortal human keratinocyte line (HaCaT) and cervical cancer cells (HeLa) grown under control or hypoxic conditions. Using an in vitro gene reporter assay, we demonstrated that in keratinocytes HSPA2 promoter activity is reduced under conditions that facilitate stabilization of HIF-1?, whereas HIF-1 inhibitors abrogated the suppressive effect of hypoxia on promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that HIF-1? binds to the HSPA2 promoter. In keratinocytes, hypoxia or overexpression of a stable form of HIF-1? attenuated the expression of endogenous HSPA2, whereas targeted repression of HIF-1? by RNAi increased transcription of HSPA2 under hypoxia. Conversely, in HeLa cells, HSPA2 expression increased under conditions that stimulated HIF-1? activity, whereas inhibition of HIF-1? abrogated hypoxia-induced up-regulation of HSPA2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HIF-1 can exert differential, cell context-dependent regulatory control of the HSPA2 gene. Additionally, we also showed that HSPA2 expression can be stimulated during hypoxia/reoxygenation stress. PMID:26164067

  5. Phorbol ester binding and protein kinase C activity in normal and transformed human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, G.T.; de Laat, S.W. ); Boonstra, J. ); Ponec, M. )

    1987-09-01

    Normal keratinocytes, SV40-transformed keratinocytes (SVK{sub 14}), and various squamous carcinoma cell (SCC) lines have been used as an in vitro model system to study the properties of phorbol ester receptor and protein kinase C expression during keratinocyte differentiation. The cell lines used exhibit a decreasing capacity to differentiate; moreover, all cell lines respond to a low external Ca{sup 2+} concentration by a decreased capacity to differentiate. Normal keratinocytes exhibited the highest number of phorbol ester receptors as compared to the other cell lines, while each individual cell line exhibited a higher number of phorbol ester receptors during growth under normal Ca{sup 2+} conditions as compared to cells grown under low Ca{sup 2+} conditions. The apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d}) demonstrated only small variations in the various cell lines. These studies revealed differences between protein kinase C properties from the two cell lines grown under normal and low Ca{sup 2+} conditions. The differences included the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the redistribution pattern of protein kinase C between the cytoplasmic and particulate fractions as well as the activating effect of diolein in vitro on protein kinase C activity. These observations demonstrate that the functional protein kinase C activity of keratinocytes is determined by various endogenous and exogenous activators and that these activators are modulated differently in various cell lines, under various growth conditions (low Ca{sup 2+} versus normal Ca{sup 2+}).

  6. Antitumor effect of hepatocyte growth factor on hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Y; Shibusawa, M; Tsunoda, A; Gomi, A; Yatsuzuka, M; Okamatsu, T

    1998-01-01

    A six month-old girl presented with an abdominal mass, and high serum level of alpha-fetoprotein. She was diagnosed as having a well-differentiated hepatoblastoma by open biopsy. The biopsy specimen was transplanted on a nude mouse, and a xenograft was successfully established. Because the xenograft maintained the characteristics of the original tumor, the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on hepatoblastoma xenograft was investigated. Recently HGF was reported to be involved in growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. Contrary to our expectations, the treatment of hepatoblastoma xenograft with recombinant 20 ng/ml HGF produced a marked inhibition of cell growth and a suppression of producing alpha-fetoprotein. PMID:9891489

  7. Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-α on hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Afkar Abdel-Ghany; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Gabal, Samia; Said, Noha

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor system plays a central hepato-protective and pro-regenerative role in liver. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is an important autocrine growth regulator of hepatocytes that plays a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study was done on 40 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC, 20 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC as well as five normal controls. All were immunohistochemically stained with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TGF-α antibodies. Some selected HCC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect EGFR gene alteration. By immunohistochemistry EGFR and TGF-α were overexpressed in HCC and cirrhotic cases compared to CHC cases without cirrhosis. Also, their expression was stronger in CHC cases with higher grades of activity and stages of fibrosis compared to lower ones. FISH positive results for EGFR were detected in 33.3% of the examined HCC cases. EGFR and TGF-α can be used as predictive markers for activity, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis in CHC patients. Overexpression of EGFR in HCC patients can be promising in selecting those who can get benefit from anti-EGFR target therapy. PMID:26279457

  8. Treatment of normal human keratinocytes with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin causes a reduction in cell number, but no increase in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Loertscher, J A; Sadek, C S; Allen-Hoffmann, B L

    2001-09-01

    We have examined the effect of TCDD on the growth of normal human keratinocytes. TCDD is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant that causes a severe dermatopathology in humans, which is known as chloracne. The cell biological basis of this pathology remains unknown. We conducted growth experiments in preconfluent normal human keratinocytes with both low (0.05 mM) and standard (0.66 mM) extracellular calcium concentrations in the media. TCDD treatment reduced the number of adherent keratinocytes relative to controls in media containing 0.05 or 0.66 mM calcium. Based on these observations, we speculated that the decrease in the cell number of TCDD-treated cultures might be the result of increased apoptosis. Analysis of nucleosomal fragmentation, nuclear morphology, and caspase-3 activity in keratinocytes reveals no increase in the characteristics of apoptosis in response to TCDD treatment. We therefore conclude that TCDD impacts on keratinocyte homeostasis independent of apoptosis. PMID:11543643

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight.

  10. Targeting growth factors and angiogenesis; using small molecules in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Wanebo, Harold J; Argiris, Athanassios; Bergsland, Emily; Agarwala, Sanjiv; Rugo, Hope

    2006-06-01

    Targeted biologic therapy for cancer has evolved from the laboratory to active clinical protocols and applied clinical practice in selected patients. Major targets include epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors which are commonly expressed in gastro-intestinal cancers head & neck and lung cancers, and to some degree breast and gynecologic malignancy. Down stream signal transduction pathway inhibition of B-raf and N-ras mutations are examined in melanoma. New approaches involving re-packaging of chemotherapeutic agents are being exemplified in the nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel which provides increased access to endothelial and tumor cells with potential enhanced therapeutic efficacy compared to the conventional version solubilized in a cremophor. PMID:16770540

  11. Reduction in facial photodamage by a topical growth factor product.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rahul C; Smith, Stacy R; Grove, Gary L; Ford, Rosanne O; Canfield, William; Donofrio, Lisa M; Flynn, Timothy C; Leyden, James J

    2008-09-01

    A topical gel containing a proprietary mixture of over 110 growth factors, cytokines, and soluble matrix proteins secreted by human dermal fibroblasts was evaluated for safety and efficacy in the treatment of mild to severe facial photodamage. In a double-blind study, 60 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either active gel or the vehicle and applied twice daily for 6 months along with a moisturizing cleanser and sunscreen. Efficacy (profilometry, photography, and clinical assessment) and safety (adverse event reporting) measures were evaluated at 0, 3, and 6 months. Treatment with the active gel for 3 months produced greater reduction in fine lines and wrinkles than the vehicle treatment as measured by objective and subjective assessment techniques. The results were either statistically significant (P < or = .05) or trending towards statistical significance (P < or = .1). This study demonstrates that addition of a topical formulation of growth factors and cytokines to a basic skin care regimen reduces the signs of photoaging. PMID:19112801

  12. Loss of Robustness and Addiction to IGF1 during Early Keratinocyte Transformation by Human Papilloma Virus 16

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Tamar; Levitzki, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Infection of keratinocytes with high risk human Papilloma virus causes immortalization, and when followed by further mutations, leads to cervical cancer and other anogenital tumors. Here we monitor the progressive loss of robustness in an in vitro model of the early stages of transformation that comprises normal keratinocytes and progressive passages of HPV16 immortalized cells. As transformation progresses, the cells acquire higher proliferation rates and gain the ability to grow in soft agar. Concurrently, the cells lose robustness, becoming more sensitive to serum starvation and DNA damage by Cisplatin. Loss of robustness in the course of transformation correlates with significant reductions in the activities of the anti-apoptotic proteins PKB/Akt, Erk, Jnk and p38 both under normal growth conditions and upon stress. In parallel, loss of robustness is manifested by the shrinkage of the number of growth factors that can rescue starving cells from apoptosis, with the emergence of dependence solely on IGF1. Treatment with IGF1 activates PKB/Akt and Jnk and through them inhibits p53, rescuing the cells from starvation. We conclude that transformation in this model induces higher susceptibility of cells to stress due to reduced anti-apoptotic signaling and hyper-activation of p53 upon stress. PMID:17622350

  13. HPV Type 16 Infection Switches Keratinocytes from Apoptotic to Proliferative Fate under TWEAK/Fn14 Interaction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Zhan, Na; Ding, Dong; Liu, Xiaoming; Zou, Xiaoyan; Li, Ke; Xia, Yumin

    2015-10-01

    Previously, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) had been known to be an inducer of apoptosis of keratinocytes by engaging the Fn14 receptor. However, the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection confers a proliferation advantage on keratinocytes that may consequently harbor tumorigenicity. This study was designed to investigate the cross-talk in keratinocytes between TWEAK/Fn14 signaling and HPV type 16 infection, which may cooperate in regulating cell-cycle progression. TWEAK and Fn14 expression was determined in anogenital warts and normal skin. Both primary keratinocytes and HaCaT cells were transfected with HPV16 E6/E7 genes. The results showed that Fn14 is highly expressed upon HPV16 transfection and accompanied by an increase in Ras GTPase activity and TNF-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) expression. Moreover, the E6/E7-transfected keratinocytes exhibit a shift of TNF receptor profile from type 1 to type 2 and weakened apoptotic response to TNF-? stimuli, when compared with the normal control. Surprisingly, significant increase in proliferation but not apoptosis was seen in E6/E7-positive keratinocytes, as TWEAK was additionally supplemented. In conclusion, the HPV16 infection in keratinocytes causes a switch of apoptotic to proliferative fate under TWEAK/Fn14 interaction, possibly by favoring Ras and TRAF2 activation and modulating TNF receptor expression. PMID:26016896

  14. Implication of scatter/growth factors in tumor progression.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Boyer B; Valls AM; Jouanneau J; Delouve A; Thiery JP

    1994-01-01

    Several steps during cancer progression have been distinguished on the basis of anatomo-pathological observations and experimental data. The first step, which consists of the detachment of the cancer cells from the primary tumor prior to their migration, has received much attention. Several lines of evidence have indicated that inducer molecules of tumor cell dispersion are scatter factors which are similar or identical to some growth factors. Our studies have focused on the dispersing effect of growth factors, such as acidic FGF (aFGF) on a rat bladder carcinoma cell line. These studies demonstrated that specific extracellular matrix components might contribute to the scattering effect of soluble growth factors. Additionally, our results indicated that the dispersing action of aFGF is counterbalanced by its mitogenic effect, since these two functions of aFGF cannot be observed simultaneously for the same cell. Depending on its location in the cell collective, a given cell chooses to enter mitosis or to scatter in response to aFGF. The choice between the two responses is apparently driven by molecules belonging to the transducing pathways of aFGF signaling. Finally, our data indicated that aFGF-induced tumor cell scattering leads to increased in vitro invasiveness and in vivo metastasis. Interestingly, the presence of few aFGF-producing tumor cells in a population of non-producing cells dramatically enhances the growth rate and the metastatic properties of the whole tumor, suggesting that a low proportion of highly metastatic cells in a heterogeneous cell population might modify the behavior of the tumor mass.

  15. Cytokines and growth factors cross-link heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Migliorini, Elisa; Thakar, Dhruv; Khnle, Jens; Sadir, Rabia; Dyer, Douglas P.; Li, Yong; Sun, Changye; Volkman, Brian F.; Handel, Tracy M.; Coche-Guerente, Liliane; Fernig, David G.; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Richter, Ralf P.

    2015-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS), present at the surface of most cells and ubiquitous in extracellular matrix, binds many soluble extracellular signalling molecules such as chemokines and growth factors, and regulates their transport and effector functions. It is, however, unknown whether upon binding HS these proteins can affect the long-range structure of HS. To test this idea, we interrogated a supramolecular model system, in which HS chains grafted to streptavidin-functionalized oligoethylene glycol monolayers or supported lipid bilayers mimic the HS-rich pericellular or extracellular matrix, with the biophysical techniques quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We were able to control and characterize the supramolecular presentation of HS chainstheir local density, orientation, conformation and lateral mobilityand their interaction with proteins. The chemokine CXCL12? (or SDF-1?) rigidified the HS film, and this effect was due to protein-mediated cross-linking of HS chains. Complementary measurements with CXCL12? mutants and the CXCL12? isoform provided insight into the molecular mechanism underlying cross-linking. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which has three HS binding sites, was also found to cross-link HS, but FGF-9, which has just one binding site, did not. Based on these data, we propose that the ability to cross-link HS is a generic feature of many cytokines and growth factors, which depends on the architecture of their HS binding sites. The ability to change matrix organization and physico-chemical properties (e.g. permeability and rigidification) implies that the functions of cytokines and growth factors may not simply be confined to the activation of cognate cellular receptors. PMID:26269427

  16. Nerve growth factor regulates gene expression by several distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, K O; Skarnes, W C; Minsk, B; Palmieri, S; Jackson-Grusby, L; Wagner, J A

    1989-01-01

    To help elucidate the mechanisms by which nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates gene expression, we have identified and studied four genes (a-2, d-2, d-4, and d-5) that are positively regulated by NGF in PC12 cells, including one (d-2) which has previously been identified as a putative transcription factor (NGF I-A). Three of these genes, including d-2, were induced very rapidly at the transcriptional level, but the relative time courses of transcription and mRNA accumulation of each of these three genes were distinct. The fourth gene (d-4) displayed no apparent increase in transcription that corresponded to the increase in its mRNA, suggesting that NGF may regulate its expression at a posttranscriptional level. Thus, NGF positively regulates gene expression by more than one mechanism. These genes could also be distinguished on the basis of their response to cyclic AMP. The expression of d-2 and a-2 was increased by cholera toxin and further augmented by NGF; however, cholera toxin not only failed to increase the levels of d-5 and d-4 mRNA but also actually inhibited the NGF-dependent increase. The expression of each of these genes, including d-2 (NGF I-A), was also increased by fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor (EGF), phorbol myristate acetate, and in some cases insulin, showing that the regulation of these genes is not unique to NGF. Because each of these genes was expressed in response to phorbol myristate acetate and EGF, their expression may be necessary but is certainly not sufficient for neurite formation. The protein kinase inhibitor K-252a prevented the NGF-associated, but not the acidic FGF-associated, induction of d-2 and d-5 gene expression, suggesting that these two growth factors may regulate gene expression via different cellular pathways. The study of the regulation of the expression of these and other NGF-inducible genes should valuable new information concerning how NGF and other growth factors cause neural differentiation. Images PMID:2538715

  17. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) controls the proliferation and differentiation of mouse epidermal melanocytes from pigmented spots induced by ultraviolet radiation B.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Furuya, Rikako; Hara, Eijiro; Horii, Izumi; Tsunenaga, Makoto; Ifuku, Ohji

    2004-06-01

    Repeated exposure of ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) on the dorsal skin of hairless mice induces the development of pigmented spots long after its cessation. The proliferation and differentiation of epidermal melanocytes in UVB-induced pigmented spots are greatly increased, and those effects are regulated by keratinocytes rather than by melanocytes. However, it remains to be resolved what factor(s) derived from keratinocytes are involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal melanocytes. In this study, primary melanoblasts (c. 80%) and melanocytes (c. 20%) derived from epidermal cell suspensions of mouse skin were cultured in a basic fibroblast growth factor-free medium supplemented with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF induced the proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes in those keratinocyte-depleted cultures. Moreover, an antibody to GM-CSF inhibited the proliferation of melanoblasts and melanocytes from epidermal cell suspensions derived from the pigmented spots of UV-irradiated mice, but not from control mice. Further, the GM-CSF antibody inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes co-cultured with keratinocytes derived from UV-irradiated mice, but not from control mice. The quantity of GM-CSF secreted from keratinocytes derived from the pigmented spots of UV-irradiated mice was much greater than that secreted from keratinocytes derived from control mice. Moreover, immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of GM-CSF in keratinocytes derived from the pigmented spots of skin in UV-irradiated mice, but not from normal skin in control mice. These results suggest that GM-CSF is one of the keratinocyte-derived factors involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of mouse epidermal melanocytes from UVB-induced pigmented spots. PMID:15140068

  18. C/EBP? Gene Targets in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Serena; Fanoni, Daniele; Dolfini, Diletta; Alotto, Daniela; Ravo, Maria; Grober, Ol Maria Victoria; Weisz, Alessandro; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Berti, Emilio; Vigano, M. Alessandra; Mantovani, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    C/EBPs are a family of B-Zip transcription factors -TFs- involved in the regulation of differentiation in several tissues. The two most studied members -C/EBP? and C/EBP?- play important roles in skin homeostasis and their ablation reveals cells with stem cells signatures. Much less is known about C/EBP? which is highly expressed in the granular layer of interfollicular epidermis and is a direct target of p63, the master regular of multilayered epithelia. We identified C/EBP? target genes in human primary keratinocytes by ChIP on chip and profiling of cells functionally inactivated with siRNA. Categorization suggests a role in differentiation and control of cell-cycle, particularly of G2/M genes. Among positively controlled targets are numerous genes involved in barrier function. Functional inactivation of C/EBP? as well as overexpressions of two TF targets -MafB and SOX2- affect expression of markers of keratinocyte differentiation. We performed IHC on skin tumor tissue arrays: expression of C/EBP? is lost in Basal Cell Carcinomas, but a majority of Squamous Cell Carcinomas showed elevated levels of the protein. Our data indicate that C/EBP? plays a role in late stages of keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:21072181

  19. Synergistic Action of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Enhances Bioprinted Human Neocartilage Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Breitenkamp, Kurt; Lotz, Martin; DLima, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Bioprinting as a promising but unexplored approach for cartilage tissue engineering has the advantages of high throughput, digital control, and highly accurate placement of cells and biomaterial scaffold to the targeted 3D locations with simultaneous polymerization. This study tested feasibility of using bioprinting for cartilage engineering and examined the influence of cell density, growth and differentiation factors. Human articular chondrocytes were printed at various densities, stimulated transiently with growth factors and subsequently with chondrogenic factors. Samples were cultured for up to 4 weeks to evaluate cell proliferation and viability, mechanical properties, mass swelling ratio, water content, gene expression, ECM production, DNA content, and histology. Bioprinted samples treated with FGF-2/TGF-?1 had the best chondrogenic properties among all groups apparently due to synergistic stimulation of cell proliferation and chondrogenic phenotype. ECM production per chondrocyte in low cell density was much higher than that in high cell seeding density. This finding was also verified by mechanical testing and histology. In conclusion, cell seeding density that is feasible for bioprinting also appears optimal for human neocartilage formation when combined with appropriate growth and differentiation factors. PMID:22508498

  20. Growth factors and their impact on transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Y M; Klein, H G

    1996-01-01

    Hematopoietic growth factors, glycoproteins that stimulate self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation of responsive hematopoietic cells, promise to revolutionize transfusion medicine. Recombinant DNA technology has made several of these cytokines available at pharmacologic doses, and new candidate agents for clinical application appear regularly. Growth factors prescribed for patients have already reduced the requirement for red blood cell and granulocyte transfusions in selected clinical circumstances. A lineage-specific thrombopoietin will likely limit the need for platelet transfusions. Hematopoietic cytokine injections have also been used to increase the number of red blood cells, granulocytes and circulating primitive progenitor cells in blood donors. Cytokine-stimulated peripheral blood progenitor cell infusions have complemented and, in some instances, replaced bone marrow for adjunctive cancer chemotherapy and for bone marrow transplantation. Finally, synergistic combinations of cytokines can effect ex vivo expansion of lymphocytes and of progenitor cells to provide novel blood components. Hematopoietic growth factors are still expensive and their long-term effects remain to be determined. However, as the biologic activities of cytokines and the physiology of hematopoietic progenitor cells become better understood, the clinical application of novel cellular components may redefine the concept of blood transfusion. PMID:8958642

  1. ?-Hairpin Peptide That Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Donatella; Basile, Anna; De Rosa, Lucia; Di Stasi, Rossella; Auriemma, Sara; Arra, Claudio; Pedone, Carlo; Turco, Maria Caterina; Fattorusso, Roberto; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2011-01-01

    VEGF receptors have been the target of intense research aimed to develop molecules able to inhibit or stimulate angiogenesis. Based on the x-ray structure of the complex placental growth factor-VEGF receptor 1D2, we designed a VEGF receptor-binding peptide reproducing the placental growth factor ?-hairpin region Gln87Val100 that is involved in receptor recognition. A conformational analysis showed that the designed peptide adopts the expected fold in pure water. Moreover, a combination of NMR interaction analysis and cell binding studies were used to demonstrate that the peptide targets VEGF receptors. The VEGF receptor 1D2-interacting residues were characterized at the molecular level, and they correspond to the residues recognizing the placental growth factor sequence Gln87Val100. Finally, the peptide biological activity was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and it showed a VEGF-like behavior. Indeed, the peptide activated VEGF-dependent intracellular pathways, induced endothelial cell proliferation and rescue from apoptosis, and promoted angiogenesis in vivo. This compound is one of the few peptides known with proangiogenic activity, which makes it a candidate for the development of a novel peptide-based drug for medical applications in therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:21969375

  2. Growth factors induce actin disruption in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, H; Yoshimura, N; Ogino, N

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells to platelet-derived growth factor, nerve growth factor or epidermal growth factor resulted in a time- and dose-dependent alteration in the distribution of actin stained by rhodamine-phalloidin. These growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor of 80 ng/ml, nerve growth factor of 10 ng/ml or epidermal growth factor of 10 ng/ml) caused disappearance of actin filaments from the peripheral region of a cell in 1 or 2 h and change of cell configuration to spindle shape in 3 or 4 h. Other growth factors, fibroblast growth factor of 10 ng/ml and insulin of 25 mumol/ml had no effect on actin distribution. The alteration of actin and the change of cellular shape might be associated with stimulation of cell growth and migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells. PMID:3496571

  3. Measuring Growth Hormone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in Infants: What is Normal?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick; Grimberg, Adda

    2014-01-01

    The role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) change through early childhood. Whereas poor growth is a later presenting feature, infants with isolated GH deficiency have a normal birth weight and length, and often present with hypoglycemia. IGF-I plays an important role antenatally and post-natally in somatic and brain growth. In order to evaluate the GH/IGF-I axis in infancy, an understanding of the normal physiology is required. Measurements of GH and IGF-I in this population should be interpreted in the context of the assays used, as well as their limitations. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of normal GH and IGF-I secretion in children under 18 months of age, and describe variations in the reported assay-specific measurements. PMID:24575549

  4. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Berseth, C.L. )

    1987-11-01

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 {mu}g/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth.

  5. The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Robert H.; Cheung, Wai W.; Roberts, Charles T.

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are important physiologic regulators of growth, body composition, and kidney function. Perturbations in the GH-IGF-I axis are responsible for many important complications seen in chronic kidney disease (CKD), such as growth retardation and cachectic wasting, as well as disease progression. Recent evidence suggests that CKD is characterized by abnormalities in GH and IGF-I signal transduction and the interaction of these pathways with those that involve other molecules such as ghrelin, myostatin, and the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family. Further understanding of GH/IGF pathophysiology in CKD may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for these devastating complications, which are associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. PMID:17826224

  6. KLF10, transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible early gene 1, acts as a tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ki-Duk; Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Comparative Immunology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 ; Kim, Duk-Jung; Lee, Jong Eun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Comparative Immunology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 ; Lee, Woon Kyu

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} mice exhibited accelerated papilloma development after DMBA/TPA treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} keratinocytes showed increased proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} MEFs yielded more colonies than wild-type one with H-Ras transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10 dose-dependently activated p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10 is a tumor suppressor and that it targets p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription. -- Abstract: Krueppel-like factor 10 (KLF10) has been suggested to be a putative tumor suppressor. In the present study, we generated KLF10 deficient mice to explore this hypothesis in vivo. KLF10 deficient mice exhibited increased predisposition to skin tumorigenesis and markedly accelerated papilloma development after DMBA/TPA treatment. On the other hand, KLF10 deficient keratinocytes showed increased proliferation and apoptosis. In colony formation assays after oncogenic H-Ras transfection, KLF10 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) yielded more colonies than wild-type MEFs. Furthermore, KLF10 dose-dependently activated p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription, which was independent of p53 and Sp1 binding sites in p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter. This study demonstrates that KLF10 is a tumor suppressor and that it targets p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription.

  7. Calcipotriol induces apoptosis in psoriatic keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, R; Bozzo, C; Pertusi, G; Graziola, F; Gattoni, M; Griffanti, P; Boggio, P; Colombo, E; Leigheb, G

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, vitamin D3 analogues have become one of the most widely prescribed topical treatments for mild or moderate chronic plaque psoriasis. These molecules are effective and safe, but their exact mechanism of action is not completely understood. In vitro studies have shown that D3 analogues decrease proliferation and induce differentiation of keratinocytes, and have strong immunomodulating effects, but there are no conclusive data about apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in apoptotic response between lesional and perilesional keratinocytes of patients with psoriasis before and after treatment with calcipotriol, a synthetic vitamin D3 analogue. Keratinocytes were isolated from psoriatic plaques including lesional and perilesional skin, and cultured. Cells were treated with calcipotriol for 20 h and examined under confocal microscopy after staining with propidium iodide. The number of apoptotic cells after incubation with calcipotriol was significantly higher in lesional than in perilesional keratinocytes (P < 0.05) or non-treated psoriatic keratinocytes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, calcipotriol seems to induce apoptosis in psoriatic keratinocytes. PMID:19758385

  8. Eicosanoids and Keratinocytes in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Sivamani, Raja K

    2014-07-01

    Significance: Eicosanoids are biologically active lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid that are important in injury and inflammatory responses. Cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 mediate the production of prostanoids, whereas 5-lipoxygenase mediates the production of leukotrienes and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. These lipid mediators have traditionally been known to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of injury and inflammation. However, they also interact with various cells that are resident to the wound bed, including modulation of keratinocyte activity. Recent Advances: Recent work has identified multiple prostanoid and leukotriene receptors on keratinocytes, indicating that eicosanoids directly interact with them. Recent work also shows that keratinocytes are capable of producing prostanoids and leukotrienes. Critical Issues: Much of the critical work has been performed in cell culture and mouse in vivo models. This has greatly expanded our understanding of the eicosanoid interactions with keratinocytes and wound healing in general. However, few of these in vivo models have been able to critically evaluate keratinocyte migration and re-epithelialization. Future Directions: As research continues in this exciting field, the cellular pathways stimulated by the eicosanoids will become better defined. Future research with excisional wound models in mice and pigs and ex vivo human skin models will better isolate the contribution of eicosanoid-mediated effects on keratinocyte migration and re-epithelialization. PMID:25032067

  9. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha- vs. growth factor deprivation-promoted cell death: different receptor requirements for mediating nerve growth factor-promoted rescue.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Todd C; Decorti, Francesco; Macdonald, Nancy J; Neet, Kenneth E; Taglialatela, Giulio

    2003-04-01

    Physiological and pathological aging of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by functional neuronal impairments which may lead to perturbed cell homeostasis and eventually to neuronal death. Many toxic events may underlie age-related neurodegeneration. These include the effects of beta amyloid, Tau and mutated presenilin proteins, free radicals and oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lack of growth factor support, which can be individually or collectively involved. Taken individually, these toxicants can induce very diverse cell responses, thus requiring individually targeted corrective interventions upstream of common cell death (apoptotic) pathways. Recent preliminary evidence suggests that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and growth factor withdrawal can both activate a common apoptotic pathway in nerve growth factor (NGF)-responsive PC12 cells involving caspase 3, albeit through very distinct upstream pathways: the former through active signalling and the latter through passive or lack of survival signalling. Here, we show that NGF can rescue PC12 cells from both growth factor withdrawal- and TNFalpha-promoted cell death. However, NGF rescue from growth factor withdrawal requires NGF signalling through the high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkA), while NGF rescue from TNFalpha-promoted cell death requires NGF signalling through the low-affinity p75NTR receptor. These results strengthen the idea that prevention of age- or pathology-associated neurodegeneration may require varied molecular approaches reflecting the diversity of the toxicants involved, possibly acting simultaneously. PMID:12882321

  10. Basic fibroblast growth factor enhances nerve growth factor receptor gene promoter activity in human neuroblastoma cell line CHP100.

    PubMed Central

    Taiji, M; Taiji, K; Deyerle, K L; Bothwell, M

    1992-01-01

    The human neuroblastoma cell line CHP100 provides a useful model system in which to study the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene during neuronal development. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced morphological changes in CHP100 cells, including flattening of cell bodies and neurite outgrowth. bFGF also increased p75NGFR immunoreactivity, as assessed by immunocytochemistry, and increased p75NGFR mRNA levels, as assessed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis. A chimeric gene consisting of 6.7 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the human NGFR gene linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was constructed. In stable transformants of CHP100 cells, 10 ng of bFGF per ml induced an eightfold increase in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. These results indicate that upstream elements of the NGFR gene mediate transcriptional regulation by bFGF. Images PMID:1314950

  11. Factors affecting circulating growth hormone binding protein in chickens.

    PubMed

    Tobar-Dupres, E T; Froman, D P; Davis, S L

    1993-12-01

    Growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) may be an important factor in the regulation of growth and might provide an indirect, relatively noninvasive means of predicting the status of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) activity. Several factors have been reported to influence growth hormone (GH), GHR, or GHBP. Therefore, these studies were conducted to test how age, sex, nutritional status, and glucocorticoids (cortisone acetate, CA) influence serum concentrations of chicken GHBP. Serum GHBP activity was highest (mean percentage specific binding (%SB) = 12.43 +/- .80) at hatch and decreased linearly (P < .0001) to 5 wk of age (%SB = 1.99 +/- 1.13). There were no sex-related differences in serum GHBP activity from hatch to 5 wk of age (P > .08). Short-term nutrient deprivation (24-h) of 4-wk-old broilers also had a significant effect on serum GHBP activity (P < .0001). Measurement of serum GHBP activity with refeeding (after a 24-h period without feed) restored %SB to normal values. Feeding broilers a low-protein diet (12% CP) did not significantly affect serum GHBP activity when compared with that of broilers fed a commercial broiler diet (23% CP; P > .30). Administration of cortisone (1, 5, and 10 mg/day), every 24 h for 7 days, had no effect, at any dose, on serum GHBP activity at 48 h and 1 wk after the last injection. These results indicate that serum GHBP activity is influenced by factors such as age and feed deprivation. It remains to be determined whether these changes in GHBP are associated with changes in GHR as reported for mammalian species. PMID:8309883

  12. Regulation of plant growth and development by the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR and GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR duo.

    PubMed

    Hoe Kim, Jeong; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of gene expression and play pivotal roles in all aspects of living organisms. Therefore, identification and functional characterization of transcription factors is a prerequisite step toward understanding life. This article reviews molecular and biological functions of the two transcription regulator families, GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) and GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR (GIF), which have only recently been recognized. A myriad of experimental evidence clearly illustrates that GRF and GIF are bona fide partner proteins and form a plant-specific transcriptional complex. One of the most conspicuous outcomes from this research field is that the GRF-GIF duo endows the primordial cells of vegetative and reproductive organs with a meristematic specification state, guaranteeing the supply of cells for organogenesis and successful reproduction. It has recently been shown that GIF1 proteins, also known as ANGUSTIFOLIA3, recruit chromatin remodelling complexes to target genes, and that AtGRF expression is directly activated by the floral identity factors, APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3, providing an important insight into understanding of the action of GRF-GIF. Moreover, GRF genes are extensively subjected to post-transcriptional control by microRNA396, revealing the presence of a complex regulatory circuit in regulation of plant growth and development by the GRF-GIF duo. PMID:26160584

  13. Downregulation of TNIP1 Expression Leads to Increased Proliferation of Human Keratinocytes and Severer Psoriasis-Like Conditions in an Imiquimod-Induced Mouse Model of Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Yan, Heng; Song, Zhiqiang; Chen, Fangru; Wang, Huan; Niu, Jun; Shi, Xiaowei; Zhang, Dongmei; Zhang, Na; Zhai, Zhifang; Zhong, Baiyu; Cheng, Liangjin; Qian, Tian; Hao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease involving both environmental and genetic factors. According to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the TNIP1 gene, which encodes the TNF-?induced protein 3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1), is strongly linked to the susceptibility of psoriasis. TNIP1 is a widely expressed ubiquitin sensor that binds to the ubiquitin-editing protein A20 and restricts TNF- and TLR-induced signals. In our study, TNIP1 expression decreased in specimens of epidermis affected by psoriasis. Based on previous studies suggesting a role for TNIP1 in modulating cancer cell growth, we investigated its role in keratinocyte proliferation, which is clearly abnormal in psoriasis. To mimic the downregulation or upregulation of TNIP1 in HaCaT cells and primary human keratinocytes (PHKs), we used a TNIP1 specific small interfering hairpin RNA (TNIP1 shRNA) lentiviral vector or a recombinant TNIP1 (rTNIP1) lentiviral vector, respectively. Blocking TNIP1 expression increased keratinocyte proliferation, while overexpression of TNIP1 decreased keratinocyte proliferation. Furthermore, we showed that TNIP1 signaling might involve extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) activity. Intradermal injection of TNIP1 shRNA in BALB/c mice led to exaggerated psoriatic conditions in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis. These findings indicate that TNIP1 has a protective role in psoriasis and therefore could be a promising therapeutic target. PMID:26046540

  14. Nrf2 Regulates the Sensitivity of Mouse Keratinocytes to Nitrogen Mustard via Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 (Mrp1).

    PubMed

    Udasin, Ronald G; Wen, Xia; Bircsak, Kristin M; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Shakarjian, Michael P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine, HN2) are potent vesicants developed as chemical warfare agents. These electrophilic, bifunctional alkylating agents cause skin injury, including inflammation, edema, and blistering. HN2 covalently modifies macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins or is scavenged by glutathione, forming adducts that can contribute to toxicity. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1/MRP1) is a transmembrane ATPase known to efflux glutathione-conjugated electrophiles. In the present studies, we examined the effects of modulating Mrp1-mediated transport activity on the sensitivity of primary and PAM212 mouse keratinocytes to HN2. Primary keratinocytes, and to a lesser extent, PAM212 cells, express Mrp1 mRNA and protein and possess Mrp1 functional activity, as measured by calcein efflux. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, increased Mrp1 mRNA, protein, and functional activity in primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells and decreased their sensitivity to HN2-induced growth inhibition (IC50 = 1.4 and 4.8 µM in primary keratinocytes and 1 and 13 µM in PAM212 cells, in the absence and presence of sulforaphane, respectively). The Mrp1 inhibitor, MK-571, reversed the effects of sulforaphane on HN2-induced growth inhibition in both primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells. In primary keratinocytes from Nrf2(-/-) mice, sulforaphane had no impact on Mrp1 expression or activity, or on sensitivity to HN2, demonstrating that its effects depend on Nrf2. These data suggest that Mrp1-mediated efflux is important in regulating HN2-induced keratinocyte growth inhibition. Enhancing HN2 efflux from keratinocytes may represent a novel strategy for mitigating vesicant-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26454883

  15. An Expandable, Inducible Hemangioblast State Regulated by Fibroblast Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Vereide, DavidT.; Vickerman, Vernella; Swanson, ScottA.; Chu, Li-Fang; McIntosh, BrianE.; Thomson, JamesA.

    2014-01-01

    Summary During development, the hematopoietic and vascular lineages are thought to descend from common mesodermal progenitors called hemangioblasts. Here we identify six transcription factors, Gata2, Lmo2, Mycn, Pitx2, Sox17, and Tal1, that trap murine cells in a proliferative state and endow them with a hemangioblast potential. These expandable hemangioblasts (eHBs) are capable, once released from the control of the ectopic factors, to give rise to functional endothelial cells, multilineage hematopoietic cells, and smooth muscle cells. The eHBs can be derived from embryonic stem cells, from fetal liver cells, or poorly from fibroblasts. The eHBs reveal a central role forfibroblast growth factor, which not only promotes their expansion, but also facilitates their ability to give rise to endothelial cells andleukocytes, but not erythrocytes. This study serves as a demonstration that ephemeral progenitor states can be harnessed invitro, enabling the creation of tractable progenitor cell lines. PMID:25458896

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Kim, Jung-Guk

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an attractive target for treating metabolic disease due to its wide-ranging beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating FGF21 levels are increased in insulin-resistant states; however, endogenous FGF21 fails to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity, suggesting that metabolic syndrome is an FGF21-resistant state. Therefore, transcription factors for FGF21 are potential drug targets that could increase FGF21 expression in obesity and reduce FGF21 resistance. Despite many studies on the metabolic effects of FGF21, the transcriptional regulation of FGF21 gene expression remains controversial and is not fully understood. As the FGF21 transcription factor pathway is one of the most promising targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, further investigation of FGF21 transcriptional regulation is required. PMID:25031882

  17. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    SciTech Connect

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-{alpha} protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-{alpha}. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-{alpha} also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-{alpha} were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Immortalized B lymphocytes produce B-cell growth factor.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Ley, S C; Melamed, M D; English, L S; Hughes-Jones, N C

    The activation, clonal expansion and terminal differentiation of small resting B lymphocytes primed by an antigen (or antibodies to its receptors) appear to follow an orderly developmental sequence triggered at each stage by distinct soluble cytokines, primarily produced by T lymphocytes. For man, the only known B-cell mitogen independent of accessory cells for its action is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Lymphocytes transformed by EBV are released from the usual constraints on B-cell growth, proliferating continuously in the absence of any exogenous cytokine. The resultant cell lines are of special interest as they possess certain features compatible with a preneoplastic state of Burkitt's lymphoma, one of two human cancers with which the virus is intimately associated. We report here that following EBV-transformation, B lymphoblasts release a soluble factor which mimics the B-cell stimulatory product(s) of mitogen-conditioned T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the virally-transformed cells utilize this activity to sustain their own growth. The ectopic production of an otherwise normal growth factor may represent a critical event in the malignant evolution of human lymphomas harbouring the EBV genome. PMID:6610833

  19. The LRIG family enigmatic regulators of growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Simion, Catalina; Prieto, Maria Elvira Cedano; Sweeney, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The LRIG (leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains) family of transmembrane proteins contains three vertebrate members (LRIG1, LRIG2, LRIG3) and one member each in flies (Lambik) and worms (Sma-10). LRIGs have stepped into the spotlight as essential regulators of growth factor receptors, including receptor tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. LRIGs have been found to both negatively (LRIG1, LRIG3) and positively (Sma-10, LRIG3) regulate growth factor receptor expression and signaling, although the precise molecular mechanisms by which LRIGs function are not yet understood. The most is known about LRIG1, which was recently demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Indeed, in vivo experiments reinforce the essential link between LRIG1 and repression of its targets for tissue homeostasis. LRIG1 has also been identified as a stem cell marker and regulator of stem cell quiescence in a variety of tissues, discussed within. Comparably less is known about LRIG2 and LRIG3 although studies to date suggest that their functions are largely distinct from LRIG1 and that they likely do not serve as growth/tumor suppressors. Finally, the translational applications of expressing soluble forms of LRIG1 in LRIG1-deficient tumors are being explored and hold tremendous promise. PMID:25183430

  20. Transcription factor LSF (TFCP2) inhibits melanoma growth.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yuji; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Asami; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Inoue, Yuji; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Kyoya, Mikiko; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Bennett, Dorothy C; Kato, Masashi

    2016-01-19

    Late SV40 factor 3 (LSF), a transcription factor, contributes to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, decreased expression level of LSF in skin melanoma compared to that in benign melanocytic tumors and nevi in mice and humans was found in this study. Anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of melanoma cells was suppressed by LSF overexpression through an increased percentage of G1 phase cells and an increased p21CIP1 expression level in vitro and in vivo. Anchorage-dependent growth in LSF-overexpressed melanoma cells was promoted by depletion of LSF in the LSF-overexpressed cells. Integrated results of our EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed binding of LSF within a 150-bp upstream region of the transcription start site of p21CIP1 in melanoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest potential roles of LSF as a growth regulator through control of the transcription of p21CIP1 in melanocytes and melanoma cells as well as a biomarker for nevus. PMID:26506241

  1. Secretion of growth factors from macrophages when cultured with microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Archana; Wooten, R. Mark; Jayasuriya, A. Champa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of macrophages on osteoblast performance and differentiation. In this regard, we studied the secretion of growth factors including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) from before and after activation of macrophages. We also evaluated osteogenic markers in the co-culture of macrophages and osteoblsats (OBs). The macrophages were seeded on microparticles (MPs) based on chitosan (CS). Two types of MPs were fabricated including CS MPs and 10% calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) incorporated CS MPs. Macrophage seeded on MPs was activated using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The expression of BMP-2, BMP-6, BMP-7, and transforming growth-?) from macrophages seeded and cultured on hybrid MPs before and after activation of LPS at pre-determined times was quantified using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All of the above growth factors were expressed from MP-macrophage cultures before LPS activation. Ostesogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I (COL-I) in the cultures of MP-OB-macrophage were quantified using a quantitative RT-PCR at day 2, 4, and 7. We found an elevation of gene expression of ALP and COL-1 in the co-cultures of OB-macrophage on MPs compared to OB on MP cultures. These data suggest that macrophages enhance expression of osteogenic markers in OBs, and demonstrate the importance of the role of macrophages in bone regeneration. PMID:23554098

  2. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in development and skeletal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Teven, Chad M.; Farina, Evan M.; Rivas, Jane; Reid, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors serve many functions in both the developing and adult organism. Humans contain 18 FGF ligands and four FGF receptors (FGFR). FGF ligands are polypeptide growth factors that regulate several developmental processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration, morphogenesis, and patterning. FGF-FGFR signaling is also critical to the developing axial and craniofacial skeleton. In particular, the signaling cascade has been implicated in intramembranous ossification of cranial bones as well as cranial suture homeostasis. In the adult, FGFs and FGFRs are crucial for tissue repair. FGF signaling generally follows one of three transduction pathways: RAS/MAP kinase, PI3/AKT, or PLCγ. Each pathway likely regulates specific cellular behaviors. Inappropriate expression of FGF and improper activation of FGFRs are associated with various pathologic conditions, unregulated cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Additionally, aberrant signaling has been implicated in many skeletal abnormalities including achondroplasia and craniosynostosis. The biology and mechanisms of the FGF family have been the subject of significant research over the past 30 years. Recently, work has focused on the therapeutic targeting and potential of FGF ligands and their associated receptors. The majority of FGF-related therapy is aimed at age-related disorders. Increased understanding of FGF signaling and biology may reveal additional therapeutic roles, both in utero and postnatally. This review discusses the role of FGF signaling in general physiologic and pathologic embryogenesis and further explores it within the context of skeletal development. PMID:25679016

  3. Autocrine growth regulation of human glomerular mesangial cells is primarily mediated by basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Francki, A.; Uciechowski, P.; Floege, J.; von der Ohe, J.; Resch, K.; Radeke, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    For various forms of human glomerulonephritis a close relationship between inflammatory injury and a local mesangial proliferative response has been described. Herein, we used primary cultures of human glomerular mesangial cells (HMCs) from five different donors to determine the autocrine growth-inducing capacity of their supernatants after stimulation with different cytokines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine whether this effect is due to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The basal growth-inducing capacity of supernatants collected from serum-free cultured HMC and concentrated 100-fold above a cut-off size of 10 kd was significantly increased by interleukin (IL)-1 beta, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and LPS up to 15-fold, but not by IL-1 alpha, IL-6, or bFGF. An anti-human bFGF antibody blocked the majority of IL-1 or LPS-induced proliferative effect of supernatants; complete inhibition was achieved by a combination of anti-human bFGF- and anti-human platelet-derived growth factor antibodies. HMCs express different isoforms of bFGF (18, 21.5, and 24 kd) in membrane, cytosolic, and nuclear fractions. All isoforms of bFGF were found in the nuclear fraction of HMC, whether stimulated or not. Immunoblots for bFGF protein of HMC demonstrated that only a approximate to 16 kd bFGF protein was released into HMC supernatants after stimulation with IL-1 beta, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and LPS. The 18 kd isoform of bFGF accumulated in the membranes but was not released after stimulation with IL-1 alpha, IL-6, and bFGF, suggesting that its release was a prerequisite for autocrine growth stimulation. By means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction controlled by Southern blots, bFGF-mRNA expression of HMC was enhanced by IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and LPS. Finally, we were able to show that HMCs are expressing bFGF receptors. In summary, our data demonstrate for the first time that the autocrine proliferative response of HMC to major inflammatory factors may primarily be mediated by bFGF. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7485400

  4. Temporins A and B Stimulate Migration of HaCaT Keratinocytes and Kill Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Di Grazia, Antonio; Luca, Vincenzo; Segev-Zarko, Li-av T.; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of microbial pathogens resistant to available antibiotics is a serious threat to human life. Among them is the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, which colonizes keratinocytes, the most abundant cell type in the epidermis. Its intracellular accumulation complicates treatments against resulting infections, mainly due to the limited diffusion of conventional drugs into the cells. Temporins A (Ta) and B (Tb) are short frog skin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Despite extensive studies regarding their antimicrobial activity, very little is known about their activity on infected cells or involvement in various immunomodulatory functions. Here we show that Tb kills both ATCC-derived and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus within infected HaCaT keratinocytes (80% and 40% bacterial mortality, respectively) at a nontoxic concentration, i.e., 16 μM, whereas a weaker effect is displayed by Ta. Furthermore, the peptides prevent killing of keratinocytes by the invading bacteria. Further studies revealed that both temporins promote wound healing in a monolayer of HaCaT cells, with front speed migrations of 19 μm/h and 12 μm/h for Ta and Tb, respectively. Migration is inhibited by mitomycin C and involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Finally, confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that the peptides diffuse into the cells. By combining antibacterial and wound-healing activities, Ta and Tb may act as multifunctional mediators of innate immunity in humans. Particularly, their nonendogenous origin may reduce microbial resistance to them as well as the risk of autoimmune diseases in mammals. PMID:24514087

  5. Temporins A and B stimulate migration of HaCaT keratinocytes and kill intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Di Grazia, Antonio; Luca, Vincenzo; Segev-Zarko, Li-Av T; Shai, Yechiel; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2014-05-01

    The growing number of microbial pathogens resistant to available antibiotics is a serious threat to human life. Among them is the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, which colonizes keratinocytes, the most abundant cell type in the epidermis. Its intracellular accumulation complicates treatments against resulting infections, mainly due to the limited diffusion of conventional drugs into the cells. Temporins A (Ta) and B (Tb) are short frog skin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Despite extensive studies regarding their antimicrobial activity, very little is known about their activity on infected cells or involvement in various immunomodulatory functions. Here we show that Tb kills both ATCC-derived and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus within infected HaCaT keratinocytes (80% and 40% bacterial mortality, respectively) at a nontoxic concentration, i.e., 16 ?M, whereas a weaker effect is displayed by Ta. Furthermore, the peptides prevent killing of keratinocytes by the invading bacteria. Further studies revealed that both temporins promote wound healing in a monolayer of HaCaT cells, with front speed migrations of 19 ?m/h and 12 ?m/h for Ta and Tb, respectively. Migration is inhibited by mitomycin C and involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Finally, confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that the peptides diffuse into the cells. By combining antibacterial and wound-healing activities, Ta and Tb may act as multifunctional mediators of innate immunity in humans. Particularly, their nonendogenous origin may reduce microbial resistance to them as well as the risk of autoimmune diseases in mammals. PMID:24514087

  6. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 effects on proliferation and telomerase activity in sheep growth plate chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) inhibits growth-plate chondrocyte proliferation and limits bone elongation. Gain-of-function FGFR3 mutations cause dwarfism, reduced telomerase activity and shorter telomeres in growth plate chondroyctes suggesting that FGFR3 reduces proliferative capacity, inhibits telomerase, and enhances senescence. Thyroid hormone (T3) plays a role in cellular maturation of growth plate chondrocytes and a known target of T3 is FGFR3. The present study addressed whether reduced FGFR3 expression enhanced telomerase activity, mRNA expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and RNA component of telomerase (TR), and chondrocyte proliferation, and whether the stimulation of FGFR3 by T3 evoked the opposite response. Results Sheep growth-plate proliferative zone chondrocytes were cultured and transfected with siRNA to reduce FGFR3 expression; FGFR3 siRNA reduced chondrocyte FGFR3 mRNA and protein resulting in greater proliferation and increased TERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity (p?growth plate may be partially mediated through the FGFR3 pathway. Conclusions The results suggest that FGFR3 inhibits chondrocyte proliferation by down-regulating TERT expression and reducing telomerase activity indicating an important role for telomerase in sustaining chondrocyte proliferative capacity during bone elongation. PMID:23216972

  7. Extracellular vimentin interacts with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor to promote axonal growth

    PubMed Central

    Shigyo, Michiko; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Sawai, Yusuke; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Tohda, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is generally recognised as an intracellular protein. Previously, we reported that vimentin was secreted from astrocytes and promoted axonal growth. The effect of extracellular vimentin in neurons was a new finding, but its signalling pathway was unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the signalling mechanism of extracellular vimentin that facilitates axonal growth. We first identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as a receptor that is highly phosphorylated by vimentin stimulation. IGF1R blockades diminished vimentin- or IGF1-induced axonal growth in cultured cortical neurons. IGF1, IGF2 and insulin were not detected in the neuron culture medium after vimentin treatment. The combined drug affinity responsive target stability method and western blotting analysis showed that vimentin and IGF1 interacted with IGF1R directly. In addition, immunoprecipitation and western blotting analyses confirmed that recombinant IGF1R bound to vimentin. The results of a molecular dynamics simulation revealed that C-terminal residues (residue number 330-407) in vimentin are the most appropriate binding sites with IGF1R. Thus, extracellular vimentin may be a novel ligand of IGF1R that promotes axonal growth in a similar manner to IGF1. Our results provide novel findings regarding the role of extracellular vimentin and IGF1R in axonal growth. PMID:26170015

  8. Early exposure to ethanol or red wine and long-lasting effects in aged mice. A study on nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Laviola, Giovanni; Rossi, Simona; Romeo, Marina; Fiore, Marco

    2012-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure produces severe changes in brain, liver, and kidney through mechanisms involving growth factors. These molecules regulate survival, differentiation, maintenance, and connectivity of brain, liver, and kidney cells. Despite the abundant available data on the short and mid-lasting effects of ethanol intoxication, only few data show the long-lasting damage induced by early ethanol administration. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brain areas, liver, and kidney of 18-mo-old male mice exposed perinatally to ethanol at 11% vol or to red wine at the same ethanol concentration. The authors found that ethanol per se elevated NGF, BDNF, HGF, and VEGF measured by ELISA in brain limbic system areas. In the liver, early exposure to ethanol solution and red wine depleted BDNF and VEGF concentrations. In the kidney, red wine exposure only decreased VEGF. In conclusion, the present study shows that, in aged mice, early administration of ethanol solution induced long-lasting damage at growth factor levels in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and liver but not in kidney. Otherwise, in mice exposed to red wine, significant changes were observed in the liver and kidney but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The brain differences in ethanol-induced toxicity when ethanol is administered alone or in red wine may be related to compounds with antioxidant properties present in the red wine. PMID:20382450

  9. Interaction of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated p85 with epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, P; Margolis, B; Skolnik, E Y; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J

    1992-01-01

    One of the immediate cellular responses to stimulation by various growth factors is the activation of a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. We recently cloned the 85-kDa subunit of PI 3-kinase (p85) from a lambda gt11 expression library, using the tyrosine-phosphorylated carboxy terminus of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor as a probe (E. Y. Skolnik, B. Margolis, M. Mohammadi, E. Lowenstein, R. Fischer, A. Drepps, A. Ullrich, and J. Schlessinger, Cell 65:83-90, 1991). In this study, we have examined the association of p85 with EGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors and the tyrosine phosphorylation of p85 in 3T3 (HER14) cells in response to EGF and PDGF treatment. Treatment of cells with EGF or PDGF markedly increased the amount of p85 associated with EGF and PDGF receptors. Binding assays with glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins demonstrated that either Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain of p85 is sufficient for binding to EGF and PDGF receptors and that receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation is required for binding. Binding of a GST fusion protein expressing the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85 (GST-N-SH2) to EGF and PDGF receptors was half-maximally inhibited by 2 and 24 mM phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr), respectively, suggesting that the N-SH2 domain interacts more stably with PDGF receptors than with EGF receptors. The amount of receptor-p85 complex detected in HER14 cells treated with EGF or PDGF. Growth factor treatment also increased the amount of p85 found in anti-PDGF-treated HER14 cells, suggesting that the vast majority of p85 in the anti-P-Tyr fraction is receptor associated but not phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. Only upon transient overexpression of p85 and PDGF receptor did p85 become tyrosine phosphorylated. These are consistent with the hypothesis that p85 functions as an adaptor molecule that targets PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372091

  10. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  11. Effects of low frequency pulsed electrical current on keratinocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hinsenkamp, M.; Jercinovic, A.

    1997-05-01

    The effects of low frequency pulsed electrical current on epidermal repair in vitro were examined. Charge-balanced current stimuli proposed for chronic wound treatment were tested on skin keratinocytes cultured at an air-liquid interface on dead human dermis. Results imply that the balance between proliferation and differentiation in electrically treated samples is significantly modified in favor of differentiation. More advanced differentiation, shown through epidermal histology, was obtained in cultures exposed to electrical current, whereas the culture growth, the result of keratinocyte migration and proliferation, was greater in control samples.

  12. Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Malignant Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Sorensen, A. Gregory; Jain, Rakesh K.; Batchelor, Tracy T.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are among the most vascular tumors because they oversecrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent stimulator of angiogenesis. Consequently, new drug regimens are being developed to target the VEGF signaling pathway in an attempt to halt tumor growth. Antibodies that bind VEGF, decoy molecules that sequester VEGF, and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that block receptor activation are being tested. Preliminary results with these agents have been promising, with prolonged progression-free survival reported. The antipermeability effects of anti-VEGF agents have important consequences for tumor imaging and for patient quality of life by decreasing corticosteroid dependence. However, because most patients eventually relapse, more work is needed to understand mechanisms of disease escape, including vascular cooption of native brain blood vessels. PMID:19348715

  13. Release characteristics of encapsulated formulations incorporating plant growth factors.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Slawomir; Schwartz, Liliana; Wiesman, Zeev; Markus, Arie; Wolf, David

    2002-05-01

    The release characteristics of encapsulated formulations containing a combination of plant growth factors (PGF)--plant hormones (IBA, paclobutrazol), nutrients (fertilizers, microelements), and fungicide (prochloraz)--were studied. The formulations were prepared by encapsulating the active ingredients in a polyethylene matrix and, in some cases, subsequently coating the product with polyurethane. Dissolution experiments were carried out with both coated and non-coated formulations to determine the sustained release patterns of the active ingredients. The PGF controlled-release systems obtained have been shown to promote development of root systems, vegetative growth, and reproductive development in cuttings, potted plants, or garden plants of various plant species. These beneficial effects are attributable to the lasting and balanced PGF availability provided by these systems. PMID:12009194

  14. THIAMINE AND NICOTINIC ACID: ANAEROBIC GROWTH FACTORS FOR MUCOR ROUXII

    PubMed Central

    Bartnicki-Garcia, S.; Nickerson, Walter J.

    1961-01-01

    Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (Rutgers, the State University, New Brunswick, N. J.), and Walter J. Nickerson. Thiamine and nicotinic acid: Anaerobic growth factors for Mucor rouxii. J. Bacteriol. 82:142–148. 1961.—Mucor rouxii requires preformed thiamine and nicotinic acid for anaerobic growth. Such requirements are not manifested during aerobic incubation. Aerobically, the fungus was shown to be able to synthesize both vitamins. The yeastlike form and the filamentous form of anaerobically grown M. rouxii exhibit the same vitamin requirements. Thiamine can be substituted by its thiazole moiety. Under certain conditions, nicotinic acid was partly substituted by tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Anaerobically. the fungus (thiamine requiring) was about ten times more susceptible to pyrithiamine antagonism than the same organism grown aerobically (thiamine independent). PMID:16561911

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berasain, Carmen; Latasa, María Ujue; Urtasun, Raquel; Goñi, Saioa; Elizalde, María; Garcia-Irigoyen, Oihane; Azcona, María; Prieto, Jesús; Ávila, Matías A.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment. PMID:24212818

  16. The emerging role of hepatocyte growth factor in renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Song; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a kringle-containing polypeptide, acts on various epithelial cells to regulate cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis. HGF also accelerates tissue regeneration of injured organs and is regarded as a key molecule in organ regeneration. Besides the regeneration of the liver, HGF also plays a role in the renal regeneration. In addition, an adaptive alteration of HGF status in various renal diseases occurs. However, the precise role of HGF in various renal diseases remains elusive. The signaling pathways of HGF may be associated with renal diseases. In this review, we will try to provide an in-depth understanding of the underlying role of HGF and its possible interactions with other molecules in renal diseases. PMID:26460681