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Sample records for key anabolic factors

  1. Anabolic factors in degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed

    Sandell, L J

    2007-02-01

    While a great deal of information is available on the cellular and molecular biology of cartilage degradation, less is known about anabolism in normal cartilage and degenerating cartilage. A consistent amount of evidence is now available on the neo-synthesis of matrix molecules and enzymes in OA: the entire cell metabolism appears to be increased leading to the hypothesis that chondrocytes in OA are actually "activated". This chapter will focus on anabolic events that are now known to occur in articular cartilage. We will begin to view articular cartilage as a complex three-dimensional tissue in which local events may be different. We will also be interested in viewing the development of degenerative arthritis as a continuum from functionally normal tissue to degeneration. PMID:17305513

  2. Transient supplementation of anabolic growth factors rapidly stimulates matrix synthesis in engineered cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kenneth W.; O’Conor, Christopher J.; Kugler, Lindsay E.; Cook, James L.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Hung, Clark T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the presented work is to examine the response of engineered cartilage to a transient, 2-week application of anabolic growth factors compared to continuous exposure in in vitro culture. Immature bovine chondrocytes were suspended in agarose hydrogel and cultured for 28 days (Study 1) or 42 days (Study 2) in chondrogenic media with TGF-β1, TGF-β3, or IGF-I either added for only the first 14 days in culture or added to the media for the entire study period. In both studies, there were no statistical differences in tissue mechanical or biochemical properties between the growth factors on day 14. In Study 1, growth factor removal led to a significant and drastic increase in Young’s modulus and GAG content compared to continuously exposed controls on day 28. In Study 2, both TGF-β1 and β3 led to significantly higher mechanical properties and collagen content versus IGF-I on day 42. These results indicate that the rapid rise in tissue properties (previously observed with TGF-β3 only) is not dependent on the type but rather the temporal application of the anabolic growth factor. These findings shed light on possible techniques to rapidly develop engineered cartilage tissue for the future treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:21833681

  3. Factorizing RSA Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakey, Ed

    Factorization is notoriously difficult. Though the problem is not known to be NP-hard, neither efficient, algorithmic solution nor technologically practicable, quantum-computer solution has been found. This apparent complexity, which renders infeasible the factorization of sufficiently large values, makes secure the RSA cryptographic system.

  4. Expression of muscle anabolic and metabolic factors in mechanically loaded MLO-Y4 osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Juffer, Petra; Jaspers, Richard T; Lips, Paul; Bakker, Astrid D; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2012-02-15

    Lack of physical activity results in muscle atrophy and bone loss, which can be counteracted by mechanical loading. Similar molecular signaling pathways are involved in the adaptation of muscle and bone mass to mechanical loading. Whether anabolic and metabolic factors regulating muscle mass, i.e., insulin-like growth factor-I isoforms (IGF-I Ea), mechano growth factor (MGF), myostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are also produced by osteocytes in bone in response to mechanical loading is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) modulates the mRNA and/or protein levels of muscle anabolic and metabolic factors in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. Unloaded MLO-Y4 osteocytes expressed mRNA of VEGF, HGF, IGF-I Ea, and MGF, but not myostatin. PFF increased mRNA levels of IGF-I Ea (2.1-fold) and MGF (2.0-fold) at a peak shear stress rate of 44Pa/s, but not at 22Pa/s. PFF at 22 Pa/s increased VEGF mRNA levels (1.8- to 2.5-fold) and VEGF protein release (2.0- to 2.9-fold). Inhibition of nitric oxide production decreased (2.0-fold) PFF-induced VEGF protein release. PFF at 22 Pa/s decreased HGF mRNA levels (1.5-fold) but increased HGF protein release (2.3-fold). PFF-induced HGF protein release was nitric oxide dependent. Our data show that mechanically loaded MLO-Y4 osteocytes differentially express anabolic and metabolic factors involved in the adaptive response of muscle to mechanical loading (i.e., IGF-I Ea, MGF, VEGF, and HGF). Similarly to muscle fibers, mechanical loading enhanced expression levels of these growth factors in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. Although in MLO-Y4 osteocytes expression levels of IGF-I Ea and MGF of myostatin were very low or absent, it is known that the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is strongly affected by them. The abundant expression levels of these factors in muscle cells, in combination with low expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes, provide a

  5. Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  6. Accelerated fracture healing in transgenic mice overexpressing an anabolic isoform of fibroblast growth factor 2.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Marja M; Adams, Douglas J; Wang, Liping; Jiang, Xi; Burt, Patience Meo; Du, Erxia; Xiao, Liping

    2016-03-01

    The effect of targeted expression of an anabolic isoform of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in osteoblastic lineage on tibial fracture healing was assessed in mice. Closed fracture of the tibiae was performed in Col3.6-18 kDaFgf2-IRES-GFPsaph mice in which a 3.6 kb fragment of type I collagen promoter (Col3.6) drives the expression of only the 18 kD isoform of FGF2 (18 kDaFgf2/LMW) with green fluorescent protein-sapphire (GFPsaph) as well as Vector mice (Col3.6-IRES-GFPsaph, Vector) that did not harbor the FGF2 transgene. Radiographic, micro-CT, DEXA, and histologic analysis of fracture healing of tibiae harvested at 3, 10 and 20 days showed a smaller fracture callus but accelerated fracture healing in LMWTg compared with Vector mice. At post fracture day 3, FGF receptor 3 and Sox 9 mRNA were significantly increased in LMWTg compared with Vector. Accelerated fracture healing was associated with higher FGF receptor 1, platelet derived growth factors B, C, and D, type X collagen, vascular endothelial cell growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, runt-related transcription factor-2, Osterix and Osteocalcin and lower Sox9, and type II collagen expression at 10 days post fracture. We postulate that overexpression of LMW FGF2 accelerated the fracture healing process due to its effects on factors that are important in chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation and vascular invasion. PMID:26252425

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in Australian high school students.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Gupta, L

    1997-06-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is reportedly increasing in prevalence and spreading from sportsmen to cosmetic and recreational use, though there are few accurate estimates of the extent of AAS use outside North America. In order to identify the prevalence of, and risk factors for, 'ever' (lifetime) or 'recent' (within last month) use of AAS among Australian high school students, 13,355 students (51.3% male, median age 13.8 years) in 203 schools constituting a stratified random sample of all high schools in New South Wales and Victoria completed a self-report questionnaire about drug use. Lifetime ('ever') use of AAS was reported by 213 boys (3.2%; 95% CI, 2.7-3.6%) and 74 girls (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5%). Factors associated with 'ever' use were truancy [odds ratio (OR) 17.7 (95% CI, 9.4-31.6) for 7 or more truant days compared with no trauncy over the last fortnight], unsupervised recreation [OR 8.4 (5.9-11.9) for 6 or more compared with 2 or fewer nights per week], speaking only a non-English language at home [OR 7.75 (4.4-13.1)], Aboriginality [OR 3.4 (2.0-5.5)], male gender [OR 2.8 (2.1-3.7)], higher student income [OR 2.3 (1.7-3.0)], overseas born [OR 2.2 (1.6-3.0)] and low level of social support [OR 2.5 (1.7-3.5)]. Use of AAS within the last month ('recent') was reported by 113 boys (1.7%; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0%) and 28 girls (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6%) and virtually identical risk factor patterns except ORs were uniformly higher. We conclude that AAS abuse is relatively uncommon among Australian high school students but has distinctive and strong socio-economic and cultural predictors. Further studies of the behavioural epidemiology of AAS abuse are required to clarify the origins and significance of our findings and to identify potentially effective interventions. PMID:9354185

  8. Messenger RNA delivery of a cartilage-anabolic transcription factor as a disease-modifying strategy for osteoarthritis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aini, Hailati; Itaka, Keiji; Fujisawa, Ayano; Uchida, Hirokuni; Uchida, Satoshi; Fukushima, Shigeto; Kataoka, Kazunori; Saito, Taku; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease and a major health problem in the elderly population. No disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) has been made available for clinical use. Here we present a disease-modifying strategy for OA, focusing on messenger RNA (mRNA) delivery of a therapeutic transcription factor using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyamino acid block copolymer-based polyplex nanomicelles. When polyplex nanomicelles carrying the cartilage-anabolic, runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) 1 mRNA were injected into mouse OA knee joints, OA progression was significantly suppressed compared with the non-treatment control. Expressions of cartilage-anabolic markers and proliferation were augmented in articular chondrocytes of the RUNX1-injected knees. Thus, this study provides a proof of concept of the treatment of degenerative diseases such as OA by the in situ mRNA delivery of therapeutic transcription factors; the presented approach will directly connect basic findings on disease-protective or tissue-regenerating factors to disease treatment. PMID:26728350

  9. Key factors help programs succeed.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1997-01-01

    The World Health Organization is coordinating a review (with the United Nations Population Fund and UNICEF) of key interventions designed to improve adolescent health services, focusing on the effectiveness of these efforts. Making services more available involves the attitude and training of providers, the logistics of clinic location and service, and the questions of privacy and confidentiality. Successful programs identify specific target groups defined by age, school status, marital status, and other social factors. In a recent evaluation of 70 projects focusing on adolescents, UNFPA found that almost none of them defined their target populations clearly. Marital status is particularly important, for the unmarried often face more obstacles to services. Providers should involve youth in planning and implementing reproductive health services and evaluating programs by working with youth focus groups and workshops. A review of the Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project of 21 peer education projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America showed that peer education is useful for providing HIV/AIDS information. In successful peer programming selection and training, skills building, effective provision of information and referrals, and minimal turnover are key elements. Involving community leaders, parents, teachers helps achieve the balance of needs and culture and traditions. A UNFPA analysis found that most projects did not involve parents and community groups. Sex education programs were particularly divisive. The accessibility of services depends on convenience of location, clinic hours, confidentiality, and style of services. The basic evaluation tool is simple observation. In 1992 an AIDS prevention project in Kenya used an outcome evaluation with interviews and found that the target audience had more positive behavior change. Sustaining good programs should also be included in the planning phase, as was done by the CORA project

  10. Soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor 2, a serum marker of resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone in subjects with HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Gelato, Marie C; Mynarcik, Dennis; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2002-01-01

    Therapies are still being sought for the prevention of loss of body weight and lean body mass in HIV disease. The purpose of the present study was to identify a serum marker that would help in selecting patients who may be appropriate candidates for the use of anabolic agents, such as growth hormone, to restore lean body mass. This study included 26 HIV-infected patients and nine healthy controls, assessed previously for the effectiveness of 2 weeks of growth hormone administration in the stimulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Serum levels of interleukins-1beta, -6 and -10 were not useful predictors of the anabolic response to growth hormone. Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were significantly elevated (P<0.05) in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related weight loss, and there was a significant correlation between the serum concentration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and stage of disease (P=0.03). However, the serum concentration of the soluble TNFalpha receptor type 2 was most predictive of an inability of muscle protein synthesis to respond anabolically to growth hormone (r=-0.42, P=0.01). These data suggest that inflammation impacts on the responsiveness of muscle tissue to an anabolic stimulus, and that the soluble TNFalpha receptor type 2 provides a useful serum marker for metabolic dysfunction in HIV disease, which can be used to identify individuals likely to respond to growth hormone-based anabolic therapy. PMID:11749664

  11. Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jay R.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key Points For many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use. Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause

  12. Insulin-like growth factor I is required for the anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on mouse bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Leary, Colin; Elalieh, Hashem; Ginzinger, David; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley; Majumdar, Sharmila; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for bone, but the mechanism(s) by which it works remains imperfectly understood. Previous studies have indicated that PTH stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I production, but it remains uncertain whether IGF-I mediates some or all of the skeletal actions of PTH. To address this question, we examined the skeletal response to PTH in IGF-I-deficient (knockout [k/o]) mice. These mice and their normal littermates (NLMs) were given daily injections of PTH (80 microg/kg) or vehicle for 2 weeks after which their tibias were examined for fat-free weight (FFW), bone mineral content, bone structure, and bone formation rate (BFR), and their femurs were assessed for mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. In wild-type mice, PTH increased FFW, periosteal BFR, and cortical thickness (C.Th) of the proximal tibia while reducing trabecular bone volume (BV); these responses were not seen in the k/o mice. The k/o mice had normal mRNA levels of the PTH receptor and increased mRNA levels of the IGF-I receptor but markedly reduced basal mRNA levels of the osteoblast markers. Surprisingly, these mRNAs in the k/o bones increased several-fold more in response to PTH than the mRNAs in the bones from their wild-type littermates. These results indicate that IGF-I is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation, but the defect lies distal to the initial response of the osteoblast to PTH.

  13. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  14. Effects of low-level laser therapy on joint pain, synovitis, anabolic, and catabolic factors in a progressive osteoarthritis rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Xiaotian; Zhou, Yujing; Wei, Xiaofei; Ji, Qiaodan; Yang, Lin; He, Chengqi

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on short-term and long-term joint pain, synovitis, anabolic, and catabolic factors in the cartilage of a rabbit model with progressive osteoarthritis (OA) induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). A total of 160 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into two groups (ACLT group and LLLT group). All rabbits received ACLT surgery, and 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-week treatment after the surgery, with 20 rabbits being tested biweekly over every study period. The LLLT group received LLLT with a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (830 nm) of 1.5 J/cm(2) three times per week, and the ACLT group received placebo LLLT with the equipment switched off. Long-term and short-term pain was tested via weight-bearing asymmetry; synovitis was assessed histologically; and knee joint cartilage was evaluated by gross morphology, histology, and gene expression analysis of anabolic and catabolic factors. The histological assessment of pain and synovitis showed that at least 6-week intermittent irradiation of LLLT could relief knee pain and control synovium inflammation. Gross morphologic inspection and histological evaluation showed that 6 weeks of LLLT could decrease cartilage damage of medical femoral condyle and 8 weeks of LLLT could decrease cartilage damage of medical and lateral femoral condyles and medical tibial plateau. Gene expression analysis revealed two results: At least 6 weeks of LLLT could decrease production of catabolic factors, for example, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and MMP-3, and slow down the loss of anabolic factors, mainly TIMP-1. Eight weeks of LLLT treatment could slow down the loss of collagen II, aggrecan, and anabolic factors, mainly transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). The study suggests that LLLT plays a protective role against cartilage degradation and synovitis in rabbits with progressive OA by virtue of the regulation

  15. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor expression and anxiety-like behaviors in the female mouse.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-11-01

    In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BnST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  16. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  17. Overexpression of the Transcriptional Factor Runx2 in Osteoblasts Abolishes the Anabolic Effect of Parathyroid Hormone in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Merciris, Didier; Marty, Caroline; Collet, Corinne; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Geoffroy, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that Runx2 could be a regulator of the anabolic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in bone. We therefore decided to determine how Runx2 overexpression in osteoblasts affects the anabolic response to PTH. Transgenic osteoporotic female mice overexpressing Runx2 (TG) and their wild-type littermates (WT) were treated with PTH (100 μg/kg/day, 7 days a week) or with the vehicle for 6 weeks. Unexpectedly, Runx2 overexpression blunted the increase in the mineral density and volume of bone induced by intermittent PTH in WT mice. Our findings also indicate that PTH failed to increase bone formation in TG mice overexpressing Runx2. This abolition of the effect of PTH by Runx2 overexpression was attributable to a decrease in the differentiation of osteoblastic cells both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we showed that less cAMP was induced by PTH and that there were fewer PTH binding sites in TG than WT osteoblasts. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that in vivo a high level of Runx2 abolishes the anabolic effect of PTH, probably via a decrease in the sensitivity of TG osteoblasts to PTH, and that the level of expression of Runx2 is critical if PTH is to produce its anabolic effect on bone in vivo. PMID:17456773

  18. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Modulation of Forebrain GABAergic Transmission has a Pivotal Role in the Expression of Anabolic Steroid-Induced Anxiety in the Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, Joseph G; Henderson, Leslie P

    2012-01-01

    Increased anxiety is commonly observed in individuals who illicitly administer anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Behavioral effects of steroid abuse have become an increasing concern in adults and adolescents of both sexes. The dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBnST) has a critical role in the expression of diffuse anxiety and is a key site of action for the anxiogenic neuromodulator, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Here we demonstrate that chronic, but not acute, exposure of female mice during adolescence to AAS augments anxiety-like behaviors; effects that were blocked by central infusion of the CRF receptor type 1 antagonist, antalarmin. AAS treatment selectively increased action potential (AP) firing in neurons of the central amygdala (CeA) that project to the dlBnST, increased the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in dlBnST target neurons, and decreased both c-FOS immunoreactivity (IR) and AP frequency in these postsynaptic cells. Acute application of antalarmin abrogated the enhancement of GABAergic inhibition induced by chronic AAS exposure whereas application of CRF to brain slices of naïve mice mimicked the actions of this treatment. These results, in concert with previous data demonstrating that chronic AAS treatment results in enhanced levels of CRF mRNA in the CeA and increased CRF-IR in the dlBnST neuropil, are consistent with a mechanism in which the enhanced anxiety elicited by chronic AAS exposure involves augmented inhibitory activity of CeA afferents to the dlBnST and CRF-dependent enhancement of GABAergic inhibition in this brain region. PMID:22298120

  19. Calcium Sensing Receptor Function Supports Osteoblast Survival and Acts as a Co-Factor in PTH Anabolic Actions in Bone.

    PubMed

    Al-Dujaili, Saja A; Koh, Amy J; Dang, Ming; Mi, Xue; Chang, Wenhan; Ma, Peter X; McCauley, Laurie K

    2016-07-01

    Anabolic actions of PTH in bone involve increased deposition of mineralizing matrix. Regulatory feedback of the process may be important to maintain calcium homeostasis and, in turn, calcium may inform the process. This investigation clarified the role of calcium availability and the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the anabolic actions of PTH. CaSR function promoted osteoblastic cell numbers, with lower cell numbers in post-confluent cultures of primary calvarial cells from Col1-CaSR knock-out (KO) mice, and for calvarial cells from wild-type (WT) mice treated with a calcilytic. Increased apoptosis of calvarial cells with calcilytic treatment suggested CaSR is critical for protection against stage-dependent cell death. Whole and cortical, but not trabecular, bone parameters were significantly lower in Col1-CaSR KO mice versus WT littermates. Intact Col1-CaSR KO mice had lower serum P1NP levels relative to WT. PTH treatment displayed anabolic actions in WT and, to a lesser degree, KO mice, and rescued the lower P1NP levels in KO mice. Furthermore, PTH effects on whole tibiae were inhibited by osteoblast-specific CaSR ablation. Vertebral body implants (vossicles) from untreated Col1-CaSR KO and WT mice had similar bone volumes after 4 weeks of implantation in athymic mice. These findings suggest that trabecular bone formation can occur independently of the CaSR, and that the CaSR plays a collaborative role in the PTH anabolic effects on bone. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1556-1567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26579618

  20. Calcium sensing receptor function supports osteoblast survival and acts as a co-factor in PTH anabolic actions in bone

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dujaili, Saja A.; Koh, Amy J.; Dang, Ming; Mi, Xue; Chang, Wenhan; Ma, Peter X.; McCauley, Laurie K.

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic actions of PTH in bone involve increased deposition of mineralizing matrix. Regulatory feedback of the process may be important to maintain calcium homeostasis and, in turn, calcium may inform the process. This investigation clarified the role of calcium availability and the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the anabolic actions of PTH. CaSR function promoted osteoblastic cell numbers, with lower cell numbers in post-confluent cultures of primary calvarial cells from Col1-CaSR knock-out (KO) mice, and for calvarial cells from wild-type (WT) mice treated with a calcilytic. Increased apoptosis of calvarial cells with calcilytic treatment suggested CaSR is critical for protection against stage-dependent cell death. Whole and cortical, but not trabecular, bone parameters were significantly lower in Col1-CaSR KO mice versus WT littermates. Intact Col1-CaSR KO mice had lower serum P1NP levels relative to WT. PTH treatment displayed anabolic actions in WT and, to a lesser degree, KO mice, and rescued the lower P1NP levels in KO mice. Furthermore, PTH effects on whole tibiae were inhibited by osteoblast-specific CaSR ablation. Vertebral body implants (vossicles) from untreated Col1-CaSR KO and WT mice had similar bone volumes after 4 weeks of implantation in athymic mice. These findings suggest that trabecular bone formation can occur independently of the CaSR, and that the CaSR plays a collaborative role in the PTH anabolic effects on bone. PMID:26579618

  1. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids are ...

  2. TAp73 promotes anabolism

    PubMed Central

    Amelio, Ivano; Antonov, Alexey A.; Catani, Maria Valeria; Massoud, Renato; Bernassola, Francesca; Knight, Richard A.; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic adaptation has emerged as a hallmark of cancer and a promising therapeutic target, as rapidly proliferating cancer cells adapt their metabolism increasing nutrient uptake and reorganizing metabolic fluxes to support biosynthesis. The transcription factor p73 belongs to the p53-family and regulates tumorigenesis via its two N-terminal isoforms, with (TAp73) or without (ΔNp73) a transactivation domain. TAp73 acts as tumor suppressor, at least partially through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and through regulation of genomic stability. Here, we sought to investigate whether TAp73 also affects metabolic profiling of cancer cells. Using high throughput metabolomics, we unveil a thorough and unexpected role for TAp73 in promoting Warburg effect and cellular metabolism. TAp73-expressing cells show increased rate of glycolysis, higher amino acid uptake and increased levels and biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA. Moreover, we report an extensive TAp73-mediated upregulation of several anabolic pathways including polyamine and synthesis of membrane phospholipids. TAp73 expression also increases cellular methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), possibly influencing methylation and epigenetics, and promotes arginine metabolism, suggestive of a role in extracellular matrix (ECM) modeling. In summary, our data indicate that TAp73 regulates multiple metabolic pathways that impinge on numerous cellular functions, but that, overall, converge to sustain cell growth and proliferation. PMID:25514460

  3. Helicopter training simulators: Key market factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, John

    1992-01-01

    Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.

  4. Anabolic interventions in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W

    2009-11-01

    ESRD produces a chronic catabolic state that results in significant skeletal muscle atrophy, weakness, and physical dysfunction. Any intervention that can ameliorate this process can significantly improve quality of life. Some studies have shown that endurance exercise training, even at low intensities, may exhibit anabolic effects and improved physical function. However, resistance exercise training is of primary interest as an anabolic intervention because it is the mode of exercise that is most efficacious in stimulating anabolic responses, improved muscle performance, and physical function. A relatively small number of controlled trials of resistance training in ESRD patients have failed to show significant changes in LBM, although some studies have shown significant improvements in other markers of anabolism. Increases in muscle strength with resistance training are typical but improved physical function, either by objective measurement or self-report, are equivocal. Study durations, loads used during training, and relatively small sample sizes may in part explain the inability of previous studies to observe more substantial changes in LBM and physical function. Androgens and growth hormone have been shown to significantly improve LBM and strength, although longer-term studies for safety and efficacy are necessary before their general recommendation for patients with ESRD. PMID:19801139

  5. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors

    PubMed Central

    ANGOORANI, Hooman; HALABCHI, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Methods: Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively), and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires. Results: Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD): 25.7 (7.1), ranging 14–56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%). Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse. Conclusion: Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse. PMID:26811817

  6. Key Factors of Circulation System Analysis and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob

    1972-01-01

    Explained are basic concepts and components that are common to manual, machine-aided, and computer-based systems, and their significance as key factors in the analysis and design of academic library circulation systems is documented. (2 references) (Author)

  7. Physiological and isotopic characteristics of nitrogen fixation by hyperthermophilic methanogens: Key insights into nitrogen anabolism of the microbial communities in Archean hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Manabu; Miyazaki, Junichi; Makabe, Akiko; Koba, Keisuke; Takai, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Hyperthermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens are considered to be one of the most predominant primary producers in hydrogen (H2)-abundant hydrothermal environments in the present-day ocean and throughout the history of the Earth. However, the nitrogen sources supporting the development of microbial communities in hydrothermal environments remain poorly understood. We have investigated, for the first time, methanogenic archaea commonly found in deep-sea hydrothermal environments to understand their physiological properties (growth kinetics, energetics, and metal requirements) and isotopic characteristics during the fixation of dinitrogen (N2), which is an abundant but less-bioavailable compound in hydrothermal fluids. Culture experiments showed that Methanocaldococcus strain (Mc 1-85N) (Topt = 85 °C) and Methanothermococcus strain (Mt 5-55N) (Topt = 55 °C) assimilated N2 and ammonium, but not nitrate. Previous phylogenetic studies have predicted that the Methanocaldococcus and Methanothermococcus lineages have nitrogenases, key enzymes for N2 fixation, with biochemically uncharacterised active site metal cofactors. We showed that Mt 5-55N required molybdenum for the nitrogenase to function, implying a molybdenum-bearing cofactor in the strain. Molybdenum also stimulated diazotrophic (i.e., N2-fixing) growth of Mc 1-85N, though further experiments are required to test whether the strain contains a molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase. Importantly, Mc 1-85N exhibited an apparently lower requirement of and higher tolerance to molybdenum and iron than Mt 5-55N. Furthermore, both strains produced more 15N-depleted biomass (-4‰ relative to N2) than that previously reported for diazotrophic photosynthetic prokaryotes. These results demonstrate that diazotrophic hyperthermophilic methanogens can be broadly distributed in seafloor and subseafloor hydrothermal environments, where the availability of transition metals is variable and where organic carbon, organic nitrogen

  8. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months. PMID:11363845

  9. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis. PMID:25434557

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and especially IGF-I variants are anabolic in dexamethasone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tomas, F M; Knowles, S E; Owens, P C; Chandler, C S; Francis, G L; Read, L C; Ballard, F J

    1992-02-15

    The administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps partially reversed a catabolic state produced by the co-administration of 20 micrograms of dexamethasone/day to 150 g male rats. Marked dose-dependent effects on body weight and nitrogen retention were produced, with the highest IGF-I dose, 695 micrograms/day, giving a 6 g increase in body weight over 7 days, compared with a 19 g loss in the dexamethasone-only group and an 18 g gain in pair-fed controls. Two IGF-I analogues that bind poorly to IGF-binding proteins, the truncated form, des(1-3)IGF-I, and a variant with an N-terminal extension as well as arginine at residue 3, LR3IGF-I, were approx. 2.5-fold more potent than IGF-I. The response with LR3IGF-I was particularly striking because this peptide binds 3-fold less well than IGF-I to the type 1 IGF receptor. The increased potencies of the IGF-I variants may relate to the substantially increased plasma levels of IGF-binding proteins, particularly IGFBP-3, produced by the combined treatment of dexamethasone with IGF-I or the variants. These binding proteins would be expected to decrease the transfer of IGF-I, but not that of the variants, from blood to tissue sites of action. Measurements of muscle protein synthesis at the end of the treatment period and muscle protein breakdown by 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion throughout the experiment indicated coordinate anabolic effects of the IGF peptides on both processes. Thus 3MH excretion was decreased at the highest IGF-I dose from 83.5 +/- 4.2 (S.E.M.) mumol/kg per 7 days to 65.1 +/- 2.2, compared with 54.9 +/- 1.2 in the pair-fed controls. Part of this response in 3MH excretion may have reflected a decrease in gut protein breakdown, because IGF-I and especially the IGF analogues increased the gut weight by up to 45%. Notwithstanding the effects on protein synthesis and breakdown, the fractional carcass weights remained low in the IGF-treated groups, although the

  11. Beyond microarrays: Finding key transcription factors controlling signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kel, Alexdander; Voss, Nico; Jauregui, Ruy; Kel-Margoulis, Olga; Wingender, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Background Massive gene expression changes in different cellular states measured by microarrays, in fact, reflect just an "echo" of real molecular processes in the cells. Transcription factors constitute a class of the regulatory molecules that typically require posttranscriptional modifications or ligand binding in order to exert their function. Therefore, such important functional changes of transcription factors are not directly visible in the microarray experiments. Results We developed a novel approach to find key transcription factors that may explain concerted expression changes of specific components of the signal transduction network. The approach aims at revealing evidence of positive feedback loops in the signal transduction circuits through activation of pathway-specific transcription factors. We demonstrate that promoters of genes encoding components of many known signal transduction pathways are enriched by binding sites of those transcription factors that are endpoints of the considered pathways. Application of the approach to the microarray gene expression data on TNF-alpha stimulated primary human endothelial cells helped to reveal novel key transcription factors potentially involved in the regulation of the signal transduction pathways of the cells. Conclusion We developed a novel computational approach for revealing key transcription factors by knowledge-based analysis of gene expression data with the help of databases on gene regulatory networks (TRANSFAC® and TRANSPATH®). The corresponding software and databases are available at . PMID:17118134

  12. New anabolic therapies in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mishaela R; Bilezikian, John P

    2003-03-01

    Anabolic agents represent an important new advance in the therapy of osteoporosis. Their potential might be substantially greater than the anti-resorptives. Because the anti-resorptives and anabolic agents work by completely distinct mechanisms of action, it is possible that the combination of agents could be significantly more potent than either agent alone. Recent evidence suggests that a plateau in BMD might occur after prolonged exposure to PTH. Anti-resorptive therapy during or after anabolic therapy might prevent this skeletal adaptation. Protocols to consider anabolic agents as intermittent recycling therapy would be of interest. Of all the anabolics, PTH is the most promising. However, there are unanswered questions about PTH. More studies are needed to document an anabolic effect on cortical bone. More large-scale studies are needed to further determine the reduction in nonvertebral fractures with PTH, especially at the hip. In the future, PTH is likely to be modified for easier and more targeted delivery. Oral or transdermal delivery systems may become available. Recently, Gowen et al have described an oral calcilytic molecule that antagonizes the parathyroid cell calcium receptor, thus stimulating the endogenous release of PTH. This approach could represent a novel endogenous delivery system for intermittent PTH administration. Rising expectations that anabolic therapies for osteoporosis will soon play a major role in treating this disease are likely to fuel further studies and the development of even more novel approaches to therapy. PMID:12699304

  13. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  14. The anabolic effects of vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) and a novel small peptide on bone.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gary B; Grecco, Kristina J; Safadi, Fayez F; Popoff, Steven N

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) has previously been shown to stimulate bone resorption and correct the skeletal defects associated with osteopetrosis in two nonallelic mutations in rats. This same protein and a small fragment of the protein have now been shown to demonstrate an anabolic effect on the skeleton of both newborn and young adult, intact rats. The novel peptide fragment was synthetically produced based on the human amino acid sequence at the site of glycosylation in the third domain of the native protein (DBP). The peptide tested is 14 amino acids in length and demonstrates no homologies other than to that region of DBP. Newborn rats were injected i.p. with saline, peptide (0.4 ng/g body wt.) or DBP-MAF (2 ng/g body wt.) every other day from birth to 14 days of age. On day 16 the rats were euthanized and the long bones collected for bone densitometry by pQCT. After 2 weeks of treatment with either the whole protein (DBP-MAF) or the small peptide, bone density was significantly increased in the treated animals compared to the saline controls. Young adult female rats (180 grams) were given s.c. injections of saline or peptide (0.4 ng/g body wt. or 5 ng/g body wt.) every other day for 2 weeks; 2 days after the final injections, the rats were euthanized and the femurs and tibias collected for bone densitometry. Both doses of the peptide resulted in significant increases in bone density as determined by pQCT. Young adult rats were injected locally with a single dose of the peptide (1 microg) or saline into the marrow cavity of the distal femur. One week after the single injection, the bones were collected for radiographic and histological evaluation. The saline controls showed no evidence of new bone formation, whereas the peptide-treated animals demonstrated osteoinduction in the marrow cavity and osteogenesis of surrounding cortical and metaphyseal bone. These data suggest that DBP-MAF and the synthetic peptide represent

  15. Key Factors that Influence Recruiting Young Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenmin

    2007-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…

  16. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  17. Anabolic steroids and Norwegian weightlifters.

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean bodyweight, in kilograms, and mean weightlifting result, in points, for the ten best weightlifters at the annual Norwegian championships 1962-82 have been studied. During the 21 years, the mean bodyweight for these ten increased by 18 kg, probably due to the effect of androgens. The weightlifting results improved rapidly from 1968 onwards, probably reflecting an increasingly widespread use of anabolic steroids by Norwegian weightlifters. In 1977 doping tests were introduced, and from then on, rate of improvement has increased much more slowly. The annual sale of anabolic steroids 1963-81 and testosterone 1974-81, in Norway have been recorded. The sale of anabolic steroids increased irregularly until 1974-75, and has since shown a 42% decrease. The sale of testosterone 1974-81 showed a slight reduction, thus giving no support to the suggestion that doping tests for anabolic steroids would lead to a transfer to testosterone abuse. PMID:7139228

  18. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:26855782

  19. Faculty perceptions of key factors in interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Loversidge, Jacqueline; Demb, Ada

    2015-01-01

    Embedding interprofessional education (IPE) into academic programs presents structural, curricular and human factor challenges. Nurses and physicians comprise the dominant dyad in healthcare, and therefore nursing and medical faculty are key in guiding future IPE approaches. However, faculty experiences with IPE are rarely reported. This paper presents perceptions of medical and nursing faculty about key factors related to IPE for pre-licensure medical and nursing students. Semi-structured interviews with 32 faculty from three Midwest universities were analyzed thematically in this phenomenological study based on collaboration and cooperation theories. Findings clustered into six categories. Specific subthemes little discussed in the literature are addressed in detail. Study participants felt the most powerful interprofessional student experiences were authentic and faculty-facilitated, that constructive clinical environments were crucial, that curriculum design challenges included disparities between undergraduate and graduate education, and that leadership commitment to full-time and adjunct faculty engagement and development was imperative. PMID:25495176

  20. The bone anabolic therapy.

    PubMed

    Nardi, A; Ventura, L; Cozzi, L; Tonini, G; Zennaro, R; Celi, M; Ramazzina, E

    2013-10-01

    Teriparatide (TPTD), the amino-terminal parathyroid hormone recombinant peptide [PTH (1–34)], is a drug with a proven anabolic action on the bone, effective in preventing vertebral and non-vertebral fragility fractures. Recent publications have investigated in great detail the TPTD action on the cortical bone, highlighting the increased strength in the critical zone of the hip with high risk of fracture in osteoporotic patients Poole (PLoS ONE 6:e16190, 2011). In November 2002, TPTD was approved by the FDA for use in post-menopausal women and men with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture and in patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and, since then, has been used to treat more than 1 million patients worldwide (J Bone Miner Res 27(12):2429-2437, 2012). The unchanged safety profile and the well-known mechanism of action of this drug have led doctors to explore the use of TPTD in other conditions such as delayed fracture healing, non-union, osteonecrosis of the jaw, etc. The positive reports that have resulted from these studies are helping to hypothesize a new perspective on the wider use of this drug, but warrant further clinical investigation to consolidate these results. PMID:24078441

  1. Five key factors determining pairwise correlations in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sahani, Maneesh; Carandini, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The responses of cortical neurons to repeated presentation of a stimulus are highly variable, yet correlated. These “noise correlations” reflect a low-dimensional structure of population dynamics. Here, we examine noise correlations in 22,705 pairs of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of anesthetized cats, during ongoing activity and in response to artificial and natural visual stimuli. We measured how noise correlations depend on 11 factors. Because these factors are themselves not independent, we distinguished their influences using a nonlinear additive model. The model revealed that five key factors play a predominant role in determining pairwise correlations. Two of these are distance in cortex and difference in sensory tuning: these are known to decrease correlation. A third factor is firing rate: confirming most earlier observations, it markedly increased pairwise correlations. A fourth factor is spike width: cells with a broad spike were more strongly correlated amongst each other. A fifth factor is spike isolation: neurons with worse isolation were more correlated, even if they were recorded on different electrodes. For pairs of neurons with poor isolation, this last factor was the main determinant of correlations. These results were generally independent of stimulus type and timescale of analysis, but there were exceptions. For instance, pairwise correlations depended on difference in orientation tuning more during responses to gratings than to natural stimuli. These results consolidate disjoint observations in a vast literature on pairwise correlations and point towards regularities of population coding in sensory cortex. PMID:26019310

  2. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is

  3. On the Free Energy That Drove Primordial Anabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A key problem in understanding the origin of life is to explain the mechanism(s) that led to the spontaneous assembly of molecular building blocks that ultimately resulted in the appearance of macromolecular structures as they are known in modern biochemistry today. An indispensable thermodynamic prerequisite for such a primordial anabolism is the mechanistic coupling to processes that supplied the free energy required. Here I review different sources of free energy and discuss the potential of each form having been involved in the very first anabolic reactions that were fundamental to increase molecular complexity and thus were essential for life. PMID:19468343

  4. Key factors of successful JIT integration with IBS - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asri, Mohammad Azwanie Naim Mohammad; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Nadarajan, Santhirasegaran

    2016-08-01

    The Just-In-Time (JIT) philosophy has been used for many decades to increase productivity through waste elimination process. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge by addressing the transportation and material delivery activities in Industrialized Building System (IBS) and integrating JIT to improve the performance of those activities. The literature review has been conducted through relevant database. It was found that there is a need for more holistic approach to be adopted to integrate JIT in IBS project. This paper discusses the key success factors for effective integration between JIT and IBS in the context of transportation and material delivery activities.

  5. Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older men

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, M.; Ceda, G. P.; Lauretani, F.; Cattabiani, C.; Avantaggiato, E.; Morganti, S.; Ablondi, F.; Bandinelli, S.; Dominguez, L. J.; Barbagallo, M.; Paolisso, G.; Semba, R. D.; Ferrucci, L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Optimal nutritional and hormonal statuses are determinants of successful ageing. The age associated decline in anabolic hormones such as testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a strong predictor of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and mortality in older men. Studies have shown that magnesium intake affects the secretion of total IGF-1 and increase testosterone bioactivity. This observation suggests that magnesium can be a modulator of the anabolic/catabolic equilibrium disrupted in the elderly people. However, the relationship between magnesium and anabolic hormones in men has not been investigated. We evaluated 399 ≥65-year-old men of CHIANTI in a study population representative of two municipalities of Tuscany (Italy) with complete data on testosterone, total IGF-1, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and serum magnesium levels. Linear regression models were used to test the relationship between magnesium and testosterone and IGF-1. Mean age of the population was 74.18 ± 6.43 (years ± SD, age range 65.2–92.4). After adjusting for age, magnesium was positively associated with total testosterone (β ± SE, 34.9 ± 10.3; p = 0.001) and with total IGF-1 (β ± SE, 15.9 ± 4.8; p = 0.001). After further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), log (IL-6), log (DHEAS), log (SHBG), log (insulin), total IGF-1, grip strength, Parkinson’s disease and chronic heart failure, the relationship between magnesium and total testosterone remained strong and highly significant (β ± SE, 48.72 ± 12.61; p = 0.001). In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, BMI, log (IL-6), liver function, energy intake, log (insulin), log (DHEAS), selenium, magnesium levels were also still significantly associated with IGF-1 (β ± SE, 16.43 ± 4.90; p = 0.001) and remained significant after adjusting for total testosterone (β ± SE, 14.4 ± 4.9; p = 0.01). In a cohort of older men, magnesium levels are strongly and

  6. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  7. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; D.Stormo, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly desired. Key inputs to such frameworks are protein residues that modulate the specificity of TF under consideration. Simple measures like mutual information (MI) to delineate specificity influencing residues (SIRs) from alignment fail due to structural constraints imposed by the three-dimensional structure of protein. Structural restraints on the evolution of the amino-acid sequence lead to identification of false SIRs. In this manuscript we extended three methods (Direct Information, PSICOV and adjusted mutual information) that have been used to disentangle spurious indirect protein residue-residue contacts from direct contacts, to identify SIRs from joint alignments of amino-acids and specificity. We predicted SIRs forhomeodomain (HD), helix-loop-helix, LacI and GntR families of TFs using these methods and compared to MI. Using various measures, we show that the performance of these three methods is comparable but better than MI. Implication of these methods in specificity prediction framework is discussed. The methods are implemented as an R package and available along with the alignments at stormo.wustl.edu/SpecPred. PMID:26753103

  8. The incidence of anabolic steroid use among competitive bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Tricker, R; O'Neill, M R; Cook, D

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of anabolic steroid use among competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. A profile was established for users and non-users of anabolic steroids. The results of this study indicated that more than half of the male bodybuilders (54%) were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. The types of steroid used were investigated and revealed that on average, four different types of anabolic steroid were used during the year, with individual use ranging from one to fifteen different types; including Dianabol, Deca Durabolin, Anavar, Testosterone, Androl 50, Winstrol, Primobolan, Equipoise, Finaject, Parabolin, HCG, Primacetate, Enanthate, Halotestin, and Maxibolin, in order of the most to least frequently used. The female bodybuilders reported that they had used an average of two different steroids including Deca Durabolin, Anavar, Testosterone, Dianabol, Equipoise, and Winstrol. The principal reason bodybuilders used steroids was related to their perception that these drugs were an important factor in winning competitions. Another important motivating factor for use was consistent with reports that significant gains in strength could be achieved by including anabolic steroids as part of the training regimen in spite of the reported adverse side-effects. PMID:2621538

  9. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bond, Peter; Llewellyn, William; Van Mol, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused for decades by both professional and amateur athletes in order to improve physical performance or muscle mass. AAS abuse can cause adverse effects, among which are hepatotoxic effects. These effects include cholestatic icterus and possibly peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular carcinoma or adenoma. In particular, 17α-alkylated AAS appear to be hepatotoxic, whereas nonalkylated AAS appear not to be. The 17α-alkyl substitution retards hepatic metabolism of the AAS rendering it orally bioavailable. The mechanism responsible for the hepatotoxicity induced by 17α-alkylated AAS remains poorly understood. However, oxidative stress has been repeatedly shown to be associated with it. In this manuscript we present a hypothesis which describes a potential mechanism responsible for AAS-induced hepatotoxicity, based on several observations from the literature which suggest oxidative stress being a causal factor. PMID:27372877

  10. [Seasonal variation of cyanobacteria and its potential relationship with key environmental factors in Xiaojiang backwater area, Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Guo, Jing-song; Fang, Fang; Gao, Xu; Sheng, Jin-ping; Zhou, Hong; Long, Man

    2010-02-01

    Eutrophication and algal blooms occurred in the backwater areas of tributaries in Three Gorges Reservoir were the hot ecological issues in recent years. A one year field survey on cyanobacteria was put forward from May, 2007 to May, 2008 in Xiaojiang backwater area. 15 genera and 40 species of cyanophyta were detected. Mean value of cyanobacterial cell density was (23.50 +/- 10.30) x 10(5) cells x L(-1), i.e., 24.1% in the algal community, while the biomass was (768.70 +/- 287.40) microg x L(-1) which was 8.9% in the total biomass of algal community. Seasonal variation of cyanobacteria was apparent. Generally, cyanobacteria bloom occurred during late spring and early summer. Its abundance decreased after summer and reached the minimum level in winter. Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Merismopedia and Phormidium were the common cynaobacterial genera. The cumulated cell density of these five genera of cyanobacteria above accounted up to 79.1% in the total cell density of cyanobacteria, while that of biomass accounted up to 77.6%. Spearman correlation analysis among the cell density, biomass as well as the key environmental factors indicated that utilization of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for anabolism was evident; however, nitrate would be the major nitrogen source for cyanobacteria. Moreover, increase of temperature and decrease of depth of euphotic zone had a significant effect on the abundance of cyanobacteria. According to co-analysis of hydrology and rainfall data in the whole year circle, it was found that nitrogen and phosphorus were input by the heavy rain and surface runoff with inorganic sediments, offering the enriched nutrients in water column. Meanwhile, turbidity increased by the inorganic suspended sediments decreased the depth of euphotic zone. The physiological advantage of cyanobacteria in low light and high turbidity environment might be the cause of cyanobacteria bloom in Xiaojiang backwater area. PMID:20391694

  11. Tendencies and Key Factors in the Health of School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.; Shabunova, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    According to research data, in today's Russia 70 percent of children are born with various health risk factors, and this leads to a rapid deterioration of their health during their school years. The health of school students is getting worse as a consequence of the effect of a whole set of social and economic and psychological factors, and…

  12. Safety and reliability in industrial organizations - The key factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, R.A. ); Sarkis, H.D. )

    1992-01-01

    A survey-based technique has been developed that measures and generates comparative data on important organizational, work group, and job-level variables that are directly related to on-the-job accidents. This paper describes the results of an analysis of data from more than 2,700 employees in the chemical, oil, construction, and wood products industries. These analyses indicate that several key variables are significantly related to accidents in the workplace.

  13. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  14. Key Features of the TMD Soft-Factor Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, A.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2014-06-01

    We show that the geometry of the Wilson lines, entering the operator definition of the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions and that of the soft factor, follows from the kinematics of the underlying physical process in conjunction with the gauge invariance of the QCD Lagrangian. We demonstrate our method in terms of concrete examples and determine the paths of the associated Wilson lines. The validation of the factorization theorem in our approach is postponed to future work.

  15. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Provision of dietary amino acids increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS), an effect that is enhanced by prior resistance exercise. As a fundamentally necessary process in the enhancement of muscle mass, strategies to enhance rates of MPS would be beneficial in the development of interventions aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass particularly when combined with chronic resistance exercise. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on current findings regarding the nutritional regulation of MPS and highlight nutrition based strategies that may serve to maximize skeletal muscle protein anabolism with resistance exercise. Such factors include timing of protein intake, dietary protein type, the role of leucine as a key anabolic amino acid, and the impact of other macronutrients (i.e. carbohydrate) on the regulation of MPS after resistance exercise. We contend that nutritional strategies that serve to maximally stimulate MPS may be useful in the development of nutrition and exercise based interventions aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle mass which may be of interest to elderly populations and to athletes. PMID:22594765

  16. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Corbineau, Françoise; Xia, Qiong; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs). Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 μL L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1) demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a crosstalk between hormones and other signals will be discussed. PMID:25346747

  17. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Corbineau, Françoise; Xia, Qiong; Bailly, Christophe; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs). Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 μL L(-1). Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1) demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a crosstalk between hormones and other signals will be discussed. PMID:25346747

  18. Key roles of necroptotic factors in promoting tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinjian; Zhou, Min; Mei, Ling; Ruan, Jiaying; Hu, Qian; Peng, Jing; Su, Hang; Liao, Hong; Liu, Shanling; Liu, WeiPing; Wang, He; Huang, Qian; Li, Fang; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Necroptotic factors are generally assumed to play a positive role in tumor therapy by eliminating damaged tumor cells. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, necroptotic factors RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL promote tumor growth. We demonstrate that genetic knockout of necroptotic genes RIPK1, RIPK3, or MLKL in cancer cells significantly attenuated their abilities to grow in an anchorage-independent manner. In addition, they exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity. The knockout cells also showed greatly reduced ability to form tumors in mice. Moreover, necrosulfonamide (NSA), a previously identified chemical inhibitor of necroptosis, could significantly delay tumor growth in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, we show that necroptoic factors play a significant role in maintaining the activity of NF-κB. Finally, we found that high levels of phosphorylated MLKL in human esophageal and colon cancers are associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, we conclude that pro-necroptic factors such as RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL may play a role in supporting tumor growth, and MLKL may be a promising target for cancer treatment. PMID:26959742

  19. The Human Factor: A Key to Excellence in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintzies, Paula; Hare, Isadora

    This document contends that efforts designed to determine how schools can educate children for the nation of tomorrow, by focusing primarily on curriculum issues, instruction, and teachers, may have overlooked the interpersonal factors which contribute to excellence and those human and social forces which may interfere with the attainment of…

  20. Key roles of necroptotic factors in promoting tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjian; Zhou, Min; Mei, Ling; Ruan, Jiaying; Hu, Qian; Peng, Jing; Su, Hang; Liao, Hong; Liu, Shanling; Liu, WeiPing; Wang, He; Huang, Qian; Li, Fang; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2016-04-19

    Necroptotic factors are generally assumed to play a positive role in tumor therapy by eliminating damaged tumor cells. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, necroptotic factors RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL promote tumor growth. We demonstrate that genetic knockout of necroptotic genes RIPK1, RIPK3, or MLKL in cancer cells significantly attenuated their abilities to grow in an anchorage-independent manner. In addition, they exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity. The knockout cells also showed greatly reduced ability to form tumors in mice. Moreover, necrosulfonamide (NSA), a previously identified chemical inhibitor of necroptosis, could significantly delay tumor growth in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, we show that necroptoic factors play a significant role in maintaining the activity of NF-κB. Finally, we found that high levels of phosphorylated MLKL in human esophageal and colon cancers are associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, we conclude that pro-necroptic factors such as RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL may play a role in supporting tumor growth, and MLKL may be a promising target for cancer treatment. PMID:26959742

  1. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  2. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  3. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  4. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  5. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factors as key regulators of tumor inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Soulafa; Wielockx, Ben

    2013-06-15

    Low levels of oxygen or hypoxia is often an obstacle in health, particularly in pathological disorders like cancer. The main family of transcription factors responsible for cell survival and adaptation under strenuous conditions of hypoxia are the "hypoxia-inducible factors" (HIFs). Together with prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs), HIFs regulates tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, metastasis, in addition to resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Additionally, the entire HIF transcription cascade is involved in the "seventh" hallmark of cancer; inflammation. Studies have shown that hypoxia can influence tumor associated immune cells toward assisting in tumor proliferation, differentiation, vessel growth, distant metastasis and suppression of the immune response via cytokine expression alterations. These changes are not necessarily analogous to HIF's role in non-cancer immune responses, where hypoxia often encourages a strong inflammatory response. PMID:23055435

  7. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2002-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment. PMID:12230967

  8. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Shapses, Sue; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Brassinosteroids are plant-derived polyhydroxylated derivatives of 5a-cholestane, structurally similar to cholesterol-derived animal steroid hormones and insect ecdysteroids, with no known function in mammals. 28-Homobrassinolide (HB), a steroidal lactone with potent plant growth-promoting property, stimulated protein synthesis and inhibited protein degradation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells (EC50 4 μM) mediated in part by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Oral administration of HB (20 or 60 mg/kg/d for 24 d) to healthy rats fed normal diet (protein content 23.9%) increased food intake, body weight gain, lean body mass, and gastrocnemius muscle mass as compared with vehicle-treated controls. The effect of HB administration increased slightly in animals fed a high-protein diet (protein content 39.4%). Both oral (up to 60 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (up to 4 mg/kg) administration of HB showed low androgenic activity when tested in the Hershberger assay. Moreover, HB showed no direct binding to the androgen receptor in vitro. HB treatment was also associated with an improved physical fitness of untrained healthy rats, as evident from a 6.7% increase in lower extremity strength, measured by grip test. In the gastrocnemius muscle of castrated animals, HB treatment significantly increased the number of type IIa and IIb fibers and the cross-sectional area of type I and type IIa fibers. These findings suggest that oral application of HB triggers selective anabolic response with minimal or no androgenic side-effects and begin to elucidate the putative cellular targets for plant brassinosteroids in mammals.—Esposito, D., Komarnytsky, S., Shapses, S., Raskin, I. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid. PMID:21746867

  9. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-08-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr-1 and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr-1 and 5 %, respectively). The Corg stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg Corg m-2 and 1.2 g Corg m-2 yr-1) were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  10. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, O.; Ricart, A. M.; Lavery, P. S.; Mateo, M. A.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Masque, P.; Steven, A.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3 to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3 to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stores were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). Also, sediment accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr-1 and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr-1 and 5 %, respectively). The Corg stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg Corg m-2 and 1.2 g Corg m-2 yr-1) were 3 to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8 and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypotheses that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g. meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g. recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g. hydrodynamic energy and sediment accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  11. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this

  12. [Existence of an anabolically acting principle in an extract of E. coli].

    PubMed

    Schole, J; Sallmann, H P; Sonnenschein, B

    1986-08-01

    Colibiogen, extracted from E. coli (in the following called coli extract) was examined for factors with anabolic efficiency, especially for anabolically efficient bases of nucleic acids and for peptides. The results obtained are the following: Tests for nucleotides, nucleosides and bases of nucleic acids by thin-layer chromatography technique turned out negative. To test anabolically efficient substances the so-called glutathione state test in the rat liver was used. In this test intraportal dosages of 200 micrograms coli extract and also 200 micrograms of the enzymatically decomposed muscle proteins (Pepton resp. Lab Lemco) gave rise to positive effects within 2 min. Contrary to peptides from the culture medium the efficiency of coli extract was considerably increased by previous tryptic fission (efficient concentration 6 micrograms). The quantities applied were related on microgram peptide. A coli extract preparation the phase of growth of which had been shortened to 12 h was separated into 4 fractions. The fourth fraction (lowest molecular weight) showed anabolic efficiency with 6 micrograms peptide in the state test. Before the denaturative extraction took place, the coli extract was separated by centrifugation in a third test series into coli extract bacteria mass and coli extract supernatant. Nothing but the supernatant showed anabolic properties. Two fractions, obtained by the separation of the bacteria mass, did not show any activity in the glutathione state test. It is discussed that E. coli-specific peptides with anabolic efficiency are candidates for the coli extract effects. PMID:3535812

  13. Anabolic steroid use in high school students.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Ståle; Jøsendal, Ola; Johnsen, Bjørn-Helge; Larsen, Svein; Molde, Helge

    2006-01-01

    A total of 1351 high school students (52.3% males, 47.7% females) with mean age 17.5 years (SD = 2.2) from randomized school classes in Hordaland County, Norway, participated in an Internet survey conducted in 2004 about the lifetime use of anabolic steroids and personal acquaintance with at least one user of anabolic steroids. In addition to questions about anabolic steroids the participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. They also answered questions about demography, smoking, and narcotic use. The lifetime prevalence for use of anabolic steroids was 3.6% for males and 0.6% for females. In all, 27.9% of the respondents reported having at least one acquaintance that used or had used anabolic steroids. Use of anabolic steroids and having acquaintances using such drugs were strongly related to use of other drugs such as alcohol, nicotine, and narcotics. Implications for prevention are discussed and the study's limitations are noted. PMID:17118811

  14. Metabolic changes detected by in vivo magnetic resonance studies of HEPA-1 wild-type tumors and tumors deficient in hypoxia-inducible factor-1beta (HIF-1beta): evidence of an anabolic role for the HIF-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, John R; McSheehy, Paul M J; Robinson, Simon P; Troy, Helen; Chung, Yuen-Li; Leek, Russell D; Williams, Kaye J; Stratford, Ian J; Harris, Adrian L; Stubbs, Marion

    2002-02-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) regulates many pathways potentially important for tumor growth, including angiogenesis and glycolysis. Most attention has focused on its role in the response to hypoxia, but HIF-1 is also constitutively expressed in many tumors. To analyze the role of this pathway in vivo, we used magnetic resonance (MR) methods and complementary techniques to monitor metabolic changes in tumors derived from HEPA-1 mouse hepatoma lines that were either wild type (WT) or deficient in hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1beta (c4). The c4 tumors grew significantly more slowly than the WT tumors (P < 0.05), but were examined at a similar size (0.4-0.6 g). At the tumor size used in these studies, no differences in vascularity were observed, and MR parameters measured that related to tumor blood flow, vascularity, and oxygenation demonstrated no significant differences between the two tumor types. Unexpectedly, the ATP content of the c4 tumor was approximately 5 times less than in the WT tumor [measured in tumor extracts (P < 0.001) and by metabolic imaging (P < 0.05)]. Noninvasive (31)P MR spectroscopy showed that the nucleoside triphosphate/P(i) ratio of the two tumor types was similar, so the low ATP content of the c4 tumors was not caused by (or a cause of) impaired cellular bioenergetics. Rather, glycine, an essential precursor for de novo purine formation, was significantly lower in the c4 tumors (P < 0.05), suggesting that ATP synthesis was impaired in the mutant tumor cells. Supporting evidence for this hypothesis came from the significantly lower concentrations of betaine, phosphocholine, and choline in the c4 tumors (P < 0.05); these are intermediates in an alternative pathway for glycine synthesis. No significant differences were seen in lactate or glucose content. MR resonances from phosphodiesters, which relate to the metabolic turnover of phospholipid membranes, were significantly lower in the WT tumors than in the c4 tumors, both

  15. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    PubMed

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. PMID:27297498

  16. Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?

    PubMed Central

    Botrè, F; Naß, A; Hengevoss, J; Diel, P; Wolber, G

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as “natural anabolic agents”. Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol), estradienedione (trenbolox), and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days). In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 µM) induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 µM) and IGF 1 (1.3 nM). Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class “S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents” of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency. PMID:26060342

  17. Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?

    PubMed

    Parr, M K; Botrè, F; Naß, A; Hengevoss, J; Diel, P; Wolber, G

    2015-06-01

    Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as "natural anabolic agents". Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol), estradienedione (trenbolox), and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days). In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 µM) induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 µM) and IGF 1 (1.3 nM). Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class "S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents" of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency. PMID:26060342

  18. Enhanced Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Using Dynamic Identities in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chang, I-Pin; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Key agreements that use only password authentication are convenient in communication networks, but these key agreement schemes often fail to resist possible attacks, and therefore provide poor security compared with some other authentication schemes. To increase security, many authentication and key agreement schemes use smartcard authentication in addition to passwords. Thus, two-factor authentication and key agreement schemes using smartcards and passwords are widely adopted in many applications. Vaidya et al. recently presented a two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Kim et al. observed that the Vaidya et al. scheme fails to resist gateway node bypassing and user impersonation attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme for WSNs. This study analyzes the weaknesses of the two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme of Kim et al., which include vulnerability to impersonation attacks, lost smartcard attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks, violation of session key security, and failure to protect user privacy. An efficient and secure authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs based on the scheme of Kim et al. is then proposed. The proposed scheme not only solves the weaknesses of previous approaches, but also increases security requirements while maintaining low computational cost. PMID:26633396

  19. Enhanced Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Using Dynamic Identities in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Pin; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Key agreements that use only password authentication are convenient in communication networks, but these key agreement schemes often fail to resist possible attacks, and therefore provide poor security compared with some other authentication schemes. To increase security, many authentication and key agreement schemes use smartcard authentication in addition to passwords. Thus, two-factor authentication and key agreement schemes using smartcards and passwords are widely adopted in many applications. Vaidya et al. recently presented a two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Kim et al. observed that the Vaidya et al. scheme fails to resist gateway node bypassing and user impersonation attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme for WSNs. This study analyzes the weaknesses of the two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme of Kim et al., which include vulnerability to impersonation attacks, lost smartcard attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks, violation of session key security, and failure to protect user privacy. An efficient and secure authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs based on the scheme of Kim et al. is then proposed. The proposed scheme not only solves the weaknesses of previous approaches, but also increases security requirements while maintaining low computational cost. PMID:26633396

  20. Anabolic steroids and acute schizophrenic episode.

    PubMed

    Annitto, W J; Layman, W A

    1980-04-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by athletes to increase physical performance has vastly increased over the last 10 years. A case is described which temporally relates the use of these organic compounds with the development of an acute schizophreniform illness. The dearth of literature on this particular "side-effect" is noted, as are the diagnostic implications vis-a-vis anabolic steroids and the anamnestic interview in an athlete who presents with an acute schizophrenic mental status examination. Recommendation is made to consider this "side-effect" in differential diagnosis of schizophrenic episode. PMID:7364737

  1. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among 133 prisoners.

    PubMed

    Pope, H G; Kouri, E M; Powell, K F; Campbell, C; Katz, D L

    1996-01-01

    We performed a forensic evaluation of a 16-year-old boy convicted of murdering his 14-year-old girlfriend while he was taking anabolic steroids. Prior to steroid use, he had displayed no features of antisocial personality disorder and no criminal record. Prompted by this index case, we interviewed 133 consecutive male convicts at the same facility where this boy was incarcerated to assess whether steroid use frequently contributed to criminal acts. Two other cases of apparent steroid-induced crimes were found in this cohort, suggesting that steroid use is an uncommon, though occasionally significant, factor in criminal behavior. PMID:8879906

  2. Part II--Factors Associated with School Nurse Ratios: Key State Informants' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Erin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part series examining factors influencing school nurse to pupil staffing ratios. The paper reports data from a qualitative study exploring the social and political factors that potentially influence ratios. Interviews were conducted with 30 key state informants from these states. Content analysis of the data…

  3. Teachers' Professional Development: What Are the Key Change Factors for Mathematics Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki; Torner, Gunter

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed and interviewed 13 experienced German middle school mathematics teachers to examine key factors causing discontinuity in their professional development. Results included 49 statements about change that fell into four categories. Researchers extracted three change factors not reported in earlier literature: experiences and observations…

  4. Suppression of p38α MAPK Signaling in Osteoblast Lineage Cells Impairs Bone Anabolic Action of Parathyroid Hormone.

    PubMed

    Thouverey, Cyril; Caverzasio, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone administration (iPTH) increases bone mass and strength by stimulating osteoblast number and activity. PTH exerts its anabolic effects through cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes. Here, we show that inactivation of the p38α MAPK-encoding gene with the use of an osteocalcin-cre transgene prevents iPTH bone anabolic action. Indeed, iPTH fails to increase insulin-like growth factor 1 expression, osteoblast number and activity, and bone formation in mice lacking p38α in osteoblasts and osteocytes. Moreover, iPTH-induced expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and subsequent increased bone resorption are suppressed in those mice. Finally, we found that PTH activates p38α MAPK downstream of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in mature osteoblasts. Our findings identify p38α MAPK as a key component of PTH signaling in osteoblast lineage cells and highlight its requirement in iPTH osteoanabolic activity. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26643857

  5. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    SciTech Connect

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  6. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  7. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. PMID:27083310

  8. Hidden Danger of Irrational Abusing Illegal Androgenic-anabolic Steroids in Recreational Athletes Age Under 35 in Bosnia & Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Solakovic, Sid; Totic, Dragan; Vukas, Haris; Djedovic, Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Androgenic-anabolic steroids are rarely used by sportsmen who want to improve physical performance in competition sport. Despite that they are well aware of the side effects of anabolic steroids, many young athletes in Bosnia and Herzegovina without competition motivation come in temptation, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance unknowing consequence of side effects and what is hiding behind. Risk factors such as increasing of lipid levels and arterial hypertension are major factors which have important role in the Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are responsible for occurrence of cardiovascular disease even causing a sudden death in young athletes. Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of misusing of androgenic anabolic steroid drugs in young recreational sportsmen without competition motivation. This study will try to estimate vascular and lipid status, analyzing the side effects of steroids in young recreational athletes under the age of 35, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The study included 70 individuals in period of 2010 till 2015 on recreational exercising program; 35 individuals misusing androgenic anabolic steroids during the period of 5 years were compared with 35 individuals which do not use androgenic anabolic steroids. Non-invasive methods were used in all individual (clinical examination and vascular ultrasound examination of vein system). The routine of training units in both groups was approximately two hours 4-6 times per week. Results: Final analysis has reveal that in androgenic anabolic steroids group in 18 individuals or 55.7% arterial hypertension with hyperlipidemia was more represented, compared with the group without using anabolic steroids, represented by 2 individuals or 5.7% and it was statistically considered significant by using p value less than 0.05. (p<0.05). Statistically dominant population using anabolic steroids drugs are males (100%) or 35 individuals

  9. Determinants of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Risk Perceptions in Youth Populations: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Grounded conceptually in social cognitive theory, this research examines how personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with risk perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Ordinal logistic regression and logit log-linear models applied to data gathered from high-school seniors (N = 2,160) in the 2005 Monitoring the Future…

  10. RM-DEMATEL: a new methodology to identify the key factors in PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yafeng; Liu, Jie; Li, Yunpeng; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Weather system is a relative complex dynamic system, the factors of the system are mutually influenced PM2.5 concentration. In this paper, a new method is proposed to quantify the influence on PM2.5 by other factors in the weather system and identify the most important factors for PM2.5 with limited resources. The relation map (RM) is used to figure out the direct relation matrix of 14 factors in PM2.5. The decision making trial and evaluation laboratory(DEMATEL) is applied to calculate the causal relationship and extent to a mutual influence of 14 factors in PM2.5. According to the ranking results of our proposed method, the most important key factors is sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(X)). In addition, the other factors, the ambient maximum temperature (T(max)), concentration of PM10, and wind direction (W(dir)), are important factors for PM2.5. The proposed method can also be applied to other environment management systems to identify key factors. PMID:25728201

  11. Ethylene Response Factors: A Key Regulatory Hub in Hormone and Stress Signaling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene is essential for many developmental processes and a key mediator of biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. The ethylene signaling and response pathway includes Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs), which belong to the transcription factor family APETALA2/ERF. It is well known that ERFs regulate molecular response to pathogen attack by binding to sequences containing AGCCGCC motifs (the GCC box), a cis-acting element. However, recent studies suggest that several ERFs also bind to dehydration-responsive elements and act as a key regulatory hub in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the ethylene signaling and response pathway, with emphasis on ERFs and their role in hormone cross talk and redox signaling under abiotic stresses. We conclude that ERFs act as a key regulatory hub, integrating ethylene, abscisic acid, jasmonate, and redox signaling in the plant response to a number of abiotic stresses. PMID:26103991

  12. Factors that Influence Policy Decisions in Literacy: Perspectives of Key Policy Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of key policy informants on the factors that they believed influence policy decisions in literacy education. Participants were selected because they had significantly influenced, or had attempted to influence, policy decisions in literacy at either the national or state level.…

  13. Key Motivational Factors in the Retention of Three Generations of Public High School Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pospichal, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the similarities and differences between five key motivational factors: (a) new teacher induction, (b) noninduction mentor support in the early years of teaching, (c) salary and benefits, (d) working conditions, and (e) administrative support influential in retention of employment in…

  14. Myopic Loss Aversion: Demystifying the Key Factors Influencing Decision Problem Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Andrew M.; Looney, Clayton Arlen

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of myopic loss aversion theory has been hamstrung by conflicting results, methodological inconsistencies, and a piecemeal approach toward understanding the key factors influencing decision problem framing. A series of controlled experiments provides a more holistic view of the variables promoting myopia. Extending the information…

  15. Understanding Reusability as a Key Factor for Open Education: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappe, Andres; Arias, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes both the process and the results of an extensive literature review on "reusability" as one of the key factors for the creation of open content in the context of open and distance learning. Qualitative analysis of texts was made from 1992 to early 2014 in order to identify meanings associated with reusability and…

  16. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  17. Mechanisms of bone anabolism regulated by statins

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Feng; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Jinfu

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease in the elderly population. The progress of this disease results in the reduction of bone mass and can increase the incidence of fractures. Drugs presently used clinically can block the aggravation of this disease. However, these drugs cannot increase the bone mass and may result in certain side effects. Statins, also known as HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been widely prescribed for CVD (cardiovascular disease) for decades. Nonetheless, several studies have demonstrated that statins exert bone anabolic effect and may be helpful for the treatment of osteoporosis. Several experiments have analysed the mechanisms of bone anabolism regulated by statins. In the present paper, we review the mechanisms of promoting osteogenesis, suppressing osteoblast apoptosis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22799752

  18. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis. PMID:26587777

  19. Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids masking the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculous pleural effusions are not always easy to diagnose but the presence of a lymphocyte-rich exudate associated with an increased adenosine deaminase level and a positive skin test result are highly sensitive diagnostic signs. Case presentation We report a case of pleural tuberculosis in a 31-year-old white male patient from Caracas, Venezuela who was negative for human immunodeficiency virus and presented 2 weeks after injecting the anabolic-androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate, in whom all the tests for tuberculosis were initially negative; an eosinophilic pleural effusion with a low adenosine deaminase level, a negative tuberculin skin test and negative for acid-fast bacilli staining and culture of the pleural fluid. After excluding other causes of eosinophilic pleural effusion malignant pleural effusion was suspected. The patient did not return until 4 months later. The second thoracentesis obtained a pleural fluid suggestive for tuberculosis, with a predominance of lymphocytes, an elevated adenosine deaminase level (51 U/l) and a positive tuberculin skin test. Culture of pleural fragments confirmed pleural tuberculosis. Conclusion This case suggests that the use of an anabolic-androgenic steroid masks the definitive diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis by changing the key diagnostic parameters of the pleural fluid, a finding not previously reported. Available evidence of the effects of anabolic steroids on the immune system also suggests that patients using anabolic-androgenic steroids might be susceptible to developing tuberculosis in either reactivating a latent infection or facilitating development of the disease after a recent infection. PMID:19175931

  20. Anabolic steroid abuse: psychiatric and physical costs.

    PubMed

    Talih, Farid; Fattal, Omar; Malone, Donald

    2007-05-01

    The psychiatric effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (i.e., testosterone and its derivatives) have been less well studied than their physical effects but are reported to include depression, mania, psychosis, and aggression. Dependence can also occur, with withdrawal involving psychiatric and physical symptoms. Adverse effects of steroid abuse should be managed by discontinuing the drugs-by tapering if necessary-and by treating the symptoms. PMID:17506239

  1. Key factors of readiness in the implementation of industrialised building system (IBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, Norhidayah; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Although IBS has been introduced since the 1960, and many advantages that have identified for the implementation of IBS in Malaysia, yet the level of implementation of IBS still did not achieve the government target. Previous studies have been conducted to identify the factors that contribute to the lack of the implementation. From the previous studies, mostly the barriers of IBS implementation are rooted within the several semi-structured lack of readiness among industry players. The interview participants for this study are from the multidisciplinary IBS practitioners. This paper discusses the identified readiness with the objective to determine what the key factor of readiness in IBS implementation is and how far the factors influence the IBS activities. From the finding, the readiness factor was divided into three main factors which are knowledge, ability and planning.

  2. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs. PMID:25352490

  3. Key success factors for clinical knowledge management systems: Comparing physician and hospital manager viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sho-Fang; Hsieh, Ping-Jung; Chen, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the perceptions of physicians and hospital managers regarding the key success factors (KSFs) of a clinical knowledge management system (CKMS). It aims to eliminate the perception gap and gain more insights for a successful CKMS.A survey was conducted in four medical centers in Taiwan. A total of 340 questionnaires, including 15 for hospital managers and 70 for physicians in each hospital, were administered. The effective response rates are 78.3% and 56.1% respectively. Partial least square (PLS) were used to analyze the data.The results identified six KSFs of CKMS including system software and hardware, knowledge quality, system quality, organizational factors, user satisfaction, and policy factors. User satisfaction and policy factors have direct effects on perceived CKMS performance. Knowledge quality is regarded as an antecedent to user satisfaction, while system quality is the antecedent to both user satisfaction and policy factors. System software and hardware was supported only by managers, and organizational factors were supported only by physicians.Among the factors, this study highlighted the policy factor. Besides, the study provides hospital managers additional insights into physician requirements for organizational support. Third, more physician participation and involvement are recommended when introducing and developing a CKMS. PMID:26444813

  4. Drug Insight: testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Calof, Olga M; Storer, Thomas W; Lee, Martin L; Mazer, Norman A; Jasuja, Ravi; Montori, Victor M; Gao, Wenqing; Dalton, James T

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Several regulatory concerns have hindered development of androgens as anabolic therapies, despite unequivocal evidence that testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in men; it induces hypertrophy of type I and II muscle fibers, and increases myonuclear and satellite cell number. Androgens promote differentiation of mesenchymal multipotent cells into the myogenic lineage and inhibit their adipogenic differentiation, by facilitating association of androgen receptors with β-catenin and activating T-cell factor 4. Meta-analyses indicate that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass and muscle strength in HIV-positive men with weight loss, glucocorticoid-treated men, and older men with low or low-normal testosterone levels. The effects of testosterone on physical function and outcomes important to patients have not, however, been studied. In older men, increased hematocrit and increased risk of prostate biopsy and detection of prostate events are the most frequent, testosterone-related adverse events. Concerns about long-term risks have restrained enthusiasm for testosterone use as anabolic therapy. Selective androgen-receptor modulators that are preferentially anabolic and that spare the prostate hold promise as anabolic therapies. We need more studies to determine whether testosterone or selective androgen-receptor modulators can induce meaningful improvements in physical function and patient-important outcomes in patients with physical dysfunction associated with chronic illness or aging. PMID:16932274

  5. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    PubMed

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p < 0.001), via the person's perceived stress. Confusion, however, did not fit the preferred model. This study confirms that stress is a necessary link in the pathway between certain identified, established and significant psychological factors and key fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:27245234

  6. Identifying the key factors affecting warning message dissemination in VANET real urban scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T; Manzoni, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

  7. Identifying the Key Factors Affecting Warning Message Dissemination in VANET Real Urban Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J.; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T.; Manzoni, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

  8. CHAMP Symposium on Androgens, Anabolic Steroids, and Related Substances: What We Know and What We Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Givens, Melissa L; Deuster, Patricia A; Kupchak, Brian R

    2016-07-01

    The Consortium of Health and Military Performance hosted a symposium in April 2015 entitled "Androgens, Anabolic Steroids, and Related Substances: What We Know and What We Need to Know" in response to concerns from the field regarding Anabolic Androgenic Steroids use by U.S. service members. The symposium was attended by military and civilian subject-matter experts in sports medicine and anabolic steroids and was held at the United Service Organizations (Naval Support Activity Bethesda) in Bethesda, Maryland. The expert panel was charged to define the way ahead in terms of androgen use, education, research, relevant policies and guidelines, and other concerns with particular relevancy to Special Operations Forces. The conference concluded with the following recommendations on these several key issues (1) connecting with users, (2) education and intervention, (3) knowledge and research gaps, and (4) establishing an information clearinghouse and clinical repository. PMID:27391622

  9. A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut microbiota development.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Takahiro; Yahagi, Kana; Mori, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Hara, Taeko; Tajima, Saya; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamada, Takuji; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota development influences infants' health and subsequent host physiology. However, the factors shaping the development of the microbiota remain poorly understood, and the mechanisms through which these factors affect gut metabolite profiles have not been extensively investigated. Here we analyse gut microbiota development of 27 infants during the first month of life. We find three distinct clusters that transition towards Bifidobacteriaceae-dominant microbiota. We observe considerable differences in human milk oligosaccharide utilization among infant bifidobacteria. Colonization of fucosyllactose (FL)-utilizing bifidobacteria is associated with altered metabolite profiles and microbiota compositions, which have been previously shown to affect infant health. Genome analysis of infants' bifidobacteria reveals an ABC transporter as a key genetic factor for FL utilization. Thus, the ability of bifidobacteria to utilize FL and the presence of FL in breast milk may affect the development of the gut microbiota in infants, and might ultimately have therapeutic implications. PMID:27340092

  10. A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut microbiota development

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Takahiro; Yahagi, Kana; Mori, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Hara, Taeko; Tajima, Saya; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamada, Takuji; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota development influences infants' health and subsequent host physiology. However, the factors shaping the development of the microbiota remain poorly understood, and the mechanisms through which these factors affect gut metabolite profiles have not been extensively investigated. Here we analyse gut microbiota development of 27 infants during the first month of life. We find three distinct clusters that transition towards Bifidobacteriaceae-dominant microbiota. We observe considerable differences in human milk oligosaccharide utilization among infant bifidobacteria. Colonization of fucosyllactose (FL)-utilizing bifidobacteria is associated with altered metabolite profiles and microbiota compositions, which have been previously shown to affect infant health. Genome analysis of infants' bifidobacteria reveals an ABC transporter as a key genetic factor for FL utilization. Thus, the ability of bifidobacteria to utilize FL and the presence of FL in breast milk may affect the development of the gut microbiota in infants, and might ultimately have therapeutic implications. PMID:27340092

  11. Abuse of supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C W; Hall, Richard C W

    2005-05-01

    The following article is a literature review of supraphysiologic doses of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). This article contains a brief review of the history of AAS, the chemistry of the varying forms of AAS, and proposed mechanisms of action. The article then focuses on how AAS are used in an illicit manner by the general population. Terms such as "stacking" and "pyramiding" are discussed. The article concludes by looking at the major detrimental side effects, such as liver damage and cardiovascular changes, which physicians may encounter when treating AAS abusers. PMID:15954512

  12. [Effect of anabolic steroid on immune response].

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, H; Kobayashi, M; Konosu, H; Kurioka, H; Naito, K; Sonoyama, T; Nishimoto, T; Hashimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Using lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts of the peripheral blood, PHA-blastoid transformation, immunoglobulin and beta 2-microglobulin, the influence of anabolic steroid on the immune reactivity of the host was dissected by administration of Deca-Durabolin ( nandrolone decanoate) to both tumor-bearing host and tumor-free host after operation for alimentary tract. The number of peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes, the PHA-blastoid transformation of peripheral lymphocytes and the IgG level were increased, and the beta 2-microglobulin level showed the tendency of decrease after the administration of Deca-Durabolin. PMID:6367663

  13. Review of key factors controlling engineered nanoparticle transport in porous media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Gao, Bin; Tang, Deshan

    2016-11-15

    Nanotechnology, an emerging technology, has witnessed rapid development in production and application. Engineered nanomaterials revolutionize the industry due to their unique structure and superior performance. The release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into the environment, however, may pose risks to the environment and public health. To advance current understanding of environmental behaviors of ENPs, this work provides an introductory overview of ENP fate and transport in porous media. It systematically reviews the key factors controlling their fate and transport in porous media. It first provides a brief overview of common ENPs in the environment and their sources. The key factors that govern ENP transport in porous media are then categorized into three groups: (1) nature of ENPs affecting their transport in porous media, (2) nature of porous media affecting ENP transport, and (3) nature of flow affecting ENP transport in porous media. In each group, findings in recent literature on the specific governing factors of ENP transport in porous media are discussed in details. Finally, this work concludes with remarks on the importance of ENP transport in porous media and directions for future research. PMID:27427890

  14. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs. PMID:26230324

  15. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs. PMID:26230324

  16. Detection of key factors in the extraction and quantification of lycopene from tomato and tomato products.

    PubMed

    Periago, María Jesús; Rincón, Francisco; Jacob, Karin; García-Alonso, Javier; Ros, Gaspar

    2007-10-31

    The analytical process of lycopene extraction and photometrical determination was critically examined for raw tomato and processed tomato products by means of a 2 IV (15-10) Plackett-Burman experimental design in order to identify the key factors (KFs) involved. Fifteen apparent key factors (AKFs) reported in the literature were selected: sample weight (X1); volume of extraction solution (X2); antioxidant concentration (BHT, X3); neutralizing agent concentration (MgCO 3, X4); light presence during lycopene extraction (X5), homogenization velocity (X6) and time (X7), agitation time (X8), and temperature (X9) during the extraction process; water volume for separation of polar/nonpolar phases (X11); presence of inert atmosphere throughout the process (X12); time (X13), temperature (X14), and light presence (X10) during separation of phases and time delay for reading (X15). In general, higher lycopene concentrations in samples led to a higher number of key factors (KF). Thus, for raw tomato (lycopene range 1.22-2.29 mg/100 g) no KF were found, whereas for tomato sauce (lycopene range from 5.80 to 8.60 mg/100 g) one KF (X4) and for tomato paste (lycopene range from 35.80 to 51.27 mg/100 g) five KFs (X1, X2, X4, X11, and X12) were detected. For lycopene paste, X1 and X2 were identified as the KFs with the greatest impact on results, although in fact the X1/X2 ratio was the real cause. The results suggest that, with increased processing, the physical and chemical structure of lycopene becomes less important since the identified KFs explain almost 90% of variability in tomato paste but only 32% in raw tomato. PMID:17924704

  17. The Buzz About Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Electrophysiological Effects in Excitable Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, Joseph G.; Penatti, Carlos A. A.; Porter, Donna M.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) comprise a large and growing class of synthetic androgens used clinically to promote tissue-building in individuals suffering from genetic disorders, injuries and diseases. Despite these beneficial therapeutic applications, the predominant use of AAS is illicit: these steroids are self-administered to promote athletic performance and body image. Hand in hand with the desired anabolic actions of the AAS are untoward effects on the brain and behavior. While the signaling routes by which the AAS impose both beneficial and harmful actions may be quite diverse, key endpoints are likely to include ligand-gated and voltage-dependent ion channels that govern the activity of electrically excitable tissues. Here we review the known effects of AAS on molecular targets that play critical roles in controlling electrical activity, with a specific focus on the effects of AAS on neurotransmission mediated by GABAA receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:22576754

  18. Nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence in anabolic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Wines, J D; Gruber, A J; Pope, H G; Lukas, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nalbuphine hydrochloride, a nonscheduled opioid agonist/antagonist analgesic, is currently approved for the treatment of pain. Recently, nalbuphine dependence was reported in three anabolic steroid users in Britain. To further document this phenomenon, we conducted interviews on eleven subjects who reported nalbuphine use. Eight subjects were clinically dependent on nalbuphine, and seven of the subjects who were asked about tolerance and withdrawal with nalbuphine acknowledged these symptoms. Eight subjects, who had never used drugs intravenously before, reported using nalbuphine by this route. Nalbuphine-related morbidity was extensive and included medical complications and psychiatric symptoms. Nalbuphine users also exhibited a high rate of comorbid Axis I disorders, including other substance misuse. Virtually all subjects described widespread nalbuphine use in the gymnasiums they frequented. These observations, together with the recent increase in nalbuphine-related articles in the lay press, suggest that nalbuphine may represent a new drug of abuse among athletes, especially those using anabolic steroids, and that nalbuphine's scheduling status may need to be re-evaluated. PMID:10365196

  19. Mechanical signals as anabolic agents in bone

    PubMed Central

    Ozcivici, Engin; Luu, Yen Kim; Adler, Ben; Qin, Yi-Xian; Rubin, Janet; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging and a sedentary lifestyle conspire to reduce bone quantity and quality, decrease muscle mass and strength, and undermine postural stability, culminating in an elevated risk of skeletal fracture. Concurrently, a marked reduction in the available bone-marrow-derived population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) jeopardizes the regenerative potential that is critical to recovery from musculoskeletal injury and disease. A potential way to combat the deterioration involves harnessing the sensitivity of bone to mechanical signals, which is crucial in defining, maintaining and recovering bone mass. To effectively utilize mechanical signals in the clinic as a non-drug-based intervention for osteoporosis, it is essential to identify the components of the mechanical challenge that are critical to the anabolic process. Large, intense challenges to the skeleton are generally presumed to be the most osteogenic, but brief exposure to mechanical signals of high frequency and extremely low intensity, several orders of magnitude below those that arise during strenuous activity, have been shown to provide a significant anabolic stimulus to bone. Along with positively influencing osteoblast and osteocyte activity, these low-magnitude mechanical signals bias MSC differentiation towards osteoblastogenesis and away from adipogenesis. Mechanical targeting of the bone marrow stem-cell pool might, therefore, represent a novel, drug-free means of slowing the age-related decline of the musculoskeletal system. PMID:20046206

  20. Analysis of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Relative to Other Key Factors in Malignant Canine Mammary Tumours.

    PubMed

    Shin, J-I; Lim, H-Y; Kim, H-W; Seung, B-J; Sur, J-H

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays important physiological roles, but is also of significance in carcinogenesis in man and animals. This study aimed to identify HIF-1α expression in malignant canine mammary tumours (CMTs) and to find correlations with other key factors by using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The histological classification, grading and evaluation of lymphatic invasion were achieved by examining sections stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Determination of molecular subtype, expression of HIF-1α, oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2, Ki67, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and E-cadherin was evaluated by IHC in 87 samples of malignant CMTs. HIF-1α expression correlated significantly with histological type, grade of cancer, negativity for OR and expression of Ki67 and VEGF. Lymphatic invasion, molecular subtype, PR, HER-2 and E-cadherin levels did not significantly correlate with HIF-1α expression. The results of this study imply that HIF-1α may potentially play a role in increased malignancy of CMTs, as it does in human breast cancer. PMID:26145724

  1. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  2. Master transcription factors and mediator establish super-enhancers at key cell identity genes.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Warren A; Orlando, David A; Hnisz, Denes; Abraham, Brian J; Lin, Charles Y; Kagey, Michael H; Rahl, Peter B; Lee, Tong Ihn; Young, Richard A

    2013-04-11

    Master transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog bind enhancer elements and recruit Mediator to activate much of the gene expression program of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We report here that the ESC master transcription factors form unusual enhancer domains at most genes that control the pluripotent state. These domains, which we call super-enhancers, consist of clusters of enhancers that are densely occupied by the master regulators and Mediator. Super-enhancers differ from typical enhancers in size, transcription factor density and content, ability to activate transcription, and sensitivity to perturbation. Reduced levels of Oct4 or Mediator cause preferential loss of expression of super-enhancer-associated genes relative to other genes, suggesting how changes in gene expression programs might be accomplished during development. In other more differentiated cells, super-enhancers containing cell-type-specific master transcription factors are also found at genes that define cell identity. Super-enhancers thus play key roles in the control of mammalian cell identity. PMID:23582322

  3. Factors Enabling Access to HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing for Key Affected Populations in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepthien, Bang-on; Srivanichakorn, Supattra; Apipornchaisakul, Kanya

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to study the factors that enabled persons at risk of HIV to obtain voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in Thailand. This research was a cross-sectional study and data were collected during May to July 2013 in 8, purposively selected provinces. The method for selecting respondents used time-location quota sampling to achieve a total sample of 751 persons. The proportion who had VCT in the year prior to the survey was 56%.The significant enabling factors associated with VCT were having someone encourage them to go for testing and receiving information about VCT In addition, other significant factors for female sex workers were self-assessed risk for HIV and having had risk behavior, and for men who have sex with men the factors were awareness of eligibility for VCT. Thus, in order to achieve the VCT target for higher risk populations by 2016, there should be special mechanisms to inform the different groups, along with improvements in outreach services to make VCT more convenient for key affected populations. PMID:26069165

  4. Identification of Key Contributory Factors Responsible for Vascular Dysfunction in Idiopathic Recurrent Spontaneous Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Mainak; Subramani, Elavarasan; Khalpada, Jaydeep; RoyChoudhury, Sourav; Chakravarty, Baidyanath; Chaudhury, Koel

    2013-01-01

    Poor endometrial perfusion during implantation window is reported to be one of the possible causes of idiopathic recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (IRSM). We have tested the hypothesis that certain angiogenic and vasoactive factors are associated with vascular dysfunction during implantation window in IRSM and, therefore, could play a contributory role in making the endometrium unreceptive in these women. This is a prospective case-controlled study carried out on 66 women with IRSM and age and BMI matched 50 fertile women serving as controls. Endometrial expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1), anti-inflammatory (IL-4, -10), angiogenesis-associated cytokines (IL-2, -6, -8), angiogenic and vasoactive factors including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitric oxide (NO) and adrenomedullin (ADM) were measured during implantation window by ELISA. Subendometrial blood flow (SEBF) was assessed by color Doppler ultrasonography. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the significant factor(s) responsible for vascular dysfunction in IRSM women during window of implantation and further correlated with vascular dysfunction. Endometrial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 were up-regulated and anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-associated cytokines down-regulated in IRSM women as compared with controls. Further, the angiogenic and vasoactive factors including VEGF, eNOS, NO and ADM were found to be down-regulated and SEBF grossly affected in these women. Multivariate analysis identified IL-10, followed by VEGF and eNOS as the major factors contributing towards vascular dysfunction in IRSM women. Moreover, these factors strongly correlated with blood flow impairment. This study provides an understanding that IL-10, VEGF and eNOS are the principal key components having a contributory role in endometrial vascular dysfunction in women with IRSM. Down-regulation of

  5. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic... compound, mixture, or preparation containing an anabolic steroid as defined in part 1300 of this...

  6. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  7. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  8. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  9. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  10. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  11. Transcription Factor RFX2 Is a Key Regulator of Mouse Spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yujian; Hu, Xiangjing; Li, Zhen; Wang, Min; Li, Sisi; Wang, Xiuxia; Lin, Xiwen; Liao, Shangying; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Feng, Xue; Wang, Si; Cui, Xiuhong; Wang, Yanling; Gao, Fei; Hess, Rex A.; Han, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory factor X (RFX) family of transcription factors is crucial for ciliogenesis throughout evolution. In mice, Rfx1-4 are highly expressed in the testis where flagellated sperm are produced, but the functions of these factors in spermatogenesis remain unknown. Here, we report the production and characterization of the Rfx2 knockout mice. The male knockout mice were sterile due to the arrest of spermatogenesis at an early round spermatid step. The Rfx2-null round spermatids detached from the seminiferous tubules, forming large multinucleated giant cells that underwent apoptosis. In the mutants, formation of the flagellum was inhibited at its earliest stage. RNA-seq analysis identified a large number of cilia-related genes and testis-specific genes that were regulated by RFX2. Many of these genes were direct targets of RFX2, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays. These findings indicate that RFX2 is a key regulator of the post-meiotic development of mouse spermatogenic cells. PMID:26853561

  12. Key Factors Controlling the Applicability and Efficiency of Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes In Situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation has been considered as one of environmentally friendly and cost effective approaches for cleaning up the sites polluted by organic contaminants, such as chlorinated ethenes. Although bioremediation, in its widest sense, is not new, and many researches have been performed on bioremediation of different kinds of pollutants, an effective design and implication of in situ bioremediation still remains a challenging problem because of the complexity. Many factors may affect the applicability and efficiency of bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in situ, which include the type and concentration of contaminants, biological, geological and hydro-geological conditions of the site, physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater and soils to be treated, as well as the constraints in engineering. In this presentation, an overview together with a detailed discussion on each factor will be provided. The influences of individual factors are discussed using the data obtained or cited from different sites and experiments, and thus under different environmental conditions. The results of this study illustrated that 1) the establishment of microbial consortium is of crucial importance for a complete degradation of chlorinated ethenes, 2) in situ control of favorable conditions for increasing microbial activities for bio-degradation through a designed pathway is the key to success, 3) the focus of a successful remediation system is to design an effective delivery process that is capable of producing adequate amendment mixing of contaminant-degrading bacteria, appropriate concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and microbial nutrients in the subsurface treatment area.

  13. Surgical Ventricular Entry is a Key Risk Factor for Leptomeningeal Metastasis of High Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Roelz, Roland; Reinacher, Peter; Jabbarli, Ramazan; Kraeutle, Rainer; Hippchen, Beate; Egger, Karl; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Machein, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) of high grade gliomas (HGG) can lead to devastating disease courses. Understanding of risk factors for LM is important to identify patients at risk. We reviewed patient records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of all patients with a first diagnosis of HGG who underwent surgery in our institution between 2008 and 2012. To assess the influence of potential risk factors for LM and the impact of LM on survival multivariate statistics were performed. 239 patients with a diagnosis of HGG and at least 6 months of MRI and clinical follow-up were included. LM occurred in 27 (11%) patients and was symptomatic in 17 (65%). A strong correlation of surgical entry to the ventricle and LM was found (HR: 8.1). Ventricular entry was documented in 137 patients (57%) and LM ensued in 25 (18%) of these. Only two (2%) of 102 patients without ventricular entry developed LM. Median overall survival of patients after diagnosis of LM (239 days) was significantly shorter compared to patients without LM (626 days). LM is a frequent complication in the course of disease of HGG and is associated with poor survival. Surgical entry to the ventricle is a key risk factor for LM. PMID:26635136

  14. Transcription Factor RFX2 Is a Key Regulator of Mouse Spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yujian; Hu, Xiangjing; Li, Zhen; Wang, Min; Li, Sisi; Wang, Xiuxia; Lin, Xiwen; Liao, Shangying; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Feng, Xue; Wang, Si; Cui, Xiuhong; Wang, Yanling; Gao, Fei; Hess, Rex A; Han, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory factor X (RFX) family of transcription factors is crucial for ciliogenesis throughout evolution. In mice, Rfx1-4 are highly expressed in the testis where flagellated sperm are produced, but the functions of these factors in spermatogenesis remain unknown. Here, we report the production and characterization of the Rfx2 knockout mice. The male knockout mice were sterile due to the arrest of spermatogenesis at an early round spermatid step. The Rfx2-null round spermatids detached from the seminiferous tubules, forming large multinucleated giant cells that underwent apoptosis. In the mutants, formation of the flagellum was inhibited at its earliest stage. RNA-seq analysis identified a large number of cilia-related genes and testis-specific genes that were regulated by RFX2. Many of these genes were direct targets of RFX2, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays. These findings indicate that RFX2 is a key regulator of the post-meiotic development of mouse spermatogenic cells. PMID:26853561

  15. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions. The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS

  16. [Control measures for anabolic androgenic steroid medicines].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Ces Gens, Eugenio; Cadórniga Valiño, Luis; Álvaro Esteban, Pilar; Pose Reino, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can cause serious adverse effects when used without a therapeutic purpose. This article aims to show that the AAS are susceptible to being sold on the black market. We also aim to describe how certain limitations on the health inspection services of the Galician health service to pursue these illegal actions prompted a regulatory initiative demanding that additional actions be granted to community pharmacies when dispensing AAS. Four pharmacy inspections detected the diversion of a total of 3118 packages of AAS, which led to the opening of four disciplinary proceedings. In two of these, specialized police forces were called in as there was sufficient evidence of possible diversion to gymnasiums, resulting in a police operation called Operation Fitness. PMID:25778637

  17. Key factors influencing rates of heterotrophic sulfate reduction in hydrothermal massive sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Rogers, D.; Girguis, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Despite sulfate reduction's ubiquity in marine systems, relatively little is known about how environmental or ecological factors influence rates of sulfate reduction. While numerous studies have considered how sulfate reduction and methanogenesis compete for reductants in natural and human-made systems, less is known about how temperature or metabolite concentration, such as sulfate and sulfide concentrations, affects rates of sulfate reduction. Here we use a factorial experimental design to evaluate the effects of key variables on sulfate reduction kinetics in sulfide deposits recovered from hydrothermal vents in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca ridge. Microbial sulfate reduction rates were measured by 35-S tracer techniques over a range of environmentally relevant chemical conditions (pH, H2S, SO42-, and organic carbon concentrations) and temperatures (4, 50 and 90°C). Maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50°C, and sulfate reduction rates had significant positive correlations with increasing sulfide, pH and sulfate. However, sulfate reduction rates did not correlate to exogenous dissolved organic carbon, implicating exogenous hydrogen or endogenous organic matter as the reductant (or even sulfur disproportionation). This research presents an opportunity to better understand the key variables that influence the rates of microbial sulfate reduction in hydrothermal environments and provides a framework for modeling sulfate reduction in mid-ocean ridge systems.

  18. A Secure Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for TMIS With User Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) and doctor(s) over the insecure internet. Therefore, data security, privacy and user authentication are enormously important for accessing important medical data over insecure communication. Recently, many user authentication protocols for TMIS have been proposed in the literature and it has been observed that most of the protocols cannot achieve complete security requirements. In this paper, we have scrutinized two (Mishra et al., Xu et al.) remote user authentication protocols using smart card and explained that both the protocols are suffering against several security weaknesses. We have then presented three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol usable for TMIS, which fix the security pitfalls of the above mentioned schemes. The informal cryptanalysis makes certain that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. Furthermore, the simulator AVISPA tool confirms that the protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The security functionalities and performance comparison analysis confirm that our protocol not only provide strong protection on security attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase as well as session key verification property. PMID:26112322

  19. A key factor to the spin parameter of uniformly rotating compact stars: crust structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin; Zhang, Nai-Bo; Sun, Bao-Yuan; Wang, Shou-Yu; Gao, Jian-Hua

    2016-04-01

    We study the dimensionless spin parameter j ≡ cJ/(GM2) of different kinds of uniformly rotating compact stars, including traditional neutron stars, hyperonic neutron stars and hybrid stars, based on relativistic mean field theory and the MIT bag model. It is found that jmax ∼ 0.7, which had been suggested in traditional neutron stars, is sustained for hyperonic neutron stars and hybrid stars with M > 0.5 M⊙. Not the interior but rather the crust structure of the stars is a key factor to determine jmax for three kinds of selected compact stars. Furthermore, a universal formula j = 0.63(f/fK) ‑ 0.42(f/fK)2 + 0.48(f/fK)3 is suggested to determine the spin parameter at any rotational frequency f smaller than the Keplerian frequency fK.

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease: Is Inflammatory Signaling a Key Player?

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Sabbir, Mohammad Golam; Albensi, Benedict C

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a significant medical and social concern within the last 30 years. TBI has acute devastating effects, and in many cases, seems to initiate long-term neurodegeneration. With advances in medical technology, many people are now surviving severe brain injuries and their long term consequences. Post trauma effects include communication problems, sensory deficits, emotional and behavioral problems, physical complications and pain, increased suicide risk, dementia, and an increased risk for chronic CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we provide an introduction to TBI and hypothesize how it may lead to neurodegenerative disease in general and AD in particular. In addition, we discuss the evidence that supports the hypothesis that TBI may lead to AD. In particular, we focus on inflammatory responses as key processes in TBI-induced secondary injury, with emphasis on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. PMID:26899581

  1. TAp73 promotes anti-senescence-anabolism not proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, Massimiliano; Niklison-Chirou, Maria Victoria; Catani, Maria Valeria; Knight, Richard A.; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    TAp73, a member of the p53 family, has been traditionally considered a tumor suppressor gene, but a recent report has claimed that it can promote cellular proliferation. This assumption is based on biochemical evidence of activation of anabolic metabolism, with enhanced pentose phosphate shunt (PPP) and nucleotide biosynthesis. Here, while we confirm that TAp73 expression enhances anabolism, we also substantiate its role in inhibiting proliferation and promoting cell death. Hence, we would like to propose an alternative interpretation of the accumulating data linking p73 to cellular metabolism: we suggest that TAp73 promotes anabolism to counteract cellular senescence rather than to support proliferation. PMID:25554796

  2. Neisseria meningitidis factor H-binding protein fHbp: a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Seib, Kate L; Scarselli, Maria; Comanducci, Maurizio; Toneatto, Daniela; Masignani, Vega

    2015-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis worldwide. The first broad-spectrum multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus (MenB), 4CMenB (Bexsero(®)), was approved by the EMA in 2013, for prevention of MenB disease in all age groups, and by the US FDA in January 2015 for use in adolescents. A second protein-based MenB vaccine has also been approved in the USA for adolescents (rLP2086, Trumenba(®)). Both vaccines contain the lipoprotein factor H-binding protein (fHbp). Preclinical studies demonstrated that fHbp elicits a robust bactericidal antibody response that correlates with the amount of fHbp expressed on the bacterial surface. fHbp is able to selectively bind human factor H, the key regulator of the alternative complement pathway, and this has important implications both for meningococcal pathogenesis and for vaccine design. Here, we review the functional and structural properties of fHbp, the strategies that led to the design of the two fHbp-based vaccines and the data generated during clinical studies. PMID:25704037

  3. Wernicke's encephalopathy and anabolic steroid drug abuse. Is there any possible relation?

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, P; Katsanoulas, C; Timplalexi, G; Lathyris, D; Vasiliagkou, S; Antoniadou, E

    2012-10-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a reversible, neurologic disorder due to thiamine deficiency which is mainly related to chronic alcohol abuse. We report a case of a young male patient, who was bodybuilder and anabolic drug user, in whom encephalopathy was diagnosed after a short medical course in the ICU after a major upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Mallory-Weiss syndrome) and hypovolemic shock. His clinical condition was typical for Wernicke's encephalopathy and although neuroimaging tests were not indicative, the patient received thiamine supplement therapy, which resulted in rapid clinical improvement. The diagnosis was based only on clinical sings and anabolic drug abuse was considered as a possible predisposing factor for the manifestation of the syndrome. PMID:23935320

  4. Wernicke's encephalopathy and anabolic steroid drug abuse. Is there any possible relation?

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulos, P; Katsanoulas, C; Timplalexi, G; Lathyris, D; Vasiliagkou, S; Antoniadou, E

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a reversible, neurologic disorder due to thiamine deficiency which is mainly related to chronic alcohol abuse. We report a case of a young male patient, who was bodybuilder and anabolic drug user, in whom encephalopathy was diagnosed after a short medical course in the ICU after a major upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Mallory-Weiss syndrome) and hypovolemic shock. His clinical condition was typical for Wernicke's encephalopathy and although neuroimaging tests were not indicative, the patient received thiamine supplement therapy, which resulted in rapid clinical improvement. The diagnosis was based only on clinical sings and anabolic drug abuse was considered as a possible predisposing factor for the manifestation of the syndrome. PMID:23935320

  5. Age at disease onset: a key factor for understanding psoriatic disease.

    PubMed

    Queiro, Rubén; Tejón, Patricia; Alonso, Sara; Coto, Pablo

    2014-07-01

    Psoriasis and PsA are immune-mediated diseases with a strong genetic component. More than 20 new loci have been recently linked to these diseases. However, interactions between these genes and the phenotypic traits of both diseases are poorly understood at present. Stratification of psoriatic disease according to the sex of the patients, genetic factors or age at onset has allowed in the last few years a better understanding of the principles governing the onset and progression of these processes. The age of onset of psoriasis has been used for decades as an appropriate descriptor to define two subpopulations of psoriatic patients (types I and II) whose clinical and immunogenetic characteristics have been very well differentiated. Moreover, in patients with PsA this distinction between type I and II psoriasis also seems equally operative. In patients with PsA expressing the HLA-C*06 antigen, the latency between the onset of psoriasis and onset of joint symptoms is longer than in those without this marker. It is also known that PsA tends to appear earlier in patients with HLA-B*27 positivity, and that these patients also show a shorter interval of time between the onset of cutaneous lesions and the onset of joint disease. This review highlights the growing importance of age at disease onset as a key stratification factor in worldwide clinical and genetic studies of psoriatic disease. PMID:24273020

  6. Organization of Anti-Phase Synchronization Pattern in Neural Networks: What are the Key Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Zhou, Changsong

    2011-01-01

    Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neural network. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization of anti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding more complicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamical systems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation pattern has usually been considered to relate to time delay in coupling. This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks in the brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials. However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, such as modular organization (connection density) and the coupling types (excitatory or inhibitory), could also play an important role. In this work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation pattern organized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model or neural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delay times, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our results show that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in this organization. The connection densities may have an influence on the stability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors. Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slow oscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there is interaction between slow and fast oscillations. These results are significant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporal dynamics of cortico-cortical communications. PMID:22232576

  7. Distributions of key exposure factors controlling the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in an estuarine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Harrington, N.W.; Shear, N.M.; Curry, C.L.; Carlson-Lynch, H.; Henning, M.H.; Su, S.H.; Rabbe, D.E.

    1996-11-01

    A critical evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of common estuarine organisms was conducted in an attempt to develop probabilistic distributions for those variables that influence the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water, and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values were identified for dominant organisms from various trophic levels, including the polychaete Nereis virens, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The exposure factors of interest included ingestion rate for various food sources, growth rate, respiration rate, excretion rate, body weight, wet/dry weight ratio, lipid content, chemical assimilation efficiency, and food assimilation efficiency. These exposure factors are critical to the execution of mechanistic food web models, which, when properly calibrated, can be used to estimate tissue concentrations of nonionic chemicals in aquatic organisms based on knowledge of the bioenergetics and feeding interactions within a food web and the sediment and water concentrations of chemicals. In this article the authors describe the use of distributions for various exposure factors in the context of a mechanistic bioaccumulation model that is amenable to probabilistic analyses for multiple organisms within a food web. A case study is provided which compares the estimated versus measured concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in a representative food web from the tidal portion of the Passaic River, New Jersey, USA. The results suggest that the model is accurate within an order of magnitude or less in estimating the bioaccumulation of PCBs in this food web without calibration. The results of a model sensitivity analysis suggest that the input parameters which most influence the output of the model are both chemical and organism specific.

  8. Dying to be big: a review of anabolic steroid use.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, H M; Wright, D; Littlepage, B N

    1992-01-01

    Anabolic steroids use is commonly perceived to be the domain of the higher echelons of competitive athletes. However, a great deal of anabolic steroid use occurs in private gymnasia (non-local authority) among non-competitive recreational athletes. Our study has attempted to give an insight into the prevalence of the use of these drugs, the hazards associated with it, and the public health responses which we have adopted. PMID:1490220

  9. The key sigma factor of transition phase, SigH, controls sporulation, metabolism, and virulence factor expression in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Saujet, Laure; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Soutourina, Olga; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    Toxin synthesis in Clostridium difficile increases as cells enter into stationary phase. We first compared the expression profiles of strain 630E during exponential growth and at the onset of stationary phase and showed that genes involved in sporulation, cellular division, and motility, as well as carbon and amino acid metabolism, were differentially expressed under these conditions. We inactivated the sigH gene, which encodes an alternative sigma factor involved in the transition to post-exponential phase in Bacillus subtilis. Then, we compared the expression profiles of strain 630E and the sigH mutant after 10 h of growth. About 60% of the genes that were differentially expressed between exponential and stationary phases, including genes involved in motility, sporulation, and metabolism, were regulated by SigH, which thus appears to be a key regulator of the transition phase in C. difficile. SigH positively controls several genes required for sporulation. Accordingly, sigH inactivation results in an asporogeneous phenotype. The spo0A and CD2492 genes, encoding the master regulator of sporulation and one of its associated kinases, and the spoIIA operon were transcribed from a SigH-dependent promoter. The expression of tcdA and tcdB, encoding the toxins, and of tcdR, encoding the sigma factor required for toxin production, increased in a sigH mutant. Finally, SigH regulates the expression of genes encoding surface-associated proteins, such as the Cwp66 adhesin, the S-layer precursor, and the flagellum components. Among the 286 genes positively regulated by SigH, about 40 transcriptional units presenting a SigH consensus in their promoter regions are good candidates for direct SigH targets. PMID:21572003

  10. Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Malito, Enrico; Faleri, Agnese; Lo Surdo, Paola; Veggi, Daniele; Maruggi, Giulietta; Grassi, Eva; Cartocci, Elena; Bertoldi, Isabella; Genovese, Alessia; Santini, Laura; Romagnoli, Giacomo; Borgogni, Erica; Brier, Sébastien; Lo Passo, Carla; Domina, Maria; Castellino, Flora; Felici, Franco; van der Veen, Stijn; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M; Tang, Christoph M; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Savino, Silvana; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Bottomley, Matthew J; Masignani, Vega

    2013-02-26

    Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In recent years, identification of B-cell epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies has facilitated the design of peptide-based vaccines against highly variable pathogens like HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and Helicobacter pylori; however, none of these products has yet progressed into clinical stages. Linear epitopes identified by conventional mapping techniques only partially reflect the immunogenic properties of the epitope in its natural conformation, thus limiting the success of this approach. To investigate antigen-antibody interactions and assess the potential of the most common epitope mapping techniques, we generated a series of mAbs against factor H binding protein (fHbp), a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen of Neisseria meningitidis. The interaction of fHbp with the bactericidal mAb 12C1 was studied by various epitope mapping methods. Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ∼1,000 Å(2) on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen-antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. PMID:23396847

  11. Modeling and analysis of PM2.5 generation for key factors identification in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dehong; Jiang, Binfan; Xie, Yulei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the PM2.5 pollution in China has occurred frequently and caused widely concern. In order to identify the key factors for PM2.5 generation, the formation characteristics of PM2.5 would be revealed. A property of electric neutrality of PM2.5 was proposed under the least-energy principle and verified through electricity-charge calculation in this paper. It indicated that PM2.5 is formed by the effect of electromagnetic force, including the effect of ionic bond, hydrogen bond and polarization. According to the analysis of interactive forces among different chemical components, a simulation model is developed for describing the random process of PM2.5 generation. In addition, an orthogonal test with two levels and four factors has been designed and carried out through the proposed model. From the text analysis, PM2.5 would be looser and suspend longer in atmosphere due to Organic Compound (OC) existing (OC can reduce about 67% of PM2.5 density). Considering that NH4+ is the only cation in the main chemical components of PM2.5, it would be vital for anions (such as SO42- and NO3-) to aggregate together for facilitating PM2.5 growing. Therefore, in order to relieve PM2.5 pollution, control strategies for OC and NH4+ would be enhanced by government through improving the quality of oils and solvent products, decreasing the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer utilization, or changing the fertilizing environment from dry condition to wet condition.

  12. Hepatitis C virus suppresses Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha, a key regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Dafou, Dimitra; Vassilaki, Niki; Mavromara, Penelope; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection presents with a disturbed lipid profile and can evolve to hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) is the most abundant transcription factor in the liver, a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and a critical determinant of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and hepatic development. We have previously shown that transient inhibition of HNF4α initiates transformation of immortalized hepatocytes through a feedback loop consisting of miR-24, IL6 receptor (IL6R), STAT3, miR-124 and miR-629, suggesting a central role of HNF4α in HCC. However, the role of HNF4α in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-related hepatocarcinoma has not been evaluated and remains controversial. In this study, we provide strong evidence suggesting that HCV downregulates HNF4α expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. The observed decrease of HNF4α expression correlated with the downregulation of its downstream targets, HNF1α and MTP. Ectopic overexpression of HCV proteins also exhibited an inhibitory effect on HNF4α levels. The inhibition of HNF4α expression by HCV appeared to be mediated at transcriptional level as HCV proteins suppressed HNF4α gene promoter activity. HCV also up-regulated IL6R, activated STAT3 protein phosphorylation and altered the expression of acute phase genes. Furthermore, as HCV triggered the loss of HNF4α a consequent change of miR-24, miR-629 or miR-124 was observed. Our findings demonstrated that HCV-related HCC could be mediated through HNF4α-microRNA deregulation implying a possible role of HNF4α in HCV hepatocarcinogenesis. HCV inhibition of HNF4α could be sustained to promote HCC. PMID:27477312

  13. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Ichimaru, Shohei; Nakagawa, Shuji; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Shimomura, Seiji; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA), but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α). These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses. PMID:27347945

  14. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ichimaru, Shohei; Nakagawa, Shuji; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Shimomura, Seiji; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA), but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α). These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses. PMID:27347945

  15. An Irradiation-Altered Bone Marrow Microenvironment Impacts Anabolic Actions of PTH

    PubMed Central

    Koh, A. J.; Novince, C. M.; Li, X.; Wang, T.; Taichman, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    PTH stimulates bone formation and increases hematopoietic stem cells through mechanisms as yet uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms by which PTH links actions on cells of hematopoietic origin with osteoblast-mediated bone formation. C57B6 mice (10 d) were nonlethally irradiated and then administered PTH for 5–20 d. Irradiation reduced bone marrow cellularity with retention of cells lining trabeculae. PTH anabolic activity was greater in irradiated vs. nonirradiated mice, which could not be accounted for by altered osteoblasts directly or osteoclasts but instead via an altered bone marrow microenvironment. Irradiation increased fibroblast growth factor 2, TGFβ, and IL-6 mRNA levels in the bone marrow in vivo. Irradiation decreased B220 cell numbers, whereas the percent of Lin−Sca-1+c-kit+ (LSK), CD11b+, CD68+, CD41+, Lin−CD29+Sca-1+ cells, and proliferating CD45−Nestin+ cells was increased. Megakaryocyte numbers were reduced with irradiation and located more closely to trabecular surfaces with irradiation and PTH. Bone marrow TGFβ was increased in irradiated PTH-treated mice, and inhibition of TGFβ blocked the PTH augmentation of bone in irradiated mice. In conclusion, irradiation created a permissive environment for anabolic actions of PTH that was TGFβ dependent but osteoclast independent and suggests that a nonosteoclast source of TGFβ drives mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to support PTH anabolic actions. PMID:22045660

  16. Abnormal protein turnover and anabolic resistance to exercise in sarcopenic obesity.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Mats I; Dobson, Justin P; Greene, Nicholas P; Wiggs, Michael P; Shimkus, Kevin L; Wudeck, Elyse V; Davis, Amanda R; Laureano, Marissa L; Fluckey, James D

    2013-10-01

    Obesity may impair protein synthesis rates and cause anabolic resistance to growth factors, hormones, and exercise, ultimately affecting skeletal muscle mass and function. To better understand muscle wasting and anabolic resistance with obesity, we assessed protein 24-h fractional synthesis rates (24-h FSRs) in selected hind-limb muscles of sedentary and resistance-exercised lean and obese Zucker rats. Despite atrophied hind-limb muscles (-28% vs. lean rats), 24-h FSRs of mixed proteins were significantly higher in quadriceps (+18%) and red or white gastrocnemius (+22 or +38%, respectively) of obese animals when compared to lean littermates. Basal synthesis rates of myofibrillar (+8%) and mitochondrial proteins (-1%) in quadriceps were not different between phenotypes, while manufacture of cytosolic proteins (+12%) was moderately elevated in obese cohorts. Western blot analyses revealed a robust activation of p70S6k (+178%) and a lower expression of the endogenous mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR (-28%) in obese rats, collectively suggesting that there is an obesity-induced increase in net protein turnover favoring degradation. Lastly, the protein synthetic response to exercise of mixed (-7%), myofibrillar (+6%), and cytosolic (+7%) quadriceps subfractions was blunted compared to the lean phenotype (+34, +40, and +17%, respectively), indicating a muscle- and subfraction-specific desensitization to the anabolic stimulus of exercise in obese animals. PMID:23804240

  17. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711)Revision 3: Update Methodology and Key Revisions

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, S.

    2012-07-22

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. NUREG-0711 is the first document to be addressed. We present the methodology used to update NUREG-0711 and summarize the main changes made. Finally, we discuss the current status of the update program and the future plans.

  18. Molecular mobility of imidazoles in molten state as a key factor to enhance proton conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarumaneeroj, Chatchai; Tashiro, Kohji; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2014-03-01

    A systematic study on alkyl urocanates related to the proton conductivity performances to clarify the role of molecular mobility and hydrogen bond in proton transfer is carried out. Depending on the methylene units, the melting (Tm) and degradation temperatures (Td) change remarkably. When methylene unit is four, C4U shows the lowest melting point (as low as 46 °C) and this suggests the favorable molecular mobility in the molten state. The short hydrogen bond distance and the short T1 relaxation time lead to a scheme of proton conductivity of C4U to be under a regular imidazole arrangement with highly active alkyl chain molecular motion. When C4U is in molten state, the proton transfer is under vehicle mechanism clarified by Volgel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) equation. By applying C4U as a proton conductive additive in a sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membrane without any acid dopants, the proton conductivity in the heating process up to 170 °C continuously increases to be ∼104 times higher than that of the neat SPEEK. The present work not only demonstrates the thermal mobility as a key factor to govern the proton conductivity but also proposes the effective proton transfer of heterocyclic compounds based on the molten state.

  19. Corticotropin-releasing factor: a possible key to gut dysfunction in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Hill, Lauren T; Kidson, Susan H; Michell, William L

    2013-01-01

    Critically ill patients frequently display unexplained or incompletely explained features of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, including gastric stasis, ileus, and diarrhea. This makes nutrition delivery challenging, and may contribute to poor outcomes. The typical bowel dysfunction seen in severely ill patients includes retarded gastric emptying, unsynchronized intestinal motility, and intestinal hyperpermeability. These functional changes appear similar to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated bowel dysfunctions associated with stress of various types and some GI disorders and diseases. CRF has been shown to be present within the GI tract and its action on CRF receptors within the gut have been shown to reduce gastric emptying, alter intestinal motility, and increase intestinal permeability. However, the precise role of CRF in the GI dysfunction in critical illness remains unclear. In this short review, we provide an update on GI dysfunction during stress and review the possible role of CRF in the aetiology of gut dysfunction. We suggest that activation of CRF signaling pathways in critical illness might be key to understanding the mechanisms underlying the gut dysfunction that impairs enteral feeding in the intensive care unit. PMID:23484741

  20. Prosthetic Abutment Height is a Key Factor in Peri-implant Marginal Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Moreno, P.; León-Cano, A.; Ortega-Oller, I.; Monje, A.; Suárez, F.; ÓValle, F.; Spinato, S.; Catena, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of prosthetic abutment height on marginal bone loss (MBL) around implants in the posterior maxilla. In this retrospective cohort study, the radiographically determined MBL was related to the height of the abutments of internal conical connection implants at 6 and 18 months post-loading. Data were gathered on age, sex, bone substratum, smoking habit, history of periodontitis, and prosthetic features, among other variables. A linear mixed model was used for statistical analysis. The study included 131 patients receiving 315 implants. MBL rates at 6 and 18 months were mainly affected by the abutment height but were also significantly influenced by the bone substratum, periodontitis, and smoking habit. MBL rates were higher for prosthetic abutment < 2 mm vs. ≥ 2 mm, for periodontal vs. non-periodontal patients, for grafted vs. pristine bone, and for a heavier smoking habit. The abutment height is a key factor in MBL. MBL rates followed a non-linear trend, with a greater MBL rate during the first 6 months post-loading than during the next 12 months. PMID:24621670

  1. Caudal, a key developmental regulator, is a DPE-specific transcriptional factor

    PubMed Central

    Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Kadonaga, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of gene transcription is critical for the proper development and growth of an organism. The transcription of protein-coding genes initiates at the RNA polymerase II core promoter, which is a diverse module that can be controlled by many different elements such as the TATA box and downstream core promoter element (DPE). To understand the basis for core promoter diversity, we explored potential biological functions of the DPE. We found that nearly all of the Drosophila homeotic (Hox) gene promoters, which lack TATA-box elements, contain functionally important DPE motifs that are conserved from Drosophila melanogaster to Drosophila virilis. We then discovered that Caudal, a sequence-specific transcription factor and key regulator of the Hox gene network, activates transcription with a distinct preference for the DPE relative to the TATA box. The specificity of Caudal activation for the DPE is particularly striking when a BREu core promoter motif is associated with the TATA box. These findings show that Caudal is a DPE-specific activator and exemplify how core promoter diversity can be used to establish complex regulatory networks. PMID:18923080

  2. On Key Factors Influencing Ductile Fractures of Dual Phase (DP) Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Liu, Wenning N.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-11-25

    In this paper, we examine the key factors influencing ductile failure of various grades of dual phase (DP) steels using the microstructure-based modeling approach. Various microstructure-based finite element models are generated based on the actual microstructures of DP steels with different martensite volume fractions. These models are, then, used to investigate the influence of ductility of the constituent ferrite phase and also the influence of voids introduced in the ferrite phase on the overall ductility of DP steels. It is found that with volume fraction of martensite in the microstructure less than 15%, the overall ductility of the DP steels strongly depends on the ductility of the ferrite matrix, hence pre-existing micro voids in the microstructure significantly reduce the overall ductility of the steel. When the volume fraction of martensite is above 15%, the preexisting voids in the ferrite matrix does not significantly reduce the overall ductility of the DP steels, and the overall ductility is more influenced by the mechanical property disparity between the two phases. The applicability of the phase inhomogeneity driven ductile failure of DP steels is then discussed based on the obtained computational results for various grades of DP steels, and the experimentally obtained scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of the corresponding grades of DP steels near fracture surface are used as evidence for result validations.

  3. Process and kinetics of azo dye decolourization in bioelectrochemical systems: effect of several key factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hou-Yun; He, Chuan-Shu; Li, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the influence of several key factors on the process and kinetics of azo dye decolourization in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), including cathode potential, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of catholyte and biofilm formed on the cathode. The results show that azo dye methyl orange (MO) decolourization in the BES could be well described with the pseudo first-order kinetics. The MO decolourization efficiency increased from 0 to 94.90 ± 0.01% and correspondingly the reaction rate constant increased from 0 to 0.503 ± 0.001 h(-1) with the decrease in cathodic electrode potential from -0.2 to -0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl. On the contrary, DO concentration of the catholyte had a negative impact on MO decolourization in the BES. When DO concentration increased from zero to 5.80 mg L(-1), the MO decolourization efficiency decreased from 87.19 ± 4.73% to 27.77 ± 0.06% and correspondingly the reaction rate constant reduced from 0.207 ± 0.042 to 0.033 ± 0.007 h(-1). Additionally, the results suggest that the biofilm formed on the cathode could led to an adverse rather than a positive effect on azo dye decolourization in the BES in terms of efficiency and kinetics. PMID:27270398

  4. miR-122--a key factor and therapeutic target in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Simonetta; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Baumert, Thomas F; Zeisel, Mirjam B

    2015-02-01

    Being the largest internal organ of the human body with the unique ability of self-regeneration, the liver is involved in a wide variety of vital functions that require highly orchestrated and controlled biochemical processes. Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for the regulation of liver development, regeneration and metabolic functions. Hence, alterations in intrahepatic miRNA networks have been associated with liver disease including hepatitis, steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR-122 is the most frequent miRNA in the adult liver, and a central player in liver biology and disease. Furthermore, miR-122 has been shown to be an essential host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and an antiviral target, complementary to the standard of care using direct-acting antivirals or interferon-based treatment. This review summarizes our current understanding of the key role of miR-122 in liver physiology and disease, highlighting its role in HCC and viral hepatitis. We also discuss the perspectives of miRNA-based therapeutic approaches for viral hepatitis and liver disease. PMID:25308172

  5. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  6. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    , ignoring sensitive history life stages of organisms and transgenerational effects. To link sources, ecosystem transfer and biological effects to future impact and risks, a series of models are usually interfaced, while uncertainty estimates are seldom given. The model predictions are, however, only valid within the boundaries of the overall uncertainties. Furthermore, the model predictions are only useful and relevant when uncertainties are estimated, communicated and understood. Among key factors contributing most to uncertainties, the present paper focuses especially on structure uncertainties (model bias or discrepancies) as aspects such as particle releases, ecosystem dynamics, mixed exposure, sensitive life history stages and transgenerational effects, are usually ignored in assessment models. Research focus on these aspects should significantly reduce the overall uncertainties in the impact and risk assessment of radioactive contaminated ecosystems. PMID:26546475

  7. Key Factors Controlling Space- and Time-Linked Rare Earth Element Distribution in Shallow Groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dia, A.; Gruau, G.; Olivie-Lauquet, G.; Henin, O.; Petitjean, P.; Le Coz-Bouhnik, M.

    2001-12-01

    comparison of the different catchments shows that the spatial variability of the REE signatures between the hillslope DOC-poor groundwaters and the wetland DOC-rich groundwaters has to be the same whatever may be the climatic and geologic context. These results assess the key roles played in the REE transfer to hydrosystems by (i) the occurrence of organic compounds, acting as a trace-element carrier phase and (ii) redox condition changes. Finally, we propose that topography could be the ultimate key factor, through its ability to control the water table depth and therefore the organic colloids enrichment when groundwaters are flowing into organic-rich soil horizons.

  8. Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  9. The energetics of anabolism in natural settings.

    PubMed

    LaRowe, Douglas E; Amend, Jan P

    2016-06-01

    The environmental conditions that describe an ecosystem define the amount of energy available to the resident organisms and the amount of energy required to build biomass. Here, we quantify the amount of energy required to make biomass as a function of temperature, pressure, redox state, the sources of C, N and S, cell mass and the time that an organism requires to double or replace its biomass. Specifically, these energetics are calculated from 0 to 125 °C, 0.1 to 500 MPa and -0.38 to +0.86 V using CO2, acetate or CH4 for C, NO3(-) or NH4(+) for N and SO4(2-) or HS(-) for S. The amounts of energy associated with synthesizing the biomolecules that make up a cell, which varies over 39 kJ (g cell)(-1), are then used to compute energy-based yield coefficients for a vast range of environmental conditions. Taken together, environmental variables and the range of cell sizes leads to a ~4 orders of magnitude difference between the number of microbial cells that can be made from a Joule of Gibbs energy under the most (5.06 × 10(11) cells J(-1)) and least (5.21 × 10(7) cells J(-1)) ideal conditions. When doubling/replacement time is taken into account, the range of anabolism energies can expand even further. PMID:26859771

  10. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  11. Anabolic Effects of Oxandrolone After Severe Burn

    PubMed Central

    Hart, David W.; Wolf, Steven E.; Ramzy, Peter I.; Chinkes, David L.; Beauford, Robert B.; Ferrando, Arny A.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Herndon, David N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the hypothesis that oxandrolone may reverse muscle catabolism in cachectic, critically ill pediatric burn patients. Summary Background Data Severe burn causes exaggerated muscle protein catabolism, contributing to weakness and delayed healing. Oxandrolone is an anabolic steroid that has been used in cachectic hepatitis and AIDS patients. Methods Fourteen severely burned children were enrolled during a 5-month period in a prospective cohort analytic study. There was a prolonged delay in the arrival of these patients to the burn unit for definitive care. This neglect of skin grafting and nutritional support resulted in critically ill children with significant malnutrition. On arrival, all patients underwent excision and skin grafting and received similar clinical care. Subjects were studied 5 to 7 days after admission, and again after 1 week of oxandrolone treatment at 0.1 mg/kg by mouth twice daily or no pharmacologic treatment. Muscle protein kinetics were derived from femoral arterial and venous blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies during a stable isotope infusion. Results Control and oxandrolone subjects were similar in age, weight, and percentage of body surface area burned. Muscle protein net balance decreased in controls and improved in the oxandrolone group. The improvement in the oxandrolone group was associated with increased protein synthesis efficiency. Muscle protein breakdown was unchanged. Conclusions In burn victims, oxandrolone improves muscle protein metabolism through enhanced protein synthesis efficiency. These findings suggest the efficacy of oxandrolone in impeding muscle protein catabolism in cachectic, critically injured children. PMID:11303139

  12. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and brain reward.

    PubMed

    Clark, A S; Lindenfeld, R C; Gibbons, C H

    1996-03-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) effects on brain reward were investigated in male rats with electrodes implanted in the lateral hypothalamus using the rate-frequency curve shift paradigm of brain stimulation reward. In the first experiment, treatment for 2 weeks with the AAS methandrostenolone had no effect on either the reward or performance components of intracranial self-stimulation. In the second experiment, treatment for 15 weeks with an AAS "cocktail" consisting of testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate, and boldenone undecylenate did not alter brain reward but did produce a slight but significant change in bar press rate. In addition to the AAS treatment, animals in the second study were administered a single injection of d-amphetamine before and after 15 weeks of AAS exposure. The rate-frequency curve shift observed in response to a systemic injection of amphetamine was significantly greater in animals after 15 weeks of treatment with the AAS cocktail. Although AAS do not appear to alter the rewarding properties of brain stimulation, AAS may influence the sensitivity of brain reward systems. PMID:8866980

  13. Insulin resistance is a two-sided mechanism acting under opposite catabolic and anabolic conditions.

    PubMed

    Schwartsburd, Polina

    2016-04-01

    The survival of multi-cellular organisms depends on the organism ability to maintain glucose homeostasis for time of low/high nutrient availability or high energy needs, and the ability to fight infections or stress. These effects are realized through the insulin controlled transport of blood glucose into the insulin-responsive cells such as muscle, fat and liver cells. Reduction in the ability of these cells to take glucose from the blood in response to normal circulating levels of insulin is known as insulin resistance (IR). Chronic IR is a key pathological feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes, sepsis and cancer cachexia, however temporal IR are widely met in fasting/ hibernation, pregnancy, anti-bacterial immunity, exercise and stress. Paradoxically, a certain part of the IR-cases is associated with catabolic metabolism, whereas the other is related to anabolic pathways. How can this paradoxical IR-response be explained? What is the metabolic basis of this IR variability and its physiological and pathological impacts? An answer to these questions might be achieved through the hypothesis in which IR is considered as a two-sided mechanism acting under opposite metabolic conditions (catabolism and anabolism) but with the common aim to sustain glucose homeostasis in a wide metabolic range. To test this hypothesis, I examined the main metabolic distinctions between the varied IR-cases and their dependence on the blood glucose concentration, level of the IR-threshold, and catabolic/anabolic activation. On the basis of the established interrelations, a simple model of IR-distribution has been developed. The model revealed the «U-type distribution» form with separation into two main IR-groups, each determined in the catabolic or anabolic conditions with one exception - type 2 diabetes and its paradoxical catabolic activation in anabolic conditions. The dual opposing (or complementary) role for the IR opens a new possibility for better understanding the cause and

  14. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Dependence: An Emerging Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Brower, Kirk J.; Wood, Ruth I.; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely used illicitly to gain muscle and lose body fat. Here we review the accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome, often associated with adverse psychiatric and medical effects. Method We present an illustrative case of AAS dependence, followed by a summary of the human and animal literature on this topic, based on publications known to us or obtained by searching the PubMed database. Results About 30% of AAS users appear to develop a dependence syndrome, characterized by chronic AAS use despite adverse effects on physical, psychosocial, or occupational functioning. AAS dependence shares many features with classical drug dependence. For example, hamsters will self-administer AAS, even to the point of death, and both humans and animals exhibit a well-documented AAS withdrawal syndrome, mediated by neuroendocrine and cortical neurotransmitter systems. AAS dependence may particularly involve opioidergic mechanisms. However, AAS differ from classical drugs in that they produce little immediate reward of acute intoxication, but instead a delayed effect of muscle gains. Thus standard diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, usually crafted for acutely intoxicating drugs, must be slightly adapted for cumulatively acting drugs such as AAS. Conclusions AAS dependence is a valid diagnostic entity, and likely a growing public health problem. AAS dependence may share brain mechanisms with other forms of substance dependence, especially opioid dependence. Future studies are needed to better characterize AAS dependence, identify risk factors for this syndrome, and develop treatment strategies. PMID:19922565

  15. Process and kinetics of azo dye decolourization in bioelectrochemical systems: effect of several key factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hou-Yun; He, Chuan-Shu; Li, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the influence of several key factors on the process and kinetics of azo dye decolourization in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), including cathode potential, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of catholyte and biofilm formed on the cathode. The results show that azo dye methyl orange (MO) decolourization in the BES could be well described with the pseudo first-order kinetics. The MO decolourization efficiency increased from 0 to 94.90 ± 0.01% and correspondingly the reaction rate constant increased from 0 to 0.503 ± 0.001 h−1 with the decrease in cathodic electrode potential from −0.2 to −0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl. On the contrary, DO concentration of the catholyte had a negative impact on MO decolourization in the BES. When DO concentration increased from zero to 5.80 mg L−1, the MO decolourization efficiency decreased from 87.19 ± 4.73% to 27.77 ± 0.06% and correspondingly the reaction rate constant reduced from 0.207 ± 0.042 to 0.033 ± 0.007 h−1. Additionally, the results suggest that the biofilm formed on the cathode could led to an adverse rather than a positive effect on azo dye decolourization in the BES in terms of efficiency and kinetics. PMID:27270398

  16. Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Birkemoe, Tone

    2014-05-01

    How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The

  17. Key Residues Regulating the Reductase Activity of the Human Mitochondrial Apoptosis Inducing Factor.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Raquel; Ferreira, Patricia; Marcuello, Carlos; Usón, Alejandro; Miramar, M Dolores; Peleato, M Luisa; Lostao, Anabel; Susin, Santos A; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-25

    The human Apoptosis Inducing Factor (hAIF) is a bifunctional NAD(P)H-dependent flavoreductase involved in both mitochondrial energy metabolism and caspase-independent cell death. Even though several studies indicate that both functions are redox controlled by NADH binding, the exact role of hAIF as a reductase in healthy mitochondria remains unknown. Upon reduction by NADH, hAIF dimerizes and produces very stable flavin/nicotinamide charge transfer complexes (CTC), by stacking of the oxidized nicotinamide moiety of the NAD(+) coenzyme against the re-face of the reduced flavin ring of its FAD cofactor. Such complexes are critical to restrict the hAIF efficiency as a reductase. The molecular basis of the hAIF reductase activity is here investigated by analyzing the role played by residues contributing to the interaction of the FAD isoalloxazine ring and of the nicotinamide moiety of NADH at the active site. Mutations at K177 and E314 produced drastic effects on the hAIF ability to retain the FAD cofactor, indicating that these residues are important to set up the holo-enzyme active site conformation. Characterization of P173G hAIF indicates that the stacking of P173 against the isoalloxazine ring is relevant to determine the flavin environment and to modulate the enzyme affinity for NADH. Finally, the properties of the F310G and H454S hAIF mutants indicate that these two positions contribute to form a compact active site essential for NADH binding, CTC stabilization, and NAD(+) affinity for the reduced state of hAIF. These features are key determinants of the particular behavior of hAIF as a NADH-dependent oxidoreductase. PMID:26237213

  18. Identification of key transcription factors in caerulein-induced pancreatitis through expression profiling data.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dachuan; Wu, Bo; Tong, Danian; Pan, Ye; Chen, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The current study aimed to isolate key transcription factors (TFs) in caerulein-induced pancreatitis, and to identify the difference between wild type and Mist1 knockout (KO) mice, in order to elucidate the contribution of Mist1 to pancreatitis. The gene profile of GSE3644 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database then analyzed using the t-test. The isolated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mapped into a transcriptional regulatory network derived from the Integrated Transcription Factor Platform database and in the network, the interaction pairs involving at least one DEG were screened. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the functional enrichment of the target genes. A total of 1,555 and 3,057 DEGs were identified in the wild type and Mist1KO mice treated with caerulein, respectively. DEGs screened in Mist1KO mice were predominantly enriched in apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and other cancer-associated pathways. A total of 188 and 51 TFs associated with pathopoiesis were isolated in Mist1KO and wild type mice, respectively. Out of the top 10 TFs (ranked by P-value), 7 TFs, including S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2); minichromosome maintenance complex component 3 (Mcm3); cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6); cyclin B1 (Ccnb1); mutS homolog 6 (Msh6); cyclin A2 (Ccna2); and cyclin B2 (Ccnb2), were expressed in the two types of mouse. These TFs were predominantly involved in phosphorylation, DNA replication, cell division and DNA mismatch repair. In addition, specific TFs, including minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (Mcm7); lymphoid-specific helicase (Hells); and minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (Mcm6), that function in the unwinding of DNA were identified to participate in Mist1KO pancreatitis. The DEGs, including Cdc6, Mcm6, Msh6 and Wdr1 are closely associated with the regulation of caerulein-induced pancreatitis. Furthermore, other identified TFs were also involved in this type of

  19. Soil physical properties: Key factors for successful reclamation of disturbed landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krümmelbein, Julia; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The practice of open cast mining, e.g. for lignite, results in major landscape disturbances and especially affects soils because relocation and subsequent mixing of naturally developed soil horizons leads to areas with extremely altered soil properties compared to the undisturbed conditions. Various reclamation measures are applied to recover the reconstructed landscape for different land use options. Major parts of the post mining landscapes are used for agriculture, agroforestry or silviculture, the remaining voids of the coal mines fill successively with groundwater after mine closure and are or will be used mainly for touristic and leisure purposes. Small proportions of the post mining areas are left for natural succession, or habitats for endangered flora and fauna are initiated. In reclamation research, many studies have focused on soil chemical and biological constraints of post mining substrates and investigated factors such as unsuitable pH, in many cases very low pH, (poor) nutrient contents and (poor) biological activity. But the initial and developing soil physical parameters and functions are also key factors for the success of reclamation practices. The soil water and gas balance influence strongly the suitability of a site for the intended future land use. The mechanical stability of the soil determines the rigidity of the pore system against deforming forces and thereby the persistence of soil functions, such as water and air permeability over time. The amendment of unfavourable (initial) soil physical properties is in most cases more complex and time-consuming than e.g. optimization of pH or fertilization with nutrients. Moreover, regarding the suitability of a site e.g. as a habitat for plants or microorganisms, poor physical pre-conditions can turn substrates with perfect nutrient contents and composition and pH into infertile locations of very low productivity. We show results of an on-going field study where the effects of different

  20. Some Factors in Children's Identification of Key Words in Written Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Kennedy, Dale

    For this study of children's selection of key words, children in the first, third, sixth, ninth and twelfth grades were asked to identify which words, in their judgment, were key words in written materials. Relationship of these choices to skilled readers, to words derived from passage analysis, and to random selections of hypothetical subjects…

  1. Biological activity in Technosols as a key factor of their structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watteau, Françoise; Villemin, Geneviève; Bouchard, Adeline; Monserié, Marie-France; Séré, Geoffroy; Schwartz, Christophe; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    )availability. HAP also contributed to the aggregation of technogenic constituents in Technosol 1. The biological activity generated by the presence of exogenous organic matter is thus in short (0-2 years) and mean (30 years) terms, a key factor of the structuration and by there of the pedogenesis of Technosols.

  2. On the Security of a Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hamed; Teymoori, Vahid; Nikooghadam, Morteza; Abbassi, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medicine information systems (TMISs) aim to deliver appropriate healthcare services in an efficient and secure manner to patients. A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is required to provide proper security in these systems. Recently, Bin Muhaya demonstrated some security weaknesses of Zhu's authentication and key agreement scheme and proposed a security enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme for TMISs. However, we show that Bin Muhaya's scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and does not provide perfect forward secrecy. Furthermore, in order to overcome the mentioned weaknesses, we propose a new two-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme using the elliptic curve cryptosystem. Security and performance analyses demonstrate that the proposed scheme not only overcomes the weaknesses of Bin Muhaya's scheme, but also is about 2.73 times faster than Bin Muhaya's scheme. PMID:26084586

  3. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  4. Problem-Based Learning Environment in Basic Computer Course: Pre-Service Teachers' Achievement and Key Factors for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efendioglu, Akin

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study aims to determine pre-service teachers' achievements and key factors that affect the learning process with regard to problem-based learning (PBL) and lecture-based computer course (LBCC) conditions. The research results showed that the pre-service teachers in the PBL group had significantly higher achievement scores than…

  5. Adolescent ischemic stroke associated with anabolic steroid and cannabis abuse.

    PubMed

    El Scheich, Tarik; Weber, Artur-Aron; Klee, Dirk; Schweiger, Daniel; Mayatepek, Ertan; Karenfort, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 16-year-old body builder who suffered from an acute ischemic stroke. In the urine, cannabis metabolites as well as metabolites of the oral androgenic-anabolic steroid methandrostenolone were detected, both known to be associated with stroke events. This report highlights the role of cannabis and steroid abuse that induce strokes in the absence of arteriopathy, cardioembolism or thrombophilia. Owing to new upcoming socio-behavioral aspects of late childhood and early adolescent life, this formally rare abuse of cannabis and/or anabolic steroids as well as their associations with strokes becomes more current than ever. PMID:23382306

  6. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person...

  7. Knowledge about Anabolic Steroids of Rhode Island Adolescents: Implications for Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    Although anabolic steroids are associated with short term behavior and long term health problems, few schools address this issue. Adolescents were surveyed to determine their general knowledge of anabolic steroids, attitudes related to fair play, and interest in limiting anabolic steroid use. Data from 322 boys and 331 girls in grades 7-12 were…

  8. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person...

  9. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. (a) The Administrator, upon the recommendation of Secretary of Health...

  10. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. (a) The Administrator, upon the recommendation of Secretary of Health...

  11. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person...

  12. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. (a) The Administrator, upon the recommendation of Secretary of Health...

  13. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person...

  14. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. (a) The Administrator, upon the recommendation of Secretary of Health...

  15. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person...

  16. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  17. Bleeding oesophageal varices associated with anabolic steroid use in an athlete.

    PubMed Central

    Winwood, P. J.; Robertson, D. A.; Wright, R.

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year old bodybuilder who had been taking anabolic steroids for 18 months presented with bleeding oesophageal varices. Serious liver disease secondary to anabolic steroids including peliosis hepatis, nodular hyperplasia and malignant change is well recognized. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first case of bleeding oesophageal varices associated with the use of anabolic steroids. PMID:2099434

  18. Local Text Cohesion, Reading Ability and Individual Science Aspirations: Key Factors Influencing Comprehension in Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sophie S.; Kowalski, Rebecca; Paterson, Kevin B.; Basran, Jaskaran; Filik, Ruth; Maltby, John

    2015-01-01

    In response to the concern of the need to improve the scientific skills of school children, this study investigated the influence of text design (in terms of text cohesion) and individual differences, with the aim of identifying pathways to improving science education in early secondary school (Key Stage 3). One hundred and four secondary school…

  19. Key Factors to Instructors' Satisfaction of Learning Management Systems in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Busaidi, Kamla Ali; Al-Shihi, Hafedh

    2012-01-01

    Learning Management System (LMS) enables institutions to administer their educational resources, and support their traditional classroom education and distance education. LMS survives through instructors' continuous use, which may be to a great extent associated with their satisfaction of the LMS. Consequently, this study examined the key factors…

  20. Key factors influencing ADME properties of therapeutic proteins: A need for ADME characterization in drug discovery and development

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitts, Jay; Canter, David; Graff, Ryan; Smith, Alison; Khawli, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Protein therapeutics represent a diverse array of biologics including antibodies, fusion proteins, and therapeutic replacement enzymes. Since their inception, they have revolutionized the treatment of a wide range of diseases including respiratory, vascular, autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. While in vivo pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and efficacy studies are routinely carried out for protein therapeutics, studies that identify key factors governing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties have not been fully investigated. Thorough characterization and in-depth study of their ADME properties are critical in order to support drug discovery and development processes for the production of safer and more effective biotherapeutics. In this review, we discuss the main factors affecting the ADME characteristics of these large macromolecular therapies. We also give an overview of the current tools, technologies, and approaches available to investigate key factors that influence the ADME of recombinant biotherapeutic drugs, and demonstrate how ADME studies will facilitate their future development. PMID:26636901

  1. From Loose Groups to Effective Teams: The Nine Key Factors of the Team Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheard, A. G.; Kakabadse, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    A loose group of individuals working on a task differs from an effective team on nine factors: clearly defined goals, priorities, roles and responsibilities, self-awareness, leadership, group dynamics, communications, content, and infrastructure. Ways to eliminate barriers and speed formation of effective teams could be based on those factors.…

  2. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  3. Exercise-induced neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases: the key role of trophic factors.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Nardi, António E; Machado, Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, are becoming a major issue to public health care. Currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment to address cognitive impairment in these patients. Here, we aim to explore the role of exercise-induced trophic factor enhancement in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. There is a significant amount of evidence from animal and human studies that links neurodegenerative related cognitive deficits with changes on brain and peripheral trophic factor levels. Several trials with elderly individuals and patients with neurodegenerative diseases report exercise induced cognitive improvements and changes on trophic factor levels including BDNF, IGF-I, among others. Further studies with healthy aging and clinical populations are needed to understand how diverse exercise interventions produce different variations in trophic factor signaling. Genetic profiles and potential confounders regarding trophic factors should also be addressed in future trials. PMID:27086703

  4. URI in athletes: are mucosal immunity and cytokine responses key risk factors?

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2013-07-01

    Infection incidence among athletes is highest during periods of intensified training and competition and after strenuous long-distance events. Which aspects of depressed immune function are responsible for this increased infection risk are not known, but our hypothesis is that lower salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion and a higher antiinflammatory cytokine response to antigen exposure are key determinants of infection risk. PMID:23792489

  5. A consideration of select pre-trauma factors as key vulnerabilities in PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Bomyea, Jessica; Risbrough, Victoria; Lang, Ariel J.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pathological response to a traumatic event. A number of risk and vulnerability factors predicting PTSD development have been identified in the literature. Many of these variables are specific factors occurring during and after exposure to a traumatic event or are not measured prospectively to assess temporal sequence. Recent research, however, has begun to focus on pre-trauma individual differences that could contribute to risk for developing PTSD. The present review proposes that a number of biological and cognitive vulnerability factors place individuals at risk for PTSD development prior to the actual experience of trauma. Accordingly, this review provides a summary of evidence for a select number of these factors as pre-trauma vulnerabilities to PTSD. Included is a discussion of biological factors, including molecular genetic studies of systems regulating serotonin, catecholamines, and glucocorticoids as well as aspects of the neuroendocrine system. Specific cognitive factors are also considered, including intelligence, neuropsychological functioning and cognitive biases such as negative attributional style and appraisals. For each factor, the present review summarizes evidence to date regarding PTSD vulnerability and highlights directions for future research in this area. PMID:22917742

  6. The physical size of transcription factors is key to transcriptional regulation in chromatin domains.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Kaizu, Kazunari; Tamura, Sachiko; Nozaki, Tadasu; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-02-18

    Genetic information, which is stored in the long strand of genomic DNA as chromatin, must be scanned and read out by various transcription factors. First, gene-specific transcription factors, which are relatively small (∼50 kDa), scan the genome and bind regulatory elements. Such factors then recruit general transcription factors, Mediators, RNA polymerases, nucleosome remodellers, and histone modifiers, most of which are large protein complexes of 1-3 MDa in size. Here, we propose a new model for the functional significance of the size of transcription factors (or complexes) for gene regulation of chromatin domains. Recent findings suggest that chromatin consists of irregularly folded nucleosome fibres (10 nm fibres) and forms numerous condensed domains (e.g., topologically associating domains). Although the flexibility and dynamics of chromatin allow repositioning of genes within the condensed domains, the size exclusion effect of the domain may limit accessibility of DNA sequences by transcription factors. We used Monte Carlo computer simulations to determine the physical size limit of transcription factors that can enter condensed chromatin domains. Small gene-specific transcription factors can penetrate into the chromatin domains and search their target sequences, whereas large transcription complexes cannot enter the domain. Due to this property, once a large complex binds its target site via gene-specific factors it can act as a 'buoy' to keep the target region on the surface of the condensed domain and maintain transcriptional competency. This size-dependent specialization of target-scanning and surface-tethering functions could provide novel insight into the mechanisms of various DNA transactions, such as DNA replication and repair/recombination. PMID:25563431

  7. The physical size of transcription factors is key to transcriptional regulation in chromatin domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Kaizu, Kazunari; Tamura, Sachiko; Nozaki, Tadasu; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-02-01

    Genetic information, which is stored in the long strand of genomic DNA as chromatin, must be scanned and read out by various transcription factors. First, gene-specific transcription factors, which are relatively small (˜50 kDa), scan the genome and bind regulatory elements. Such factors then recruit general transcription factors, Mediators, RNA polymerases, nucleosome remodellers, and histone modifiers, most of which are large protein complexes of 1-3 MDa in size. Here, we propose a new model for the functional significance of the size of transcription factors (or complexes) for gene regulation of chromatin domains. Recent findings suggest that chromatin consists of irregularly folded nucleosome fibres (10 nm fibres) and forms numerous condensed domains (e.g., topologically associating domains). Although the flexibility and dynamics of chromatin allow repositioning of genes within the condensed domains, the size exclusion effect of the domain may limit accessibility of DNA sequences by transcription factors. We used Monte Carlo computer simulations to determine the physical size limit of transcription factors that can enter condensed chromatin domains. Small gene-specific transcription factors can penetrate into the chromatin domains and search their target sequences, whereas large transcription complexes cannot enter the domain. Due to this property, once a large complex binds its target site via gene-specific factors it can act as a ‘buoy’ to keep the target region on the surface of the condensed domain and maintain transcriptional competency. This size-dependent specialization of target-scanning and surface-tethering functions could provide novel insight into the mechanisms of various DNA transactions, such as DNA replication and repair/recombination.

  8. The hiccup reflex arc and persistent hiccups with high-dose anabolic steroids: is the brainstem the steroid-responsive locus?

    PubMed

    Dickerman, R D; Jaikumar, S

    2001-01-01

    Hiccups have been classified as a neurologic reaction triggered by a multitude of factors. There are only a few reports of persistent hiccups associated with oral and intravenous corticosteroid use in the medical literature. It has been proposed that corticosteroids lower the threshold for synaptic transmission in the midbrain and directly stimulate the hiccup reflex arc. There is a recent report of progesterone-induced hiccups, which were thought to occur secondary to the glucocorticoid-like effects of progesterone on the brainstem. We report the first case of anabolic steroid-induced hiccups occurring in an elite power lifter. The hiccups occurred within 12 hours of the individual increasing his doses of oral anabolic steroids and persisted for 12 consecutive hours until medical attention was sought. In this report the pathophysiology of anabolic steroid-induced hiccups is discussed, and the postulated relationships of steroids and the hiccup reflex arc reviewed. PMID:11290884

  9. Anabolic Steroid Use: Indications of Habituation among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesalis, Charles E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified characteristics of adolescent male anabolic steroid (AS) user and addictive potential. Found AS user population different from nonuser in self-perceptions of health and strength, interest in controlling AS use, and perception of peer AS use. Found subgroups with significantly different attitudes and/or behaviors. Suggests prevention…

  10. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  11. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  12. Project Right Way: An Anabolic Steroid Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    There is increasing concern by medical experts in this country about the use of anabolic steroids by teenagers. Over one million Americans are believed to be currently using or have used the synthetic hormones in the past. While drug testing and a reduction in the supply of the drugs appear to be reducing the number of adult users, use by…

  13. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  14. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  15. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Inhibits Postlactational Anabolic Rebuilding in Female Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite significant loss of bone during lactation, bone mineral density (BMD) is restored by a powerful anabolic rebuilding process following weaning. A significant number of women resume alcohol consumption after weaning their offspring from breast feeding. The objectives of the present study were ...

  16. Anabolic steroid usage in athletics: facts, fiction, and public relations.

    PubMed

    Berning, Joseph M; Adams, Kent J; Stamford, Bryant A

    2004-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests the widespread usage of anabolic steroids among athletes (20-90%), particularly at the professional and elite amateur levels. In contrast, scientific studies indicate that usage is rare and no higher than 6%. Conclusions from scientific studies suggest that anabolic steroid usage declines progressively from high school to college and beyond; however, anecdotal evidence claims the opposite trend. In this clash between "hard" scientific data vs. "soft" anecdotal information, it is natural that professionals would gravitate toward scientifically based conclusions. However, in the case of anabolic steroids (a stigmatized and illegal substance), should word-of-mouth testimony from individuals closest to the issues--those who have participated in and coached sports, those who have served as drug-testing overseers, and journalists who relentlessly track leads and verify sources--be set aside as irrelevant? Not if a complete picture is to emerge. In this review, hard scientific evidence is placed on the table side-by-side with soft anecdotal evidence, without weighting or bias. The purpose is to allow the opportunity for each to illuminate the other and, in so doing, potentially bring us a step closer to determining the true extent of anabolic steroid usage in athletics. PMID:15574100

  17. Enhanced Production of Insulin-like Growth Factor I Protein in Escherichia coli by Optimization of Five Key Factors.

    PubMed

    Ranjbari, Javad; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Vahidi, Hossein; Moghimi, Hamidreza; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Namvaran, Mohammad Mehdi; Jafari, Sevda

    2015-01-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) is a kind of growth factor with clinical significance in medicine. Up to now, E. coli expression system has been widely used as a host to produce rhIGF-1 with high yields. Batch cultures as non-continuous fermentations were carried out to overproduce rhIGF-I in E. coli. The major objective of this study is over- production of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) through a developed process by recruiting effective factors in order to achieve the most recombinant protein. In this study we investigated the effect of culture medium, induction temperature and amount of inducer on cell growth and IGF-1 production. Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) method was used as the statistical method. Analysis of experimental data showed that maximum production of rhIGF-I was occurred in 32y culture medium at 32 °C and 0.05 Mm IPTG. Under this condition, 0.694 g/L of rhIGF-I was produced as the inclusion bodies. Following optimization of these three factors, we have also optimized the amount of glucose and induction time in 5 liter top bench bioreactor. Full factorial design of experiment method was used for these two factors as the statistical method. 10 g/L and OD600=5 were selected as the optimum point of Glucose amount and induction time, respectively. Finally, we reached to a concentration of 1.26 g/L rhIGF-1 at optimum condition. PMID:26330880

  18. Enhanced Production of Insulin-like Growth Factor I Protein in Escherichia coli by Optimization of Five Key Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbari, Javad; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Vahidi, Hossein; Moghimi, Hamidreza; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Namvaran, Mohammad Mehdi; Jafari, Sevda

    2015-01-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) is a kind of growth factor with clinical significance in medicine. Up to now, E. coli expression system has been widely used as a host to produce rhIGF-1 with high yields. Batch cultures as non-continuous fermentations were carried out to overproduce rhIGF-I in E. coli. The major objective of this study is over- production of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) through a developed process by recruiting effective factors in order to achieve the most recombinant protein. In this study we investigated the effect of culture medium, induction temperature and amount of inducer on cell growth and IGF-1 production. Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) method was used as the statistical method. Analysis of experimental data showed that maximum production of rhIGF-I was occurred in 32y culture medium at 32 °C and 0.05 Mm IPTG. Under this condition, 0.694 g/L of rhIGF-I was produced as the inclusion bodies. Following optimization of these three factors, we have also optimized the amount of glucose and induction time in 5 liter top bench bioreactor. Full factorial design of experiment method was used for these two factors as the statistical method. 10 g/L and OD600=5 were selected as the optimum point of Glucose amount and induction time, respectively. Finally, we reached to a concentration of 1.26 g/L rhIGF-1 at optimum condition. PMID:26330880

  19. Endogenous anabolic agents in farm animals.

    PubMed

    Velle, W

    1976-01-01

    This presentation is limited to the three groups of steroid sex hormones which alone or in combination have been shown to be anabolic when used in farm animals. It seems essential for realistic evaluation of public health aspects of use of these hormones that the discussions include naturally occurring levels of the hormones. The following topics will be dealt with for each group of hormones: 1. Types and sources; 2. Production rates; 3. Plasma levels; 4. Tissue concentrations; 5. Metabolism and excretion. Gestagens. Progesterone and 20-dihydroprogesterones are mainly produced in ovaries and placenta. Production rates are estimated to 10 and 14 mg/24 hrs in pregnant goats and sheep, respectively. Plasma levels during the luteal phase are of the order of 2--10 ng/ml, during pregnancy somewhat higher. Muscular tissue from calves contain 0.25 mg/g. In dairy cows progesterone is excreted with the milk which contains up to 30 ng/ml; butterfat up to 300 mg/g. In ruminants progesterone is metabolized mainly to androgens excreted with faeces. In pigs large parts are metabolized to pregnanediols excreted with urine. Androgens. Testosterone is mainly secreted by testes. Boar testes also produce large amounts of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphate. Production rates have been estimated to be 10 mg and 40--50 mg/24 hrs. in boars and bulls respectively. Plasma levels in bulls and rams are generally 2--10 ng/ml, in boars 2--25 ng/ml. Adipose tissue levels up to 22 ng/g are reported for bulls. In ruminants epitestosterone seems to be a major metabolite excreted mainly with faeces. In boars, urinary 11-deoxy-17-ketosteroids are major metabolites of testicular dehydroepiandrosterone. Castration shows elimination to be rapid. Estrogens. 17beta-Estradiol and estrone are produced in ovaries and placenta and, in large amounts, in boar and stallion testes. Production rates in late pregnancy are estimated to 10 mg oestrone/24 hrs. in goats, 2 mg estrone and up to 28 mg 17beta

  20. Understanding key factors of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items in social virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoungsoo

    2012-10-01

    Given to the remarkable profitability of digital items in social virtual worlds (SVWs), such as SecondLife, Cyworld, and Habbo Hotel, it has become crucial to understand SVW users' postadoption behaviors toward digital items. This study develops a theoretical framework to examine key antecedents of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items. Data collected from 256 users of digital items were empirically tested against the research model. The analysis results indicate that both user satisfaction and a perceived value play an important role in establishing users' postadoption intentions about digital items. Moreover, the results clearly show what roles perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived fee play in SVW environments. PMID:22924676

  1. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Passmore, Anne; Parsons, Richard; Black, Melissa; Cuomo, Belinda; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES) was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills) and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation), which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change. PMID:26372554

  2. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Passmore, Anne; Parsons, Richard; Black, Melissa; Cuomo, Belinda; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES) was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills) and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation), which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school’s tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students’ belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change. PMID:26372554

  3. Risk factors for conduct disorder and delinquency: key findings from longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P

    2010-10-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) and delinquency are behavioural problems involving violation of major rules, societal norms, and laws. The prevalence of CD and delinquency peaks in mid-to-late adolescence. Both show considerable continuity over time. The most important studies of CD and delinquency have prospective longitudinal designs, large community samples, repeated personal interviews, measures of many possible risk factors, and both self-reports and official measures of antisocial behaviour. The most important risk factors that predict CD and delinquency include impulsiveness, low IQ and low school achievement, poor parental supervision, punitive or erratic parental discipline, cold parental attitude, child physical abuse, parental conflict, disrupted families, antisocial parents, large family size, low family income, antisocial peers, high delinquency rate schools, and high crime neighbourhoods. However, for many risk factors, it is not known whether they have causal effects. Future research should examine changes in risk factors and changes in CD and delinquency to identify the risk factors that are causes and those that are merely markers of other risk mechanisms. PMID:20964942

  4. Development of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis after Anabolic Steroid Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Herlitz, Leal C.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Farris, Alton B.; Schwimmer, Joshua A.; Stokes, Michael B.; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed ≥40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized. PMID:19917783

  5. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how ‘risk environments’ produce harm. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Results Body satisfaction was an important factor when deciding to start the use of anabolic steroids. Many users were unaware of the potential dangers of using drugs from the illicit market, whereas some had adopted a range of strategies to negotiate the hazards relating to the use of adulterated products, including self-experimentation to gauge the perceived efficacy and unwanted effects of these drugs. Viewpoints, first-hand anecdotes, norms and practices among groups of steroid users created boundaries of ‘sensible’ drug use, but also promoted practices that may increase the chance of harms occurring. Established users encouraged young users to go to harm reduction services but, at the same time, promoted risky injecting practices in the belief that this would enhance the efficacy of anabolic steroids. Conclusions Current steroid-related viewpoints and practices contribute to the risk environment surrounding the use of these drugs and may undermine the goal of current public health strategies including harm reduction interventions. The level of harms among anabolic steroid users are determined by multiple and intertwining factors, in addition to the harms caused by the pharmacological action or injury and illness associated with incorrect injecting techniques. PMID:24898090

  6. In vivo and in vitro metabolism of the designer anabolic steroid furazadrol in thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Waller, Christopher C; Cawley, Adam T; Suann, Craig J; Ma, Paul; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2016-05-30

    Furazadrol ([1',2']isoxazolo[4',5':2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol) is a designer anabolic androgenic steroid that is readily available via the internet. It contains an isoxazole fused to the steroid A-ring which offers metabolic stability and noteworthy anabolic activity raising concerns over the potential for abuse of this compound in equine sports. The metabolism of furazadrol was studied by in vivo and in vitro methods for the first time. Urinary furazadrol 17-sulfate and furazadrol 17-glucuronide metabolites were detected in vivo after a controlled administration and compared with synthetically-derived reference materials in order to confirm their identities. They were quantified to establish the excretion profile and a suitable limit of detection. Minor metabolites were also detected, including epifurazadrol, hydroxylated furazadrol, and hydroxylated and oxidised furazadrol, present as the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. Phase II metabolites were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis by Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase and Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase to further confirm the identity of the corresponding phase I metabolites. The metabolism profile was compared to the products obtained from an in vitro phase I metabolism study, with all but two of the minor in vivo phase I metabolites observed in the in vitro system. These investigations identify the key urinary metabolites of furazadrol following oral administration, which can be incorporated into anti-doping screening and confirmation procedures. PMID:26962720

  7. MYC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS: KEY REGULATORS BEHIND ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF PLURIPOTENCY

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Keriayn; Dalton, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Summary The interplay between transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers, chromatin remodelers and miRNAs form the foundation of a complex regulatory network required for establishment and maintenance of the pluripotent state. Recent work indicates that Myc transcription factors are essential elements of this regulatory system. Despite numerous reports however, aspects of how Myc controls self-renewal and pluripotency remain obscure. Here, we review evidence supporting the placement of Myc as a central regulator of the pluripotent state and discuss possible mechanisms of action. PMID:21082893

  8. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient timing is a popular nutritional strategy that involves the consumption of combinations of nutrients--primarily protein and carbohydrate--in and around an exercise session. Some have claimed that this approach can produce dramatic improvements in body composition. It has even been postulated that the timing of nutritional consumption may be more important than the absolute daily intake of nutrients. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutrient timing. Theoretically, consuming the proper ratio of nutrients during this time not only initiates the rebuilding of damaged muscle tissue and restoration of energy reserves, but it does so in a supercompensated fashion that enhances both body composition and exercise performance. Several researchers have made reference to an anabolic “window of opportunity” whereby a limited time exists after training to optimize training-related muscular adaptations. However, the importance - and even the existence - of a post-exercise ‘window’ can vary according to a number of factors. Not only is nutrient timing research open to question in terms of applicability, but recent evidence has directly challenged the classical view of the relevance of post-exercise nutritional intake with respect to anabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be twofold: 1) to review the existing literature on the effects of nutrient timing with respect to post-exercise muscular adaptations, and; 2) to draw relevant conclusions that allow practical, evidence-based nutritional recommendations to be made for maximizing the anabolic response to exercise. PMID:23360586

  9. Museum specimens reveal loss of pollen host plants as key factor driving wild bee decline in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Jeroen; Reemer, Menno; van Kats, Ruud; Ozinga, Wim A; van der Linden, Giel T J; Schaminée, Joop H J; Siepel, Henk; Kleijn, David

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for declining populations of both wild and managed bees has raised concern about a potential global pollination crisis. Strategies to mitigate bee loss generally aim to enhance floral resources. However, we do not really know whether loss of preferred floral resources is the key driver of bee decline because accurate assessment of host plant preferences is difficult, particularly for species that have become rare. Here we examine whether population trends of wild bees in The Netherlands can be explained by trends in host plants, and how this relates to other factors such as climate change. We determined host plant preference of bee species using pollen loads on specimens in entomological collections that were collected before the onset of their decline, and used atlas data to quantify population trends of bee species and their host plants. We show that decline of preferred host plant species was one of two main factors associated with bee decline. Bee body size, the other main factor, was negatively related to population trend, which, because larger bee species have larger pollen requirements than smaller species, may also point toward food limitation as a key factor driving wild bee loss. Diet breadth and other potential factors such as length of flight period or climate change sensitivity were not important in explaining twentieth century bee population trends. These results highlight the species-specific nature of wild bee decline and indicate that mitigation strategies will only be effective if they target the specific host plants of declining species. PMID:25422416

  10. Key Factors in Smoking Cessation Intervention among 15-16-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Broms, Ulla; Pitkaniemi, Janne; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate factors associated with smoking cessation among adolescents after tobacco intervention. They examined smokers (n = 127) from one birth cohort (n = 545) in the city of Kotka in Finland. These smokers were randomized in 3 intervention groups the dentist (n = 44) and the school nurse (n = 42 groups), and a control…

  11. On the Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: G Is the Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob R.; Zevalkink, Jolien

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II can be considered as one scale or whether…

  12. Students' Understanding of Large Numbers as a Key Factor in Their Understanding of Geologic Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of geologic time is comprised of 2 facets. Events in Earth's history can be placed in relative and absolute temporal succession on a vast timescale. Rates of geologic processes vary widely, and some occur over time periods well outside human experience. Several factors likely contribute to an understanding of geologic time, one of…

  13. Key recovery factors for the August 24, 2014, South Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Prentice, Carol S.; Boatwright, John; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Aagaard, Brad T.; Blair, James Luke; Fletcher, Joe B.; Erdem, Jemile E.; Wicks, Charles W., Jr.; Murray, Jessica R.; Pollitz, Fred F.; Langbein, John O.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Schwartz, David P.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Hecker, Suzanne; DeLong, Stephen B.; Rosa, Carla M.; Jones, Brenda; Lamb, Rynn; Rosinski, Anne M.; McCrink, Timothy P.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Rubin, Ron S.; Glennie, Craig; Hauser, Darren; Ericksen, Todd; Mardock, Dan; Hoirup, Don F.; Bray, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Through discussions between the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) following the South Napa earthquake, it was determined that several key decision points would be faced by FEMA for which additional information should be sought and provided by USGS and its partners. This report addresses the four tasks that were agreed to. These tasks are (1) assessment of ongoing fault movement (called afterslip) especially in the Browns Valley residential neighborhood, (2) assessment of the shaking pattern in the downtown area of the City of Napa, (3) improvement of information on the fault hazards posed by the West Napa Fault System (record of past earthquakes and slip rate, for example), and (4) imagery acquisition and data processing to provide overall geospatial information support to FEMA.

  14. Oxidative stress--a key emerging impact factor in health, ageing, lifestyle and aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Kandola, K; Bowman, A; Birch-Machin, M A

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress is the resultant damage that arises due to redox imbalances, more specifically an increase in destructive free radicals and reduction in protection from antioxidants and the antioxidant defence pathways. Oxidation of lipids by reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage cellular structures and result in premature cell death. At low levels, ROS-induced oxidative stress can be prevented through the action of antioxidants, however, when ROS are present in excess, inflammation and cytotoxicity eventually results leading to cellular oxidative stress damage. Increasing evidence for the role of oxidative stress in various diseases including neurological, dermatological, and cardiovascular diseases is now emerging. Mitochondria are the principal source (90%) of ROS in the cell, with superoxide radicals being generated when molecular oxygen is combined with free electrons. Given the key role of mitochondria in the generation of cellular oxidative stress it is worth considering this organelle and the process in more detail and to provide methods of intervention. PMID:26574299

  15. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (Gaas), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 1.05 V at 1 AM0, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured V sub oc of approximately 950 mV at 1 AM0, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V sub oc for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AM0, 25 C. The V sub oc of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V sub oc, and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V sub oc of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  16. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub OC) of 1.05 V at 1 AMO, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured (V sub OC) of approximately 950 mV at 1 AMO, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V(sub OC) for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AMO, 25 C. The V(sub OC) of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V(sub OC), and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V(sub OC) of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  17. Key factors contributing to accident severity rate in construction industry in Iran: a regression modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry involves the highest risk of occupational accidents and bodily injuries, which range from mild to very severe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with accident severity rate (ASR) in the largest Iranian construction companies based on data about 500 occupational accidents recorded from 2009 to 2013. We also gathered data on safety and health risk management and training systems. Data were analysed using Pearson's chi-squared coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Median ASR (and the interquartile range) was 107.50 (57.24- 381.25). Fourteen of the 24 studied factors stood out as most affecting construction accident severity (p<0.05). These findings can be applied in the design and implementation of a comprehensive safety and health risk management system to reduce ASR. PMID:27092639

  18. Key facts and hot spots on tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Donato; Lopalco, Giuseppe; Vitale, Antonio; Lucherini, Orso Maria; De Clemente, Caterina; Caso, Francesco; Emmi, Giacomo; Costa, Luisa; Silvestri, Elena; Andreozzi, Laura; Iannone, Florenzo; Galeazzi, Mauro; Cantarini, Luca

    2014-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), formerly known as familial Hibernian fever, is the most common autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disease, resulting from mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene, encoding the 55-kD tumor necrosis factor receptor. The pathophysiologic mechanism of TRAPS remains ambiguous and only partially explained. The onset age of the syndrome is variable and the clinical scenery is characterized by recurrent episodes of high-grade fever that typically lasts 1-3 weeks, associated with migrating myalgia, pseudocellulitis, diffuse abdominal pain, appendicitis-like findings, ocular inflammatory signs, and risk of long-term amyloidosis. Fever episodes are responsive to high-dose corticosteroids, but different classes of drugs have been reported to be ineffective. The use of etanercept is unable to control systemic inflammation, while interleukin-1 blockade has been shown as effective in the control of disease activity in many patients reported so far. PMID:24935411

  19. Soil Surface Structure: A key factor for the degree of soil water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Douglas, P.; Bryant, R.; Hamlett, C.; McHale, G.; Newton, M.; Shirtcliffe, N.

    2012-04-01

    Despite of considerable efforts, the degree of water repellency has not always been fully explained by chemical property of soil (termed hydrophobicity). That might be because the structure of a soil surface was not considered properly, which is another main factor determining the severity of soil water repellency. Surface structure has only recently been considered in soil science, whilst it has been paid attention for several decades in materials science due to its relevance to industrial applications. In this contribution, comparison of critical contact angles measured on different surface structures (made with glass beads, glass shards and beach sands) is presented and the effect of surface structure on manifestation of soil water repellency is discussed in terms of several different variables such as the individual particles shape, and areal and structural factors of the actual surface.

  20. Negative thinking: a key factor in depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charoensuk, Sukjai

    2007-01-01

    Negative thinking, self-esteem, parental bonding, and everyday stressors are factors related to depressive symptoms in studies conducted in the United States, but they have been rarely explored in Thailand. An understanding of factors influencing depressive symptoms in Thai youth will lead to the development of interventions to decrease depressive symptoms among this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and negative thinking on depressive symptoms among Thai adolescents. A random sample of 812 high school students in Chon Buri, Thailand, participated in the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms varied from 20-21% depending on the measures used. Negative thinking was the best predictor of depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents. Negative thinking also mediated the effects of parental bonding, everyday stressors, and self-esteem on depressive symptoms. PMID:17130007

  1. K-factor greater than 1 - The key for stable amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Ray

    1989-09-01

    A review is given of stability problems encountered with amplifiers, and attention is given to the K-factor, which is a measure of the oscillatory tendency of any network at a specific frequency and for the conditions represented by the particular S-parameter values. The K-factor equation is reviewed for both conditionally stable (K less than or equal to one) and unconditionally stable (K greater than one) networks, and the three different degrees of stability are outlined in a discussion of stability circles. In addition, a review is given of some circuit configurations that are used to improve amplifier performance at the expense of stability, and a quick alternative is presented for measuring amplifier stability over broad bandwidths using a scalar analyzer.

  2. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael; Wallace, Ken; Lewis, Loretta; Wagner, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators), fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1) the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2) the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making. PMID:27441228

  3. The transcription factor Pokemon: a new key player in cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takahiro; Hobbs, Robin M; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2005-10-01

    Learning how critical cell regulatory pathways are controlled may lead to new opportunities for cancer treatment. We recently identified the transcription factor Pokemon as a central regulator of the important tumor suppressor ARF. Pokemon is overexpressed in multiple human cancers and cells lacking Pokemon are refractory to oncogenic transformation. These findings suggest that Pokemon may offer an effective new target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:16204018

  4. Academic mobility as a key factor of quality assurance in tertiary education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilova, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Academic mobility of both faculty and students forms a critical element of the international dimension of higher education and is one of the most important factors of quality assurance of higher education institutions worldwide. Internationalization and globalization of Russian higher education system is having one of the major impacts on the quality management and assurance. Faculty and student mobility figures are now one of the core factors for obtaining state accreditation for Russian universities as well as an important indicator showing the university success and prestige. The aim of the paper is a closer look at the perspectives and results of the academic mobility, the factors stimulating and discouraging mobility, and the outcomes of the mobility influencing the education in Russian universities. Siberian State Aerospace University has had more than 10 years experience in organizing student mobility. Most of the problems in carrying out international activities are common for the whole Russia but still there are some peculiarities featuring technical universities situated in the centre of Russia.

  5. Comparative “-omics” in Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Reveals Key Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lluch-Senar, Maria; Cozzuto, Luca; Cano, Jaime; Delgado, Javier; Llórens-Rico, Verónica; Pereyre, Sabine; Bebear, Cécile; Serrano, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The human respiratory tract pathogen M. pneumoniae is one of the best characterized minimal bacterium. Until now, two main groups of clinical isolates of this bacterium have been described (types 1 and 2), differing in the sequence of the P1 adhesin gene. Here, we have sequenced the genomes of 23 clinical isolates of M. pneumoniae. Studying SNPs, non-synonymous mutations, indels and genome rearrangements of these 23 strains and 4 previously sequenced ones, has revealed new subclasses in the two main groups, some of them being associated with the country of isolation. Integrative analysis of in vitro gene essentiality and mutation rates enabled the identification of several putative virulence factors and antigenic proteins; revealing recombination machinery, glycerol metabolism and peroxide production as possible factors in the genetics and physiology of these pathogenic strains. Additionally, the transcriptomes and proteomes of two representative strains, one from each of the two main groups, have been characterized to evaluate the impact of mutations on RNA and proteins levels. This study has revealed that type 2 strains show higher expression levels of CARDS toxin, a protein recently shown to be one of the major factors of inflammation. Thus, we propose that type 2 strains could be more toxigenic than type 1 strains of M. pneumoniae. PMID:26335586

  6. Key factors for a successful implementation of personalized e-health services.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Lena; Sedlmayr, Brita; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Criegee-Rieck, Manfred; Sedlmayr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Personalized e-health services hold many promises, e.g. the improvement of health care quality or the reduction of costs. However, such services can't tap their full potential if they will not be used. That's why it is essential to understand what brings potential users to accept them. In the literature many acceptance models exist that predict the usage of innovations, but none of them specifically refers to the adoption of e-health services. Therefore we combined the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and the e-health literacy concept and enhanced the resulting model with additional factors. MEDLINE® was searched; 75 studies were included for final analysis. Apart from the UTAUT variables and e-health literacy, 10 additional factors were identified: anxiety, trust, attitude toward using, computer self-efficacy, perceived system quality, search strategy, user's condition, health specific knowledge, Internet dependency and satisfaction with medical care. Future research will include the devolvement of an instrument for assessing these factors and testing the initial research model in an international context. PMID:23920739

  7. Interferon regulatory factor 3 is a key regulation factor for inducing the expression of SAMHD1 in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shen; Zhan, Yuan; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Zheng, Xuchen; Yu, Lingxue; Tong, Wu; Gao, Fei; Li, Liwei; Huang, Qinfeng; Ma, Zhiyong; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-01-01

    SAMHD1 is a type I interferon (IFN) inducible host innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits an early step of the viral life cycle. The underlying mechanisms of SAMHD1 transcriptional regulation remains elusive. Here, we report that inducing SAMHD1 upregulation is part of an early intrinsic immune response via TLR3 and RIG-I/MDA5 agonists that ultimately induce the nuclear translocation of the interferon regulation factor 3 (IRF3) protein. Further studies show that IRF3 plays a major role in upregulating endogenous SAMHD1 expression in a mechanism that is independent of the classical IFN-induced JAK-STAT pathway. Both overexpression and activation of IRF3 enhanced the SAMHD1 promoter luciferase activity, and activated IRF3 was necessary for upregulating SAMHD1 expression in a type I IFN cascade. We also show that the SAMHD1 promoter is a direct target of IRF3 and an IRF3 binding site is sufficient to render this promoter responsive to stimulation. Collectively, these findings indicate that upregulation of endogenous SAMHD1 expression is attributed to the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 and we suggest that type I IFN induction and induced SAMHD1 expression are coordinated. PMID:27411355

  8. Key Factors and Timing Patterns in the Tennis Forehand of Different Skill Levels

    PubMed Central

    Landlinger, Johannes; Lindinger, Stefan; Stöggl, Thomas; Wagner, Herbert; Müller, Erich

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to quantify and compare selected kinematic variables and their timing during the tennis forehand of different skill levels. An eight-camera 400 Hz, Vicon motion analysis system recorded kinematic data of six ATP- professionals (elite) and seven high performance (HP) players when shots were played cross court and down the line. Timing of the maximum angles, linear and angular velocities was measured prior to and after impact. A total of twelve strokes per subject were analyzed from the beginning to the end of horizontal racquet movement. Significant differences (p < 0.01) and large effect sizes were observed between elite and HP players in the timing of maximum pelvis (-0.075 ± 0.008 vs. -0.093 ± 0.012 s) and trunk angular velocities (-0.057 ± 0.004 vs. -0.075 ± 0.011 s) before impact. The elite group showed a tendency (p < 0.05) towards higher peak horizontal shoulder (3.0 ± 0.4 vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 m·s-1) and racquet velocities (33.1 ± 2.4 vs. 31.1 ± 1.9 m·s-1) compared to the HP players. Depending on the situation (cross court vs. down the line), different peak hip, racquet and separation angles were found for both groups. Similar peak values were detected between groups for maximum angular velocities and displacement of key variables that had been selected for analysis. The findings of this study can be vital for successful player development, improved performance or injury prevention. The later occurrence of maximum angular pelvis and trunk rotations were the main reasons for the tendency towards higher horizontal shoulder and racquet velocities in the elite group. Key points Different timing of maximum angular pelvis and trunk rotations separated the elite from the high performance players. The elite group tended to reach higher horizontal shoulder and racquet velocities than the high performance group. In addition to maximum angular velocities, maximum racquet, shoulder, and hip alignment angles were similar

  9. Key factors limiting carbon nanotube yarn strength: exploring processing-structure-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Beese, Allison M; Wei, Xiaoding; Sarkar, Sourangsu; Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Roenbeck, Michael R; Moravsky, Alexander; Ford, Matthew; Yavari, Fazel; Keane, Denis T; Loutfy, Raouf O; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2014-11-25

    Studies of carbon nanotube (CNT) based composites have been unable to translate the extraordinary load-bearing capabilities of individual CNTs to macroscale composites such as yarns. A key challenge lies in the lack of understanding of how properties of filaments and interfaces across yarn hierarchical levels govern the properties of macroscale yarns. To provide insight required to enable the development of superior CNT yarns, we investigate the fabrication-structure-mechanical property relationships among CNT yarns prepared by different techniques and employ a Monte Carlo based model to predict upper bounds on their mechanical properties. We study the correlations between different levels of alignment and porosity and yarn strengths up to 2.4 GPa. The uniqueness of this experimentally informed modeling approach is the model's ability to predict when filament rupture or interface sliding dominates yarn failure based on constituent mechanical properties and structural organization observed experimentally. By capturing this transition and predicting the yarn strengths that could be obtained under ideal fabrication conditions, the model provides critical insights to guide future efforts to improve the mechanical performance of CNT yarn systems. This multifaceted study provides a new perspective on CNT yarn design that can serve as a foundation for the development of future composites that effectively exploit the superior mechanical performance of CNTs. PMID:25353651

  10. Crystallographic orientation and electrode nature are key factors for electric current generation by Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Maestro, Beatriz; Ortiz, Juan M; Schrott, Germán; Busalmen, Juan P; Climent, Víctor; Feliu, Juan M

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated the influence of electrode material and crystallographic structure on electron transfer and biofilm formation of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Single-crystal gold-Au(110), Au(111), Au(210)-and platinum-Pt(100), Pt(110), Pt(111), Pt(210)-electrodes were tested and compared to graphite rods. G. sulfurreducens electrochemically interacts with all these materials with different attachment kinetics and final current production, although redox species involved in the electron transfer to the anode are virtually the same in all cases. Initial bacterial colonization was fastest on graphite up to the monolayer level, whereas gold electrodes led to higher final current densities. Crystal geometry was shown to have an important influence, with Au(210) sustaining a current density of up to 1442±101μAcm(-2) at the steady state, over Au(111) with 961±94μAcm(-2) and Au(110) with 944±89μAcm(-2). On the other hand, the platinum electrodes displayed the lowest performances, including Pt(210). Our results indicate that both crystal geometry and electrode material are key parameters for the efficient interaction of bacteria with the substrate and should be considered for the design of novel materials and microbial devices to optimize energy production. PMID:24642203